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| '''Of the Sword and its Divisions<br/>Chapt. 2'''
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| <p>'''Of the Sword and its Divisions'''</p>
Now we will clarify this and why it is done in fencing, namely how one or another are like the parts of one’s body which one strikes away from in knightly fashion or accordingly defend them at need. Just like the parts of the human are quickly understood, so it’s again apparent from noting why and how certain relative parts of the sword work against others to bring success, and similarly how you should know these labels or overviews before you try yourself likewise, so thus onward from nothing else than your Sword shall you cause communication, and meanwhile have wisdom not in only one device, but also shortly know cuts with the short edge, then with the long, then with the strong, and with the weak, then will you charge on to success from the Sword’s necessities and from heeding this Art’s known elements also have something to say.
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| '''[IIIIv] Von dem Schwerdt und seiner außtheilung.<br/>Cap. 2'''
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<p>Chapter 2</p>
Nach dem nun erklert / warumb es im Fechten zuthun / nemlich wie einer den andern etwa as einem theil seines leibs / Ritterlichen abbrechen oder hinwider seinen selbs verteidingen möge. Darauff auch die theil des menschen kürtzlich erklert / so ist weiter anzuzeigen von nöten / warum un durch was mittel dasselbig gegen einander zuvolbringen / und wiewol dasselb der Tittel oder uberschrifft dises teils vor sich selbst deutlich auß weist / das als nemlich hierinne von nichts anders dan dem Schwerdt allein meldung geschehen sol / Dieweil aber dasselb nicht auff einigerley art unnd weise allein geschicht / sonder bald mit der Kurtzen / bald mit der langen schneiden / bald mit der sterck / bald mit der schwech / wil sich gebüren nechstvolgendt von des Schwerdts gebreuchlichen unnd zu diser Kunst gehörigen außtheilung auch etwas zusagen.
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<p>Now we will clarify this and why it is done in fencing, namely how one or another are like the parts of one’s body which one strikes away from in knightly fashion or accordingly defend them at need. Just like the parts of the human are quickly understood, so it’s again apparent from noting why and how certain relative parts of the sword work against others to bring success, and similarly how you should know these labels or overviews before you try yourself likewise, so thus onward from nothing else than your Sword shall you cause communication, and meanwhile have wisdom not in only one device, but also shortly know cuts with the short edge, then with the long, then with the strong, and with the weak, then will you charge on to success from the Sword’s necessities and from heeding this Art’s known elements also have something to say.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/29|1|lbl=1.4v}}
  
 
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| We define the form and figure of the Sword’s parts as its Pommel, Point, Cross or Hilt, Haft or Grip, and the Blade, about which, though without evaluation, we will now say several words.
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| <p>We define the form and figure of the Sword’s parts as its Pommel, Point, Cross or Hilt, Haft or Grip, and the Blade, about which, though without evaluation, we will now say several words.</p>
| Des Schwerdtes teil / was seine form un Figur antrifft / sein Knopff / Ort / Creutz oder Gefeß / Hefft oder Bindt un die Klinge / davon ohne not / was ein jeds / viler wort zugebrauchen.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/29|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| The Blade has basically two underlying divisions, where the first is the Strong and Weak, the other the Short and Long edges, those being the forward and trailing edges.
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| <p>The Blade has basically two underlying divisions, where the first is the Strong and Weak, the other the Short and Long edges, those being the forward and trailing edges.</p>
| Die Kling hat widerumb zwo underschiedliche theilungen / derer erste ist in die stercke un Schweche / die ander in die kurtze und lange schneide / das ist vorder und hinder.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/29|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| The Strong of the Sword is the name for the part running from the Cross or Hilt to the middle of the blade, the Weak is from the middle to and with the point or end itself, from which the Long and Short edges grow.
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| <p>The Strong of the Sword is the name for the part running from the Cross or Hilt to the middle of the blade, the Weak is from the middle to and with the point or end itself, from which the Long and Short edges grow.</p>
| Die Sterck des Schwerdts nennet man den theil vom Kreutz oder hefft / biß mitten in die klinge / die Schweche von der mitten biß and das ort oder endt derselben / dardurch die verenderung der stucke in Lange und Kurtze herwachsen.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/29|4|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword A.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword A.jpg|center|400px]]
| The Long Edge is the full length of edge from the fingers onward, directed against your opponent, the Short or half edge is the one nearest the thumb, between the thumb and index finger, first finger pointing at the fencer’s self, as if it is imitating the other’s weapon. We will speak as well of the spine of the sword, as shown in the previous illustration.
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| <p>The Long Edge is the full length of edge from the fingers onward, directed against your opponent, the Short or half edge is the one nearest the thumb, between the thumb and index finger, first finger pointing at the fencer’s self, as if it is imitating the other’s weapon. We will speak as well of the spine of the sword, as shown in the previous illustration.</p>
| Die Langeschneid ist die volle Widerschneid von den fingern hinauß / gerad gegen deinem widerpart / die Kurtze oder halbe schneide heist die so gegen dem daumen oder zwischen dem daumen und zeiger / oder ersten finger gegen den Fechter selbst gekeret / als ob es umb gleichnus willen mit [Vr] andern wehren / also zu reden / der rucken am Schwerdt were / wie auß hie vorgesetzter Figur zusehen.
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/29|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/30|1|lbl=1.5r|p=1}}
  
 
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| From the overlying parts of the sword springs forths the correct total view, which is very useful in fencing, namely that the Sword is outwardly grouped in four parts and divisions, as is seen in the previous illustration.
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| <p>From the overlying parts of the sword springs forths the correct total view, which is very useful in fencing, namely that the Sword is outwardly grouped in four parts and divisions, as is seen in the previous illustration.</p>
| Auß oberzelten theilungen des Schwerdts entspringen die rechte gantze theilung / welche im Fechten sehr nutzlich / nemlich das das Schwerdt abermals und ferner in gemein in vier theil getheilet und underscheiden / wie in hievor getruckter Figur zusehen.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/30|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| The first to be named is the Bind or Haft, including Pommel and Cross, for charging, Wrenching, Grappling, Throwing, and of service in other work.
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| <p>The first to be named is the Bind or Haft, including Pommel and Cross, for charging, Wrenching, Grappling, Throwing, and of service in other work.</p>
| Der erst wirt genant / das Bindt oder Hefft begreifft in sich Knopff und Kreutz / zum einlauffen / Ringen / Greiffen / Werffen und anderer arbeit dienstlich.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/30|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| The second is the Strong, as was counted, used in Cutting, Winding, Impacting, and otherwise where the Strong is useful in fencing.
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| <p>The second is the Strong, as was counted, used in Cutting, Winding, Impacting, and otherwise where the Strong is useful in fencing.</p>
| Der ander die Sterck wie oberzelet / zum Schneiden / Winden / Trucken / unnd anderm was auß der sterck gefochten nützlich.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/30|4|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| The third part is the Middle, which lies between strong and weak on the halfway part and is used when needing to close in the changeful work, where it will be resorted to at every opportunity when needed.
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| <p>The third part is the Middle, which lies between strong and weak on the halfway part and is used when needing to close in the changeful work, where it will be resorted to at every opportunity when needed.</p>
| Der dritte theil ist das Mittel / wirt auß der sterck unnd schwech umb den halben theil zugleich genomen / unnd der wandelbaren arbeit / welche nach eines jeden gelegenheit alweg mag gebraucht werden / zugeeignet.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/30|5|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| The fourth is the Weak, through which Changing, Rushing, Slinging, and similar such will duly be used in fencing, of which in what follows there will be many examples and pieces.
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| <p>The fourth is the Weak, through which Changing, Rushing, Slinging, and similar such will duly be used in fencing, of which in what follows there will be many examples and pieces.</p>
| Der vierte ist die Schweche zum durch wechseln / Schnellen / Schlaudern / und was dergleichen auß der Lenge gefochten gehörig / wie du denn solches alles folgends vil und gnugsam Exempel und stuck haben würst.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/30|6|lbl=-}}
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| '''Of the Stances or Guards<br/>Chapt. 3'''
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| <p>'''Of the Stances or Guards'''</p>
At all times and in all fencing, when wanting more ability and understanding, and in furthering and learning more of this Knightly art, the proper and basic elements are required in order to advance. Basically this is done because in fencing, one must fence such that One becomes one with one’s Sword, and although this was already stated correctly and sufficiently in the two previous chapters, so here in the third chapter, in order to clarify, it will be examined further, from which onward all fencing shall be fully known and further examined in three parts: the Start, Middle, and End as above was already stated. Onward from the Start, two basic underlying principles shall and must be attained, namely how from the Stances one shall execute the strikes, which will be named and counted, and how one thus comes to success will be clarified. Though the Guards or Stances are delicate, they are still advantageous positions for warding one’s entire body with the Sword, in which the fencer, as is often seen, will come before his opponent with proper placement, position, and stance, and so be unfound and last through the rushing by waiting through to advance onward, and immediately react to what’s coming and with advantage and wisened speed attack and strike against your opponent’s own stances, that he can go on striking without harming you, yet must give away his openings as he works against yours, and so he must either withdraw or strike away from his intended target, and so have his advantage minimised, his blade withdrawn and retreating, and you can then strike in your own efforts. Since the Stances or Guards have the four sections of ones body as their obvious origin, in that one is divided into four quarters, Over, Under, Left and Right, so also one’s opponent is divided and thus shall be encountered, as four Targets, and relative to them there are the four Primary Stances or Guards, from which all others originate and spring forth, which are the Ox, Plough, Roof and Fool, from which one comes to understand the secondaries which, in due order, one comes to deploy, which are the Wrathful Guard, Long Point, Changer, Close Guard, Iron Door, Hanging Point, Key, and Unicorn.
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| '''Von den Legern oder Huten.<br/>Cap 3.'''
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<p>Chapter 3</p>
Sintemal in allem Fechten / um mehrers nutz un verstands willen / deren so dise Ritterliche kunst zu lehrnen fürhabens / recht un billich drey fürneme stuck sollen in acht gehabt werden. Erstlich warum es in dem Fechten zuthun / nemlich umb den Man / dan wamit sole '''[Vv]''' gefochten werde theils alhie mit dem Schwerdt / un aber bißher in den zweyen vorgehenden Capiteln / von beiden stucken gnusamer bericht geschehen / so erfordert alhie ferner die ordnug / das auch von dem dritten theil und stuck erklerung gethan werde / welches ist auff was weiß alles Fechten soll volbracht werden / das den fürnemlich beschicht durch drey stuck / den Anfang das Mittel und Endt wie oben angezeigt. Demnach aber der Anfang durch zweyerley underschiedlich stuck sol und muß gemacht werden / nemlich auß und von den Legern / als auß dem die häuw ihren anfang nemen / sagen / wie vil seind erzehlen / un wie sie volnbracht sollen werden / erkleren. Die Hut oder Leger aber seind ein zierlich / aber doch nothwendig / stellung und geberd des gantzen leibs mit dem Schwerdt / in welche sich der Fechter so er / wie offt geschicht / ehe den sein gegenpart zu ihm kompt auff den platz / stellet und Legert / damit er nit unversehens von im ubereilt un verletzt / sonder er in hierauß erwarten in acht haben / un alsbald er zu im kompt / mit vortheil un gewisser geschwindigkeit angreiffen un zuhauwen / und sich also gegen seinem widerpart Legern / das er ohn schaden zu ihm nit einhauwen köne / sondern entweders / so er nach seiner Blösse arbeitte / sich bloß geben müsse / un er ihm also die vermeinte zuhabne Blöß mit einem zu oder abtritt entziehen / oder ihm auff das wenigst so er auß seinem vortheil hiedurch gereitzet / sein Kling außnemen / in verhindern / und ihn in seiner arbeit stecken köne. Die Leger oder Huten aber / haben wie dan auch droben bemelt ihren ursprung auß der theilung des Mans / den wie der Man in vier quatier Ober / Under / Recht un Linck getheilt / so seind der Blössen auch vier darauff der gegenfechter fürnemlich zutreffen / und wie vier Blösse / also seind auch gleichfals viereley Hauptleger oder Hutten / darauß die andern alle herkommen und entspringen / als der Ochs / Pflug / Tag / un Olber / die andern aber so hierauß entstehn / seind Zornhut / Langort / Wechsel / Nebenhut / Eisenport / Hengetort / Schlüssel / Einhorn / davon denn ordenlich und kurtzlich soll gehandelt werden
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<p>At all times and in all fencing, when wanting more ability and understanding, and in furthering and learning more of this Knightly art, the proper and basic elements are required in order to advance. Basically this is done because in fencing, one must fence such that One becomes one with one’s Sword, and although this was already stated correctly and sufficiently in the two previous chapters, so here in the third chapter, in order to clarify, it will be examined further, from which onward all fencing shall be fully known and further examined in three parts: the Start, Middle, and End as above was already stated. Onward from the Start, two basic underlying principles shall and must be attained, namely how from the Stances one shall execute the strikes, which will be named and counted, and how one thus comes to success will be clarified. Though the Guards or Stances are delicate, they are still advantageous positions for warding one’s entire body with the Sword, in which the fencer, as is often seen, will come before his opponent with proper placement, position, and stance, and so be unfound and last through the rushing by waiting through to advance onward, and immediately react to what’s coming and with advantage and wisened speed attack and strike against your opponent’s own stances, that he can go on striking without harming you, yet must give away his openings as he works against yours, and so he must either withdraw or strike away from his intended target, and so have his advantage minimised, his blade withdrawn and retreating, and you can then strike in your own efforts. Since the Stances or Guards have the four sections of ones body as their obvious origin, in that one is divided into four quarters, Over, Under, Left and Right, so also one’s opponent is divided and thus shall be encountered, as four Targets, and relative to them there are the four Primary Stances or Guards, from which all others originate and spring forth, which are the Ox, Plough, Roof and Fool, from which one comes to understand the secondaries which, in due order, one comes to deploy, which are the Wrathful Guard, Long Point, Changer, Close Guard, Iron Door, Hanging Point, Key, and Unicorn.</p>
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|
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/30|7|lbl=1.5r|p=1}} '''[Vv]''' gefochten werde theils alhie mit dem Schwerdt / un aber bißher in den zweyen vorgehenden Capiteln / von beiden stucken gnusamer bericht geschehen / so erfordert alhie ferner die ordnug / das auch von dem dritten theil und stuck erklerung gethan werde / welches ist auff was weiß alles Fechten soll volbracht werden / das den fürnemlich beschicht durch drey stuck / den Anfang das Mittel und Endt wie oben angezeigt. Demnach aber der Anfang durch zweyerley underschiedlich stuck sol und muß gemacht werden / nemlich auß und von den Legern / als auß dem die häuw ihren anfang nemen / sagen / wie vil seind erzehlen / un wie sie volnbracht sollen werden / erkleren. Die Hut oder Leger aber seind ein zierlich / aber doch nothwendig / stellung und geberd des gantzen leibs mit dem Schwerdt / in welche sich der Fechter so er / wie offt geschicht / ehe den sein gegenpart zu ihm kompt auff den platz / stellet und Legert / damit er nit unversehens von im ubereilt un verletzt / sonder er in hierauß erwarten in acht haben / un alsbald er zu im kompt / mit vortheil un gewisser geschwindigkeit angreiffen un zuhauwen / und sich also gegen seinem widerpart Legern / das er ohn schaden zu ihm nit einhauwen köne / sondern entweders / so er nach seiner Blösse arbeitte / sich bloß geben müsse / un er ihm also die vermeinte zuhabne Blöß mit einem zu oder abtritt entziehen / oder ihm auff das wenigst so er auß seinem vortheil hiedurch gereitzet / sein Kling außnemen / in verhindern / und ihn in seiner arbeit stecken köne. Die Leger oder Huten aber / haben wie dan auch droben bemelt ihren ursprung auß der theilung des Mans / den wie der Man in vier quatier Ober / Under / Recht un Linck getheilt / so seind der Blössen auch vier darauff der gegenfechter fürnemlich zutreffen / und wie vier Blösse / also seind auch gleichfals viereley Hauptleger oder Hutten / darauß die andern alle herkommen und entspringen / als der Ochs / Pflug / Tag / un Olber / die andern aber so hierauß entstehn / seind Zornhut / Langort / Wechsel / Nebenhut / Eisenport / Hengetort / Schlüssel / Einhorn / davon denn ordenlich und kurtzlich soll gehandelt werden
  
  

Revision as of 17:44, 18 October 2018

Joachim Meyer
Born ca. 1537
Basel, Germany
Died 24 February 1571 (aged 34)
Schwerin, Germany
Spouse(s) Appolonia Ruhlman
Occupation
Citizenship Strasbourg
Patron
  • Johann Albrecht (?)
  • Johann Casimir
Movement Freifechter
Influences
Influenced
Genres Fencing manual
Language Early New High German
Notable work(s) Gründtliche Beschreibung der
Kunst des Fechtens
(1570)
Manuscript(s)
First printed
english edition
Forgeng, 2006
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations
Signature Joachim Meyer sig.jpg

Joachim Meyer (ca. 1537 - 1571)[1] was a 16th century German Freifechter and fencing master. He was the last major figure in the tradition of the German grand master Johannes Liechtenauer, and in the last years of his life he devised at least three distinct and quite extensive fencing manuals. Meyer's writings incorporate both the traditional Germanic technical syllabus and contemporary systems that he encountered in his travels, including the Italian school of side sword fencing.[2] In addition to his fencing practice, Meyer was a Burgher and a master cutler.[3]

Meyer was born in Basel,[4] where he presumably apprenticed as a cutler. He writes in his books that he traveled widely in his youth, most likely a reference to the traditional Walz that journeyman craftsmen were required to take before being eligible for mastery and membership in a guild. Journeymen were often sent to stand watch and participate in town and city militias (a responsibility that would have been amplified for the warlike cutlers' guild), and Meyer learned a great deal about foreign fencing systems during his travels. It's been speculated by some fencing historians that he trained specifically in the Bolognese school of fencing, but this doesn't stand up to closer analysis.[5]

Records show that by 4 June 1560 he had settled in Strasbourg, where he married Appolonia Ruhlman (Ruelman)[1] and joined the Cutler's Guild. His interests had already moved beyond knife-smithing, however, and in 1561, Meyer petitioned the City Council of Strasbourg for the right to hold a Fechtschule (fencing competition). He would repeat this in 1563, 1566, 1567 and 1568;[6] the 1568 petition is the first extant record in which he identifies himself as a fencing master.

Meyer probably wrote his first manuscript (MS A.4º.2) in either 1560 or 1568 for Otto Count von Sulms, Minzenberg, and Sonnenwaldt.[7] Its contents seem to be a series of lessons on training with long sword, dussack, and rapier. His second manuscript (MS Var.82), written between 1563 and 1570 for Heinrich Graf von Eberst, is of a decidedly different nature. Like many fencing manuscripts from the previous century, it is an anthology of treatises by a number of prominent German masters including Sigmund ain Ringeck, pseudo-Peter von Danzig, and Martin Syber, and also includes a brief outline by Meyer himself on a system of rapier fencing based on German Messer teachings. Finally, on 24 February 1570 Meyer completed (and soon thereafter published) an enormous multi-weapon treatise entitled Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens ("A Thorough Description of the Art of Combat"); it was dedicated to Johann Casimir, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and illustrated at the workshop of Tobias Stimmer.[8]

Unfortunately, Meyer's writing and publication efforts incurred significant debts (about 1300 crowns), which Meyer pledged to repay by Christmas of 1571.[1] Late in 1570, Meyer accepted the position of Fechtmeister to Duke Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg at his court in Schwerin. There Meyer hoped to sell his book for a better price than was offered locally (30 florins). Meyer sent his books ahead to Schwerin, and left from Strasbourg on 4 January 1571 after receiving his pay. He traveled the 500 miles to Schwerin in the middle of a harsh winter, arriving at the court on 10 February 1571. Two weeks later, on 24 February, Joachim Meyer died. The cause of his death is unknown, possibly disease or pneumonia.[6]

Antoni Rulman, Appolonia’s brother, became her legal guardian after Joachim’s death. On 15 May 1571, he had a letter written by the secretary of the Strasbourg city chamber and sent to the Duke of Mecklenburg stating that Antoni was now the widow Meyer’s guardian; it politely reminded the Duke who Joachim Meyer was, Meyer’s publishing efforts and considerable debt, requested that the Duke send Meyer’s personal affects and his books to Appolonia, and attempted to sell some (if not all) of the books to the Duke.[1]

Appolonia remarried in April 1572 to another cutler named Hans Kuele, bestowing upon him the status of Burgher and Meyer's substantial debts. Joachim Meyer and Hans Kuele are both mentioned in the minutes of Cutlers' Guild archives; Kuele may have made an impression if we can judge that fact by the number of times he is mentioned. It is believed that Appolonia and either her husband or her brother were involved with the second printing of his book in 1600. According to other sources, it was reprinted yet again in 1610 and in 1660.[9][10]

Treatises

Joachim Meyer's writings are preserved in two manuscripts prepared in the 1560s, the MS A.4º.2 (Lund) and the MS Var 82 (Rostock); a third manuscript from 1561 has been lost since at least the mid-20th century, and its contents are unknown.[11] Dwarfing these works is the massive book he published in 1570 entitled "A Thorough Description of the Free, Chivalric, and Noble Art of Fencing, Showing Various Customary Defenses, Affected and Put Forth with Many Handsome and Useful Drawings". Meyer's writings purport to teach the entire art of fencing, something that he claimed had never been done before, and encompass a wide variety of teachings from disparate sources and traditions. In keeping with this goal, Meyer seems to have constructed his treatises to present a method for training to fence, a significant departure from the earlier works in the tradition which explain the system of fencing directly. In keeping with this, he illustrated the techniques with depictions of fencers in courtyards using training weapons such as two-handed fencing swords, wooden dussacks, and rapiers with ball tips.

The first part of Meyer's treatise is devoted to the long sword (the sword in two hands), which he presents as the foundational weapon of his system, and this section devotes the most space to fundamentals like stance and footwork. His long sword system draws upon the teachings of Freifechter Andre Paurñfeyndt (via Christian Egenolff's reprint) and Liechtenauer glossators Sigmund ain Ringeck and pseudo-Peter von Danzig, as well as using terminology otherwise unique to the brief Recital of Martin Syber. Not content merely to compile these teachings as his contemporary Paulus Hector Mair was doing, Meyer sought to update—even reinvent—them in various ways to fit the martial climate of the late sixteenth century, including adapting many techniques to accommodate the increased momentum of a greatsword and modifying others to use beats with the flat and winding slices in place of thrusts to comply with street-fighting laws in German cities (and the rules of the Fechtschule).

The second part of Meyer's treatises is designed to address new weapons gaining traction in German lands, the dussack and the rapier, and thereby find places for them in the German tradition. His early Lund manuscript presents a more summarized syllabus of techniques for these weapons, while his printed book goes into greater depth and is structured more in the fashion of lesson plans.[12] Meyer's dussack system, designed for the broad proto-sabers that spread into German lands from Eastern Europe in the 16th century,[13] combines the old Messer teachings of Johannes Lecküchner and the dussack teachings of Andre Paurñfeyndt with other unknown systems (some have speculated that they might include early Polish or Hungarian saber systems). His rapier system, designed for the lighter single-hand swords spreading north from Iberian and Italian lands, seems again to be a hybrid creation, integrating both the core teachings of the 15th century Liechtenauer tradition as well as components that are characteristic of the various regional Mediterranean fencing systems (including, perhaps, teachings derived from the treatise of Achille Marozzo). Interestingly, Meyer's rapier teachings in the Rostock seem to represent an attempt to unify these two weapon system, outlining a method for rapier fencing that includes key elements of his dussack teachings; it is unclear why this method did not appear in his book, but given the dates it may be that they represent his last musings on the weapon, written in the time between the completion of his book in 1570 and his death a year later.

The third part of Meyer's treatise only appears in his published book and covers dagger, wrestling, and various pole weapons. His dagger teachings, designed primarily for urban self-defense, seem to be based in part on the writings of Bolognese master Achille Marozzo[14] and the anonymous teachings in Egenolff, but also include much unique content of unknown origin (perhaps the anonymous dagger teachings in his Rostock manuscript). His staff material makes up the bulk of this section, beginning with the short staff, which, like Paurñfeyndt, he uses as a training tool for various pole weapons (and possibly also the greatsword), and then moving on to the halberd before ending with the long staff (representing the pike). As with the dagger, the sources Meyer based his staff teachings on are largely unknown.

Additional Resources

  • Kiermayer, Alex. Joachim Meyers Kunst Des Fechtens. Gründtliche Beschreibung des Fechtens, 1570. Arts of Mars Books, 2012. ISBN 978-3981162738
  • Meyer, Joachim. Joachim Meyer 1600: Transkription des Fechtbuchs 'Gründtliche Beschreibung der freyen Ritterlichen und Adelichen kunst des Fechtens’. TAT. Wolfgang Landwehr, 2011. ISBN 978-3932077371
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Combat: A German Martial Arts Treatise of 1570. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng.
    • 1st Edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. ISBN 978-1-4039-7092-0
    • 2nd edition. London: Frontline Books, 2014. ISBN 978-1-84832-778-8
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Sword Combat: A 1568 German Treatise on Swordmanship. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng. London: Frontline Books, 2016. ISBN 9781473876750

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Dupuis, Olivier. Joachim Meyer, escrimeur libre, bourgeois de Strasbourg (1537 ? - 1571). In Maîtres et techniques de combat. Dijon: AEDEH, 2006.
  2. Castle, Egerton. Schools and Masters of Fencing: From the Middle Ages to the Eighteenth Century. London: George Bell and Sons, 1885. pp 74 - 76.
  3. Naumann, Robert. Serapeum. Vol. 5. T.O. Weigel, 1844. pp 53-59.
  4. According to his wedding certificate.
  5. His dagger teachings do, however, show some evidence of influence by Achilles Marozzo's printed treatise.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Van Slambrouck, Christopher. "The Life and Work of Joachim Meyer". Meyer Frei Fechter Guild, 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
  7. Norling, Roger. "The history of Joachim Meyer’s fencing treatise to Otto von Solms". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  8. Whose members included Christoph Maurer and Hans Christoffel Stimmer.
  9. Schaer, Alfred. Die altdeutschen fechter und spielleute: Ein beitrag zur deutschen culturgeschichte. K.J. Trübner, 1901. p 76.
  10. Pollock, W. H., Grove, F. C., and Prévost, C. Fencing. London and Bombay: Longmans, Green, and co, 1897. pp 267-268.
  11. Jens P. Kleinau. "1561 Joachim Meyer dedicated a fencing book to the Pfalzgrafen of Pfalz-Veldenz". Hans Talhoffer ~ as seen by Jens P. Kleinau. 04 July 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  12. Roberts, James. "System vs Syllabus: Meyer’s 1560 and 1570 sidesword texts". Hroarr.com, 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  13. Roger Norling. "The Dussack - a weapon of war". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  14. Norling, Roger. "Meyer and Marozzo dagger comparison". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2015.