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Difference between revisions of "Joachim Meyer"

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| '''Contents of the first Book on Fencing with the Sword / and how its description is ordered / and whereupon this Knightly Art’s foundations are laid.'''
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| <p>'''Contents of the first Book on Fencing with the Sword / and how its description is ordered / and whereupon this Knightly Art’s foundations are laid.'''</p>
| '''[Ir] Inhalt des ersten Buchs vom Fechten im Schwerdt / unnd was für Ordnung in beschreibung des-selben gehalten / auch warauff diser Ritterlichen Kunst grundtfeste gelegen.'''
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| As I intent to diligently and truly and to the best of my understanding and abilities describe the art of Fencing in the Knightly and Manly weapons that are currently used most often by us Germans, and because fencing with the sword is not just the source and origin of all other forms of fencing but, as experience shows and as is obvious, also the most artful and manly next to other weapons, I deem it necessary and good to begin with it and do so in brevity but also clarity as it is customary in other arts and disciplines.
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| <p>As I intent to diligently and truly and to the best of my understanding and abilities describe the art of Fencing in the Knightly and Manly weapons that are currently used most often by us Germans, and because fencing with the sword is not just the source and origin of all other forms of fencing but, as experience shows and as is obvious, also the most artful and manly next to other weapons, I deem it necessary and good to begin with it and do so in brevity but also clarity as it is customary in other arts and disciplines.</p>
| Dieweil ich mir die Kunst des Fechtens in disen Ritterlichen und Mannlichen Wehren / welche jetziger zeit bey uns Teutschen am meisten gebreuchlichsten / nach meinem besten verstand uñ vermögen auffs fleissigest und trewlichest zubeschreiben fürgenommen / und aber die erfahrung gibt und offenbar ist / das / das Fechten im Schwerdt nit allein ein ursprung und quell alles andern Fechten / sonder auch für andern wehren das aller künstlichst und manlichste ist / derwegen hat mich notwendig und für gut angesehen / von diser meinen eingang zumachen / und auffs kürtzest / aber doch klärlich davon auff solche weiß zuhandlen / wie in andern künsten und übungen allen beschicht.
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| Firstly, list the terminology invented by masters of this art so that one can learn and comprehend the secrecy and speed of it all the quicker and easier. After that, explain these terms so that everyone may understand what is meant by them.
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| <p>Firstly, list the terminology invented by masters of this art so that one can learn and comprehend the secrecy and speed of it all the quicker and easier. After that, explain these terms so that everyone may understand what is meant by them.</p>
| Erstlich ihre zugehörende terminos und art zureden / anzeigen / so von Meistern diser kunst mit sondern fleiß darumb erfunden / das man die heimligkeit und geschwindigkeit derselben desto kürtzer und ringer lernen und begreiffen möge. Nach mas solche terminos erklären und außlegen / damit eigentlich jederman möge verstahn / was durch solche art zureden verstanden soll warden.
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| Then thirdly, achieve the ability to extend the art in your own right, and from your clarity attain and exude the proper judgement in Stance and Strikes so that Youth will not have to learn this art unguided and, because of your unspoken word, ill is wrought and they thus learn wrongly to the detriment of the art. Once achieved, we need your words and thoughts in this art, first from notes you would clarify, then onto subjects important to read in training, then to other subjects you want to develop further, so that the discipline of fencing grows on properly understood principles you have contributed to, rather than relying on mindless juggling, thus greater the difference between juggling and fencing will become, and the Knightly art of Fencing will grow from Warriors far and wide, particularly to Citizens at large, but beware the Juggler, to whom the unseemliest losses are and who is found everywhere in the world, until all are put away.
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| <p>Then thirdly, achieve the ability to extend the art in your own right, and from your clarity attain and exude the proper judgement in Stance and Strikes so that Youth will not have to learn this art unguided and, because of your unspoken word, ill is wrought and they thus learn wrongly to the detriment of the art. Once achieved, we need your words and thoughts in this art, first from notes you would clarify, then onto subjects important to read in training, then to other subjects you want to develop further, so that the discipline of fencing grows on properly understood principles you have contributed to, rather than relying on mindless juggling, thus greater the difference between juggling and fencing will become, and the Knightly art of Fencing will grow from Warriors far and wide, particularly to Citizens at large, but beware the Juggler, to whom the unseemliest losses are and who is found everywhere in the world, until all are put away.</p>
| Dann zum dritten die übung der kunst an ir selbst darzuthun / wie sie soll auß den erklerten häuen und Legern ins werck gericht werden / auff das nit allein die Jugend so sich auff solche kunst zubegeben willens / durch solche inen unbekandte wort irrig gemacht und zur ver '''[Iv]''' achtung diser kunst verursacht würde / oder auch so mitten in der kunstr solcher wort gedacht / erst von nöten sie zu erkleren / welchs dan eim sehr verdrießlich zu lesen / sonder auch die erfarnen abnemen mögen / das die übung des Fechtens auß rechtem verstendigen grund ihr herkommen habe / und nicht an leichtfertigem Gauckelwerck gelegen / sintemal under solchem Gauckelwerck unnd dem Fechten ein grosser underschaid ist / und die Ritterliche kunst des Fechtens von allen weit erfarnen Kriegsleuten / insonderheit den Römern in grossem werdt / Hiergegen aber die Gauckler / vor das unwerdest losest gesindt / so auff der welt befunden / jhe und all weg gehalten worden.  
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| Fencing with the Sword is nothing other than a discipline, wherein your force strives together with your sword in placement so that one with the other, using care and agility, artfulness, delicacy and manlyness, are at need the same both in strikes and in other handwork one is obliged to, excepting when one is not in a serious situation, thus by such discipline one will be more dangerous and more skillful, and when needing to protect one’s body be more effective.
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| <p>Fencing with the Sword is nothing other than a discipline, wherein your force strives together with your sword in placement so that one with the other, using care and agility, artfulness, delicacy and manlyness, are at need the same both in strikes and in other handwork one is obliged to, excepting when one is not in a serious situation, thus by such discipline one will be more dangerous and more skillful, and when needing to protect one’s body be more effective.</p>
| Unnd ist aber das Fechten im Schwerdt anders nichts dan ein übung / darin irer zwen mit dem Schwerdt zu samen streiten / im versatz / das einer den andern mit vorsichtigkeit und aller behendigkeit / künstlich / zierlich und manlich, im gebrauch desselben mit häuwen und anderer handarbeit oblige un sige / auff das wo von nöten in ernstlichen sachen / einer durch solche ubung desto hurtiger und geschickter / und zur beschützung seines leibs desto fürsichtiger sein möge.
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| This can be advanced in three stages and be organized thus, namely as the Start, the Middle and the End, where the three stages each have one aim which you shall fence through, and must do one by one to advance, that you thereby know with which strikes or stances you will engage your counterpart and then frontally attack as you would in the Middle stage’s handwork, letting fly to work against the openings, keeping the initiative such that his attacks are preempted.
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| <p>This can be advanced in three stages and be organized thus, namely as the Start, the Middle and the End, where the three stages each have one aim which you shall fence through, and must do one by one to advance, that you thereby know with which strikes or stances you will engage your counterpart and then frontally attack as you would in the Middle stage’s handwork, letting fly to work against the openings, keeping the initiative such that his attacks are preempted.</p>
| Dises kan fürnemlich in drey theil füglich und wol getheilt werden / Nemlich in den Anfang / das Mittel und das Ende / welche drey theil in einem jeden stuck / welches du zu Fechten fürnimest / sollen un müssen eigentlich in acht gehabt werden / das du nemlich wissest mit was häuwen auß oder von den Legern du dein gegenpart angreiffen wollest / als dan so du in angriffen / wie du ihm ferner im Mittel mit der handarbeit / frey fliegent zu den Blössen arbeiten / dein Vor so du im angriff ereilt zuerhalten.
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| The Last is as you are fulfilled and will, with harm neither inflicted nor received, withdraw.
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| <p>The Last is as you are fulfilled and will, with harm neither inflicted nor received, withdraw.</p>
| Zum letsten wie du fuglich unnd wol / wo nit mit seinem schaden doch ohn dein verletzung von ihm abziehen mögest.
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| I call the Start pre-fencing, where one standing against another and he standing against you, have begun to fence. The Middle is the work or handwork, when one of the participants shall endure longer in the handwork than his opponent fencer, and displace in all withdrawals. The End is the resolution, where one fencer shall withdraw without damage from his opponent and strike away if desired.
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| <p>I call the Start pre-fencing, where one standing against another and he standing against you, have begun to fence.</p>
| Den Anfang / nun nene ich das zufechten / wann einer gegen dem Man / den er vor sich hat / zuficht. Das Mittel die bey arbeit oder handarbeit / wan einer im bundt oder lenger in seiner arbeit wider den gegenfechter verharret / un im mit aller geschwindigkeit zusetzet. Das ende '''[IIr]''' den abzug / wie sich der Fechter von seinem gegenpart one schaden ab un weg hauwen möge.
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<p>The Middle is the work or handwork, when one of the participants shall endure longer in the handwork than his opponent fencer, and displace in all withdrawals.</p>
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<p>The End is the resolution, where one fencer shall withdraw without damage from his opponent and strike away if desired.</p>
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| The initial pre-fencing is the face off from the Stances to the strikes, which are of two kinds, namely the Lead Stances and the Secondary Stances, we start with the Lead Stances.
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| <p>The initial pre-fencing is the face off from the Stances to the strikes, which are of two kinds, namely the Lead Stances and the Secondary Stances, we start with the Lead Stances.</p>
| Das zufechten im anfang geschicht auß oder von den Legern mit den häuwen / welche zweyerley seind / nemlich die Hauptleger und die Beyleger / so auß dem Hauptleger entspringen.
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| There are four Lead Stances, the Roof or Upper Guard, the Ox, the Fool, and the Plough. There are eight Secondary Stances, Wrathful Guard, Window Breaker, Long Point, Barrier Guard, Unicorn, Key, Iron Door, Changer. The strikes with the Sword are many, belonging to two groups, which are common to both the direct and indirect strikes which we shall name. The first group is named the Lead or Principal strikes, on which all other strikes are based, and which are four, Over, Under, Middle, and Wrathful strikes. The others are named the secondary or derivative strikes, which are twelve in number, namely the Glance, Curve, Short, Slide, Bounce: Single and Double, Blind, Wound, Crown, Knee Hollow, Plunge, and Change Strike. Beyond these strikes come the proper Master Strikes, which we shall also name, from which all masterful and artful moves with the Sword are made and accomplished with varying grips, these are Wrath, Arc, Traverser, Glancer and Vertex which are all used when wanting to conclude and complete, and which I will describe to you. Just as I introduced pre-fencing, so I have clearly spoken and introduced the Strikes to you.
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| <p>There are four Lead Stances, the Roof or Upper Guard, the Ox, the Fool, and the Plough. There are eight Secondary Stances, Wrathful Guard, Window Breaker, Long Point, Barrier Guard, Unicorn, Key, Iron Door, Changer.</p>
| Der Haupleger seindt viere / der Tag oder Oberhut / der Ochs / der Olber / und der Pflug. Der Beyleger achte / Zornhüt / Brechfenster / Lang ort / Schanckhut / Einhorn / Schlüssel / Eisenport / Wechsel. Der häuw aber so vil das Schwerdt belangt seind zweyerley art / welche beyde in gemein die gerade und verkehrte häuw genent werden. Die erste heissen die Haupt oder Principal häuw / auß welchen alle andere häuw ihren ursprung haben / und deren seind vier / Ober / Under / Mittel / Zornhauw. Die andern werden die bey oder darauß wachsende häuw geheissen / deren zwölff seind / nemlich / Schiel / Krum / Kurtz / Glitz / Brell / Einfach und Dopel / Blendt / Wint / Kron / Knichel / Sturtz / Wechsehauw / rc. Auß disen beyden werden genomen die rechte Meisterhäuw / welche darum also genent werden / das alle meisterliche und künstlich stuck im Schwerdt in solchen begriffen gemacht unnd volbracht werden / nemlich Zorn / Krum / Zwerch / Schieler / Scheitelhauw / welche alle wie sie volbracht und gemacht werden sollen / wil ich in irer beschreibung so ich auff das zuFechten kom / und von den häuwen sag / klerlichen an tag thun.
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| The second or Handwork in the Middle Stage involves the greatest art, where all your withdrawals in the fight can be advances. Look not only to how one can use the sword in binding, Winding, Changing, Enticing, Following After, Cutting, Doubling, Flowing off to leave be or in whatever shape you’ve cut, Hewing, Advancing, Twitching and Jerking, Adjusting, Grappling, Charging In, Throwing, and End Wrestling. An important concept is Targetting, through which one must come to understand Man and Sword, and through which one comes to understand proper stance and footwork, and from which how one shall handle one’s point.
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| <p>The strikes with the Sword are many, belonging to two groups, which are common to both the direct and indirect strikes which we shall name. The first group is named the Lead or Principal strikes, on which all other strikes are based, and which are four, Over, Under, Middle, and Wrathful strikes. The others are named the secondary or derivative strikes, which are twelve in number, namely the Glance, Curve, Short, Slide, Bounce: Single and Double, Blind, Wound, Crown, Knee Hollow, Plunge, and Change Strike.</p>
| Die Bey oder Handarbeit im Mittel begreifft die gröste kunst / und alle geschwindigkeit die im Fechten kan fürlauffen. Den sie zeigt nit allein an / wie man das Schwerd anbinden / Winden / Wechseln / Verfüren / Nachreisen / Schneiden / Doplieren / Ablauffen sol lassen / oder wölcher gestalt man umbschlagen / Schlaudern / Vorschieben / Absetzen / Zucken und Rucken / Verstellen / Ringen / Einlauffen / Werffen und nachtringen soll. '''[IIv]''' Sonder helt auch in sich die Blössungen / welche durch die außtheilung des Mans und Schwerdts muß verstanden werden / darzu denn auch das recht stehn und tretten gehörig / von welchem in seinem ort auch sol gehandelt werden.
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| <p>Beyond these strikes come the proper Master Strikes, which we shall also name, from which all masterful and artful moves with the Sword are made and accomplished with varying grips, these are Wrath, Arc, Traverser, Glancer and Vertex which are all used when wanting to conclude and complete, and which I will describe to you. Just as I introduced pre-fencing, so I have clearly spoken and introduced the Strikes to you.</p>
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| <p>The second or Handwork in the Middle Stage involves the greatest art, where all your withdrawals in the fight can be advances. Look not only to how one can use the sword in binding, Winding, Changing, Enticing, Following After, Cutting, Doubling, Flowing off to leave be or in whatever shape you’ve cut, Hewing, Advancing, Twitching and Jerking, Adjusting, Grappling, Charging In, Throwing, and End Wrestling. An important concept is Targetting, through which one must come to understand Man and Sword, and through which one comes to understand proper stance and footwork, and from which how one shall handle one’s point.</p>
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| That brings us to the end, which flows from the Middle, and has the greatest Practical use, by which one ends each case, from thereof Withdraw soundly, in order to report what happened, and so arrange it all in the first chapter of Sword Fighting, from the Master Principles onward, so on to officially profess more skill in this Weapon, and by using this Book you shall Teach the initiates, and so after shall this art drive on to become more useful at need, and shall from others range farther to be sufficiently retold.
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| <p>That brings us to the end, which flows from the Middle, and has the greatest Practical use, by which one ends each case, from thereof Withdraw soundly, in order to report what happened, and so arrange it all in the first chapter of Sword Fighting, from the Master Principles onward, so on to officially profess more skill in this Weapon, and by using this Book you shall Teach the initiates, and so after shall this art drive on to become more useful at need, and shall from others range farther to be sufficiently retold.</p>
| Das abziehen am ende / fleußt auß dem Mittel / unnd hat in der Practicken grossen nutz / derwegen zu ende eines jeden stucks / von darauff gehörendem Abzug / ordenlich soll bericht geschehen / und soll dises alles im ersten theil vom Schwerdt Fechten volricht werden / von Meisterstucken aber / und was zu mehrer behendigkeit zu diser Wehr dienstlich / damit diß Buch bey den anfangenden Schülern / und demnach auch den mehr erfahrnen diser kunst nutzlich sein möchte / soll im andern theil weitleuffiger und gnugsamer bericht beschehen.
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| Such input I have seen fit to make for purposes of clearer understanding, so that with this Book each onward going shall become easier to understand, thus easier to modify, and thus initially to learn, and thus I shall see such Knightly arts grow onward, and will now with the first Letter of this chapter, whose first purpose is to teach usefulness, instruct by moving on to present the Four Targets.
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| <p>Such input I have seen fit to make for purposes of clearer understanding, so that with this Book each onward going shall become easier to understand, thus easier to modify, and thus initially to learn, and thus I shall see such Knightly arts grow onward, and will now with the first Letter of this chapter, whose first purpose is to teach usefulness, instruct by moving on to present the Four Targets.</p>
| Solchen eingang aber / hat mich derwegen für gut angesehen zu machen / damit diß Buch einem jeden desto leichter zuverstehn were / under sich darein wüste zurichten / so er anfenglichen verneme / in was ordnung ich solche Ritterliche kunst wolt darthun / will derwegen jetz im ersten Capitel von der theilung des Mans / als die am nützlichsten ist am ersten zümelden / bericht thun / und wie derselbig in vier quatier außgetheilt wirdt / anzeigen.
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Revision as of 15:20, 17 October 2018

Joachim Meyer
Born ca. 1537
Basel, Germany
Died 24 February 1571 (aged 34)
Schwerin, Germany
Spouse(s) Appolonia Ruhlman
Occupation
Citizenship Strasbourg
Patron
  • Johann Albrecht (?)
  • Johann Casimir
Movement Freifechter
Influences
Influenced
Genres Fencing manual
Language Early New High German
Notable work(s) Gründtliche Beschreibung der
Kunst des Fechtens
(1570)
Manuscript(s)
First printed
english edition
Forgeng, 2006
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations
Signature Joachim Meyer sig.jpg

Joachim Meyer (ca. 1537 - 1571)[1] was a 16th century German Freifechter and fencing master. He was the last major figure in the tradition of the German grand master Johannes Liechtenauer, and in the last years of his life he devised at least three distinct and quite extensive fencing manuals. Meyer's writings incorporate both the traditional Germanic technical syllabus and contemporary systems that he encountered in his travels, including the Italian school of side sword fencing.[2] In addition to his fencing practice, Meyer was a Burgher and a master cutler.[3]

Meyer was born in Basel,[4] where he presumably apprenticed as a cutler. He writes in his books that he traveled widely in his youth, most likely a reference to the traditional Walz that journeyman craftsmen were required to take before being eligible for mastery and membership in a guild. Journeymen were often sent to stand watch and participate in town and city militias (a responsibility that would have been amplified for the warlike cutlers' guild), and Meyer learned a great deal about foreign fencing systems during his travels. It's been speculated by some fencing historians that he trained specifically in the Bolognese school of fencing, but this doesn't stand up to closer analysis.[5]

Records show that by 4 June 1560 he had settled in Strasbourg, where he married Appolonia Ruhlman (Ruelman)[1] and joined the Cutler's Guild. His interests had already moved beyond knife-smithing, however, and in 1561, Meyer petitioned the City Council of Strasbourg for the right to hold a Fechtschule (fencing competition). He would repeat this in 1563, 1566, 1567 and 1568;[6] the 1568 petition is the first extant record in which he identifies himself as a fencing master.

Meyer probably wrote his first manuscript (MS A.4º.2) in either 1560 or 1568 for Otto Count von Sulms, Minzenberg, and Sonnenwaldt.[7] Its contents seem to be a series of lessons on training with long sword, dussack, and rapier. His second manuscript (MS Var.82), written between 1563 and 1570 for Heinrich Graf von Eberst, is of a decidedly different nature. Like many fencing manuscripts from the previous century, it is an anthology of treatises by a number of prominent German masters including Sigmund ain Ringeck, pseudo-Peter von Danzig, and Martin Syber, and also includes a brief outline by Meyer himself on a system of rapier fencing based on German Messer teachings. Finally, on 24 February 1570 Meyer completed (and soon thereafter published) an enormous multi-weapon treatise entitled Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens ("A Thorough Description of the Art of Combat"); it was dedicated to Johann Casimir, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and illustrated at the workshop of Tobias Stimmer.[8]

Unfortunately, Meyer's writing and publication efforts incurred significant debts (about 1300 crowns), which Meyer pledged to repay by Christmas of 1571.[1] Late in 1570, Meyer accepted the position of Fechtmeister to Duke Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg at his court in Schwerin. There Meyer hoped to sell his book for a better price than was offered locally (30 florins). Meyer sent his books ahead to Schwerin, and left from Strasbourg on 4 January 1571 after receiving his pay. He traveled the 500 miles to Schwerin in the middle of a harsh winter, arriving at the court on 10 February 1571. Two weeks later, on 24 February, Joachim Meyer died. The cause of his death is unknown, possibly disease or pneumonia.[6]

Antoni Rulman, Appolonia’s brother, became her legal guardian after Joachim’s death. On 15 May 1571, he had a letter written by the secretary of the Strasbourg city chamber and sent to the Duke of Mecklenburg stating that Antoni was now the widow Meyer’s guardian; it politely reminded the Duke who Joachim Meyer was, Meyer’s publishing efforts and considerable debt, requested that the Duke send Meyer’s personal affects and his books to Appolonia, and attempted to sell some (if not all) of the books to the Duke.[1]

Appolonia remarried in April 1572 to another cutler named Hans Kuele, bestowing upon him the status of Burgher and Meyer's substantial debts. Joachim Meyer and Hans Kuele are both mentioned in the minutes of Cutlers' Guild archives; Kuele may have made an impression if we can judge that fact by the number of times he is mentioned. It is believed that Appolonia and either her husband or her brother were involved with the second printing of his book in 1600. According to other sources, it was reprinted yet again in 1610 and in 1660.[9][10]

Treatises

Joachim Meyer's writings are preserved in two manuscripts prepared in the 1560s, the MS A.4º.2 (Lund) and the MS Var 82 (Rostock); a third manuscript from 1561 has been lost since at least the mid-20th century, and its contents are unknown.[11] Dwarfing these works is the massive book he published in 1570 entitled "A Thorough Description of the Free, Chivalric, and Noble Art of Fencing, Showing Various Customary Defenses, Affected and Put Forth with Many Handsome and Useful Drawings". Meyer's writings purport to teach the entire art of fencing, something that he claimed had never been done before, and encompass a wide variety of teachings from disparate sources and traditions. In keeping with this goal, Meyer seems to have constructed his treatises to present a method for training to fence, a significant departure from the earlier works in the tradition which explain the system of fencing directly. In keeping with this, he illustrated the techniques with depictions of fencers in courtyards using training weapons such as two-handed fencing swords, wooden dussacks, and rapiers with ball tips.

The first part of Meyer's treatise is devoted to the long sword (the sword in two hands), which he presents as the foundational weapon of his system, and this section devotes the most space to fundamentals like stance and footwork. His long sword system draws upon the teachings of Freifechter Andre Paurñfeyndt (via Christian Egenolff's reprint) and Liechtenauer glossators Sigmund ain Ringeck and pseudo-Peter von Danzig, as well as using terminology otherwise unique to the brief Recital of Martin Syber. Not content merely to compile these teachings as his contemporary Paulus Hector Mair was doing, Meyer sought to update—even reinvent—them in various ways to fit the martial climate of the late sixteenth century, including adapting many techniques to accommodate the increased momentum of a greatsword and modifying others to use beats with the flat and winding slices in place of thrusts to comply with street-fighting laws in German cities (and the rules of the Fechtschule).

The second part of Meyer's treatises is designed to address new weapons gaining traction in German lands, the dussack and the rapier, and thereby find places for them in the German tradition. His early Lund manuscript presents a more summarized syllabus of techniques for these weapons, while his printed book goes into greater depth and is structured more in the fashion of lesson plans.[12] Meyer's dussack system, designed for the broad proto-sabers that spread into German lands from Eastern Europe in the 16th century,[13] combines the old Messer teachings of Johannes Lecküchner and the dussack teachings of Andre Paurñfeyndt with other unknown systems (some have speculated that they might include early Polish or Hungarian saber systems). His rapier system, designed for the lighter single-hand swords spreading north from Iberian and Italian lands, seems again to be a hybrid creation, integrating both the core teachings of the 15th century Liechtenauer tradition as well as components that are characteristic of the various regional Mediterranean fencing systems (including, perhaps, teachings derived from the treatise of Achille Marozzo). Interestingly, Meyer's rapier teachings in the Rostock seem to represent an attempt to unify these two weapon system, outlining a method for rapier fencing that includes key elements of his dussack teachings; it is unclear why this method did not appear in his book, but given the dates it may be that they represent his last musings on the weapon, written in the time between the completion of his book in 1570 and his death a year later.

The third part of Meyer's treatise only appears in his published book and covers dagger, wrestling, and various pole weapons. His dagger teachings, designed primarily for urban self-defense, seem to be based in part on the writings of Bolognese master Achille Marozzo[14] and the anonymous teachings in Egenolff, but also include much unique content of unknown origin (perhaps the anonymous dagger teachings in his Rostock manuscript). His staff material makes up the bulk of this section, beginning with the short staff, which, like Paurñfeyndt, he uses as a training tool for various pole weapons (and possibly also the greatsword), and then moving on to the halberd before ending with the long staff (representing the pike). As with the dagger, the sources Meyer based his staff teachings on are largely unknown.

Additional Resources

  • Kiermayer, Alex. Joachim Meyers Kunst Des Fechtens. Gründtliche Beschreibung des Fechtens, 1570. Arts of Mars Books, 2012. ISBN 978-3981162738
  • Meyer, Joachim. Joachim Meyer 1600: Transkription des Fechtbuchs 'Gründtliche Beschreibung der freyen Ritterlichen und Adelichen kunst des Fechtens’. TAT. Wolfgang Landwehr, 2011. ISBN 978-3932077371
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Combat: A German Martial Arts Treatise of 1570. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng.
    • 1st Edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. ISBN 978-1-4039-7092-0
    • 2nd edition. London: Frontline Books, 2014. ISBN 978-1-84832-778-8
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Sword Combat: A 1568 German Treatise on Swordmanship. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng. London: Frontline Books, 2016. ISBN 9781473876750

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Dupuis, Olivier. Joachim Meyer, escrimeur libre, bourgeois de Strasbourg (1537 ? - 1571). In Maîtres et techniques de combat. Dijon: AEDEH, 2006.
  2. Castle, Egerton. Schools and Masters of Fencing: From the Middle Ages to the Eighteenth Century. London: George Bell and Sons, 1885. pp 74 - 76.
  3. Naumann, Robert. Serapeum. Vol. 5. T.O. Weigel, 1844. pp 53-59.
  4. According to his wedding certificate.
  5. His dagger teachings do, however, show some evidence of influence by Achilles Marozzo's printed treatise.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Van Slambrouck, Christopher. "The Life and Work of Joachim Meyer". Meyer Frei Fechter Guild, 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
  7. Norling, Roger. "The history of Joachim Meyer’s fencing treatise to Otto von Solms". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  8. Whose members included Christoph Maurer and Hans Christoffel Stimmer.
  9. Schaer, Alfred. Die altdeutschen fechter und spielleute: Ein beitrag zur deutschen culturgeschichte. K.J. Trübner, 1901. p 76.
  10. Pollock, W. H., Grove, F. C., and Prévost, C. Fencing. London and Bombay: Longmans, Green, and co, 1897. pp 267-268.
  11. Jens P. Kleinau. "1561 Joachim Meyer dedicated a fencing book to the Pfalzgrafen of Pfalz-Veldenz". Hans Talhoffer ~ as seen by Jens P. Kleinau. 04 July 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  12. Roberts, James. "System vs Syllabus: Meyer’s 1560 and 1570 sidesword texts". Hroarr.com, 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  13. Roger Norling. "The Dussack - a weapon of war". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  14. Norling, Roger. "Meyer and Marozzo dagger comparison". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2015.