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! <p>Images</p>
 
! <p>Images</p>
! <p>{{rating}}</p>
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! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Thomas Carrillo]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fechtbuch zu Ross und zu Fuss (MS Var.82)|Rostock Transcription]]{{edit index|Fechtbuch zu Ross und zu Fuss (MS Var.82)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fechtbuch zu Ross und zu Fuss (MS Var.82)|Rostock Transcription]]{{edit index|Fechtbuch zu Ross und zu Fuss (MS Var.82)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
  
 
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<p>If you want to fence with one hand<br/>Know the twelve cuts<br/>the cuts and thrust right deceive<br/>the thrust with cutting right mutate</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 112r.png|1|lbl=112r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 112r.png|1|lbl=112r}}
  
 
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| <p>'''12 cuts'''</p>
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{|
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| Wrath Cut&emsp; || Waker&emsp; || Anger Cut
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|-
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| Constrainer&emsp; || Danger Cut&emsp; || Winker
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|-
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| High Cut&emsp; || Low Cut&emsp; || Plunge Cut
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|-
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| Middle Cut&emsp; || Change Cut&emsp; || Foot Cut
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|}
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| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 112r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 112r.png|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| <p>'''Wrath Cut'''</p>
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<p>What would be aimed at you<br/>The Wrath cut point beaks</p>
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 +
<p>1a That is when you stand in the wrath cut and one cuts or thrust to you, then step sideways around his cut, and cut him with the point to the hand.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''handcut''</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 112r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 112r.png|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| <p>Who cuts above to you<br/>Threaten him with the zornhauw</p>
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<p>2b That is almost the same as the previous, so one has cut from above, then cut with a wrath cut to the strong of his weapon with a step out. At the same time<ref name="indes">indes</ref> thrust over-hand<ref>palm up</ref> to his face. If he wards it, then cut to his foot. This goes for both sides.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''overhang''</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 112r.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 112r.png|4|lbl=-}}
  
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| <p><br/></p>
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<p>3c If he cuts from above<ref>oberhauw</ref> to you, then cut with a wrath cut to the strong of his messer [sic] and step with the right foot to his right side, at the same time<ref name="indes"/> wind with the haft under on his blade through upwards over his right arm. Draw in the arm with the pomel to your body, fall in with the left hand also on the arm over the joint. Thrust with the left hand away from you and hold his hand with your pommel strong on your body so he must fall or be broken.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''Winding upward''</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 112v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 112v.png|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| <p>4d Item: Approach in left wrath cut, and he cuts a roof cut, then cut towards him from your left side, hard in his strong. At the same time<ref name="indes"/> hang the point to his left shoulder Over-hand; cut directly to the right leg.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''hanging with back of the hand.''</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 112v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 112v.png|3|lbl=-}}
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{{section|Page:MS Var.82 112v.png|5|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| <p>5e Or allow a thrust to run though an undercut to the right hip. Or parry with a barring zornhauw from above downwards. Immediately<ref name="indes"/> thrust to his face. If he wards it, then cut a middle cut to his stomach and then step and cut long to his right with a step off.</p>
 +
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<p>''hip-thrust''</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 113r.png|1|lbl=113r}}
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{{section|Page:MS Var.82 113r.png|1|lbl=113r|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 112v.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 113r.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}}
  
 
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| <p>6f Item: He cuts a high cut to you, then cut with the zornhauw, going through his strike from your right shoulder. The next to his foot.</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 113r.png|2|lbl=-}}
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 +
<p>''foot cut''</p>
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| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 113r.png|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| <p>'''Waker'''</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 113r.png|3|lbl=-}}
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<p>7g The waker is thus: When you cut to your opponent, a high cut or low cut, then cut onto the strong of his blade, and don’t lift your blade from his weapon, but remain hard on his weapon, and thrust thus in the strike with sinking point to the opening. That’s why the verse says “wake deftly, wind the point to the face”.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''waker''</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 113r.png|4|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 113r.png|4|lbl=-}}
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{|
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| Item wake with the edge, pull quickly with stepping
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|-
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| Item wake all encounters, if you want to fool the masters
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|}
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<p>8h When one shoots the point at your face as before, then slice with your long edge from below and step with the left<ref>‘right’ is originally written, ‘left’ is written above it</ref> foot to his left, and with your right foot behind your left out to the side. At once<ref name="indes"/> wind your hand around so that the long edge is under, the half edge<ref>short edge</ref> above, and your elbow stands upwards, thus thrust under your reversed hand to his stomach.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''reversed thrust''</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 113r.png|5|lbl=-}}
  
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 113v.png|1|lbl=113v}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 113v.png|1|lbl=113v}}
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| <p>'''On the wake, from under'''</p>
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<p>9i When one cuts an undercut from the right onto your sword and winds at the same time<ref name="indes"/> the thrust under to your groin, then cut at the same time as the thrust with a footcut sideways from your left to your right. At the same time,<ref name="indes"/> quickly step to his right, and wind the point to his groin. Thus you do to him what he wanted to do to you. Of course, cut to his right node.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 113v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 113v.png|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| <p>'''Anger cut'''</p>
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<p>The anger cut would be namely used to run in to him, break his arm, and throw him, and similar techniques.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 113v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 113v.png|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| <p>10k The anger cut is done thus: hold your messer or sword long before yourself, with the point out, and the hilt towards the ground near your forward foot. If one thrusts or cuts to you, then wind the long edge upwards, and parry strongly on his blade, at the same time<ref name="indes"/> change through with the point and thrust to the other side. Or, when you have thus parried, then quickly pull around your head, and cut him to the foot.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''here, one grabs the blade with the left hand''</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 114r.png|1|lbl=114r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 114r.png|1|lbl=114r}}
  
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{|
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<p>11l Item: Lay on him angrily, and he cuts or thrusts with rage onto you, then go onto his blade with strength. At the same time,<ref name="indes"/> grab behind his hand with your left, reversed, hand. Jerk his right to yourself, at the same time<ref name="indes"/> quickly drive your haft up, over his arm. Push him, and at the same time<ref name="indes"/> wind his elbow out back by his head. Throw him from you, and cut him to the neck. If he pulls out a dagger, then let go of his right hand, spring well towards his right side, stab him to the hip, with reversed hand, as with play 8h.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 114r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 114r.png|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| <p>12m Item: if one runs to you with a high cut or or thrust, then parry with the anger cut quickly under his sword, spring to him with your right behind his right. At the same time,<ref name="indes"/> catch his right hand with your left reversed hand, torque it upwards, over his right shoulder, and at the same time as all this, drive in with the pommel into his face, throw him thus. But if he grabs his dagger, then cut him with the long edge to the hand. Push from you, so he must fall.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 114v.png|1|lbl=114v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 114v.png|1|lbl=114v}}
  
 
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| <p>13n Item: You have parried him with the anger cut as before, then grab his hand as before, and torque it up, and jerk it towards you so he can’t do anything. push your pommel strong on his joint, from below, so he wavers. Jerk his elbow strongly to your right; thus you break his arm.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 114v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 114v.png|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| <p>14o Item: Lay on him angrily, and if one cuts from above to you, or thrusts from above, then wind your hand and parry with straight long edge, so that your point hangs toward his left. Then wind from below up over his right arm by the hand, jerk it onto your breast, and wind your left side onto his right, and fall with the left arm, thus he must break.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''parry over-hand''</p>
 
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{{section|Page:MS Var.82 114v.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 115r.png|1|lbl=115r|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 114v.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 115r.png|1|lbl=115r|p=1}}
Line 4,212: Line 4,276:
 
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| <p>'''Constrainer cut'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Constrainer is twofold: One, when your opponent uses a short sword<ref>“Degen”, lit. dagger, could either refer to a sword or dagger.</ref> and one with rapier.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 115r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 115r.png|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| <p>But being both constrainers are bundled here, I want to report to you that not much of either will be here. The constrainer in the rapier is thus: Stand with your right foot forward, your sword to your left side, the half edge<ref>short edge</ref> against you.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''Constrainer''</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 115r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 115r.png|3|lbl=-}}
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 +
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 115r.png|5|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| <p>The other with the short weapon is thus: stand with your left foot forward, hold your weapon before you, the long edge towards your opponent. The point towards the earth in front of your left foot. Both are useful for breaking the other constrainer.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''The other constrainer''</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 115r.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 115r.png|4|lbl=-}}
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{{section|Page:MS Var.82 115r.png|6|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 115r.png|5|lbl=-}}
+
{|
 +
|-
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| Constrain to the right, thrust left you will fence
 +
|-
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| get through from the right, bring behind with the middle cut
 +
|-
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| Constrainer breaks what the buffalo thrusts or hits (or, hits or thrusts)
 +
|}
 +
<p>15p If you stand in the constrainer and one thrusts or hits you you, then cut it away from you, with the long edge from your left through to behind your right, and around your head. The second to his foot. Spring with the left well around his right.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 115r.png|7|lbl=-}}
  
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 115v.png|1|lbl=115v}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 115v.png|1|lbl=115v}}
Line 4,234: Line 4,317:
 
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| <p>16q Thus you lie in constrainer, and he thrusts to you, thus parry his thrust up, with the long edge from your breast, step at the same time<ref name="indes"/> with your left foot well around, or to his right. Meanwhile<ref name="indes"/> wind your blade upwards over his from below, with the point to his groin.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''groin thrust''</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 115v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 115v.png|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| <p>17r Constrainer. If one cuts or thrusts to you, then, with a step with your left foot to his right, cut from above down onto his blade, and hold it as you would with the waker, and thrust your point at the same time on his blade. This he must ward, and cut upwards. Thus he leaves his lower opening clear, and you win a full, nasty, blow to him. Do it well, so your middle cut comes through his stomach.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 115v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 115v.png|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| <p>'''Danger cut'''</p>
 +
{|
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|-
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| dangercut with his cut/ wait for his shoulder and breast
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|-
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| dangercut, show a change through meanwhile
 +
|}
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<p>'''waker'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>18s Item: Stand with your right foot forward, hold your sword on your left side. Middle cut to your opponent almost like with the constrainer. At the same time, step with your left around his right. Meanwhile,<ref name="indes"/> cast the half edge<ref name="indes"/> with the point into his face, over his right arm. At the same time<ref name="indes"/> wind around and thrust before yourself further into his face. Pull around your head with a cut or thrust below to the nearest opening.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 116r.png|1|lbl=116r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 116r.png|1|lbl=116r}}
  
Line 4,251: Line 4,345:
 
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| <p>19t Item: Cast the point to his face as mentioned before. Meanwhile<ref name="indes"/> wind your blade around and let the point change from above his right arm to below and thrust long under his sword to his stomach.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 116r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 116r.png|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| <p>Item: Cast the blade to his face as before with the half edge well through, let it hang over his right arm. Meanwhile,<ref name="indes"/> quickly raise around your head and cut him to the right hip, or foot, step with the left foot well around his right. Thus the play goes well.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''hip thrust''</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 116r.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 116r.png|4|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| <p>20v Do the danger cut also from the right side. In the approach, spring with your right to his left, cast or hit him with the half edge towards his left through his face. Meanwhile,<ref name="indes"/> quickly raise your hilt upwards, pull around your head and cut him through to the left side, the next to the right through the cross, and step with the left foot well to his right.</p>
 
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{{section|Page:MS Var.82 116v.png|1|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 116r.png|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 116v.png|2|lbl=116v|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 116v.png|1|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 116r.png|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 116v.png|2|lbl=116v|p=1}}
Line 4,269: Line 4,365:
 
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| <p>'''Wincker'''</p>
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 +
<p>You should shoot the winker<br/>and wake the masters with it<br/>In two ways learn the wincker<br/>to the left and to the right<br/>winck left and hit him<br/>cut right long, and you will confuse him<br/>if you want to deceive the masters<br/>you should enjoy the wincker<br/>what comes crooked or poorly<br/>the wecker straightens</p>
 +
 
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<p>Wincker is nothing other than to threaten and then thrust elsewhere or else with cuts.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 116v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 116v.png|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| <p>21x Item: In the approach, step and threaten him with an earnest thrust to his left shoulder, quickly pull towards yourself and thrust him to the lower right opening. This goes for both sides.</p>
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<p>''a deception''</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 117r.png|1|lbl=117r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 117r.png|1|lbl=117r}}
  
 
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| <p>22y Item: Step and threaten a high cut to his face, at the same time<ref name="indes"/> wind and cut quickly to his left foot.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 117r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 117r.png|2|lbl=-}}
  
Line 4,285: Line 4,387:
 
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{|
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| Pull the encounters you will fool the masters
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|-
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| if he will bind to you pull quickly, thus you will find him
 +
|}
 +
<p>''Foot cut''</p>
 +
 +
<p>23z Item: If he gathers for a strike from the roof or otherwise, and you meet him, and he will bind to you, then pull quickly, and change through to the other side.</p>
 +
 +
<p>''change through''</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 117r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 117r.png|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| <p>'''High Cut'''</p>
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<p>The high cut is the scalper, the driving is also done from it, also many techniques are ended with it.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''High cut''</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 117r.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 117r.png|4|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| <p>Item: Cut a high cut to loosen him[?] but don’t let it hit, pull around and stab him in the groin from below. Raise your hilt back up, and step and cut to his right.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 117r.png|5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 117r.png|5|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| <p>'''High Thrust'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Spring and thrust a high thrust from above long into his face, meanwhile<ref name="indes"/> wind around with the haft towards his right, and cut him to the foot.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 117v.png|1|lbl=117v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 117v.png|1|lbl=117v}}
  
 
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| <p>Item: Thrust as before to his face, pull back towards yourself and cut through with a middle cut as broken down in technique 6, strike away with the long edge from your left side, and step and thrust to the nearest opening.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''Pulling''</p>
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 +
<p>''setting aside''</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 117v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 117v.png|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| <p>'''Under cut'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''Under cut''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Item: cut an undercut from your left side hard towards his right. At the same time<ref name="indes"/> step with your left to his right, wind your haft downwards, and stab him to the stomach.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 117v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 117v.png|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| <p>Item: Do an undercut from your right, at the same time<ref name="indes"/> step, wind the thrust under his to his stomach, step well with your right around his left, menwhile,<ref name="indes"/> raise your hilt upwards, cut to his arm. If he parries that pull through, thrust to his other opening.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 117v.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 117v.png|4|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| <p>Item: cut two undercuts one into the other along with their steps, thrust to the nearest opening.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 118r.png|1|lbl=118r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 118r.png|1|lbl=118r}}
  
 
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| <p>Item: Do the two undercuts as before, and thrust to him from below to his groin. This goes for both sides.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 118r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 118r.png|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| <p>Item: when one cuts at you from below, then fall onto it with the long edge. As soon as you go onto him, travel after him with a thrust.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''Traveling after''</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 118r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 118r.png|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| <p>Item: Position yourself as you would the waker, thrust the point into his face.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''Wake''</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 118r.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 118r.png|4|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>'''Plunge cut'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Item: Thus you will go to him with the plunge cut: Thrust over hand, into his face, and cut him to his right leg. This goes for both sides.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 118r.png|5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 118r.png|5|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>Item: Approach into the plunge to him and thrust long to his face. Pull the thrust back toward yourself and cut a middlecut directly through his stomach and winck meanwhile<ref name="indes"/> with the half edge to his left, and cut long to his right.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''pulling''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''middle cut''</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 118r.png|6|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 118r.png|6|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>When one thus thrusts above to you, and will then middlecut through to you, then parry the thrust with the angercut, then middlecut.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 118r.png|7|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 118r.png|7|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>Bar him so that he can’t come through with the long edge. Do this for cuts and thrusts from above[?], then cut to the next opportunity.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''Barring with the foot cut''</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 118v.png|1|lbl=118v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 118v.png|1|lbl=118v}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>'''Middle cut'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Middlecut goes to the fencer with the greatest reach of the arm. Thus you should cut through with the middle cut to your opponent’s body.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''Middle cut''</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 118v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 118v.png|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>Item: Thrust to him strongly to the face, so that he must parry upwards, cut him right away with the middle cut. The middlecut goes with almost all thrust. Without it, it would be difficult to make any plays.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 118v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 118v.png|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>'''Change Cut'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>The change is done thus: Stand with the right foot forward, your weapon near you to the left side, with the point to the earth, the half edge up. If one cuts or thrusts to you, take it away with the half edge, and cut him to the foot.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''change''</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 118v.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 118v.png|4|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>Item: If one thrusts or hits to you, then parry with the long edge, and wind to him with the top of your blade up and over his blade, the point into his face.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''Setting aside''</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 118v.png|5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 118v.png|5|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>Item: Parry as before with the long edge, and cut two undercuts hard into each other. Thrust and cut him from the roof. Or when you have done the undercuts, then straight away cut a middlecut and high cut through the cross.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''double undercut''</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 119r.png|1|lbl=119r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 119r.png|1|lbl=119r}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>Item: Take away his thrust with the changer, let it travel around your head and threaten a thrust to his right. Don’t let it connect, instead hit him to the left. When one lies in the change before you, then cut from your right shoulder towards his opening. Thwart across onto his sword, so he can’t come to complete parrying. He must leave openings above and below, giving you room to stay and cut. Just take heed of the traveling after.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''Traveling after''</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 119r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 119r.png|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>Another; if one lies in the changer, then thrust from your right side from below to his body, thus he must defend or be hit, then he leaves room for you to thrust or cut his lower left opening.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 119r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 119r.png|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>'''Footcut'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Foot cut is a distinguished cut in the Rapier, you do it to your opponent in almost all plays. Seeing that it’s so often repeated, I will briefly show its properties.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 119r.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 119r.png|4|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>Position yourself in the bastion or Anger cut. If one cuts or thrusts, then parry upwards with the long edge and cut the other to the foot. In sum, if you want to cut to the foot, thus lay on as he does to you, thrust or hit along with his weapon and drive the parrying up high. With that you have room to cut a nasty cut.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 119v.png|1|lbl=119v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 119v.png|1|lbl=119v}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>The foot cut is broken with a simultaneous cut to the foot. At the same time<ref name="indes"/> as it clashes, then wind the point to the body or an opening. Take heed of the slice in the traveling after.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 119v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 119v.png|2|lbl=-}}
  
Line 4,410: Line 4,565:
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
{|
 +
|-
 +
| Take heed of the hard slice yet in all dangers
 +
|-
 +
| in the slice learn the setting aside cuts and thrusts artfully impede
 +
|}
 +
<p>'''A good throw:'''</p>
 +
 +
<p>If one thrusts to you to the right, thus spring well to his right side, and fall with your sword onto his sword by the strong, and catch his right arm with your left hand, hard behind his hand on top. Torque the hand around upwards to his right ear, and grab with the pommel and hand on the elbow, throw him thus from you with the left foot behind his right foot.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 119v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 119v.png|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>The first and foremost posture in the Rapier is the long point. It is done thus: stand with the right foot forward, the sword long before you, the point towards the opponent. The long edge below, the half edge above. The point always higher than the hilt.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''Postures in the Rapier''</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 120r.png|1|lbl=120r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 120r.png|1|lbl=120r}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>Ward away thrusts or blows in the posture thus: If one thrusts over your parrying, then set it aside, if he’s weak, move in to him with the slice off, and meanwhile<ref name="indes"/> seek the opening with the point.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 120r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 120r.png|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>Item: If one thrusts to you under your parrying, then slice it, hand the point to his face, if he wards the point, then pull and thrust and cut him to the hand or arm.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 120r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 120r.png|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>'''The second posture, Bastion'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Stand with the left foot forward, hold the sword long from you with the point toward the earth, so that the half edge stands above. If one cuts or thrust to you, slice it away from both sides.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Item: Step and stab long, will you fight.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 120r.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 120r.png|4|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>'''Ox, the third posture'''</p>
 +
 +
<p>Stand upright with your left side towards your opponent, your feet near one another, hold your sword to your right, the half edge towards your left arm, the point towards your opponent.</p>
 +
 +
<p>A teaching; how one should principally fight from the ox</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 120r.png|5|lbl=-}}
+
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 120r.png|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 120v.png|1|lbl=120v|p=1}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>learn winding away, long over-hand you will end cuts and thrust</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 120v.png|1|lbl=120v}}
+
 
 +
<p>'''Boar, the fourth posture'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Stand with the left foot forward, the haft next to your right knee, the point towards the opponent.</p>
  
|-
+
<p>Item: A good teaching on fighting from the boar.</p>
|
 
|
 
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 120v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 120v.png|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>Take heed of the before and after<br/>To the shooting through, you should consider<br/>Shooting through, changing, learn<br/>slicing away, pulling, with that you’ll injure.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>'''A play with the long point; the first'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Item: Spring to him, and point your thrust to his face, and quickly thrust to his lower opening. This play is done when one lies with his sword below his belt. But if he lies above his belt with his sword, then thrust to him below and pull quickly to the upper opening, then also cut to his foot.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 120v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 120v.png|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>'''A play from the Bastion'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>If he hits or thrusts to you, then displace upwards hard with the long edge. Cut directly up across from below onto his arm or through his body. Thrust to him with a winding thrust to his right lower opening, long from yourself, wind with a step to his right. Pull around your head, and cut him to the right leg with well stretched arm so that he may not reach you, meanwhile<ref name="indes"/> step backwards with your feet together and cut him high to the head.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 120v.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 121r.png|1|lbl=121r|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 120v.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 121r.png|1|lbl=121r|p=1}}
Line 4,460: Line 4,643:
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>'''A play from the ox'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>When you thrust in ochs, scalp from below with the half edge through his body and face with a step off, cut straight away running to his right side, but don’t let it hit, step with your left around your right. Wind at the same time<ref name="indes"/> and make the undercut a thrust to the right hip. Then the right leg with the undercut.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 121r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 121r.png|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>'''Another from the ox'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Thrust and step with your right foot and with your point long into his face. Meanwhile<ref name="indes"/> wind toward your left with your haft. Step and cut to his right leg. This goes on both sides.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 121r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 121r.png|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>'''A play from the boar'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>The play written after is a breaking of the changer.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 121r.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 121r.png|4|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>Item: Step and thrust from the board hard from below. Thwart up to his face, this he must parry from below, and open himself, leaving you free to hit his left side or foot. This goes for both sides.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 121v.png|1|lbl=121v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 121v.png|1|lbl=121v}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>If you wish to fence with one hand<br/>Know how to break the postures</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>'''Breaking the long point 1'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Item: If he lies in the longpoint against you, then approach him in the change, take his sword away the the half edge, your strong on his weak, and cut long to the nearest opening. This goes for both sides.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 121v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 121v.png|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>Item: If one will take away your forward parrying, at the same time<ref name="indes"/> as the blades meet, let your blade run around your head, and cut his right leg; from whichever side he took your blade away, hit him to that side.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 121v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 121v.png|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>'''Breaking the bastion'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>If one lays in the bastey, then stand with your left foot forward, hold your sword near your right side, the point towards the earth, away from you. Step and strike to him with the half edge from below, angling upward through his face. Let the thwart run off to the left side; cut to his right knee.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 121v.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 122r.png|1|lbl=122r|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 121v.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 122r.png|1|lbl=122r|p=1}}
Line 4,496: Line 4,691:
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>'''Breaking the Ox'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Step and cut from your right side from below his weapon to his left arm, with the weak of your long edge. The other, strike again into his left, stepping more with the tho strikes well around his left side.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 122r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 122r.png|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>'''Breaking the boar'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Item: Thrust from your left side in the approach quickly overhand towards his breast, as soon as he will parry, then pull around your head, and cut him to the right arm. In the strike, step well around his right side.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 122r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 122r.png|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>Mark, this aforewritten breaking of the posture must be done deftly, as soon as you take up a posture to him, he becomes aware of your play. When you don’t hold the ‘before’, then your breaking will not go well, as when you took up a posture.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 122r.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 122r.png|4|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>This aforewritten fencing I have drawn from the old verses and taken it together with the sword in one hand, but now I wish to write on the rapier fencing in my own opinion, which befits attribution itself.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 122v.png|1|lbl=122v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 122v.png|1|lbl=122v}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>[???]Though the big and strong people sully you, rethink confrontation, and remember your art besides that despise<br/>their advantage you I pay little attention<br/>then believe me all the time<br/>the presumptuous despiser, he is with uneven swings<br/>therefrom I will say no more<br/>many fine heroes do lament the boxing[???]</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 122v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 122v.png|2|lbl=-}}
  

Revision as of 03:35, 22 April 2020

Joachim Meyer
Born ca. 1537
Basel, Germany
Died 24 February 1571 (aged 34)
Schwerin, Germany
Spouse(s) Appolonia Ruhlman
Occupation
Citizenship Strasbourg
Patron
  • Johann Albrecht (?)
  • Johann Casimir
Movement Freifechter
Influences
Influenced
Genres Fencing manual
Language Early New High German
Notable work(s) Gründtliche Beschreibung der
Kunst des Fechtens
(1570)
Manuscript(s)
First printed
english edition
Forgeng, 2006
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations
Signature Joachim Meyer sig.jpg

Joachim Meyer (ca. 1537 - 1571)[1] was a 16th century German Freifechter and fencing master. He was the last major figure in the tradition of the German grand master Johannes Liechtenauer, and in the last years of his life he devised at least three distinct and quite extensive fencing manuals. Meyer's writings incorporate both the traditional Germanic technical syllabus and contemporary systems that he encountered in his travels, including the Italian school of side sword fencing.[2] In addition to his fencing practice, Meyer was a Burgher and a master cutler.[3]

Meyer was born in Basel,[4] where he presumably apprenticed as a cutler. He writes in his books that he traveled widely in his youth, most likely a reference to the traditional Walz that journeyman craftsmen were required to take before being eligible for mastery and membership in a guild. Journeymen were often sent to stand watch and participate in town and city militias (a responsibility that would have been amplified for the warlike cutlers' guild), and Meyer learned a great deal about foreign fencing systems during his travels. It's been speculated by some fencing historians that he trained specifically in the Bolognese school of fencing, but this doesn't stand up to closer analysis.[5]

Records show that by 4 June 1560 he had settled in Strasbourg, where he married Appolonia Ruhlman (Ruelman)[1] and was granted the rank of master cutler. His interests had already moved beyond smithing, however, and in 1561, Meyer petitioned the City Council of Strasbourg for the right to hold a Fechtschule (fencing competition). He would repeat this in 1563, 1566, 1567 and 1568;[6] the 1568 petition is the first extant record in which he identifies himself as a fencing master.

Meyer probably wrote his first manuscript (MS A.4º.2) in either 1560 or 1568 for Otto Count von Sulms, Minzenberg, and Sonnenwaldt.[7] Its contents seem to be a series of lessons on training with long sword, dussack, and rapier. His second manuscript (MS Var.82), written between 1563 and 1570 for Heinrich Graf von Eberst, is of a decidedly different nature. Like many fencing manuscripts from the previous century, it is an anthology of treatises by a number of prominent German masters including Sigmund ain Ringeck, pseudo-Peter von Danzig, and Martin Syber, and also includes a brief outline by Meyer himself on a system of rapier fencing based on German Messer teachings. Finally, on 24 February 1570 Meyer completed (and soon thereafter published) an enormous multi-weapon treatise entitled Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens ("A Thorough Description of the Art of Combat"); it was dedicated to Johann Casimir, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and illustrated at the workshop of Tobias Stimmer.[8]

Unfortunately, Meyer's writing and publication efforts incurred significant debts (about 1300 crowns), which Meyer pledged to repay by Christmas of 1571.[1] Late in 1570, Meyer accepted the position of Fechtmeister to Duke Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg at his court in Schwerin. There Meyer hoped to sell his book for a better price than was offered locally (30 florins). Meyer sent his books ahead to Schwerin, and left from Strasbourg on 4 January 1571 after receiving his pay. He traveled the 800 miles to Schwerin in the middle of a harsh winter, arriving at the court on 10 February 1571. Two weeks later, on 24 February, Joachim Meyer died. The cause of his death is unknown, possibly disease or pneumonia.[6]

Antoni Rulman, Appolonia’s brother, became her legal guardian after Joachim’s death. On 15 May 1571, he had a letter written by the secretary of the Strasbourg city chamber and sent to the Duke of Mecklenburg stating that Antoni was now the widow Meyer’s guardian; it politely reminded the Duke who Joachim Meyer was, Meyer’s publishing efforts and considerable debt, requested that the Duke send Meyer’s personal affects and his books to Appolonia, and attempted to sell some (if not all) of the books to the Duke.[1]

Appolonia remarried in April 1572 to another cutler named Hans Kuele, bestowing upon him the status of Burgher and Meyer's substantial debts. Joachim Meyer and Hans Kuele are both mentioned in the minutes of Cutlers' Guild archives; Kuele may have made an impression if we can judge that fact by the number of times he is mentioned. It is believed that Appolonia and either her husband or her brother were involved with the second printing of his book in 1600. According to other sources, it was reprinted yet again in 1610 and in 1660.[9][10]

Treatises

Joachim Meyer's writings are preserved in two manuscripts prepared in the 1560s, the MS A.4º.2 (Lund) and the MS Var 82 (Rostock); a third manuscript from 1561 has been lost since at least the mid-20th century, and its contents are unknown.[11] Dwarfing these works is the massive book he published in 1570 entitled "A Thorough Description of the Free, Chivalric, and Noble Art of Fencing, Showing Various Customary Defenses, Affected and Put Forth with Many Handsome and Useful Drawings". Meyer's writings purport to teach the entire art of fencing, something that he claimed had never been done before, and encompass a wide variety of teachings from disparate sources and traditions. To achieve this goal, Meyer seems to have constructed his treatises as a series of progressive lessons, describing a process for learning to fence rather than merely outlining the underlying theory or listing the techniques. In keeping with this, he illustrates his techniques with depictions of fencers in courtyards using training weapons such as two-handed foils, wooden dussacks, and rapiers with ball tips.

The first part of Meyer's treatise is devoted to the long sword (the sword in two hands), which he presents as the foundational weapon of his system, and this section devotes the most space to fundamentals like stance and footwork. His long sword system draws upon the teachings of Freifechter Andre Paurñfeyndt (via Christian Egenolff's reprint) and Liechtenauer glossators Sigmund ain Ringeck and Jud Lew, as well as using terminology otherwise unique to the brief Recital of Martin Syber. Not content merely to compile these teachings as his contemporary Paulus Hector Mair was doing, Meyer sought to update—even reinvent—them in various ways to fit the martial climate of the late sixteenth century, including adapting many techniques to accommodate the increased momentum of a greatsword and modifying others to use beats with the flat and winding slices in place of thrusts to comply with street-fighting laws in German cities (and the rules of the Fechtschule).

The second part of Meyer's treatises is designed to address new weapons gaining traction in German lands, the dussack and the rapier, and thereby find places for them in the German tradition. His early Lund manuscript presents a more summarized syllabus of techniques for these weapons, while his printed book goes into greater depth and is structured more in the fashion of lesson plans.[12] Meyer's dussack system, designed for the broad proto-sabers that spread into German lands from Eastern Europe in the 16th century,[13] combines the old Messer teachings of Johannes Lecküchner and the dussack teachings of Andre Paurñfeyndt with other unknown systems (some have speculated that they might include early Polish or Hungarian saber systems). His rapier system, designed for the lighter single-hand swords spreading north from Iberian and Italian lands, seems again to be a hybrid creation, integrating both the core teachings of the 15th century Liechtenauer tradition as well as components that are characteristic of the various regional Mediterranean fencing systems (including, perhaps, teachings derived from the treatise of Achille Marozzo). Interestingly, Meyer's rapier teachings in the Rostock seem to represent an attempt to unify these two weapon system, outlining a method for rapier fencing that includes key elements of his dussack teachings; it is unclear why this method did not appear in his book, but given the dates it may be that they represent his last musings on the weapon, written in the time between the completion of his book in 1570 and his death a year later.

The third part of Meyer's treatise only appears in his published book and covers dagger, wrestling, and various pole weapons. His dagger teachings, designed primarily for urban self-defense, seem to be based in part on the writings of Bolognese master Achille Marozzo[14] and the anonymous teachings in Egenolff, but also include much unique content of unknown origin (perhaps the anonymous dagger teachings in his Rostock manuscript). His staff material makes up the bulk of this section, beginning with the short staff, which, like Paurñfeyndt, he uses as a training tool for various pole weapons (and possibly also the greatsword), and then moving on to the halberd before ending with the long staff (representing the pike). As with the dagger, the sources Meyer based his staff teachings on are largely unknown.

Additional Resources

  • Kiermayer, Alex. Joachim Meyers Kunst Des Fechtens. Gründtliche Beschreibung des Fechtens, 1570. Arts of Mars Books, 2012. ISBN 978-3981162738
  • Meyer, Joachim. Joachim Meyer 1600: Transkription des Fechtbuchs 'Gründtliche Beschreibung der freyen Ritterlichen und Adelichen kunst des Fechtens’. TAT. Wolfgang Landwehr, 2011. ISBN 978-3932077371
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Combat: A German Martial Arts Treatise of 1570. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng.
    • 1st edition. London: Greenhill Books, 2006. ISBN 978-1-85367-643-7
    • 1st edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. ISBN 1-4039-7092-0
    • 2nd edition. London: Frontline Books, 2014. ISBN 978-1-84832-778-8
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Sword Combat: A 1568 German Treatise on Swordmanship. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng. London: Frontline Books, 2016. ISBN 9781473876750

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Dupuis, Olivier. Joachim Meyer, escrimeur libre, bourgeois de Strasbourg (1537 ? - 1571). In Maîtres et techniques de combat. Dijon: AEDEH, 2006.
  2. Castle, Egerton. Schools and Masters of Fencing: From the Middle Ages to the Eighteenth Century. London: George Bell and Sons, 1885. pp 74 - 76.
  3. Naumann, Robert. Serapeum. Vol. 5. T.O. Weigel, 1844. pp 53-59.
  4. According to his wedding certificate.
  5. His dagger teachings do, however, show some evidence of influence by Achilles Marozzo's printed treatise.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Van Slambrouck, Christopher. "The Life and Work of Joachim Meyer". Meyer Frei Fechter Guild, 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
  7. Norling, Roger. "The history of Joachim Meyer’s fencing treatise to Otto von Solms". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  8. Whose members included Christoph Maurer and Hans Christoffel Stimmer.
  9. Schaer, Alfred. Die altdeutschen fechter und spielleute: Ein beitrag zur deutschen culturgeschichte. K.J. Trübner, 1901. p 76.
  10. Pollock, W. H., Grove, F. C., and Prévost, C. Fencing. London and Bombay: Longmans, Green, and co, 1897. pp 267-268.
  11. Jens P. Kleinau. "1561 Joachim Meyer dedicated a fencing book to the Pfalzgrafen of Pfalz-Veldenz". Hans Talhoffer ~ as seen by Jens P. Kleinau. 04 July 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  12. Roberts, James. "System vs Syllabus: Meyer’s 1560 and 1570 sidesword texts". Hroarr.com, 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  13. Roger Norling. "The Dussack - a weapon of war". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  14. Norling, Roger. "Meyer and Marozzo dagger comparison". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  15. 15.00 15.01 15.02 15.03 15.04 15.05 15.06 15.07 15.08 15.09 15.10 15.11 15.12 15.13 15.14 15.15 15.16 15.17 15.18 15.19 15.20 15.21 15.22 15.23 15.24 15.25 15.26 15.27 15.28 15.29 15.30 15.31 indes
  16. palm up
  17. Illegible deletion.
  18. oberhauw
  19. ‘right’ is originally written, ‘left’ is written above it
  20. short edge
  21. “Degen”, lit. dagger, could either refer to a sword or dagger.
  22. short edge
  23. Unleserliche Streichung. Illegible deletion.
  24. Unleserliche gestrichen Einfügung oberhalb der Zeile. Crossed out illegible insertion above the line.
  25. Die Schlaufe des »h« trägt ein Diärese. The loop of the “h” carries a diaeresis.
  26. Korrigiert aus »mitelhauw«. Corrected from “mitelhauw”.
  27. Leicht unleserlich. Slightly illegible.
  28. Überschriebens »vom«. Overwritten “vom”.
  29. Inserted by means of a special mark.
  30. Word inserted next to the text.
  31. Inserted nest to the text.
  32. Zwei Worte am Seitenrand nachgetragen. Two words inserted at the margin.
  33. Wort am Seitenrand nachgetragen. Word inserted at the margin.