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Appolonia remarried in April 1572 to another cutler named Hans Kuele, bestowing upon him the status of Burgher and Meyer's substantial debts. Joachim Meyer and Hans Kuele are both mentioned in the minutes of Cutlers' Guild archives; Kuele may have made an impression if we can judge that fact by the number of times he is mentioned. It is believed that Appolonia and either her husband or her brother were involved with the second printing of his book in 1600. According to other sources, it was reprinted yet again in 1610 and in 1660.<ref>Schaer, Alfred. {{Google books|0egSAAAAYAAJ|Die altdeutschen fechter und spielleute: Ein beitrag zur deutschen culturgeschichte|page=76}}. K.J. Trübner, 1901. p 76.</ref><ref>Pollock, W. H., Grove, F. C., and Prévost, C. {{Google books|OXSZ8FjBfhkC|Fencing|page=267}}. London and Bombay: Longmans, Green, and co, 1897. pp 267-268.</ref>
 
Appolonia remarried in April 1572 to another cutler named Hans Kuele, bestowing upon him the status of Burgher and Meyer's substantial debts. Joachim Meyer and Hans Kuele are both mentioned in the minutes of Cutlers' Guild archives; Kuele may have made an impression if we can judge that fact by the number of times he is mentioned. It is believed that Appolonia and either her husband or her brother were involved with the second printing of his book in 1600. According to other sources, it was reprinted yet again in 1610 and in 1660.<ref>Schaer, Alfred. {{Google books|0egSAAAAYAAJ|Die altdeutschen fechter und spielleute: Ein beitrag zur deutschen culturgeschichte|page=76}}. K.J. Trübner, 1901. p 76.</ref><ref>Pollock, W. H., Grove, F. C., and Prévost, C. {{Google books|OXSZ8FjBfhkC|Fencing|page=267}}. London and Bombay: Longmans, Green, and co, 1897. pp 267-268.</ref>
 
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== Treatises ==
 
== Treatises ==
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword A.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword A.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>'''Of Man and His Divisions</p>
 
| <p>'''Of Man and His Divisions</p>
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword A.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword A.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>The Long Edge is the full length of edge from the fingers onward, directed against your opponent, the Short or half edge is the one nearest the thumb, between the thumb and index finger, first finger pointing at the fencer’s self, as if it is imitating the other’s weapon. We will speak as well of the spine of the sword, as shown in the previous illustration.</p>
 
| <p>The Long Edge is the full length of edge from the fingers onward, directed against your opponent, the Short or half edge is the one nearest the thumb, between the thumb and index finger, first finger pointing at the fencer’s self, as if it is imitating the other’s weapon. We will speak as well of the spine of the sword, as shown in the previous illustration.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
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|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword B.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword B.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>'''Ox'''</p>
 
| <p>'''Ox'''</p>
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword C.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword C.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>'''Roof'''</p>
 
| <p>'''Roof'''</p>
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword E.jpg|center|400px]]
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword E.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>'''Wrathful Guard'''</p>
 
| <p>'''Wrathful Guard'''</p>
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword A.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword A.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>'''Long Point'''</p>
 
| <p>'''Long Point'''</p>
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword D.jpg|center|400px]]
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword D.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>'''Changer'''</p>
 
| <p>'''Changer'''</p>
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword F.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword F.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>However, the Barrier Guard is when you hold your Sword with crossed hands in front of you with the point at the ground, which is seen from the figure in illustration F.</p>
 
| <p>However, the Barrier Guard is when you hold your Sword with crossed hands in front of you with the point at the ground, which is seen from the figure in illustration F.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/36|5|lbl=Ⅰ.7v.5}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/36|5|lbl=Ⅰ.7v.5}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword D.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword D.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>'''Key'''</p>
 
| <p>'''Key'''</p>
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword E.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword E.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>'''Unicorn'''</p>
 
| <p>'''Unicorn'''</p>
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword Cuts.jpg|center]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword Cuts.png|center]]
 
| <p>Firstly if you will execute the high or Vertex Strike, you will find yourself in three Stances, first in the start you will stand in the Roof, in the Middle in the Long Point, and end up in the Fool, so you have moved directly from above through the Line from A to E via three Guards or Stances. If you then drive farther on upward from below to displace with crossed hands, you will find yourself in three more Stances, at the start in the Iron Door, in the Middle the Hanging Point, and in the end full above you in the Unicorn, then grip your Sword with the haft before your chest, so that the half edge lies on your left arm. Now you stand in the Key, and thus you come have onward and drove on along Line A and E from one stance into the other.</p>
 
| <p>Firstly if you will execute the high or Vertex Strike, you will find yourself in three Stances, first in the start you will stand in the Roof, in the Middle in the Long Point, and end up in the Fool, so you have moved directly from above through the Line from A to E via three Guards or Stances. If you then drive farther on upward from below to displace with crossed hands, you will find yourself in three more Stances, at the start in the Iron Door, in the Middle the Hanging Point, and in the end full above you in the Unicorn, then grip your Sword with the haft before your chest, so that the half edge lies on your left arm. Now you stand in the Key, and thus you come have onward and drove on along Line A and E from one stance into the other.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/39|2|lbl=Ⅰ.9r.2}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/39|2|lbl=Ⅰ.9r.2}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword Cuts.jpg|center]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword Cuts.png|center]]
 
| <p>'''Wrathful Strike'''</p>
 
| <p>'''Wrathful Strike'''</p>
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword B.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword B.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>'''Under Strike'''</p>
 
| <p>'''Under Strike'''</p>
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword G.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword G.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>'''Glancing Strike'''</p>
 
| <p>'''Glancing Strike'''</p>
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword D.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword D.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>'''Arc Strike'''</p>
 
| <p>'''Arc Strike'''</p>
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword H.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword H.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>'''Thwart'''</p>
 
| <p>'''Thwart'''</p>
  
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<section begin="Kurtzhauw"/>
 
<section begin="Kurtzhauw"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword B.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword B.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>'''Short Strike'''</p>
 
| <p>'''Short Strike'''</p>
  
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<section end="Glützhauw"/><section begin="Prellhauw"/>
 
<section end="Glützhauw"/><section begin="Prellhauw"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword K.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword K.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>'''Bounce Strike'''</p>
 
| <p>'''Bounce Strike'''</p>
  
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/46|3|lbl=Ⅰ.13r.3}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/46|3|lbl=Ⅰ.13r.3}}
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword I.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword I.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>Do the double thus: just as your adversary brings his sword in the air to work against you while closing in, place yourself in the right Ochs, twitch your sword around your head, and strike with the inward flat strongly against his blade from your right side so that your pommel touches your forearm during the strike, as it is depicted in the large picture in Illustration I, and can be seen on the left hand side. However, while striking step well around towards his left with your right foot, and as soon as it hits or connects, pull it upwards and wrench out simultaneously towards your left side and nimbly strike from the outside with inverted hands again towards the same opening, that is with the inverted flat when it strongly rebounds in a ricochet motion, thus you have done it right.</p>
 
| <p>Do the double thus: just as your adversary brings his sword in the air to work against you while closing in, place yourself in the right Ochs, twitch your sword around your head, and strike with the inward flat strongly against his blade from your right side so that your pommel touches your forearm during the strike, as it is depicted in the large picture in Illustration I, and can be seen on the left hand side. However, while striking step well around towards his left with your right foot, and as soon as it hits or connects, pull it upwards and wrench out simultaneously towards your left side and nimbly strike from the outside with inverted hands again towards the same opening, that is with the inverted flat when it strongly rebounds in a ricochet motion, thus you have done it right.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
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<section end="Blendthauw"/><section begin="Windthauw"/>
 
<section end="Blendthauw"/><section begin="Windthauw"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword H.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword H.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>'''Wound Strike'''</p>
 
| <p>'''Wound Strike'''</p>
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword D.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword D.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>And now stands the whole Handwork applied in binding or staying, Travelling After, Cutting, Chopping Down, Walking Around, Misleading, Flowing Off, Putting Away, Displacing, Twitching, Doubling, Overturning, Capturing, Avoiding, Circling, Channeling, Winding, Winding Through, Changing, Changing Through, Cutting Away, Hand Punching, Shooting Ahead, Hanging, Moving Out, Blocking, Adjusting, Grappling, Closing, etc.</p>
 
| <p>And now stands the whole Handwork applied in binding or staying, Travelling After, Cutting, Chopping Down, Walking Around, Misleading, Flowing Off, Putting Away, Displacing, Twitching, Doubling, Overturning, Capturing, Avoiding, Circling, Channeling, Winding, Winding Through, Changing, Changing Through, Cutting Away, Hand Punching, Shooting Ahead, Hanging, Moving Out, Blocking, Adjusting, Grappling, Closing, etc.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/55|1|lbl=Ⅰ.17v.1}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/55|1|lbl=Ⅰ.17v.1}}
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<section begin="Zirckel"/>
 
<section begin="Zirckel"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword E.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword E.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>'''Circle'''</p>
 
| <p>'''Circle'''</p>
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword A.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword A.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>'''How one shall fence to the four Openings'''</p>
 
| <p>'''How one shall fence to the four Openings'''</p>
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword Segno.jpg|center|400px]]
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword Segno.png|center]]
 
| <p>However if you would become practiced in this, then you shall always change with the first strike, and when you first strike to his upper left opening, and then the second is to his lower right opening, and then further as taught above (as is shown by the outer digits in the printed figure), then you shall again strike first to his lower left, then a second to his upper right, and then further as the second set of digits in the previous figure show. The next strike is first struck to his upper right then to his lower left, then further as shown by the third set. The last strike is first struck to his right, then further as is shown by the inner digits, and first learn this as instructed with the long then with the half edge, then lastly with the flat as judged into the work. When you can do such, then follow ahead to the next part, namely that you must understand the four openings before the strikes just taught can be retained, or onward your sword’s blade will be held off and you will be repulsed with better countering strikes, these are thus the two Main Elements of Fencing, the Origins from which all other elements flow forth, onward follows the third, a large element which is and is named the Practice. One comes to the Practice thus: when you can lead your strikes from the stances to all of Man’s divisions, which in the First part of fencing must be taken in the Before thus into the work, and yet your opponent is the same, and is also nimble in the Second stage of displacing, working off or stopping you and your strikes, so that you cannot reach your chosen destination for your strikes, then we come thus to the Third part which is the Practice, which is the most cunning, and teach it as you did the strikes where you were aware, that while every point can be futile or pointless, twitch off closely and nimbly from there to strike again onward, or feint over to let it go off and then lead on to another opening. When he also displaces himself, then twitch off yourself as well, and thus let fly from one opening to another so long and much as you are able to reach to a hit. However, so that such lessons will be marked and understood , I will demonstrate with a few good examples so that my objective will be simply and distinctly taught, presented, and set out, with which the goodly Reader will sufficiently judge all secondary and ongoing elements, and thus can take understanding from it in the Middle work thus:</p>
 
| <p>However if you would become practiced in this, then you shall always change with the first strike, and when you first strike to his upper left opening, and then the second is to his lower right opening, and then further as taught above (as is shown by the outer digits in the printed figure), then you shall again strike first to his lower left, then a second to his upper right, and then further as the second set of digits in the previous figure show. The next strike is first struck to his upper right then to his lower left, then further as shown by the third set. The last strike is first struck to his right, then further as is shown by the inner digits, and first learn this as instructed with the long then with the half edge, then lastly with the flat as judged into the work. When you can do such, then follow ahead to the next part, namely that you must understand the four openings before the strikes just taught can be retained, or onward your sword’s blade will be held off and you will be repulsed with better countering strikes, these are thus the two Main Elements of Fencing, the Origins from which all other elements flow forth, onward follows the third, a large element which is and is named the Practice. One comes to the Practice thus: when you can lead your strikes from the stances to all of Man’s divisions, which in the First part of fencing must be taken in the Before thus into the work, and yet your opponent is the same, and is also nimble in the Second stage of displacing, working off or stopping you and your strikes, so that you cannot reach your chosen destination for your strikes, then we come thus to the Third part which is the Practice, which is the most cunning, and teach it as you did the strikes where you were aware, that while every point can be futile or pointless, twitch off closely and nimbly from there to strike again onward, or feint over to let it go off and then lead on to another opening. When he also displaces himself, then twitch off yourself as well, and thus let fly from one opening to another so long and much as you are able to reach to a hit. However, so that such lessons will be marked and understood , I will demonstrate with a few good examples so that my objective will be simply and distinctly taught, presented, and set out, with which the goodly Reader will sufficiently judge all secondary and ongoing elements, and thus can take understanding from it in the Middle work thus:</p>
 
|  
 
|  
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword C.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword C.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>Note: twitch with a high strike from the right with the half edge to his left, but in the air cross over your hands and slash with the half edge to his left ear, as is shown by the top two figures in illustration C, twitch your hands again thus crosswise over you, and slash again with a traverse from below to his left ear, then again onward strike the traverse from below to his left with an advance step, twitch nimbly near your left above you, and thrust through in this off-twitch with your pommel under your right arm, and quickly again with crossed arms from your high right into his left, in this way slash with the flat below and above on the one side, that goes to both sides, and mark when you will slash to the lower right opening, which will be with the flat, long or short, then your hands will cross, but when you slash to his hight righ opening, then your hands will not always be crossed, from here mark the following example:</p>
 
| <p>Note: twitch with a high strike from the right with the half edge to his left, but in the air cross over your hands and slash with the half edge to his left ear, as is shown by the top two figures in illustration C, twitch your hands again thus crosswise over you, and slash again with a traverse from below to his left ear, then again onward strike the traverse from below to his left with an advance step, twitch nimbly near your left above you, and thrust through in this off-twitch with your pommel under your right arm, and quickly again with crossed arms from your high right into his left, in this way slash with the flat below and above on the one side, that goes to both sides, and mark when you will slash to the lower right opening, which will be with the flat, long or short, then your hands will cross, but when you slash to his hight righ opening, then your hands will not always be crossed, from here mark the following example:</p>
 
|  
 
|  
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword G.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword G.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>'''The Fourth Part'''</p>
 
| <p>'''The Fourth Part'''</p>
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword E.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword E.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>'''Wrath Guard'''</p>
 
| <p>'''Wrath Guard'''</p>
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword F.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword F.png|center|400px]]
 
| rowspan="2" | <p>If you stand in the right Wrath stance and your opponent strikes from his right to your left, then with a step of your right foot drive with displacement under his blade and over your head, and catch his strike on your flat with your thumb underneath, and the blade hanging below you somewhat to the ground, but as soon as in glides then step with the left foot to his right side, and wind the short edge under his sword inward to his head, as shown by the small middle figures in illustration L. When you have wound, then hold your sword with the short edge on his, and wrench the sword out following against your right above you, as shown by the small middle figures in illustration F, thus that your hands complete the wrench high in the air and crossed over, and slash in (keeping your hands high) with an inwinding flat to his lower right opening, as soon as he swipes against it in displacement, then don’t pull but twitch high again and strike a glide strike to his left ear, but in this strike let the blade swing in deep over your hands and fence quickly away from him.</p>
 
| rowspan="2" | <p>If you stand in the right Wrath stance and your opponent strikes from his right to your left, then with a step of your right foot drive with displacement under his blade and over your head, and catch his strike on your flat with your thumb underneath, and the blade hanging below you somewhat to the ground, but as soon as in glides then step with the left foot to his right side, and wind the short edge under his sword inward to his head, as shown by the small middle figures in illustration L. When you have wound, then hold your sword with the short edge on his, and wrench the sword out following against your right above you, as shown by the small middle figures in illustration F, thus that your hands complete the wrench high in the air and crossed over, and slash in (keeping your hands high) with an inwinding flat to his lower right opening, as soon as he swipes against it in displacement, then don’t pull but twitch high again and strike a glide strike to his left ear, but in this strike let the blade swing in deep over your hands and fence quickly away from him.</p>
 
| rowspan="2" |  
 
| rowspan="2" |  
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword F.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword F.png|center|400px]]
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword A.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword A.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>If your counterpart strikes to you from above, then step and strike to him from your right with a high traversing Middle Strike, thus also through and away from his long edge strike in flight so that your blade flies over with the half edge against his left ear but, as soon as you near it, flow off and twitch over your head from your right to your left, step and slash him with an inverted flat from your left to his right ear, high traversing through the middle line shown on the larger figure on the right of illustration A.</p>
 
| <p>If your counterpart strikes to you from above, then step and strike to him from your right with a high traversing Middle Strike, thus also through and away from his long edge strike in flight so that your blade flies over with the half edge against his left ear but, as soon as you near it, flow off and twitch over your head from your right to your left, step and slash him with an inverted flat from your left to his right ear, high traversing through the middle line shown on the larger figure on the right of illustration A.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/90|2|lbl=Ⅰ.35r.2}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/90|2|lbl=Ⅰ.35r.2}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword Cuts.jpg|center]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword Cuts.png|center]]
 
| <p>'''With the Ox'''</p>
 
| <p>'''With the Ox'''</p>
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword K.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword K.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>In the pre-fencing when you have come into the guard of the Ox through a plunge, then strike (as soon as you can reach him) a serious and forceful Wrath Strike from your right to his left ear with a long right foot step, as soon as the strike touches or hits, then almost twitch off again and strike over against his left arm, also with the long edge, but with this strike step with your left foot to his right and take your head out to the side behind your blade, just then he may be ready either to strike or otherwise with his sword stretched out ahead to displace, so at first let your blade hang behind you from your right arm, and meanwhile twitch your grip over your head to your right and take his blade (he is stretched out from striking or displacing) with your long edge or flat and strongly and forcefully high traverse out from your right to his left so that you break out fully with your blade, and in this outward stride let your blade fly above again in a traverse over your head against his left ear, from there twitch your sword over your head again and strike a strong strike swinging in to his right ear with the flat outward, in a flat strike as shown by the larger figure on the right hand side of illustration K, also mark diligently that you step fully out with the left foot to his right side in this strike, from this flatstrike or Bounce Strike twitch your sword high over your head, keeping your hands high, and let the blade fly over with the long edge to his right arm, and yet don’t impact, but traverse nimbly to his left ear while stepping back with the right foot, and sign off. This play, when you have arranged it thus, gives you thus the cut held (as taught above) in reserve, with which you can make more room, either in fencing the full play, or onward in taking another part.</p>
 
| <p>In the pre-fencing when you have come into the guard of the Ox through a plunge, then strike (as soon as you can reach him) a serious and forceful Wrath Strike from your right to his left ear with a long right foot step, as soon as the strike touches or hits, then almost twitch off again and strike over against his left arm, also with the long edge, but with this strike step with your left foot to his right and take your head out to the side behind your blade, just then he may be ready either to strike or otherwise with his sword stretched out ahead to displace, so at first let your blade hang behind you from your right arm, and meanwhile twitch your grip over your head to your right and take his blade (he is stretched out from striking or displacing) with your long edge or flat and strongly and forcefully high traverse out from your right to his left so that you break out fully with your blade, and in this outward stride let your blade fly above again in a traverse over your head against his left ear, from there twitch your sword over your head again and strike a strong strike swinging in to his right ear with the flat outward, in a flat strike as shown by the larger figure on the right hand side of illustration K, also mark diligently that you step fully out with the left foot to his right side in this strike, from this flatstrike or Bounce Strike twitch your sword high over your head, keeping your hands high, and let the blade fly over with the long edge to his right arm, and yet don’t impact, but traverse nimbly to his left ear while stepping back with the right foot, and sign off. This play, when you have arranged it thus, gives you thus the cut held (as taught above) in reserve, with which you can make more room, either in fencing the full play, or onward in taking another part.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword C.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword C.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>'''Unicorn'''</p>
 
| <p>'''Unicorn'''</p>
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword D.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword D.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>or when you have crossed the half edge inward toward his head with crossed hands, so that you have given an opening on your left side, if he rushes (as described before) to fence the same way, then keep your hands crossed, pull your head full to the right, and shoot to him with your blade fully over his, the closer to his hilt the better, thus wrench his blade out to your left, as is shown by the small figures on the right hand side of illustration D, and, when this wrench out comes near your left side, drive out with your hands and slash over them with the hald edge deep to his left ear, after which you come nimbly with your long edge onto his sword after pulling out at your pleasure.</p>
 
| <p>or when you have crossed the half edge inward toward his head with crossed hands, so that you have given an opening on your left side, if he rushes (as described before) to fence the same way, then keep your hands crossed, pull your head full to the right, and shoot to him with your blade fully over his, the closer to his hilt the better, thus wrench his blade out to your left, as is shown by the small figures on the right hand side of illustration D, and, when this wrench out comes near your left side, drive out with your hands and slash over them with the hald edge deep to his left ear, after which you come nimbly with your long edge onto his sword after pulling out at your pleasure.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,604: Line 1,607:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword I.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword I.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>Or when you thus come to be in the Unicorn in front of your opponent, then mark Just As he strikes from above to let your blade drive over your head and bind on his sword from your right high traversing to your left and, as soon as he goes off above from this, then let your blade snap over again so that your right hand comes over your left and fall forward to his arms with the short edge and crossed hands while he is still driving off, as is shown by the outermost figures on the right hand of illustration I, then thrust away forcefully out from your left side with your hilt and strike nimbly when he shows his next opening, or follow after him until you can have your advantage.</p>
 
| <p>Or when you thus come to be in the Unicorn in front of your opponent, then mark Just As he strikes from above to let your blade drive over your head and bind on his sword from your right high traversing to your left and, as soon as he goes off above from this, then let your blade snap over again so that your right hand comes over your left and fall forward to his arms with the short edge and crossed hands while he is still driving off, as is shown by the outermost figures on the right hand of illustration I, then thrust away forcefully out from your left side with your hilt and strike nimbly when he shows his next opening, or follow after him until you can have your advantage.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/96|2|lbl=Ⅰ.38r.2}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/96|2|lbl=Ⅰ.38r.2}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword F.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword F.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>'''Hanging Point'''</p>
 
| <p>'''Hanging Point'''</p>
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword I.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword I.png|center|400px]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/102|2|lbl=Ⅰ.41r.2}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/102|2|lbl=Ⅰ.41r.2}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword H.jpg|center|400px]]
+
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|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/102|5|lbl=Ⅰ.41r.5}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/102|5|lbl=Ⅰ.41r.5}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword N.jpg|center|400px]]
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|  
 
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/104|2|lbl=Ⅰ.42r.2}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/104|2|lbl=Ⅰ.42r.2}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword F.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword F.png|center|400px]]
 
|  
 
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|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword M.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword M.png|center|400px]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/106|3|lbl=Ⅰ.43r.3}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/106|3|lbl=Ⅰ.43r.3}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword G.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword G.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>For you no guard will come so good<br/>In the after you strike out freely, boldly</p>
 
| <p>For you no guard will come so good<br/>In the after you strike out freely, boldly</p>
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword K.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword K.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>'''A good Stück from the Circle'''</p>
 
| <p>'''A good Stück from the Circle'''</p>
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword I.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword I.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>Also wind forcefully against his shield,<br/>Instantly shove him away and strike swiftly.</p>
 
| <p>Also wind forcefully against his shield,<br/>Instantly shove him away and strike swiftly.</p>
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword N.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword N.png|center|400px]]
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword G.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword G.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>'''Note a swift Stück from the Squinter'''</p>
 
| <p>'''Note a swift Stück from the Squinter'''</p>
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword I.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword I.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>This stuck goes well when you do it quickly. However, if he escapes you upward too quickly with his arms, then allow your blade drive around your head, so that your long edge comes forward on his arms, athwart through with an under cut, how the figure here after shows, however do not let go with your left hand from the hilt, rather thrust him from you with crossed hands.</p>
 
| <p>This stuck goes well when you do it quickly. However, if he escapes you upward too quickly with his arms, then allow your blade drive around your head, so that your long edge comes forward on his arms, athwart through with an under cut, how the figure here after shows, however do not let go with your left hand from the hilt, rather thrust him from you with crossed hands.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/131|4|lbl=Ⅰ.55v.4}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/131|4|lbl=Ⅰ.55v.4}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword K.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword K.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>'''A Failer with the False step'''</p>
 
| <p>'''A Failer with the False step'''</p>
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword L.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword L.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>'''Counter to the Thwart'''
 
| <p>'''Counter to the Thwart'''
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword N.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword N.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>Item, if he thwarts from under, so that you can't come from below thus catch his Thwart on your shield with diverting, so that your blade hangs over his.</p>
 
| <p>Item, if he thwarts from under, so that you can't come from below thus catch his Thwart on your shield with diverting, so that your blade hangs over his.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/136|5|lbl=Ⅰ.58r.5}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/136|5|lbl=Ⅰ.58r.5}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword B.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword B.png|center|400px]]
 
| <p>Strike powerfully through with the Long point<br/>Therewith hold off all hard dangers</p>
 
| <p>Strike powerfully through with the Long point<br/>Therewith hold off all hard dangers</p>
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword D.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Sword D.png|center|400px]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/145|4|lbl=Ⅰ.62v.4}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/145|4|lbl=Ⅰ.62v.4}}
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|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword H.jpg|center|400px]]
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|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/149|2|lbl=Ⅰ.64v.2}}
 
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Dussack A.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Dussack A.png|400px|center]]
 +
 +
----
 +
 +
[[File:Meyer 1570 Sword Cuts.png|center]]
 
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/155|2|lbl=Ⅱ.2v.2|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf|157|lbl=Ⅱ.3v|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/155|2|lbl=Ⅱ.2v.2|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf|157|lbl=Ⅱ.3v|p=1}}
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|-  
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Dussack B.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Dussack B.png|400px|center]]
 +
 
----
 
----
 +
 
[[File:Meyer 1570 Dussack C.png|400px|center]]
 
[[File:Meyer 1570 Dussack C.png|400px|center]]
 
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Revision as of 19:14, 16 May 2021

Joachim Meyer
Born ca. 1537
Basel, Germany
Died 24 February 1571 (aged 34)
Schwerin, Germany
Spouse(s) Appolonia Ruhlman
Occupation
Citizenship Strasbourg
Patron
  • Johann Albrecht (?)
  • Johann Casimir
Movement Freifechter
Influences
Influenced
Genres Fencing manual
Language Early New High German
Notable work(s) Gründtliche Beschreibung der
Kunst des Fechtens
(1570)
Manuscript(s)
First printed
english edition
Forgeng, 2006
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations
Signature Joachim Meyer sig.jpg

Joachim Meyer (ca. 1537 - 1571)[1] was a 16th century German Freifechter and fencing master. He was the last major figure in the tradition of the German grand master Johannes Liechtenauer, and in the last years of his life he devised at least three distinct and quite extensive fencing manuals. Meyer's writings incorporate both the traditional Germanic technical syllabus and contemporary systems that he encountered in his travels, including Italian rapier fencing.[2] In addition to his fencing practice, Meyer was a Burgher and a master cutler.[3]

Meyer was born in Basel,[4] where he presumably apprenticed as a cutler. He writes in his books that he traveled widely in his youth, most likely a reference to the traditional Walz that journeyman craftsmen were required to take before being eligible for mastery and membership in a guild. Journeymen were often sent to stand watch and participate in town and city militias (a responsibility that would have been amplified for the warlike cutlers' guild), and Meyer learned a great deal about foreign fencing systems during his travels. It's been speculated by some fencing historians that he trained specifically in the Bolognese school of fencing, but this doesn't stand up to closer analysis.[5]

Records show that by 4 June 1560 he had settled in Strasbourg, where he married Appolonia Ruhlman (Ruelman)[1] and was granted the rank of master cutler. His interests had already moved beyond smithing, however, and in 1561, Meyer petitioned the City Council of Strasbourg for the right to hold a Fechtschule (fencing competition). He would repeat this in 1563, 1566, 1567 and 1568;[6] the 1568 petition is the first extant record in which he identifies himself as a fencing master.

Meyer probably wrote his first manuscript (MS A.4º.2) in either 1560 or 1568 for Otto Count von Sulms, Minzenberg, and Sonnenwaldt.[7] Its contents seem to be a series of lessons on training with long sword, dussack, and rapier. His second manuscript (MS Var.82), written between 1563 and 1570 for Heinrich Graf von Eberst, is of a decidedly different nature. Like many fencing manuscripts from the previous century, it is an anthology of treatises by a number of prominent German masters including Sigmund ain Ringeck, pseudo-Peter von Danzig, and Martin Syber, and also includes a brief outline by Meyer himself on a system of rapier fencing based on German Messer teachings. Finally, on 24 February 1570 Meyer completed (and soon thereafter published) an enormous multi-weapon treatise entitled Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens ("A Thorough Description of the Art of Combat"); it was dedicated to Johann Casimir, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and illustrated at the workshop of Tobias Stimmer.[8]

Unfortunately, Meyer's writing and publication efforts incurred significant debts (about 1300 crowns), which Meyer pledged to repay by Christmas of 1571.[1] Late in 1570, Meyer accepted the position of Fechtmeister to Duke Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg at his court in Schwerin. There Meyer hoped to sell his book for a better price than was offered locally (30 florins). Meyer sent his books ahead to Schwerin, and left from Strasbourg on 4 January 1571 after receiving his pay. He traveled the 800 miles to Schwerin in the middle of a harsh winter, arriving at the court on 10 February 1571. Two weeks later, on 24 February, Joachim Meyer died. The cause of his death is unknown, possibly disease or pneumonia.[6]

Antoni Rulman, Appolonia’s brother, became her legal guardian after Joachim’s death. On 15 May 1571, he had a letter written by the secretary of the Strasbourg city chamber and sent to the Duke of Mecklenburg stating that Antoni was now the widow Meyer’s guardian; it politely reminded the Duke who Joachim Meyer was, Meyer’s publishing efforts and considerable debt, requested that the Duke send Meyer’s personal affects and his books to Appolonia, and attempted to sell some (if not all) of the books to the Duke.[1]

Appolonia remarried in April 1572 to another cutler named Hans Kuele, bestowing upon him the status of Burgher and Meyer's substantial debts. Joachim Meyer and Hans Kuele are both mentioned in the minutes of Cutlers' Guild archives; Kuele may have made an impression if we can judge that fact by the number of times he is mentioned. It is believed that Appolonia and either her husband or her brother were involved with the second printing of his book in 1600. According to other sources, it was reprinted yet again in 1610 and in 1660.[9][10]


Treatises

Joachim Meyer's writings are preserved in two manuscripts prepared in the 1560s, the MS A.4º.2 (Lund) and the MS Var 82 (Rostock); a third manuscript from 1561 has been lost since at least the mid-20th century, and its contents are unknown.[11] Dwarfing these works is the massive book he published in 1570 entitled "A Thorough Description of the Free, Chivalric, and Noble Art of Fencing, Showing Various Customary Defenses, Affected and Put Forth with Many Handsome and Useful Drawings". Meyer's writings purport to teach the entire art of fencing, something that he claimed had never been done before, and encompass a wide variety of teachings from disparate sources and traditions. To achieve this goal, Meyer seems to have constructed his treatises as a series of progressive lessons, describing a process for learning to fence rather than merely outlining the underlying theory or listing the techniques. In keeping with this, he illustrates his techniques with depictions of fencers in courtyards using training weapons such as two-handed foils, wooden dussacks, and rapiers with ball tips.

The first part of Meyer's treatise is devoted to the long sword (the sword in two hands), which he presents as the foundational weapon of his system, and this section devotes the most space to fundamentals like stance and footwork. His long sword system draws upon the teachings of Freifechter Andre Paurñfeyndt (via Christian Egenolff's reprint) and Liechtenauer glossators Sigmund ain Ringeck and Lew, as well as using terminology otherwise unique to the brief Recital of Martin Syber. Not content merely to compile these teachings as his contemporary Paulus Hector Mair was doing, Meyer sought to update—even reinvent—them in various ways to fit the martial climate of the late sixteenth century, including adapting many techniques to accommodate the increased momentum of a greatsword and modifying others to use beats with the flat and winding slices in place of thrusts to comply with street-fighting laws in German cities (and the rules of the Fechtschule).

The second part of Meyer's treatises is designed to address new weapons gaining traction in German lands, the dussack and the rapier, and thereby find places for them in the German tradition. His early Lund manuscript presents a more summarized syllabus of techniques for these weapons, while his printed book goes into greater depth and is structured more in the fashion of lesson plans.[12] Meyer's dussack system, designed for the broad proto-sabers that spread into German lands from Eastern Europe in the 16th century,[13] combines the old Messer teachings of Johannes Lecküchner and the dussack teachings of Andre Paurñfeyndt with other unknown systems (some have speculated that they might include early Polish or Hungarian saber systems). His rapier system, designed for the lighter single-hand swords spreading north from Iberian and Italian lands, seems again to be a hybrid creation, integrating both the core teachings of the 15th century Liechtenauer tradition as well as components that are characteristic of the various regional Mediterranean fencing systems (including, perhaps, teachings derived from the treatise of Achille Marozzo). Interestingly, Meyer's rapier teachings in the Rostock seem to represent an attempt to unify these two weapon system, outlining a method for rapier fencing that includes key elements of his dussack teachings; it is unclear why this method did not appear in his book, but given the dates it may be that they represent his last musings on the weapon, written in the time between the completion of his book in 1570 and his death a year later.

The third part of Meyer's treatise only appears in his published book and covers dagger, wrestling, and various pole weapons. His dagger teachings, designed primarily for urban self-defense, seem to be based in part on the writings of Bolognese master Achille Marozzo[14] and the anonymous teachings in Egenolff, but also include much unique content of unknown origin (perhaps the anonymous dagger teachings in his Rostock manuscript). His staff material makes up the bulk of this section, beginning with the short staff, which, like Paurñfeyndt, he uses as a training tool for various pole weapons (and possibly also the greatsword), and then moving on to the halberd before ending with the long staff (representing the pike). As with the dagger, the sources Meyer based his staff teachings on are largely unknown.