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Difference between revisions of "Joachim Meyer"

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Do it thus: In the Zufechten, when you approach him with your left foot forward and you hold your sword in the Roof guard, if he cuts long from above at your head, then do not displace him, but rather see that you escape from him with your head and sword, so that he does not connect, but let him fail, in this he falls with his sword and cut to the ground, below you, then step quickly with the right foot close to him and cut in forcefully from above to his head before he recovers or comes up again, if he however drives up quickly and displaces, then remain hard on his sword and feel if he goes through strongly upwards, thus allow your sword quickly to be soft and go upwards, step and cut around with a thwart to his right.
 
Do it thus: In the Zufechten, when you approach him with your left foot forward and you hold your sword in the Roof guard, if he cuts long from above at your head, then do not displace him, but rather see that you escape from him with your head and sword, so that he does not connect, but let him fail, in this he falls with his sword and cut to the ground, below you, then step quickly with the right foot close to him and cut in forcefully from above to his head before he recovers or comes up again, if he however drives up quickly and displaces, then remain hard on his sword and feel if he goes through strongly upwards, thus allow your sword quickly to be soft and go upwards, step and cut around with a thwart to his right.
| '''[LIXv] Nachreisen ist außbindig gut /<br/>Mit Schneiden / Winden dich behut.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/139|1|lbl=Ⅰ.59v.1}}
 
 
Nachreisen ist vil und mancherley / und gehöret zu treiben mit grosser fürsichtigkeit / gegen den Fechtern die da ohn alle kunst mit langen Häuwen umb sich Fechten / die treib also / wann du im zufechten zu jhm kompst / mit dem Lincken fuß vor / und dein Schwerdt im Tag heltest / Hauwet er auff dich von Oben lang zu deinem Kopff / so versetze jhm nicht / sondern schauw wie du jhm entfallest mit dem Kopff unnd Schwerdt / under seiner klingen dieweil die noch in der lufft herfleuget / durch / gegen der andern seiten / das er der keins rühret / laß ihn also verfehlen / in dem er mit seinem Schwerdt und Hauw noch undersich fellet gegen der Erden / so Hauwe jm listiglich unnd behend in gemeltem durchtreten von Oben hinein zum Kopff und das ehe er sich erholet oder wider ubersich kompt / fehrt er aber so behend ubersich / also das er dir versetzet / so bleib hart auff seinem Schwerdt / und füle eben / ob er starck ferner ubersich tringt / so laß dein Scwerdt behend ubersich doch leiß außgehen / trit unnd schlag mit der Zwirch umb zu seiner Rechten.
 
 
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And in all chasing, if he escapes you, be sure to turn your long edge against his weapon; and take good heed of the slice, for with it you can force him out of all his work.
 
And in all chasing, if he escapes you, be sure to turn your long edge against his weapon; and take good heed of the slice, for with it you can force him out of all his work.
| Item bindt einer auff dich von seiner Rechten / so hab acht wann er umbschlegt / so folge jhm mit dem Schnit nach auff sein Arm zu seiner Rechten / Oder stehest du in der Hut / und er fellet dir auff dein Schwerdt mit dem seinen ehe du auff kommest / so bleib also unden an seinem Schwerdt / und heb ubersich / füle in dessen ob er dir dann auß der verzatzung ein Hauwe oder Winden machen wölle so laß jhn von deinem Schwerdt nicht kommen / sonder volge jhme daran nach / unnd arbeite in des zur nechsten Blöß / auch merck das Nachreisen ist / wann einer zu hoch ubersich fehret / das du jhme unden in dem er auffzeucht zum streich Nachreisest / es sey mit Hauwen oder Schneiden / deßgleichen verfehrt er sich auch zu weit auff die seiten / so reiß jhme auch seiner Wehr nach zur Blöß von Oben / in allem Nachreisen aber so hab acht wo er dir entgienge / das du die Lange schneide gegen seinem Wehr wendest / unnd nimb des Schnits wol war / dann damit kanstu ihn zwingen auß aller seiner arbeit.
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That is, you should pay attention, when you are laying on against him with the slice, that you shall not allow him free, but rather once or twice follow after with the slice and with this hinder him in his work and intentions, then when he least expects it, thus you should artfully fly away to the nearest opening before he realizes it. This is a true master’s Stück; and begin with it, that is:
 
That is, you should pay attention, when you are laying on against him with the slice, that you shall not allow him free, but rather once or twice follow after with the slice and with this hinder him in his work and intentions, then when he least expects it, thus you should artfully fly away to the nearest opening before he realizes it. This is a true master’s Stück; and begin with it, that is:
| '''Bey zweimalen oder darinnen /<br/>Verfliegen laß / damit begüne.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/139|3|lbl=Ⅰ.59v.3}}
  
'''[LXr]''' Das ist du solt acht haben / wann du jhm mit dem Schnit auffgesessen bist / das du jhn nit gleich ledig solt lassen / sondern einmal oder zwey mit dem Schnit nachvolgen / unnd jhn damit an seiner arbeit und stuck verhindern / wann er sich dann am wenigsten versihet soltu listig jhme unmercklich ehe ers gleich gewahr wirt / mit dem Schwerdt entfliegen / einer andern der nechsten Blöß zu / ist ein recht Meisterstücklein / damit begine das ist.
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You must be well versed in the four openings, if you will fight certainly, then you fight with whatever Stücken and cuts, as good as they may be, if you do not know how to cut off with each one to every quarter, and to mutate the intended Stück, by transforming it into other convenient work, from what he fights against you and how he meets your Stücken, then it can happen that you will take forth with one device to a particular opening, and yet he sends himself against you such that you can have another closer opening, this opportunity will escape you, if you execute your intended Stücken without happening to notice other opportunities, therefore be diligent where you may at once fight by flying freely to the four openings. Because you have only three ways to cut and strike, that is with the long and short edge, and with the flat, from which together, all fencing is composed of, and targeting to the four divisions of the opponent; from which are given all other fortuitous techniques, like pulling, doubling, running off. Thus take note of the following divisions and cuts, that you correctly make your cuts opposite and crosswise to each other.
 
You must be well versed in the four openings, if you will fight certainly, then you fight with whatever Stücken and cuts, as good as they may be, if you do not know how to cut off with each one to every quarter, and to mutate the intended Stück, by transforming it into other convenient work, from what he fights against you and how he meets your Stücken, then it can happen that you will take forth with one device to a particular opening, and yet he sends himself against you such that you can have another closer opening, this opportunity will escape you, if you execute your intended Stücken without happening to notice other opportunities, therefore be diligent where you may at once fight by flying freely to the four openings. Because you have only three ways to cut and strike, that is with the long and short edge, and with the flat, from which together, all fencing is composed of, and targeting to the four divisions of the opponent; from which are given all other fortuitous techniques, like pulling, doubling, running off. Thus take note of the following divisions and cuts, that you correctly make your cuts opposite and crosswise to each other.
| '''Zu allen vier enden treib die treffen /<br/>Die zucken lern / wiltu sie effen.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/140|2|lbl=Ⅰ.60r.2}}
 
 
Der vier Blössenen mustu wol bericht sein / wilt du anderst etwas gewisses Fechten / dann du fichtest für häw und stuck so gut sie wollen / wann du nicht in einem jeden quatier weist ab zubrechen / unnd die fürgenommene stuck zu mutieren / in andere füglichere arbeit verwandelen / jhe nach dem er gegen dir ficht/ unnd deinen stucken begegnet / dann es kan geschehen das du ein stuck dir fürnimbst / einer Blöß zu / und aber er sich so gegen dir schickt das du ein andere nehere Blöß haben kanst / welche gelegenheit dir entgienge / so du dein fürgenommen stuck also ohne auffmerckens anderer zufelliger gelegenheit zufechtest / darumb fleiß dich das du bald bedacht seyest / zu allen vier Blössen frey fliegent zufechten / Dieweil du der arten nur dreyerley hast zuhauwen und zuschlagen / als mit Langer und kurtzer schneide / unnd mit der flech / von welchen alles Fechten zusamen Componiret / nach den vier theilen das Manns gerichtet / auß welchen sich dann all andere zufellige stuck als Zucken / Doplieren / Ablauffen / geben / davon hievor gnugsam gehandlet.
 
 
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When you thus allow your Stücken to run to all four openings, how you are taught here with this same, then also pay attention to his course, that is to his Stücken, so that you are strong on him and slice off against him according to opportunity; thus hinder and slice off his devices, until you see opportunity for other work. The danger is the strikes from both sides; will you displace by slicing them off, then see that you overlook no opportunity, and also do not slice too wide from his body, so that he does not go through against you.
 
When you thus allow your Stücken to run to all four openings, how you are taught here with this same, then also pay attention to his course, that is to his Stücken, so that you are strong on him and slice off against him according to opportunity; thus hinder and slice off his devices, until you see opportunity for other work. The danger is the strikes from both sides; will you displace by slicing them off, then see that you overlook no opportunity, and also do not slice too wide from his body, so that he does not go through against you.
| '''Abschneiden / Schlaudern bring auch mit /<br/>Die herten gefehrt weiß ab mit Schnit.'''
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Wann du nun also deine stuck zu all vier Blössenen lauffen last / wie hievor gelehret / so hab gleich auch mit achtung auff seinem lauff / das ist auff sein stuck / also das du jhme die nach gelegenheit steckest unnd abschneidest / darumb so hindere unnd schneide ihm sein stuck also lang ab / biß du dein gelegenheit ersihest zur andern arbeit / Die [LXv] zwey gefert seind die streich von beiden seiten / wann du sie abschneidest / so schauw das du kein gelegenheit versehest / und schneid auch nicht zu weit von seinem leib / das er dir nicht durchgang.
 
 
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| Of the Slinging take heed as soon as he makes one of his sides open, thus rush in from under with the flat to his ear, cut nimbly again low to the opening or let it shoot up above and drive under his blade.
 
| Of the Slinging take heed as soon as he makes one of his sides open, thus rush in from under with the flat to his ear, cut nimbly again low to the opening or let it shoot up above and drive under his blade.
| Des Schlauderns aber nim war / so bald er eine seiten bloß gibt / so rausch von Unden auff mit der flech an seine ohren / schneid behend wider nider zur Blöß / vom Schlaudern besihe ferner das erste theil im Capitel von der Handarbeit.
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Note when you displace with the horizontal cross guard, high up over your head, that is called the Crown. When you see that an opponent will run under your High Cut with the Crown, then do not let your High Cut actually connect, but rather pull the cut from him, that he drives out in vain, and cut with the long edge a middle cut athwart to his arm or wrist, this same thing thus you mark that when one who will gladly drive out and displace high, thus conduct yourself with comportment like you would cut high, do not complete this, but rather strike nimbly around to the lower openings with the Thwart, using flat or long edge or behind his arms to the ears you have it known.
 
Note when you displace with the horizontal cross guard, high up over your head, that is called the Crown. When you see that an opponent will run under your High Cut with the Crown, then do not let your High Cut actually connect, but rather pull the cut from him, that he drives out in vain, and cut with the long edge a middle cut athwart to his arm or wrist, this same thing thus you mark that when one who will gladly drive out and displace high, thus conduct yourself with comportment like you would cut high, do not complete this, but rather strike nimbly around to the lower openings with the Thwart, using flat or long edge or behind his arms to the ears you have it known.
| '''Verlaß dich nicht zuvil auff d Kron /<br/>Du hast sonst von jhr schad und hon.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/141|3|lbl=Ⅰ.60v.3}}
 
 
Merck wann du mit uberzwerchem kreutz hoch uber deinem Haupt versetztest / das heist die Kron / wann du merckest das dir einer dein Oberhauw underlauffen will mit der Kron / so laß deinen Oberhauw nit gar rühren / sonder verzuck in dem Hauw / auff das er vergebens aufffehrt / und Hauwe mit Langer schneide / ein uberzwerchen Mittelhauw / zu seinen Armen oder Spindel / so du ihn lehmen wilt / Der halben als offt du merckest das einer gern hoch aufffehret zuversetzen / so stelle dich mit geberden sam du hoch woltest hauwen / thus aber nicht / sondern schlag behendt umb zur undern Blöß / mit der Zwirch / flech oder langer schneide / Summa wer dir krönen will dem mach ein Fehler.
 
 
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Stand with the left foot forwards and strike him from your right through his face, that the half edge goes forth once to four times nimbly one after another, thus you drive on to him, then attack to him from under and whether it is with Zwerch or Long edge, mark when you thus have slashed up to him, thus take heed when he strikes at you from above and from his right side, then wind him by slashing out your long edge against his blade so that it stays somewhat athwart, your point upwards and to his left. step at once with the left foot to his left and thrust the pommel instantly under your arm, cut in with the short edge with skidding behind his blade to his head step likewise with your right foot after and around his left and jerk the pommel again therefore, so that you stand with the sword in the Zwerch or in Hanging point.
 
Stand with the left foot forwards and strike him from your right through his face, that the half edge goes forth once to four times nimbly one after another, thus you drive on to him, then attack to him from under and whether it is with Zwerch or Long edge, mark when you thus have slashed up to him, thus take heed when he strikes at you from above and from his right side, then wind him by slashing out your long edge against his blade so that it stays somewhat athwart, your point upwards and to his left. step at once with the left foot to his left and thrust the pommel instantly under your arm, cut in with the short edge with skidding behind his blade to his head step likewise with your right foot after and around his left and jerk the pommel again therefore, so that you stand with the sword in the Zwerch or in Hanging point.
| '''Den Langen ort durch streich mit gewalt /<br/>Damit all harte gefehrt auffhalt.'''
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Standt mit dem Lincken fuß vor / unnd streich von deiner Rechten dem Mann durch sein gesicht / das die halb schneide vorgehet / ein mal oder vier behendt auff einander / so bald du jhn aufftreibest / so greiff jhn unden zu an / es sey mit Zwirch oder Langer schneid / und merck wann du also gegen jhm auffstreichest / so nim war / wan er von deiner Rechten auff dich Hauwet von Oben / so wend im auffstreichen dein Lange schneide gegen seiner klingen / und fang seinen Hauw in der lufft / in die sterck deines Schwerds / das dein kling etwas uberzwerch stande / dein ort gegen seiner Lincken ubersich auß / trit bald mit dem Lincken fuß zu seiner Lincken / und stoß dein knopff in des '''[LXIr]''' under dein Rechten arm durch / schlag jhn mit der kurtzen schneide mit abrützten hinder seiner klingen zum Kopff / wie dich der boß zur Lincken hand in der Figur mit dem B. verzeichnet lehrt / trit gleich mit deinem Rechten fuß wol; gegen seiner Lincken / rucke den knopff behend wider herfür / das du mit deinem Schwerdt in der Zwirch standest / oder im hengeten ort.
 
 
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Revision as of 01:01, 28 April 2021

Joachim Meyer
Born ca. 1537
Basel, Germany
Died 24 February 1571 (aged 34)
Schwerin, Germany
Spouse(s) Appolonia Ruhlman
Occupation
Citizenship Strasbourg
Patron
  • Johann Albrecht (?)
  • Johann Casimir
Movement Freifechter
Influences
Influenced
Genres Fencing manual
Language Early New High German
Notable work(s) Gründtliche Beschreibung der
Kunst des Fechtens
(1570)
Manuscript(s)
First printed
english edition
Forgeng, 2006
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations
Signature Joachim Meyer sig.jpg

Joachim Meyer (ca. 1537 - 1571)[1] was a 16th century German Freifechter and fencing master. He was the last major figure in the tradition of the German grand master Johannes Liechtenauer, and in the last years of his life he devised at least three distinct and quite extensive fencing manuals. Meyer's writings incorporate both the traditional Germanic technical syllabus and contemporary systems that he encountered in his travels, including Italian rapier fencing.[2] In addition to his fencing practice, Meyer was a Burgher and a master cutler.[3]

Meyer was born in Basel,[4] where he presumably apprenticed as a cutler. He writes in his books that he traveled widely in his youth, most likely a reference to the traditional Walz that journeyman craftsmen were required to take before being eligible for mastery and membership in a guild. Journeymen were often sent to stand watch and participate in town and city militias (a responsibility that would have been amplified for the warlike cutlers' guild), and Meyer learned a great deal about foreign fencing systems during his travels. It's been speculated by some fencing historians that he trained specifically in the Bolognese school of fencing, but this doesn't stand up to closer analysis.[5]

Records show that by 4 June 1560 he had settled in Strasbourg, where he married Appolonia Ruhlman (Ruelman)[1] and was granted the rank of master cutler. His interests had already moved beyond smithing, however, and in 1561, Meyer petitioned the City Council of Strasbourg for the right to hold a Fechtschule (fencing competition). He would repeat this in 1563, 1566, 1567 and 1568;[6] the 1568 petition is the first extant record in which he identifies himself as a fencing master.

Meyer probably wrote his first manuscript (MS A.4º.2) in either 1560 or 1568 for Otto Count von Sulms, Minzenberg, and Sonnenwaldt.[7] Its contents seem to be a series of lessons on training with long sword, dussack, and rapier. His second manuscript (MS Var.82), written between 1563 and 1570 for Heinrich Graf von Eberst, is of a decidedly different nature. Like many fencing manuscripts from the previous century, it is an anthology of treatises by a number of prominent German masters including Sigmund ain Ringeck, pseudo-Peter von Danzig, and Martin Syber, and also includes a brief outline by Meyer himself on a system of rapier fencing based on German Messer teachings. Finally, on 24 February 1570 Meyer completed (and soon thereafter published) an enormous multi-weapon treatise entitled Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens ("A Thorough Description of the Art of Combat"); it was dedicated to Johann Casimir, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and illustrated at the workshop of Tobias Stimmer.[8]

Unfortunately, Meyer's writing and publication efforts incurred significant debts (about 1300 crowns), which Meyer pledged to repay by Christmas of 1571.[1] Late in 1570, Meyer accepted the position of Fechtmeister to Duke Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg at his court in Schwerin. There Meyer hoped to sell his book for a better price than was offered locally (30 florins). Meyer sent his books ahead to Schwerin, and left from Strasbourg on 4 January 1571 after receiving his pay. He traveled the 800 miles to Schwerin in the middle of a harsh winter, arriving at the court on 10 February 1571. Two weeks later, on 24 February, Joachim Meyer died. The cause of his death is unknown, possibly disease or pneumonia.[6]

Antoni Rulman, Appolonia’s brother, became her legal guardian after Joachim’s death. On 15 May 1571, he had a letter written by the secretary of the Strasbourg city chamber and sent to the Duke of Mecklenburg stating that Antoni was now the widow Meyer’s guardian; it politely reminded the Duke who Joachim Meyer was, Meyer’s publishing efforts and considerable debt, requested that the Duke send Meyer’s personal affects and his books to Appolonia, and attempted to sell some (if not all) of the books to the Duke.[1]

Appolonia remarried in April 1572 to another cutler named Hans Kuele, bestowing upon him the status of Burgher and Meyer's substantial debts. Joachim Meyer and Hans Kuele are both mentioned in the minutes of Cutlers' Guild archives; Kuele may have made an impression if we can judge that fact by the number of times he is mentioned. It is believed that Appolonia and either her husband or her brother were involved with the second printing of his book in 1600. According to other sources, it was reprinted yet again in 1610 and in 1660.[9][10]

Treatises

Joachim Meyer's writings are preserved in two manuscripts prepared in the 1560s, the MS A.4º.2 (Lund) and the MS Var 82 (Rostock); a third manuscript from 1561 has been lost since at least the mid-20th century, and its contents are unknown.[11] Dwarfing these works is the massive book he published in 1570 entitled "A Thorough Description of the Free, Chivalric, and Noble Art of Fencing, Showing Various Customary Defenses, Affected and Put Forth with Many Handsome and Useful Drawings". Meyer's writings purport to teach the entire art of fencing, something that he claimed had never been done before, and encompass a wide variety of teachings from disparate sources and traditions. To achieve this goal, Meyer seems to have constructed his treatises as a series of progressive lessons, describing a process for learning to fence rather than merely outlining the underlying theory or listing the techniques. In keeping with this, he illustrates his techniques with depictions of fencers in courtyards using training weapons such as two-handed foils, wooden dussacks, and rapiers with ball tips.

The first part of Meyer's treatise is devoted to the long sword (the sword in two hands), which he presents as the foundational weapon of his system, and this section devotes the most space to fundamentals like stance and footwork. His long sword system draws upon the teachings of Freifechter Andre Paurñfeyndt (via Christian Egenolff's reprint) and Liechtenauer glossators Sigmund ain Ringeck and Lew, as well as using terminology otherwise unique to the brief Recital of Martin Syber. Not content merely to compile these teachings as his contemporary Paulus Hector Mair was doing, Meyer sought to update—even reinvent—them in various ways to fit the martial climate of the late sixteenth century, including adapting many techniques to accommodate the increased momentum of a greatsword and modifying others to use beats with the flat and winding slices in place of thrusts to comply with street-fighting laws in German cities (and the rules of the Fechtschule).

The second part of Meyer's treatises is designed to address new weapons gaining traction in German lands, the dussack and the rapier, and thereby find places for them in the German tradition. His early Lund manuscript presents a more summarized syllabus of techniques for these weapons, while his printed book goes into greater depth and is structured more in the fashion of lesson plans.[12] Meyer's dussack system, designed for the broad proto-sabers that spread into German lands from Eastern Europe in the 16th century,[13] combines the old Messer teachings of Johannes Lecküchner and the dussack teachings of Andre Paurñfeyndt with other unknown systems (some have speculated that they might include early Polish or Hungarian saber systems). His rapier system, designed for the lighter single-hand swords spreading north from Iberian and Italian lands, seems again to be a hybrid creation, integrating both the core teachings of the 15th century Liechtenauer tradition as well as components that are characteristic of the various regional Mediterranean fencing systems (including, perhaps, teachings derived from the treatise of Achille Marozzo). Interestingly, Meyer's rapier teachings in the Rostock seem to represent an attempt to unify these two weapon system, outlining a method for rapier fencing that includes key elements of his dussack teachings; it is unclear why this method did not appear in his book, but given the dates it may be that they represent his last musings on the weapon, written in the time between the completion of his book in 1570 and his death a year later.

The third part of Meyer's treatise only appears in his published book and covers dagger, wrestling, and various pole weapons. His dagger teachings, designed primarily for urban self-defense, seem to be based in part on the writings of Bolognese master Achille Marozzo[14] and the anonymous teachings in Egenolff, but also include much unique content of unknown origin (perhaps the anonymous dagger teachings in his Rostock manuscript). His staff material makes up the bulk of this section, beginning with the short staff, which, like Paurñfeyndt, he uses as a training tool for various pole weapons (and possibly also the greatsword), and then moving on to the halberd before ending with the long staff (representing the pike). As with the dagger, the sources Meyer based his staff teachings on are largely unknown.

Additional Resources

  • Kiermayer, Alex. Joachim Meyers Kunst Des Fechtens. Gründtliche Beschreibung des Fechtens, 1570. Arts of Mars Books, 2012. ISBN 978-3981162738
  • Meyer, Joachim. Joachim Meyer 1600: Transkription des Fechtbuchs 'Gründtliche Beschreibung der freyen Ritterlichen und Adelichen kunst des Fechtens’. TAT. Wolfgang Landwehr, 2011. ISBN 978-3932077371
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Combat: A German Martial Arts Treatise of 1570. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng.
    • 1st edition. London: Greenhill Books, 2006. ISBN 978-1-85367-643-7
    • 1st edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. ISBN 1-4039-7092-0
    • 2nd edition. London: Frontline Books, 2014. ISBN 978-1-84832-778-8
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Sword Combat: A 1568 German Treatise on Swordmanship. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng. London: Frontline Books, 2016. ISBN 9781473876750

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Dupuis, Olivier. Joachim Meyer, escrimeur libre, bourgeois de Strasbourg (1537 ? - 1571). In Maîtres et techniques de combat. Dijon: AEDEH, 2006.
  2. Castle, Egerton. Schools and Masters of Fencing: From the Middle Ages to the Eighteenth Century. London: George Bell and Sons, 1885. pp 74 - 76.
  3. Naumann, Robert. Serapeum. Vol. 5. T.O. Weigel, 1844. pp 53-59.
  4. According to his wedding certificate.
  5. His dagger teachings do, however, show some evidence of influence by Achilles Marozzo's printed treatise.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Van Slambrouck, Christopher. "The Life and Work of Joachim Meyer". Meyer Frei Fechter Guild, 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
  7. Norling, Roger. "The history of Joachim Meyer’s fencing treatise to Otto von Solms". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  8. Whose members included Christoph Maurer and Hans Christoffel Stimmer.
  9. Schaer, Alfred. Die altdeutschen fechter und spielleute: Ein beitrag zur deutschen culturgeschichte. K.J. Trübner, 1901. p 76.
  10. Pollock, W. H., Grove, F. C., and Prévost, C. Fencing. London and Bombay: Longmans, Green, and co, 1897. pp 267-268.
  11. Jens P. Kleinau. "1561 Joachim Meyer dedicated a fencing book to the Pfalzgrafen of Pfalz-Veldenz". Hans Talhoffer ~ as seen by Jens P. Kleinau. 04 July 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  12. Roberts, James. "System vs Syllabus: Meyer’s 1560 and 1570 sidesword texts". Hroarr.com, 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  13. Roger Norling. "The Dussack - a weapon of war". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  14. Norling, Roger. "Meyer and Marozzo dagger comparison". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  15. "st" ligature inverted.
  16. Typo: wolt, könne.
  17. "t" is upside down.
  18. 18.00 18.01 18.02 18.03 18.04 18.05 18.06 18.07 18.08 18.09 18.10 18.11 18.12 18.13 18.14 18.15 18.16 18.17 18.18 18.19 18.20 18.21 18.22 18.23 18.24 18.25 18.26 18.27 18.28 18.29 18.30 18.31 indes
  19. palm up