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! <p>Figures</p>
 
! <p>Figures</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}</p>
+
! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
  
 
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| <p>'''Of Displacing, a useful concept'''</p>
 
| <p>'''Of Displacing, a useful concept'''</p>
  
<p>Chapt. 5</p>
+
<p>Chapter 5</p>
  
 
<p>Fencing is based on two prerequisite parts, namely first on the Strikes which you initially put against your opponent, with the other being displacement, which is how you judge and work off of your opponent’s Strikes, and you do not do this weakly. How you accomplish the Strikes and the elements of striving has already been sufficiently clarified, because displacing, or how one properly meets every opposing strike with your weapon and therewith put them away at need so as not to have your body injured, cannot be learned without first learning the Strikes. Because you have now learned the Strikes you can approach the subject of how you displace those Strikes, and come to learn and understand these just as the Strikes have now been heeded and cannot be dismissed, and will be solidified from noting and treating the basics with special care. Be first aware that the parries are twofold, the first is without any particular advantage and is resorted to only for blocking parries from which you cannot do more with your weapon in that you oppose your opponent’s strike to avoid being damaged, but then seek not to damage him, but only to withdraw as you wish without being injured by him.</p>
 
<p>Fencing is based on two prerequisite parts, namely first on the Strikes which you initially put against your opponent, with the other being displacement, which is how you judge and work off of your opponent’s Strikes, and you do not do this weakly. How you accomplish the Strikes and the elements of striving has already been sufficiently clarified, because displacing, or how one properly meets every opposing strike with your weapon and therewith put them away at need so as not to have your body injured, cannot be learned without first learning the Strikes. Because you have now learned the Strikes you can approach the subject of how you displace those Strikes, and come to learn and understand these just as the Strikes have now been heeded and cannot be dismissed, and will be solidified from noting and treating the basics with special care. Be first aware that the parries are twofold, the first is without any particular advantage and is resorted to only for blocking parries from which you cannot do more with your weapon in that you oppose your opponent’s strike to avoid being damaged, but then seek not to damage him, but only to withdraw as you wish without being injured by him.</p>
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| <p>In Slicing Off travelling after is also advantageous when done together with the slice, thus concerning this Liechtenauer spoke in a quote.</p>
 
| <p>In Slicing Off travelling after is also advantageous when done together with the slice, thus concerning this Liechtenauer spoke in a quote.</p>
  
:''Slice off the hardened /<br/>driven from both.''
+
:Slice off the hardened,<br/>driven from both.
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/63|3|lbl=Ⅰ.21v.3}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/63|3|lbl=Ⅰ.21v.3}}
  
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<p>Mark when one stands before you in the Changer or Fool’s guard, and cunningly drop with long edge upon his blade, and just as he glides or pulls, cross over your hands, and block him so that he can’t come out, or when he strikes in front of you, drop with crossed hands onto the blade and block him.</p>
 
<p>Mark when one stands before you in the Changer or Fool’s guard, and cunningly drop with long edge upon his blade, and just as he glides or pulls, cross over your hands, and block him so that he can’t come out, or when he strikes in front of you, drop with crossed hands onto the blade and block him.</p>
| '''[XXIIv] Sperren.'''
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/65|1|lbl=Ⅰ.22v.1}}
MErck wann einer im Wechsel oder Hut des Olbers für dir stehet / so fall ihm listiglich mit Langen schneid auff sein Kling / unnd in dem es glütscht oder rührt / so verschrenck die Hendt / unnd sperr ihn also das er nit außkommen mag / oder wann er vor dir auff streicht / so fall ihm mit geschrenckten Henden auff die Klingen und sperr ihn.
 
 
<section end="Sperren"/><section begin="Verstüllen"/>
 
<section end="Sperren"/><section begin="Verstüllen"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
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<p>Forestalling shall be driven thus: if one comes working unto you with all sorts of actions against the four targets, and strives then to move overhead, drop a cut onto his arm or his sword and let him not come further, especially not where he wants to, thus follow after him with the cut hard on his arm, and forestall thus his advance that he can’t work on, and as soon as you see your opportunity, thrust out with your edge and let fly to the next opening.</p>
 
<p>Forestalling shall be driven thus: if one comes working unto you with all sorts of actions against the four targets, and strives then to move overhead, drop a cut onto his arm or his sword and let him not come further, especially not where he wants to, thus follow after him with the cut hard on his arm, and forestall thus his advance that he can’t work on, and as soon as you see your opportunity, thrust out with your edge and let fly to the next opening.</p>
| '''Verstüllen.'''
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/65|2|lbl=Ⅰ.22v.2}}
DAs verstüllen soltu also treiben / kompt dir einer für der mit allerley arbeyt zu den Vier Blössen behendt arbeitet / und geschwindt solches uber dem Haupt machen will / so fall ihm mit dem schnit auff die Arm oder sein Schwerdt / und laß in nit wider abkommen / sondern wo er hin will / so volg im mit dem Schnit auff seinem Arm hart nach / und verstill im also sein lauff das er nit arbeiten mög / als bald du den dein gelegenheit ersehen / so stoß in mit dem Schnit von dir / und laß zur nechsten Blöß einfliegen.
 
 
<section end="Verstüllen"/><section begin="Ubergreiffen"/>
 
<section end="Verstüllen"/><section begin="Ubergreiffen"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
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<p>Overgripping is thus: Strike from your right to his upper left opening, however in the strike grip with the fingers out over the cross or hilt while holding the thumb on the haft, then with the left hand raise the pommel and slash in with hanging blade over or behind his displacement to the head.</p>
 
<p>Overgripping is thus: Strike from your right to his upper left opening, however in the strike grip with the fingers out over the cross or hilt while holding the thumb on the haft, then with the left hand raise the pommel and slash in with hanging blade over or behind his displacement to the head.</p>
| '''Ubergreiffen.'''
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/65|3|lbl=Ⅰ.22v.3}}
UBergreiffen ist also / Hauw von deiner Rechten zu seiner Obern Lincken Blöß / im Hauw aber greiff mit den Fingern uber das kreuz oder Schilt herauß / jedoch so behalt den Daumen an dem Hefft / unod? mit der Lincken Handt erheb den Knopff / und schlag in mit hangeter Klingen uber oder hinder seiner versatzung auff den Kopff.
 
 
<section end="Ubergreiffen"/><section begin="Einlauffen"/>
 
<section end="Ubergreiffen"/><section begin="Einlauffen"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
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<p>Charging In is nothing other than a charge in under your sword, that both swords come together, beyond this belong grappling and throwing, so that you from here on will attain understanding, will I retain all until now, and now move on to the third section of my list.</p>
 
<p>Charging In is nothing other than a charge in under your sword, that both swords come together, beyond this belong grappling and throwing, so that you from here on will attain understanding, will I retain all until now, and now move on to the third section of my list.</p>
| '''Einlauffen.'''
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/65|4|lbl=Ⅰ.22v.4}}
EInlauffen ist nichts anders denn einem under sein Schwerdt einlauffen / das beide Schwerdt zusamen rühren / Was ferner das Ringen und Werffen belangt / dieweil sich in stucken daß schicket davon verstendig zuhandlen / wil ichs auch biß dahin sparen / unnd jetzt zum dritten theil meines Zedels schreiten.
 
 
<section end="Einlauffen"/>
 
<section end="Einlauffen"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" | <p>What the dear reader heard only up until now, on knowing how to engage your opponent with the strikes, moving also through the middle where you will want to come further in the handwork without damage, is meanwhile however not enough without the third, which will be making a good withdrawal. Thus I will give you proper and clear direction in Withdrawing in the following chapter.</p>
 
| class="noline" | <p>What the dear reader heard only up until now, on knowing how to engage your opponent with the strikes, moving also through the middle where you will want to come further in the handwork without damage, is meanwhile however not enough without the third, which will be making a good withdrawal. Thus I will give you proper and clear direction in Withdrawing in the following chapter.</p>
| class="noline" | '''[XXIIIr]''' Bißher hastu dun günstiger liber Leser nit allein gehört / auff was weis du mit den Häuwen deinen gegenpart angreiffen / sonder auch durch was mittel du im ferner in der Handtarbeit ohn dein schaden zuckommen mögest / Dieweil aber solches nit genug wo nit zum dritten ein guter abzug gemacht wirt / will ich dir in volgenden Capitel von dem abzichen rechte und klare anleitung geben.
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/66|1|lbl=Ⅰ.23r.1}}
  
 
|}
 
|}
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! <p>Figures</p>
 
! <p>Figures</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}</p>
+
! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Of the Withdrawal<br/>Chapt. 6'''
+
| <p>'''Of the Withdrawal'''</p>
If, as has been said, one has started, and in nearly half the efforts is rebuffed in every action, thus indeed making all the same all a bad end, thus come back to the before and do it well, not to execute and downfall, and observe how daily, that now with this you shall not be opposed in fencing, that afterwards you will go on grasping this and have safety after hitting, with honour’s first test at last, which one would then overcome, thus I with this will show and clarify how the withdrawal shall be done.
+
 
| '''Von dem Abzug.<br/>Cap. 6.'''
+
<p>Chapter 6</p>
OB schon wie man sagt / wol haben angfangen / einen fast der halbe mühe in allen dingen entlediget / so mag doch gleichwol ein böses endt alles / so zuvor wol unnd gut gemacht / zü nicht machen und verderben / wie den teglich zusehen / dises nun damit es nit auch dir im Fechten begegnet / das du nach dem du wol angriffen unnd sicher nach getruckt hast / mit schanden auff die letz erst bestehst / welcher dann wol zuverhüten / will ich dir alhie wie der Abzug soll beschehen / eigentlich erkleren.
+
 
 +
<p>If, as has been said, one has started, and in nearly half the efforts is rebuffed in every action, thus indeed making all the same all a bad end, thus come back to the before and do it well, not to execute and downfall, and observe how daily, that now with this you shall not be opposed in fencing, that afterwards you will go on grasping this and have safety after hitting, with honour’s first test at last, which one would then overcome, thus I with this will show and clarify how the withdrawal shall be done.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/66|2|lbl=Ⅰ.23r.2}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| This then will be heeded in particular, that after every attack always know the three wisdoms of withdrawing, either at first before your opponent, or at the last after him, or even at the same time with him. If you would withdraw before him then exert yourself, that you drive out before you with the most wary moves, that he must shoot to drive high, just as he would then see what you would employ in front, strike through at the same time as the withdrawing stroke, and drive on away as you will then first be wary.
+
| <p>This then will be heeded in particular, that after every attack always know the three wisdoms of withdrawing, either at first before your opponent, or at the last after him, or even at the same time with him. If you would withdraw before him then exert yourself, that you drive out before you with the most wary moves, that he must shoot to drive high, just as he would then see what you would employ in front, strike through at the same time as the withdrawing stroke, and drive on away as you will then first be wary.</p>
| Da dann sonderlich wol zumercken / das du nach einem jeglichen gefochtenen sinck auff diese drey weis immer müst abziehen / entweders zu ersten vordem gegenman / oder zu letzt nach im / oder anch zugleich mit ihm. Wiltu vor ihm Abziehen so befleiß dich / das du ihn zuvor mit stucken der massen engstigest uñ aufftreibest / das er müß in die höch zur beschützung fahren / in dem er dann wil ersehen was du ferner arbeiten wollest / so streich als bald mit dem abzug Hauw durch / und fahr hin weg ehe und dann ers gewahr wirt.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/66|3|lbl=Ⅰ.23r.3}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| If you would withdraw after him, mark that this will be seen as two different concepts, firstly when you wait for your Opponent’s withdrawal, thus when he strikes away, that you cunningly follow after his withdrawal above his blade. The second is when you stall with faking, as if you would withdraw before him, however handle your strike artfully indeed and guardingly behind, thereby when he rushes against you, you strike a false strike to him and decline, so that you cover your weapon against him and can strike to an opening. However, when you want to withdraw at the same time as him, then place yourself that you can cover his blade by stepping out and away from the strike, and when he strikes away on his right, you will be on his left, where however he strikes from his left, you step out at his right, and at the same time as him, strike in.
+
| <p>If you would withdraw after him, mark that this will be seen as two different concepts, firstly when you wait for your Opponent’s withdrawal, thus when he strikes away, that you cunningly follow after his withdrawal above his blade. The second is when you stall with faking, as if you would withdraw before him, however handle your strike artfully indeed and guardingly behind, thereby when he rushes against you, you strike a false strike to him and decline, so that you cover your weapon against him and can strike to an opening. However, when you want to withdraw at the same time as him, then place yourself that you can cover his blade by stepping out and away from the strike, and when he strikes away on his right, you will be on his left, where however he strikes from his left, you step out at his right, and at the same time as him, strike in.</p>
| Woellestu aber nach ihm Abziehen / so merck das diß auff zweyerley weiß mag beschehen / erstlich wan du wartest auff des Mans abzug / also wann er abhauwet / das du im listiglich ober'''[XXIIIv]'''halb seiner Klingen mit deinem Abzug nachreisest. Zum andern wann du dich stellest mit geberden / als wöllestu vor ihm Abziehen / verhelst aber doch dein Hauw künstlich und verborgenlich zü ruck / damit wenn er dir nach eilet du ihn lassest fehlhauwen und verfallen / auff das du oberhalb seiner Wehr nach ihm zur Blöß Hauwen mögest. So du aber zugleich mit im Abzuziehen willens / so schick dich das du mit außtretten alweg mit dem Hauw oberhalb seiner Klingen seyest / unnd wann er von seiner Rechten abhauwet / du wol auff sein Lincke / wo er aber auff sein Lincke Hauwet / du auff sein Rechte außtrettest / unnd zugleich mit ihm einhauwest.
+
|
 +
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/66|4|lbl=Ⅰ.23r.4|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/67|1|lbl=Ⅰ.23v.1|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | While you will bring all this with you, in this section you will be instructed on his point, such that enough can and will be retained.
+
| class="noline" | <p>While you will bring all this with you, in this section you will be instructed on his point, such that enough can and will be retained.</p>
| class="noline" | Weil aber alle stuck solches mit sich bringen / wirstu an seinem ort so von stucken gehandelt / solches gnügsam wol können vernemmen.
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/67|2|lbl=Ⅰ.23v.2}}
  
 
|}
 
|}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''A Lesson in Stepping<br/>Chapt. 7'''
+
| <p>'''A Lesson in Stepping'''</p>
Here a wisdom is now particularly needed, one not yet practiced in fencing, thus I will report on stepping and onward show that nothing is relied on as much as one step and, if one already is upon that reliance, that such a one marks what is said if he would learn well, in that as this is relied on so much, so it will be gained by experience as all artful fencing is to be gained. Where the proper steps are not used, the ancient Fencer commented and covered this as stated in his twelth rule:
 
  
:''He who steps after striking<br/>deserves less joy in his art.''
+
<p>Chapter 7</p>
  
That is that every strike must have its own step which shall occur at the same time as the strike, if you would do otherwise with the elements which you resort to, then step too early or too late, thus it happens around your play, and you thus bring yourself around your strike, thus learn to make the steps right so that your opponent cannot work as he really wants, bringing on a stop, particularly so that you upset his grounding or place as it were. In attacking now let yourself mark this, and position yourself as if you would make large and far steps, but actually stay closer with your feet correct, and attack him. So much is then built on from here. Since all of this must be learned and used in fencing, this must be known.
+
<p>Here a wisdom is now particularly needed, one not yet practiced in fencing, thus I will report on stepping and onward show that nothing is relied on as much as one step and, if one already is upon that reliance, that such a one marks what is said if he would learn well, in that as this is relied on so much, so it will be gained by experience as all artful fencing is to be gained. Where the proper steps are not used, the ancient Fencer commented and covered this as stated in his twelth rule:</p>
| '''Ein Ermanung von den Tritten.<br/>Cap. 7.'''
 
ES möchte hie einen wunder nemen unnd sonderlich den / der des Fechtens unerfahren / das ich von den Triten bericht thue / und vermeinen das daran nit vil gelegen wie einer trete unnd ob schon was daran gelegen / das solches einen der Marckt wie man sagt / wol wurde lehren / aber hieran ist so vil gelegen / das wie es denn die erfahrung gibt / alles Fechten vergebens wie künstlich es geschehe / wo nit die Trit recht darzü gebraucht werden / daher denn auch die alten Fechter so diß alles wol erwegen unnd erfahren / in ihrer zwölfften Regel setzen.
 
  
:''Wer Trit erst nach den Häuwen /<br/>Darff sich seiner kunst wenig frewen.''
+
:He who steps after striking<br/>deserves less joy in his art.
 +
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/67|3|lbl=Ⅰ.23v.3}}
  
Derwegen ein jeder streich sein eigen Trit muß haben / welcher zugleich mit dem streich soll ge'''[XXIIIIr]'''schehen / wiltu anderst etwas mit deinen stucken welcher du dich gebrauchest außrichten / den Trittestu zu frü oder zu spat / so ist es umb dein stuck geschehen / unnd bringest dich also selbst umb deine Häuw / darumb so lerne du die Trit recht machen / damit deinem gegenfechter sein stuck nit wie er gern wolt / könne von stat bringen / sonder das du ihm das Erdrich? oder platz gleich sam abstelest. Im angreiffen nun laß dich also mercken / unnd stelle dich als woltestu grosse un weite tritt thun / so du doch in der warheit mit den Füssen nahet bleibest / hergegen aber wan er vermeinet du wollest gemach zu ihm tretten / so sey du geschwindt an ihm mit weiten tritten / und greiff ihn an / den es ist hier an sovil gelegen / das auch alle die so Fechten gelernt und dasselbig gebraucht / solches müssen bekennen.
+
|-
 +
|
 +
| <p>That is that every strike must have its own step which shall occur at the same time as the strike, if you would do otherwise with the elements which you resort to, then step too early or too late, thus it happens around your play, and you thus bring yourself around your strike, thus learn to make the steps right so that your opponent cannot work as he really wants, bringing on a stop, particularly so that you upset his grounding or place as it were. In attacking now let yourself mark this, and position yourself as if you would make large and far steps, but actually stay closer with your feet correct, and attack him. So much is then built on from here. Since all of this must be learned and used in fencing, this must be known.</p>
 +
|
 +
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/67|4|lbl=Ⅰ.23v.4|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/68|1|lbl=Ⅰ.24r.1|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | The steps are done in three different ways, firstly backward and forward, what these are can’t be clarified much as one namely steps to or from someone. The other ones are the steps to the sides which are delineated through a triangle, namely thus: Stand in a straight line with your right foot before your opponent, and with the left behind the right step toward his left, this is the first. The second which is done double you do thus: Step as before with the right foot against his left, then follow with the left behind the right somewhat to the side to his left, and then again with the right farther to his left. The third type is the broken or stolen steps, these are accomplished thus, stand yourself as if you would step forward with your right foot, but as and when you go low, then step back with it behind the other foot. Since these are the same as described in Rapier, I will thus leave it for now.
+
| class="noline" | <p>The steps are done in three different ways, firstly backward and forward, what these are can’t be clarified much as one namely steps to or from someone. The other ones are the steps to the sides which are delineated through a triangle, namely thus: Stand in a straight line with your right foot before your opponent, and with the left behind the right step toward his left, this is the first. The second which is done double you do thus: Step as before with the right foot against his left, then follow with the left behind the right somewhat to the side to his left, and then again with the right farther to his left. The third type is the broken or stolen steps, these are accomplished thus, stand yourself as if you would step forward with your right foot, but as and when you go low, then step back with it behind the other foot. Since these are the same as described in Rapier, I will thus leave it for now.</p>
| class="noline" | Der Trit aber seind drey fürneme underscheidt / Erstlich hindersich und fürsich / was diese sein darff nit vil erklerens / wann nemlich einer zu oder vom Mann trit. Zum andern seind auch trit auff die seiten / welche werden durch den Triangel abgetheilt / memlich also. Stehe auff gerater Lini mit dem rechten Fuß vor dem gegenman / und trit mit dem Lincken hinder deim Rechten / gegen seiner Lincken / und diser ist der Einfach. Der ander so doppelt gemacht helt sich also / Trit wie vor mit dem rechten Fuß gegen seiner Lincken / folg denn mit dem Lincken hinder dem Rechten gegen seiner lincken etwas zur seiten / unnd dann zum dritten mit dem Rechten wider seiner Lincken zu. Zum dritte seind die gebrochne oder verstolene Tritt / die werden also volbracht / stell dich als woltestu mit dem einen Füß vortretten / ehe und den du in aber nider setzest / so trit wider mit im hindersich zuruck hinder den andern Fuß / Diese dieweil sie eigentlich in das Rappier gehören / so will ichs daselbest hin sparen.
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/68|2|lbl=Ⅰ.24r.2}}
  
 
|}
 
|}
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{{master subsection end}}
 
{{master subsection end}}
  
<p style="width:100%;">The long sword material in the [[Joachim Meyers Fäktbok (MS A.4º.2)|Lund manuscript]] closely mirrors the "Third Part" of Meyer's ''[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens]]'', so they are both included in the compilation below. Though the current translation is based on the Lund, in the future we will expand it with a full translation of both, footnoting the differences.</p>
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<p style="width:100%; margin-left: 2em;">The long sword material in the [[Joachim Meyers Fäktbok (MS A.4º.2)|Lund manuscript]] closely mirrors the "Third Part" of Meyer's ''[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens]]'', so they are both included in the compilation below. Though the current translation is based on the Lund, in the future we will expand it with a full translation of both, footnoting the differences.</p>
  
 
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Revision as of 21:59, 7 April 2021

Joachim Meyer
Born ca. 1537
Basel, Germany
Died 24 February 1571 (aged 34)
Schwerin, Germany
Spouse(s) Appolonia Ruhlman
Occupation
Citizenship Strasbourg
Patron
  • Johann Albrecht (?)
  • Johann Casimir
Movement Freifechter
Influences
Influenced
Genres Fencing manual
Language Early New High German
Notable work(s) Gründtliche Beschreibung der
Kunst des Fechtens
(1570)
Manuscript(s)
First printed
english edition
Forgeng, 2006
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations
Signature Joachim Meyer sig.jpg

Joachim Meyer (ca. 1537 - 1571)[1] was a 16th century German Freifechter and fencing master. He was the last major figure in the tradition of the German grand master Johannes Liechtenauer, and in the last years of his life he devised at least three distinct and quite extensive fencing manuals. Meyer's writings incorporate both the traditional Germanic technical syllabus and contemporary systems that he encountered in his travels, including Italian rapier fencing.[2] In addition to his fencing practice, Meyer was a Burgher and a master cutler.[3]

Meyer was born in Basel,[4] where he presumably apprenticed as a cutler. He writes in his books that he traveled widely in his youth, most likely a reference to the traditional Walz that journeyman craftsmen were required to take before being eligible for mastery and membership in a guild. Journeymen were often sent to stand watch and participate in town and city militias (a responsibility that would have been amplified for the warlike cutlers' guild), and Meyer learned a great deal about foreign fencing systems during his travels. It's been speculated by some fencing historians that he trained specifically in the Bolognese school of fencing, but this doesn't stand up to closer analysis.[5]

Records show that by 4 June 1560 he had settled in Strasbourg, where he married Appolonia Ruhlman (Ruelman)[1] and was granted the rank of master cutler. His interests had already moved beyond smithing, however, and in 1561, Meyer petitioned the City Council of Strasbourg for the right to hold a Fechtschule (fencing competition). He would repeat this in 1563, 1566, 1567 and 1568;[6] the 1568 petition is the first extant record in which he identifies himself as a fencing master.

Meyer probably wrote his first manuscript (MS A.4º.2) in either 1560 or 1568 for Otto Count von Sulms, Minzenberg, and Sonnenwaldt.[7] Its contents seem to be a series of lessons on training with long sword, dussack, and rapier. His second manuscript (MS Var.82), written between 1563 and 1570 for Heinrich Graf von Eberst, is of a decidedly different nature. Like many fencing manuscripts from the previous century, it is an anthology of treatises by a number of prominent German masters including Sigmund ain Ringeck, pseudo-Peter von Danzig, and Martin Syber, and also includes a brief outline by Meyer himself on a system of rapier fencing based on German Messer teachings. Finally, on 24 February 1570 Meyer completed (and soon thereafter published) an enormous multi-weapon treatise entitled Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens ("A Thorough Description of the Art of Combat"); it was dedicated to Johann Casimir, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and illustrated at the workshop of Tobias Stimmer.[8]

Unfortunately, Meyer's writing and publication efforts incurred significant debts (about 1300 crowns), which Meyer pledged to repay by Christmas of 1571.[1] Late in 1570, Meyer accepted the position of Fechtmeister to Duke Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg at his court in Schwerin. There Meyer hoped to sell his book for a better price than was offered locally (30 florins). Meyer sent his books ahead to Schwerin, and left from Strasbourg on 4 January 1571 after receiving his pay. He traveled the 800 miles to Schwerin in the middle of a harsh winter, arriving at the court on 10 February 1571. Two weeks later, on 24 February, Joachim Meyer died. The cause of his death is unknown, possibly disease or pneumonia.[6]

Antoni Rulman, Appolonia’s brother, became her legal guardian after Joachim’s death. On 15 May 1571, he had a letter written by the secretary of the Strasbourg city chamber and sent to the Duke of Mecklenburg stating that Antoni was now the widow Meyer’s guardian; it politely reminded the Duke who Joachim Meyer was, Meyer’s publishing efforts and considerable debt, requested that the Duke send Meyer’s personal affects and his books to Appolonia, and attempted to sell some (if not all) of the books to the Duke.[1]

Appolonia remarried in April 1572 to another cutler named Hans Kuele, bestowing upon him the status of Burgher and Meyer's substantial debts. Joachim Meyer and Hans Kuele are both mentioned in the minutes of Cutlers' Guild archives; Kuele may have made an impression if we can judge that fact by the number of times he is mentioned. It is believed that Appolonia and either her husband or her brother were involved with the second printing of his book in 1600. According to other sources, it was reprinted yet again in 1610 and in 1660.[9][10]

Treatises

Joachim Meyer's writings are preserved in two manuscripts prepared in the 1560s, the MS A.4º.2 (Lund) and the MS Var 82 (Rostock); a third manuscript from 1561 has been lost since at least the mid-20th century, and its contents are unknown.[11] Dwarfing these works is the massive book he published in 1570 entitled "A Thorough Description of the Free, Chivalric, and Noble Art of Fencing, Showing Various Customary Defenses, Affected and Put Forth with Many Handsome and Useful Drawings". Meyer's writings purport to teach the entire art of fencing, something that he claimed had never been done before, and encompass a wide variety of teachings from disparate sources and traditions. To achieve this goal, Meyer seems to have constructed his treatises as a series of progressive lessons, describing a process for learning to fence rather than merely outlining the underlying theory or listing the techniques. In keeping with this, he illustrates his techniques with depictions of fencers in courtyards using training weapons such as two-handed foils, wooden dussacks, and rapiers with ball tips.

The first part of Meyer's treatise is devoted to the long sword (the sword in two hands), which he presents as the foundational weapon of his system, and this section devotes the most space to fundamentals like stance and footwork. His long sword system draws upon the teachings of Freifechter Andre Paurñfeyndt (via Christian Egenolff's reprint) and Liechtenauer glossators Sigmund ain Ringeck and Lew, as well as using terminology otherwise unique to the brief Recital of Martin Syber. Not content merely to compile these teachings as his contemporary Paulus Hector Mair was doing, Meyer sought to update—even reinvent—them in various ways to fit the martial climate of the late sixteenth century, including adapting many techniques to accommodate the increased momentum of a greatsword and modifying others to use beats with the flat and winding slices in place of thrusts to comply with street-fighting laws in German cities (and the rules of the Fechtschule).

The second part of Meyer's treatises is designed to address new weapons gaining traction in German lands, the dussack and the rapier, and thereby find places for them in the German tradition. His early Lund manuscript presents a more summarized syllabus of techniques for these weapons, while his printed book goes into greater depth and is structured more in the fashion of lesson plans.[12] Meyer's dussack system, designed for the broad proto-sabers that spread into German lands from Eastern Europe in the 16th century,[13] combines the old Messer teachings of Johannes Lecküchner and the dussack teachings of Andre Paurñfeyndt with other unknown systems (some have speculated that they might include early Polish or Hungarian saber systems). His rapier system, designed for the lighter single-hand swords spreading north from Iberian and Italian lands, seems again to be a hybrid creation, integrating both the core teachings of the 15th century Liechtenauer tradition as well as components that are characteristic of the various regional Mediterranean fencing systems (including, perhaps, teachings derived from the treatise of Achille Marozzo). Interestingly, Meyer's rapier teachings in the Rostock seem to represent an attempt to unify these two weapon system, outlining a method for rapier fencing that includes key elements of his dussack teachings; it is unclear why this method did not appear in his book, but given the dates it may be that they represent his last musings on the weapon, written in the time between the completion of his book in 1570 and his death a year later.

The third part of Meyer's treatise only appears in his published book and covers dagger, wrestling, and various pole weapons. His dagger teachings, designed primarily for urban self-defense, seem to be based in part on the writings of Bolognese master Achille Marozzo[14] and the anonymous teachings in Egenolff, but also include much unique content of unknown origin (perhaps the anonymous dagger teachings in his Rostock manuscript). His staff material makes up the bulk of this section, beginning with the short staff, which, like Paurñfeyndt, he uses as a training tool for various pole weapons (and possibly also the greatsword), and then moving on to the halberd before ending with the long staff (representing the pike). As with the dagger, the sources Meyer based his staff teachings on are largely unknown.

Additional Resources

  • Kiermayer, Alex. Joachim Meyers Kunst Des Fechtens. Gründtliche Beschreibung des Fechtens, 1570. Arts of Mars Books, 2012. ISBN 978-3981162738
  • Meyer, Joachim. Joachim Meyer 1600: Transkription des Fechtbuchs 'Gründtliche Beschreibung der freyen Ritterlichen und Adelichen kunst des Fechtens’. TAT. Wolfgang Landwehr, 2011. ISBN 978-3932077371
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Combat: A German Martial Arts Treatise of 1570. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng.
    • 1st edition. London: Greenhill Books, 2006. ISBN 978-1-85367-643-7
    • 1st edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. ISBN 1-4039-7092-0
    • 2nd edition. London: Frontline Books, 2014. ISBN 978-1-84832-778-8
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Sword Combat: A 1568 German Treatise on Swordmanship. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng. London: Frontline Books, 2016. ISBN 9781473876750

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Dupuis, Olivier. Joachim Meyer, escrimeur libre, bourgeois de Strasbourg (1537 ? - 1571). In Maîtres et techniques de combat. Dijon: AEDEH, 2006.
  2. Castle, Egerton. Schools and Masters of Fencing: From the Middle Ages to the Eighteenth Century. London: George Bell and Sons, 1885. pp 74 - 76.
  3. Naumann, Robert. Serapeum. Vol. 5. T.O. Weigel, 1844. pp 53-59.
  4. According to his wedding certificate.
  5. His dagger teachings do, however, show some evidence of influence by Achilles Marozzo's printed treatise.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Van Slambrouck, Christopher. "The Life and Work of Joachim Meyer". Meyer Frei Fechter Guild, 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
  7. Norling, Roger. "The history of Joachim Meyer’s fencing treatise to Otto von Solms". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  8. Whose members included Christoph Maurer and Hans Christoffel Stimmer.
  9. Schaer, Alfred. Die altdeutschen fechter und spielleute: Ein beitrag zur deutschen culturgeschichte. K.J. Trübner, 1901. p 76.
  10. Pollock, W. H., Grove, F. C., and Prévost, C. Fencing. London and Bombay: Longmans, Green, and co, 1897. pp 267-268.
  11. Jens P. Kleinau. "1561 Joachim Meyer dedicated a fencing book to the Pfalzgrafen of Pfalz-Veldenz". Hans Talhoffer ~ as seen by Jens P. Kleinau. 04 July 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  12. Roberts, James. "System vs Syllabus: Meyer’s 1560 and 1570 sidesword texts". Hroarr.com, 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  13. Roger Norling. "The Dussack - a weapon of war". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  14. Norling, Roger. "Meyer and Marozzo dagger comparison". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  15. "st" ligature inverted.
  16. Typo: wolt, könne.
  17. 17.00 17.01 17.02 17.03 17.04 17.05 17.06 17.07 17.08 17.09 17.10 17.11 17.12 17.13 17.14 17.15 17.16 17.17 17.18 17.19 17.20 17.21 17.22 17.23 17.24 17.25 17.26 17.27 17.28 17.29 17.30 17.31 indes
  18. palm up
  19. Illegible deletion.
  20. oberhauw
  21. ‘right’ is originally written, ‘left’ is written above it
  22. short edge
  23. “Degen”, lit. dagger, could either refer to a sword or dagger.
  24. short edge
  25. Unleserliche Streichung. Illegible deletion.
  26. Unleserliche gestrichen Einfügung oberhalb der Zeile. Crossed out illegible insertion above the line.
  27. Die Schlaufe des »h« trägt ein Diärese. The loop of the “h” carries a diaeresis.
  28. Korrigiert aus »mitelhauw«. Corrected from “mitelhauw”.
  29. Leicht unleserlich. Slightly illegible.
  30. Überschriebens »vom«. Overwritten “vom”.
  31. Inserted by means of a special mark.
  32. Word inserted next to the text.
  33. Inserted nest to the text.
  34. Zwei Worte am Seitenrand nachgetragen. Two words inserted at the margin.
  35. Wort am Seitenrand nachgetragen. Word inserted at the margin.