Wiktenauer logo.png

Difference between revisions of "Giacomo di Grassi"

From Wiktenauer
Jump to navigation Jump to search
 
(40 intermediate revisions by the same user not shown)
Line 48: Line 48:
 
'''Giacomo di Grassi''' was a [[century::16th century]] [[nationality::Italian]] [[fencing master]]. Little is known about the life of this master, but he seems to have been born in Modena, Italy and acquired some fame as a fencing master in his youth. He operated a fencing school in Trevino and apparently traveled around Italy observing the teachings of other schools and masters.
 
'''Giacomo di Grassi''' was a [[century::16th century]] [[nationality::Italian]] [[fencing master]]. Little is known about the life of this master, but he seems to have been born in Modena, Italy and acquired some fame as a fencing master in his youth. He operated a fencing school in Trevino and apparently traveled around Italy observing the teachings of other schools and masters.
  
Ultimately di Grassi seems to have developed his own method, which he laid out in great detail in his 1570 work ''[[Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi)|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme]]'' ("Discourse on Wielding Arms with Safety"). In 1594, a new edition of his book was printed in London under the title ''His True Arte of Defence'', translated by an admirer named Thomas Churchyard and published by an I. Iaggard.
+
Ultimately di Grassi seems to have developed his own method, which he laid out in great detail in his 1570 work ''[[Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi)|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme]]'' ("Discourse on Wielding Arms with Safety"). In 1594, a new edition of his book was printed in London under the title ''His True Arte of Defence''; this edition was orchestrated by an admirer named Thomas Churchyard, who hired I. G. to translated it and I. Iaggard to publish it.
  
 
== Treatise ==
 
== Treatise ==
  
This presentation includes a modernized version of the 1594 English translation, which did not follow the original Italian text with exactness. This will hopefully be replaced eventually by a translation incorporating both versions.
+
This presentation includes a modernized version of the 1594 English translation, which did not follow the original Italian text with exactness. We intend to replace or expand this with a translation of the Italian, when such becomes available.
  
 
{{master begin
 
{{master begin
Line 60: Line 60:
 
{| class="master"
 
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Images<br/>from the 1570</p>
+
! <p>Figures<br/>from the 1570</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|start|Incomplete Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|start|Incomplete Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Kelly Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Kelly Hatcher]]</p>
Line 67: Line 67:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>'''Giacomo DiGrassi His True Art of Defense,''' plainly teaching by infallible Demonstrations, apt Figures and perfect Rules the manner and form how a man without other Teacher or Master may handle all sorts of Weapons as well offensive as defensive: With a Treatise Of Deceit or Falsing: And with a way or Means by private Industry to obtain Strength, Judgement, and Activity</p>
+
| <p>'''Giacomo di Grassi His True Art of Defense,''' plainly teaching by infallible Demonstrations, apt Figures and perfect Rules the manner and form how a man without other Teacher or Master may handle all sorts of Weapons as well offensive as defensive: With a Treatise Of Deceit or Falsing: And with a way or Means by private Industry to obtain Strength, Judgement, and Activity</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/9|1|lbl=Ttl}}
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/9|1|lbl=Ttl}}
 
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/2|1|lbl=Ttl}}
 
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/2|1|lbl=Ttl}}
Line 98: Line 98:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>Among all the Prayers, wherein through the whole course of my life, I have asked any great thing at Gods hands, I have always most earnestly beseeched, that (although at this present I am verse poore and of base Fortune) he would notwithstanding give me grace to be thankefull, and mindfull of the good turnes which I have received. For among all the disgraces which a man may incurre in this world, there is none in mine opinion which causeth him to become more odious, or a more enimic to mortall men (yea, unto God himselfe) than ingratitude. Wherefore being in Treuiso, by your honours courteously intreated, and of all honourably used, although I practised litle or nought at all to teach you how to handle weapons, for the which purpose I was hyred with an honourable stipend, yet to shewe my selfe in some sort thankefull, I have determined to bestowe the way how toall sortes of weapons with the advantage and safetie. The which my worke, because it shall finde your noble hearts full of valure, will bring foorth such fruite, being but once attentively read over, as that in your said honors will be seene in actes and deedes, which in other men scarsely is comprehended by imagination. And I, who have beene and am most fervently affected to serve your Ls. for asmuch as it is not graunted unto me, (in respect of your divers affaires) to applie the same, and take some paines in teaching as I alwaies desired, have yet by this other waie, left all that imprinted in your noble mindes, which in this honourable exercise may bring a valiant man unto perfection.</p>
+
| <p>Among all the prayers, wherein through the whole course of my life, I have asked any great thing at God's hands, I have always most earnestly beseeched, that (although at this present I am very poor and of base fortune) he would notwithstanding give me grace to be thankful, and mindful of the good turns which I have received. For among all the disgraces which a man may incur in this world, there is none in my opinion which causes him to become more odious, or a more enimic to mortal men (yes, unto God himself) than ingratitude. Wherefore being in Treviso, by your honors courteously entreated, and of all honorably used, although I practiced little or nought at all to teach you how to handle weapons, for the which purpose I was hired with an honorable stipend, yet to shew myself in some sort thankful, I have determined to bestow the way how to all sorts of weapons with the advantage and safety. The which my work, because it shall find your noble hearts full of valor, will bring forth such fruit, being but once attentively read over, as that in your said honors will be seen in acts and deeds, which in other men scarcely is comprehended by imagination. And I, who have been and am most fervently affected to serve your lords, for as much as it is not granted unto me, (in respect of your divers affairs) to apply the same, and take some pains in teaching as I always desired, have yet by this other way, left all that imprinted in your noble minds, which in this honorable exercise may bring a valiant man unto perfection.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/11|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/12|1|lbl=ii|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/11|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/12|1|lbl=ii|p=1}}
Line 106: Line 106:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>Therefore I humbly beseech your honours, that with the same liberall mindes, with the which you accepted of mee, your Ls will also receive these my indevours, & vouchsafe so to protect them, as I have alwaies, and wil defend your honours most pure and undefiled. Wherein, if I perceive this my first childbirth (as I have only published it to thentent to help & teach others) to be to the generall satisfaction of all I will so straine my endevours in an other worke which shortly shall shew the way both how to handle all those weapons on horse-backe which here are taught on foote, as also all other weapons whatsoever.</p>
+
| <p>Therefore I humbly beseech your honors, that with the same liberal minds, with the which you accepted of me, your Ls will also receive these my endeavors, and vouchsafe so to protect them, as I have always, and will defend your honors most pure and undefiled. Wherein, if I perceive this my first childbirth (as I have only published it to the intent to help and teach others) to be to the general satisfaction of all I will so strain my endeavors in another work which shortly shall shew the way both how to handle all those weapons on horseback which here are taught on foot, as also all other weapons whatsoever.</p>
  
 
<p>Your honours most affectionate servant,</p>
 
<p>Your honours most affectionate servant,</p>
Line 183: Line 183:
  
 
{{master begin
 
{{master begin
  | title = Single Rapier
+
  | title = The True Art of Defense
 +
| width = 120em
 +
}}
 +
{{master subsection begin
 +
| title = Introduction
 
  | width = 120em
 
  | width = 120em
 
}}
 
}}
 
{| class="master"
 
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Images<br/>from the 1570</p>
+
! <p>Figures<br/>from the 1570</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Kelly Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Kelly Hatcher]]</p>
Line 220: Line 224:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>But least I seem to ground this Art upon dreams and monstrous imaginations (having before laid down, that strength of body is very necessary to attain to the perfection of this Art, it being one of the two principal beginnings first laid down, and not as yet declared the way how to come by and procure the same) I have determined in the entrance of this work, to prescribe the manner how to obtain judgment, and in the end thereof by way of Treatise to show the means ( as far as appertains to this Art) by the which a man by his own endeavor and travail, may get strength and activity of body, to such purpose and effect, that by the instructions and reasons, which shall be given him, he may easily without other master or teacher, become both strong, active and skillful.</p>
+
| <p>But least I seem to ground this Art upon dreams and monstrous imaginations (having before laid down, that strength of body is very necessary to attain to the perfection of this Art, it being one of the two principal beginnings first laid down, and not as yet declared the way how to come by and procure the same) I have determined in the entrance of this work, to prescribe the manner how to obtain judgment, and in the end thereof by way of Treatise to show the means (as far as appertains to this Art) by the which a man by his own endeavor and travail, may get strength and activity of body, to such purpose and effect, that by the instructions and reasons, which shall be given him, he may easily without other master or teacher, become both strong, active and skillful.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/17|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/18|1|lbl=2|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/17|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/18|1|lbl=2|p=1}}
Line 228: Line 232:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>'''THE MEANS HOW TO OBTAIN JUDGMENT'''</p>
+
| <p>'''The means how to obtain judgment'''</p>
  
 
<p>Although I have very much in a manner in all quarters of Italy, seen most excellent professors of this Art, to teach in their Schools, and practice privately in the Lists to train up their Scholars. Yet I do not remember that I ever saw any man so thoroughly endowed with this first part, to wit, Judgment, that behalf required.</p>
 
<p>Although I have very much in a manner in all quarters of Italy, seen most excellent professors of this Art, to teach in their Schools, and practice privately in the Lists to train up their Scholars. Yet I do not remember that I ever saw any man so thoroughly endowed with this first part, to wit, Judgment, that behalf required.</p>
Line 236: Line 240:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>And it may be that they keep it secret of purpose: for amongst diverse disorderly blows, you might have seen some of them most gallantly bestowed, not without evident conjecture of deep judgment. But howsoever it be seeing I purpose to further this Art, in what I may, I will speak of this first part as aptly to the purpose, as I can.</p>
+
| <p>And it may be that they keep it secret of purpose: for among diverse disorderly blows, you might have seen some of them most gallantly bestowed, not without evident conjecture of deep judgment. But howsoever it be seeing I purpose to further this Art, in what I may, I will speak of this first part as aptly to the purpose, as I can.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/18|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/18|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/15|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/15|3|lbl=-}}
Line 293: Line 297:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>This is done, when one strikes in the right line, by giving a thrust, or by delivering an edgeblow with that place of the sword, where it carries the most force, first striking the enemy before he be struck: The which is performed, when he perceives himself to be more near his enemy, in which case, he must nimbly deliver it. For there are a few nay there is no man at all, who (perceiving himself ready to be struck) gives not back, and forsakes to perform every other motion which he has begun.</p>
+
| <p>This is done, when one strikes in the right line, by giving a thrust, or by delivering an edge-blow with that place of the sword, where it carries the most force, first striking the enemy before he be struck: The which is performed, when he perceives himself to be more near his enemy, in which case, he must nimbly deliver it. For there are a few nay there is no man at all, who (perceiving himself ready to be struck) gives not back, and forsakes to perform every other motion which he has begun.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/19|6|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/19|6|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/17|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/17|2|lbl=-}}
Line 305: Line 309:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>'''THE DIVISION OF THE ART'''</p>
+
| <p>'''The division of the art'''</p>
  
 
<p>Before I come to a more particular declaration of this Art, it is requisite I use some general division. Wherefore it is to be understood, that as in all other arts, so likewise in this (men forsaking the true science thereof, in hope peradventure to overcome rather by deceit than true manhood) have found a new manner of skirmishing full of falses and slips. The which because it somewhat and sometimes prevails against those who are either fearful or ignorant of their grounds and principals, I am constrained to divide this Art into two Arts or Sciences, calling the one the True, the other, the False art: But withal giving every man to understand, that falsehood has no advantage against true Art, but rather is most hurtful and deadly to him that uses.</p>
 
<p>Before I come to a more particular declaration of this Art, it is requisite I use some general division. Wherefore it is to be understood, that as in all other arts, so likewise in this (men forsaking the true science thereof, in hope peradventure to overcome rather by deceit than true manhood) have found a new manner of skirmishing full of falses and slips. The which because it somewhat and sometimes prevails against those who are either fearful or ignorant of their grounds and principals, I am constrained to divide this Art into two Arts or Sciences, calling the one the True, the other, the False art: But withal giving every man to understand, that falsehood has no advantage against true Art, but rather is most hurtful and deadly to him that uses.</p>
Line 321: Line 325:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>'''OF THE SWORD'''</p>
+
| <p>'''Of the sword'''</p>
  
 
<p>Albeit Weapons as well offensive as defensive be infinite, because all that whatsoever a man may handle to offend another or defend himself, either by flinging or keeping fast in his hand may in my opinion be termed Weapon. Yet notwithstanding, because, as I have before said, they be innumerable so that if I should particularly handle every one, besides the great toil and travail I should sustain, it would also doubtless be unprofitable, because the principals and grounds which are laid down in this Art, serve only for such weapons as are commonly practiced, or for such as happily men will use: and so leaving all those which at this present make not for my purpose, I affirm, that amongst all the weapons used in these days, there is none more honorable, more usual or more safe than the sword.</p>
 
<p>Albeit Weapons as well offensive as defensive be infinite, because all that whatsoever a man may handle to offend another or defend himself, either by flinging or keeping fast in his hand may in my opinion be termed Weapon. Yet notwithstanding, because, as I have before said, they be innumerable so that if I should particularly handle every one, besides the great toil and travail I should sustain, it would also doubtless be unprofitable, because the principals and grounds which are laid down in this Art, serve only for such weapons as are commonly practiced, or for such as happily men will use: and so leaving all those which at this present make not for my purpose, I affirm, that amongst all the weapons used in these days, there is none more honorable, more usual or more safe than the sword.</p>
Line 350: Line 354:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>'''THE DIVISION OF THE SWORD'''</p>
+
| <p>'''The division of the sword'''</p>
  
 
<p>For as much as the Effects which proceed from the length of the sword, are not in every part thereof equal or of like force: It stands with reason besides the declaration of the cause, that I find out also the property and name of each part, to the end every man may understand, which are the parts of the length wherewith he ought to strike, and which the parts, wherewith he must defend.</p>
 
<p>For as much as the Effects which proceed from the length of the sword, are not in every part thereof equal or of like force: It stands with reason besides the declaration of the cause, that I find out also the property and name of each part, to the end every man may understand, which are the parts of the length wherewith he ought to strike, and which the parts, wherewith he must defend.</p>
Line 359: Line 363:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Di Grassi 4.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Di Grassi 4.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>I have said elsewhere, that the sword in striking frames either a Circle, either a part of a Circle, of which the hand is the center. And it is manifest that a wheel, which moves circularly, is more forcible and swift in the circumference than towards the Center: The which wheel each sword resembles in striking. Whereupon it seems convenient, that I divide the sword into four equal parts: of the which that which is most nearest the hand, as mostnigh to the cause, I will call the first part: the next, I will term the second, then the third, and so the fourth: which fourth part contains the point of the sword. of which four parts, the third and fourth are to be used to strike withal. For seeing they are nearest to the circumference, they are most swift. And the fourth part (I mean not the tip of the point, but four fingers more within it) is the swiftest and strongest of all the rest: for besides that it is in the circumference, which causes it to be most swift, it has also four fingers of counterpiece thereby making the motion more forcible. The other two parts, to wit, the first and second are to be used to warde withal, because in striking they draw little compass, and therefore carry with them small force And for that their place is near the hand, they are for this cause strong to resist any violence.</p>
+
| <p>I have said elsewhere, that the sword in striking frames either a Circle, either a part of a Circle, of which the hand is the center. And it is manifest that a wheel, which moves circularly, is more forcible and swift in the circumference than towards the Center: The which wheel each sword resembles in striking. Whereupon it seems convenient, that I divide the sword into four equal parts: of the which that which is most nearest the hand, as most nigh to the cause, I will call the first part: the next, I will term the second, then the third, and so the fourth: which fourth part contains the point of the sword. of which four parts, the third and fourth are to be used to strike withal. For seeing they are nearest to the circumference, they are most swift. And the fourth part (I mean not the tip of the point, but four fingers more within it) is the swiftest and strongest of all the rest: for besides that it is in the circumference, which causes it to be most swift, it has also four fingers of counter-piece thereby making the motion more forcible. The other two parts, to wit, the first and second are to be used to ward with all, because in striking they draw little compass, and therefore carry with them small force And for that their place is near the hand, they are for this cause strong to resist any violence.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/22|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/22|2|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
Line 366: Line 370:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Di Grassi 5.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Di Grassi 5.jpg|400x400px|center]]
{| style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto; width: 28em;"
+
| <p>The Arm likewise is not in every part of equal force and swiftness, but differs in every bowing thereof, that is to say in the wrist, in the elbow and in the shoulder: for the blows of the wrist as they are more swift, so they are less strong: And the other two, as they are more strong, so they are more slow, because they perform a great compass. Therefore by my counsel, he that would deliver an edge-blow shall fetch no compass with his shoulder, because whilst he bears his sword far off, he gives time to the wary enemy to enter first: but he shall only use the compass of the elbow and the wrist: which as they be most swift, so are they strong in ought, if they be orderly handled.</p>
|-
 
|
 
|-
 
|
 
|-
 
|
 
|}
 
| <p>The Arm likewise is not in every part of equal force and swiftness, but differs in every bowing thereof, that is to say in the wrist, in the elbow and in the shoulder: for the blows of the wrist as they are more swift, so they are less strong: And the other two, as they are more strong, so they are more slow, because they perform a great compass. Therefore by my counsel, he that would deliver an edgeblow shall fetch no compass with his shoulder, because whilst he bears his sword far off, he gives time to the wary enemy to enter first: but he shall only use the compass of the elbow and the wrist: which as they be most swift, so are they strong in ought, if they be orderly handled.</p>
 
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/23|1|lbl=7}}
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/23|1|lbl=7}}
 
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/23|1|lbl=11}}
 
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/23|1|lbl=11}}
Line 395: Line 391:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>It is most evident, that all bodies of straight or long shape, I mean when they have a firm and immovable head or beginning, and that they move with an other like head, always of necessity in their motion, frame either a wheel of part of a circular figure. Seeing then the Arm is of like figure and shape, and is immovably fixed in the shoulder, and further moves only in that part which is beneath it, there is no doubt, but that in his motion it figures also a circle, or some part thereof. And this every man may perceive if in moving his arm, he make trial in himself.</p>
+
| <p>It is most evident, that all bodies of straight or long shape, I mean when they have a firm and immovable head or beginning, and that they move with another like head, always of necessity in their motion, frame either a wheel of part of a circular figure. Seeing then the Arm is of like figure and shape, and is immovably fixed in the shoulder, and further moves only in that part which is beneath it, there is no doubt, but that in his motion it figures also a circle, or some part thereof. And this every man may perceive if in moving his arm, he make trial in himself.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/25|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/25|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/25|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/25|3|lbl=-}}
Line 407: Line 403:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>Now I will come to my second, and will declare the reasons and ways by which a man striking with the point strikes straightly. And I say, that whensoever the sword is moved by the only motion of the Arm, it must always of necessity frame a circle by the reasons before alleged. But if it happen, as in a manner it does always, that the arm in his motion makes a circle upwards, and the hand moving in the wrist frame a part of a circle downwards the it will come to pass, that the sword being moved by two contrary motions in going forwards strikes straightly.</p>
+
| <p>Now I will come to my second, and will declare the reasons and ways by which a man striking with the point strikes straightly. And I say, that whenever the sword is moved by the only motion of the Arm, it must always of necessity frame a circle by the reasons before alleged. But if it happen, as in a manner it does always, that the arm in his motion makes a circle upwards, and the hand moving in the wrist frame a part of a circle downwards the it will come to pass, that the sword being moved by two contrary motions in going forwards strikes straightly.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/25|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/26|1|lbl=10|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/25|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/26|1|lbl=10|p=1}}
Line 414: Line 410:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>But to the intent that this may be more plainly perceived, I have framed this present figure for the better understanding whereof it is to be known, that as the arm in his motion carries the sword with it, and is the occasion that being forced by the said motion, the sword frames a circle upwards, So the hand moving itself in the wrist, may either lift up the point of the sword upwards or abase it downwards. So that if the hand do so much let fall the point, as the arm does lift up the handle, it comes to pass that the swords point thrusts directly at an other prick or point than that it respects.</p>
+
| <p>But to the intent that this may be more plainly perceived, I have framed this present figure for the better understanding whereof it is to be known, that as the arm in his motion carries the sword with it, and is the occasion that being forced by the said motion, the sword frames a circle upwards, So the hand moving itself in the wrist, may either lift up the point of the sword upwards or abase it downwards. So that if the hand do so much let fall the point, as the arm does lift up the handle, it comes to pass that the swords point thrusts directly at another prick or point than that it respects.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/26|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/26|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/26|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/26|2|lbl=-}}
Line 420: Line 416:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Di Grassi 6.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Di Grassi 6.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>Wherefore let A.B. be the circle which is framed by the motion of the arm: which arm, if ( as it carries with it the sword in his motion ) it would strike at the point D. it should be constrained through his motion to strike at point B. And from hence proceeds the difficulty of thrusting or striking with the point. If it therefore the arm would strike directly at the point D. it is necessary that as much as it lifts the handle upwards, the hand and wrist do move itself circularly downward, making this circle AC and carrying with it the point of the sword down-wards, of force it strikes at the point D. And this would not so come to pass, if with the only motion of the arm, a man should thrust forth the sword, considering the arm moves only above the center C.</p>
+
| <p>Wherefore let A.B. be the circle which is framed by the motion of the arm: which arm, if (as it carries with it the sword in his motion) it would strike at the point D. it should be constrained through his motion to strike at point B. And from hence proceeds the difficulty of thrusting or striking with the point. If it therefore the arm would strike directly at the point D. it is necessary that as much as it lifts the handle upwards, the hand and wrist do move itself circularly downward, making this circle AC and carrying with it the point of the sword down-wards, of force it strikes at the point D. And this would not so come to pass, if with the only motion of the arm, a man should thrust forth the sword, considering the arm moves only above the center C.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/26|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/26|3|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
Line 496: Line 492:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Di Grassi 8.jpg|400x400px|center]]
+
| class="noline" | [[File:Di Grassi 8.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>'''OF THE AGREEMENT OF THE FOOT AND HAND'''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>'''Of the agreement of the foot and hand'''</p>
  
 
<p>The right leg ought always to be the strength of the right hand, and likewise the left leg of the left hand: So that if at any time it shall happen a thrust to be forcibly delivered, reason would that it be accompanied with the leg: for otherwise, by means of the force and weight, which is without the perpendicular or hanging line of the body, having no prop to sustain it, a man is in danger of falling. And it is to be understood, that the pace does naturally so much increase or diminish his motion, as the hand. Therefore we see when the right foot is behind, the hand is there also: for what who so strains himself to stand otherwise, as he offers violence unto nature, so he can never endure it: wherefore when he stands at his ward, bearing his hand wide, there also the foot helps by his strength, being placed towards that part: and when the hand is borne low, and the right foot before, if then he would lift his hand aloft, it is necessary that he draw back his foot: And there is so much distance from the place where the foot does part, to join itself to the other foot, as there is from the place whence the hand parts, to that place where it remains steadfast, little more or less: wherefore presupposing the said rules to be true, he must have great care to make his pace, h move his hand at one time together: And above all, not to skip or leap, but keep one foot always firm and steadfast: and when he would move it, to do it upon some great occasion, considering the foot ought chiefly to agree in motion with the hand, which hand, ought not in any case what soever happen to vary from his purpose, either in striking or defending.</p>
 
<p>The right leg ought always to be the strength of the right hand, and likewise the left leg of the left hand: So that if at any time it shall happen a thrust to be forcibly delivered, reason would that it be accompanied with the leg: for otherwise, by means of the force and weight, which is without the perpendicular or hanging line of the body, having no prop to sustain it, a man is in danger of falling. And it is to be understood, that the pace does naturally so much increase or diminish his motion, as the hand. Therefore we see when the right foot is behind, the hand is there also: for what who so strains himself to stand otherwise, as he offers violence unto nature, so he can never endure it: wherefore when he stands at his ward, bearing his hand wide, there also the foot helps by his strength, being placed towards that part: and when the hand is borne low, and the right foot before, if then he would lift his hand aloft, it is necessary that he draw back his foot: And there is so much distance from the place where the foot does part, to join itself to the other foot, as there is from the place whence the hand parts, to that place where it remains steadfast, little more or less: wherefore presupposing the said rules to be true, he must have great care to make his pace, h move his hand at one time together: And above all, not to skip or leap, but keep one foot always firm and steadfast: and when he would move it, to do it upon some great occasion, considering the foot ought chiefly to agree in motion with the hand, which hand, ought not in any case what soever happen to vary from his purpose, either in striking or defending.</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/30|2|lbl=14|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/31|1|lbl=15|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/30|2|lbl=14|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/31|1|lbl=15|p=1}}
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
 
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/32|2|lbl=20|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/33|1|lbl=21|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/32|2|lbl=20|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/33|1|lbl=21|p=1}}
 +
 +
|}
 +
{{master subsection end}}
 +
 +
{{master subsection begin
 +
| title = Single Rapier
 +
| width = 120em
 +
}}
 +
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Figures<br/>from the 1570</p>
 +
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 +
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Kelly Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>English Transcription (1594){{edit index|DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf}}<br/>by [[Early English Books Online]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>'''OF WARDS'''</p>
+
| <p>'''Of wards'''</p>
  
 
<p>Wards in weapons are such sites, positions or placings which withstand the enemy's blows, and are as a shield or safeguard against them. For he who has no skill to carry his body and bear these weapons orderly, which either cover, or may easily may cover the whole body, cannot be said to stand in ward, insomuch that a man ought to use great diligence in the apt carrying of his body and weapons, For many times he ought to settle and repose himself in his ward, therein deliberating upon some new devise, or expecting when his enemy will minister occasion to enter upon him.</p>
 
<p>Wards in weapons are such sites, positions or placings which withstand the enemy's blows, and are as a shield or safeguard against them. For he who has no skill to carry his body and bear these weapons orderly, which either cover, or may easily may cover the whole body, cannot be said to stand in ward, insomuch that a man ought to use great diligence in the apt carrying of his body and weapons, For many times he ought to settle and repose himself in his ward, therein deliberating upon some new devise, or expecting when his enemy will minister occasion to enter upon him.</p>
Line 522: Line 532:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Di Grassi 9.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Di Grassi 9.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>'''THE HIGH WARD.'''</p>
+
| <p>'''The high ward'''</p>
  
 
<p>This high ward, which also might be called the first, being the very same which every man frames at the drawing of the sword out of the sheath, may so far forth, and insomuch be termed a ward, in how much, by turning the point of the sword downward, it wards the whole person, and for that, by gathering in of the hindfoot, and increasing forwards with the right foot, a man may discharge a strong thrust above hand at his enemy.</p>
 
<p>This high ward, which also might be called the first, being the very same which every man frames at the drawing of the sword out of the sheath, may so far forth, and insomuch be termed a ward, in how much, by turning the point of the sword downward, it wards the whole person, and for that, by gathering in of the hindfoot, and increasing forwards with the right foot, a man may discharge a strong thrust above hand at his enemy.</p>
Line 530: Line 540:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>In this, and in all other wards, it is diligently to benoted, that he bear his weapons so orderly disposed, that the straight line which goes from the sword's point be still best to strike the enemy, either in the face or the breast: for if the point be so borne that it respect over the enemy's head, the enemy may easily first enter underneath and strike before the fall or descend thereof : And by holding the point two low, he may by beating it somewhat downwards cause it to be quit void of his body, and so safely come in to strike, the which has been many times seen.</p>
+
| <p>In this, and in all other wards, it is diligently to be noted, that he bear his weapons so orderly disposed, that the straight line which goes from the sword's point be still best to strike the enemy, either in the face or the breast: for if the point be so borne that it respect over the enemy's head, the enemy may easily first enter underneath and strike before the fall or descend thereof: And by holding the point two low, he may by beating it somewhat downwards cause it to be quit void of his body, and so safely come in to strike, the which has been many times seen.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/33|4|lbl=17}}
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/33|4|lbl=17}}
 
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/36|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/36|2|lbl=-}}
Line 541: Line 551:
 
| style="text-align:center;" | {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/36|4|lbl=-}}
 
| style="text-align:center;" | {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/36|4|lbl=-}}
 
|}
 
|}
| <p>'''THE BROAD WARD'''</p>
+
| <p>'''The broad ward'''</p>
  
<p>This second ward from the effect shall be called the broad or wide ward, because the Arm widening and stretching itself directly as much as possible from the right side, bears the sword so far off from the body, that it seems to give great scope to the enemy to enter, albeit in truth it be nothing so. For although the hand and the handle of the sword, be both far from the body, and quite out of the straight line, yet the point of the sword, from which principally proceeds the offense, is not without the said line: For it is borne so bending toward the left side that it respects directly to strike the enemy, and being borne in that sort, it may very well both strike and defend. And when the point of the sword is borne out of the straight line, as the hand and handle is, then a man is in danger to bee hurt easily by the enemy, the which happens not when the point is bending, for in such order, it is as a bar and defense to the whole body.</p>
+
<p>This second ward from the effect shall be called the broad or wide ward, because the Arm widening and stretching itself directly as much as possible from the right side, bears the sword so far off from the body, that it seems to give great scope to the enemy to enter, albeit in truth it be nothing so. For although the hand and the handle of the sword, be both far from the body, and quite out of the straight line, yet the point of the sword, from which principally proceeds the offense, is not without the said line: For it is borne so bending toward the left side that it respects directly to strike the enemy, and being borne in that sort, it may very well both strike and defend. And when the point of the sword is borne out of the straight line, as the hand and handle is, then a man is in danger to be hurt easily by the enemy, the which happens not when the point is bending, for in such order, it is as a bar and defense to the whole body.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/34|1|lbl=18|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/35|1|lbl=19|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/34|1|lbl=18|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/35|1|lbl=19|p=1}}
Line 551: Line 561:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Di Grassi 11.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Di Grassi 11.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>'''THE LOW WARD'''</p>
+
| <p>'''The low ward'''</p>
  
<p>This also from the effect is called the base ward or lock: Neither is this name improperly given by the Professors of this Art, for that it is more strong, sure and commodious then any other ward, and in the which a man may more easily strike, ward and stand therein with less pain. This ward is framed in the Schools after diverse fashions, either bearing the hand low before the knee, either very much stretched forwards, either between both the knees. All which fashions, (if we regard natural reason, and the motions used therein) are to small purpose: for, besides that they are all violent, and for a small time to be endured, they are also such, in the which a man may not strike but in two times, or at least in one, and then very weakly. Wherefore, casting all these aside, I will frame such a ward, as shall be applied, to time, to nature, and to safety: And it is, when one bears his arm directly downwards near his knee (but yet without it) and his sword with his point somewhat raised, and bearing towards the left side, to the end, it may arm and defend that part also, in such sort, that (being borne without violence) he may continue long. And if he would strike, he may in one time, forcibly deliver a great thrust. But this he cannot do, if he bear his sword directly before him, for then he must either draw back his arm when he would strike, or else strike in one time, but very weakly.</p>
+
<p>This also from the effect is called the base ward or lock: Neither is this name improperly given by the Professors of this Art, for that it is more strong, sure and commodious than any other ward, and in the which a man may more easily strike, ward and stand therein with less pain. This ward is framed in the Schools after diverse fashions, either bearing the hand low before the knee, either very much stretched forwards, either between both the knees. All which fashions, (if we regard natural reason, and the motions used therein) are to small purpose: for, besides that they are all violent, and for a small time to be endured, they are also such, in the which a man may not strike but in two times, or at least in one, and then very weakly. Wherefore, casting all these aside, I will frame such a ward, as shall be applied, to time, to nature, and to safety: And it is, when one bears his arm directly downwards near his knee (but yet without it) and his sword with his point somewhat raised, and bearing towards the left side, to the end, it may arm and defend that part also, in such sort, that (being borne without violence) he may continue long. And if he would strike, he may in one time, forcibly deliver a great thrust. But this he cannot do, if he bear his sword directly before him, for then he must either draw back his arm when he would strike, or else strike in one time, but very weakly.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/36|1|lbl=20}}
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/36|1|lbl=20}}
Line 566: Line 576:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>'''THE MANNER HOW TO STRIKE'''</p>
+
| <p>'''The manner how to strike'''</p>
  
<p>Without all doubt, the thrust is to be preferred before the edgeblow, as well because it strikes in less time, as also for that in the said time, it does more hurt. For which consideration, the Romans (who were victorious in all enterprises) did accustom their soldiers of the Legions to thrust only: Alleging for their reason, that the blows of the edge, though they were great, yet they are very few that are deadly, and that thrusts, though little and weak, when they enter but iii fingers into the body, are wont to kill. Therefore I lay down this for a firm and certain rule, that the thrust does many times more readily strike, and give the greater blow against the enemy. And to the end, a man may thrust it out with the greatest force at the most advantage, and uttermost length that may be, he must always remember to carry his left foot compassing behind him in such sort, that the hindfoot so compassing may always be in the straight line of the hand and sword, as a Diameter in the middest of a Circle. And in finishing of a blow, to draw his hindfoot a half pace forwards, and so by that means the blow is longer and stronger, and shoulder and side are only opposite to the enemy, and so far from him, that they may not be struck: and it is not possible for a man to frame a longer blow than this.</p>
+
<p>Without all doubt, the thrust is to be preferred before the edge-blow, as well because it strikes in less time, as also for that in the said time, it does more hurt. For which consideration, the Romans (who were victorious in all enterprises) did accustom their soldiers of the Legions to thrust only: Alleging for their reason, that the blows of the edge, though they were great, yet they are very few that are deadly, and that thrusts, though little and weak, when they enter but iii fingers into the body, are wont to kill. Therefore I lay down this for a firm and certain rule, that the thrust does many times more readily strike, and give the greater blow against the enemy. And to the end, a man may thrust it out with the greatest force at the most advantage, and uttermost length that may be, he must always remember to carry his left foot compassing behind him in such sort, that the hindfoot so compassing may always be in the straight line of the hand and sword, as a Diameter in the midst of a Circle. And in finishing of a blow, to draw his hindfoot a half pace forwards, and so by that means the blow is longer and stronger, and shoulder and side are only opposite to the enemy, and so far from him, that they may not be struck: and it is not possible for a man to frame a longer blow than this.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/37|1|lbl=21|p=2}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/38|1|lbl=22|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/37|1|lbl=21|p=2}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/38|1|lbl=22|p=1}}
Line 583: Line 593:
 
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/42|2|lbl=30}}
 
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/42|2|lbl=30}}
 
|}
 
|}
| <p>'''WHEN IT IS BETTER TO STRIKE WITH THE EDGE'''</p>
+
| <p>'''When it is better to strike with the edge'''</p>
  
 
<p>For no other cause, the edge is preferred before the point, then for the time: the shortness whereof, is so to be esteemed above all other things in this Art, that (omitting the point and edge) it ought to be given for the best and chief counsel, that the same to be the better blow, in which a man spends least time. And therefore when this happens and may be done with the edge, then the edge is to be preferred before the point: the which as occasion serves shall be further declared.</p>
 
<p>For no other cause, the edge is preferred before the point, then for the time: the shortness whereof, is so to be esteemed above all other things in this Art, that (omitting the point and edge) it ought to be given for the best and chief counsel, that the same to be the better blow, in which a man spends least time. And therefore when this happens and may be done with the edge, then the edge is to be preferred before the point: the which as occasion serves shall be further declared.</p>
Line 609: Line 619:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Di Grassi 13.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Di Grassi 13.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>'''THE MEANS TO DEFEND'''</p>
+
| <p>'''The means to defend'''</p>
  
 
<p>The means of defending a blow given either with the edge or point of the sword, are three. One is when the weapon is opposed to the blow, in such sort that the weapon which comes striking either at the head or at the body, cannot hit home to the place whereunto it is directed, but hindered by some thing or other then set against it, be it sword, dagger, target, bill, javelin, or any thing else, which at that instant a man has in his hand. For it chances not always to wear or carry weapons of purpose, or ordained to that extent. framed to that end: for which cause, it may well be said, that the soldier differs from other men, not because he is more skillful in handling the sword or javelin, but for that he is expert in every occasion to know the best advantage and with judgment both to defend himself with any thing whatsoever, and therewithal safely to offend the enemy: In which and no other thing consists true skirmishing.</p>
 
<p>The means of defending a blow given either with the edge or point of the sword, are three. One is when the weapon is opposed to the blow, in such sort that the weapon which comes striking either at the head or at the body, cannot hit home to the place whereunto it is directed, but hindered by some thing or other then set against it, be it sword, dagger, target, bill, javelin, or any thing else, which at that instant a man has in his hand. For it chances not always to wear or carry weapons of purpose, or ordained to that extent. framed to that end: for which cause, it may well be said, that the soldier differs from other men, not because he is more skillful in handling the sword or javelin, but for that he is expert in every occasion to know the best advantage and with judgment both to defend himself with any thing whatsoever, and therewithal safely to offend the enemy: In which and no other thing consists true skirmishing.</p>
Line 620: Line 630:
 
| <p>He that persuades himself that he can learn this Art by the exercise of a few particular strokes of the point and edge is utterly deceived: for besides, that by those particular tricks, there is small knowledge gotten: So the chances in this Art are so dangerous and diverse, that it is impossible to deliberate suddenly, except he have the universal knowledge and understanding of all the rules and principals hereof, being grounded upon offending and defending, and not only upon the sword, the dagger, the target, the javelin and the bill. For a man at all times (when he is occasioned to strike or defend) does not carry these weapons about him, but is constrained to defend himself with a piece of wood from a javelin, with a stool or form from a sword, or with a cloak from a dagger, in which case men commonly use many other things not ordained for that purpose, doing that therewith which natural instinct teaches them. And this instinct is no other thing then the knowledge of the rules before laid down: which knowledge, being it is naturally grafted in the mind, is something the rather helped and qualified by Art, and makes a man so assured and bold, that he dares to enter on any great danger, and judges (when he sees the quality of the weapon, and the site wherein it is placed) what it may do, or in how many ways it may either strike or defend. From which his judgment springs the knowledge of all that he has to do, and how he has to handle himself to encounter any danger.</p>
 
| <p>He that persuades himself that he can learn this Art by the exercise of a few particular strokes of the point and edge is utterly deceived: for besides, that by those particular tricks, there is small knowledge gotten: So the chances in this Art are so dangerous and diverse, that it is impossible to deliberate suddenly, except he have the universal knowledge and understanding of all the rules and principals hereof, being grounded upon offending and defending, and not only upon the sword, the dagger, the target, the javelin and the bill. For a man at all times (when he is occasioned to strike or defend) does not carry these weapons about him, but is constrained to defend himself with a piece of wood from a javelin, with a stool or form from a sword, or with a cloak from a dagger, in which case men commonly use many other things not ordained for that purpose, doing that therewith which natural instinct teaches them. And this instinct is no other thing then the knowledge of the rules before laid down: which knowledge, being it is naturally grafted in the mind, is something the rather helped and qualified by Art, and makes a man so assured and bold, that he dares to enter on any great danger, and judges (when he sees the quality of the weapon, and the site wherein it is placed) what it may do, or in how many ways it may either strike or defend. From which his judgment springs the knowledge of all that he has to do, and how he has to handle himself to encounter any danger.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/41|2|lbl=25|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/42|1|lbl=26|p=1}}
+
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/41|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/42|1|lbl=26|p=1}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/43|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/44|1|lbl=32|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/43|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/44|1|lbl=32|p=1}}
Line 652: Line 662:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>There is another way, to wit, when one perceives the enemy's sword in the delivery of an edge blow, to fetch a great compass, he may strike him before the fall of his sword with a thrust : or else when the enemy thrusts, (but yet spends many times in the doing thereof) he may likewise strike him in as short time as may be. The which manner of defending is most profitable, and perchance the better of the two. For there is no man that will run himself headlong upon the weapon, or that, perceiving himself ready to be struck, will not suddenly draw back and withhold that blow which he had already prepared to discharge. And although there be some, who being struck run rashly on, yet generally, men will not so do, albeit they be struck when they are most choleric, but will, when they are struck or wounded, give back and be dismayed and by reason of the blood which goes from them, always more and more be weakened.</p>
+
| <p>There is another way, to wit, when one perceives the enemy's sword in the delivery of an edge blow, to fetch a great compass, he may strike him before the fall of his sword with a thrust: or else when the enemy thrusts, (but yet spends many times in the doing thereof) he may likewise strike him in as short time as may be. The which manner of defending is most profitable, and perchance the better of the two. For there is no man that will run himself headlong upon the weapon, or that, perceiving himself ready to be struck, will not suddenly draw back and withhold that blow which he had already prepared to discharge. And although there be some, who being struck run rashly on, yet generally, men will not so do, albeit they be struck when they are most choleric, but will, when they are struck or wounded, give back and be dismayed and by reason of the blood which goes from them, always more and more be weakened.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/43|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/43|2|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
Line 659: Line 669:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>But when they be so wounded, it shall be for their profit to be well advised, and not to discomfort themselves for the greatness of the blow, but to bear it patiently : for that which they do in disdain and fury shall turn them to much displeasure.</p>
+
| <p>But when they be so wounded, it shall be for their profit to be well advised, and not to discomfort themselves for the greatness of the blow, but to bear it patiently: for that which they do in disdain and fury shall turn them to much displeasure.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/43|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/43|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/46|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/46|2|lbl=-}}
Line 671: Line 681:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>'''THE METHOD WHICH SHALL BE USED IN HANDLING THE CHAPTERS FOLLOWING.'''</p>
+
| <p>'''The method which shall be used in handling the chapters following'''</p>
  
<p>Forasmuch as I ought in the Chapters following to teach more particularly all the blows and defenses in every ward, (to the end that no man do marvel why I do not perform the same, and do think that the instruction is therefore imperfect) I think good (because my purpose is now to entreat of that only which pertains to true Art, to the which the blow of the point, or thrusts, are most agreeable, being more ready and strong than any other) to handle them principally, and yet not so, but that I will also talk of edgeblows when in my treatise I come to that place where it shall be most commodious to strike therewith, placing them near to their wards and defenses, although against all edgeblows this is the best defense, to strike by the right line before the fall of the enemy's sword, for, being delivered in shorter time, it withstands their fall and lighting. The order I say, which I will observe, shalbe, to lay down every ward, their blows and defenses, but principally of the point, then of the edge, if need require.</p>
+
<p>Forasmuch as I ought in the Chapters following to teach more particularly all the blows and defenses in every ward, (to the end that no man do marvel why I do not perform the same, and do think that the instruction is therefore imperfect) I think good (because my purpose is now to entreat of that only which pertains to true Art, to the which the blow of the point, or thrusts, are most agreeable, being more ready and strong than any other) to handle them principally, and yet not so, but that I will also talk of edge-blows when in my treatise I come to that place where it shall be most commodious to strike therewith, placing them near to their wards and defenses, although against all edge-blows this is the best defense, to strike by the right line before the fall of the enemy's sword, for, being delivered in shorter time, it withstands their fall and lighting. The order I say, which I will observe, shall be, to lay down every ward, their blows and defenses, but principally of the point, then of the edge, if need require.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/44|1|lbl=28|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/45|1|lbl=29|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/44|1|lbl=28|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/45|1|lbl=29|p=1}}
Line 681: Line 691:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>'''THE HURT OF THE HIGH WARD AT SINGLE RAPIER'''</p>
+
| <p>'''The hurt of the high ward at single rapier'''</p>
  
 
<p>The truest, and surest blow that may be given when a man lies at the high ward, is, the thrust above hand, as well for that it is in the straight line, as also, because it naturally stays itself in the low ward: So that from the beginning to the ending of this blow, there is never any time given to the enemy to enter, by reason, that the point stands always directly against him. But in the discharging of this blow, a man must remember to draw his left foot near his right foot, and then to increase forwards with the right foot, and to deliver it as forcibly as he may, staying himself in the low ward.</p>
 
<p>The truest, and surest blow that may be given when a man lies at the high ward, is, the thrust above hand, as well for that it is in the straight line, as also, because it naturally stays itself in the low ward: So that from the beginning to the ending of this blow, there is never any time given to the enemy to enter, by reason, that the point stands always directly against him. But in the discharging of this blow, a man must remember to draw his left foot near his right foot, and then to increase forwards with the right foot, and to deliver it as forcibly as he may, staying himself in the low ward.</p>
Line 689: Line 699:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>True it is, that he may also deliver a right and reversed edgeblow at the head: or else, strike downwards from the wrist of the hand: but because he is not able to turn his wrist in so small a compass, in the discharge of an edgeblow, either high or low, but that the point of the sword will be out of the straight line, by the length of a sword, in the which (before it return) the enemy has sufficient time to strike: Therefore I would not counsel any man to use them either alone, or both together. But yet between two thrusts, they may be used together, by continuing the one after the other (though they be voided) until the last thrust, the which does safely rest in the low ward. The use of them is on this manner.</p>
+
| <p>True it is, that he may also deliver a right and reversed edge-blow at the head: or else, strike downwards from the wrist of the hand: but because he is not able to turn his wrist in so small a compass, in the discharge of an edge-blow, either high or low, but that the point of the sword will be out of the straight line, by the length of a sword, in the which (before it return) the enemy has sufficient time to strike: Therefore I would not counsel any man to use them either alone, or both together. But yet between two thrusts, they may be used together, by continuing the one after the other (though they be voided) until the last thrust, the which does safely rest in the low ward. The use of them is on this manner.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/45|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/46|1|lbl=30|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/45|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/46|1|lbl=30|p=1}}
Line 697: Line 707:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>When one having discharged a thrust from the high ward, perceives that it does not hurt, because it was voided by the enemy's sword, he must turn a right edgeblow from the wrist athwart the enemy's head, fetching a compass with his foot behind him toward the right side, to the end the blow may be the longer, which is the longest of all others. But if the enemy void this in like case (which is very difficult) then he must suddenly turn the reverse from his elbow increasing therewithall a slope pace with the hindfoot. And it is to be noted, that in delivering a reverse, the slope pace is in a manner always to be used, to the end he may go forth of the straight line, in the which (if he should deliver it) he may easily be struck. Having used this pace and reverse, whether it hit or not, the sword in the same instant is something to be drawn or slid: which drawing is profitable in this, that in giving the reverse it does both cause the weapon to cut, and make the greater blow. Wherefore it is to be understood, that all edgeblows ought so to be delivered, that they may cut: for being directly given without any drawing, they cause but a small hurt.</p>
+
| <p>When one having discharged a thrust from the high ward, perceives that it does not hurt, because it was voided by the enemy's sword, he must turn a right edge-blow from the wrist athwart the enemy's head, fetching a compass with his foot behind him toward the right side, to the end the blow may be the longer, which is the longest of all others. But if the enemy void this in like case (which is very difficult) then he must suddenly turn the reverse from his elbow increasing therewithal a slope pace with the hindfoot. And it is to be noted, that in delivering a reverse, the slope pace is in a manner always to be used, to the end he may go forth of the straight line, in the which (if he should deliver it) he may easily be struck. Having used this pace and reverse, whether it hit or not, the sword in the same instant is something to be drawn or slid: which drawing is profitable in this, that in giving the reverse it does both cause the weapon to cut, and make the greater blow. Wherefore it is to be understood, that all edge-blows ought so to be delivered, that they may cut: for being directly given without any drawing, they cause but a small hurt.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/46|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/46|2|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
Line 711: Line 721:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>'''THE DEFENSE OF THE THRUST OF THE HIGH WARD AT SINGLE RAPIER'''</p>
+
| <p>'''The defense of the thrust of the high ward at single rapier'''</p>
  
<p>All the fury in striking before spoken of, is utterly frustrated, when, as here it may be withstands and encounters the first thrust. For the defense whereof it is needful that he stand at the low ward, and as the thrust comes, that he encounter it without, with the edge of the sword, and increase a slope pace forward, with the hindfoot at the very same time, by which pace he moves out of the straight line, and passes on the right side of the enemy. And he must remember to bear always the point of the sword toward the enemy: So that the enemy in coming forwards, either runs himself on the sword, which may easily happen, and so much the rather, when he comes resolutely determined to strike, or else if he come not so far forwards that he encounters the sword, yet may be safely struck, with the increase of a straight pace: to which pace, having suddenly joined a slope pace, a man must return and increase again though the enemy were struck at the first increase of that pace: For if at the first stroke and increase, the enemy were not hit in the eye, it shall be of small purpose. Therefore as soon as he has used the crooked or slope pace, he must presently increase an other straight pace, the which does so much gather upon the enemy, that if he would strike him in the breast, he may thrust his sword up to the hilts.</p>
+
<p>All the fury in striking before spoken of, is utterly frustrated, when, as here it may be withstands and encounters the first thrust. For the defense whereof it is needful that he stand at the low ward, and as the thrust comes, that he encounter it without, with the edge of the sword, and increase a slope pace forward, with the hindfoot at the very same time, by which pace he moves out of the straight line, and passes on the right side of the enemy. And he must remember to bear always the point of the sword toward the enemy: So that the enemy in coming forwards, either runs himself on the sword, which may easily happen, and so much the rather, when he comes resolutely determined to strike, or else if he come not so far forwards that he encounters the sword, yet may be safely struck, with the increase of a straight pace: to which pace, having suddenly joined a slope pace, a man must return and increase again though the enemy were struck at the first increase of that pace: For if at the first stroke and increase, the enemy were not hit in the eye, it shall be of small purpose. Therefore as soon as he has used the crooked or slope pace, he must presently increase another straight pace, the which does so much gather upon the enemy, that if he would strike him in the breast, he may thrust his sword up to the hilts.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/47|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/47|2|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
Line 720: Line 730:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>Now for the lofty edgeblows, both right and reversed, the rules aforesaid may suffice: To wit, the edgeblow fetches a compass. The blow of the point or thrust is the shortest, and in this blow, he that is nearest hits the soonest: So then he must thrust under any of these edgeblows. And farther, for asmuch as it is naturally given to every man to defend himself, he may encounter the right edgeblow after an other way, and that is, to encounter it with the edge of his sword, and presently, to drive therewithall a thrust at the enemy's face, and to compass his hindfoot, towards the right side behind, to the end, that the thrust may be lengthened and his body thereby covered, considering he shall then stand right behind his sword.</p>
+
| <p>Now for the lofty edge-blows, both right and reversed, the rules aforesaid may suffice: To wit, the edge-blow fetches a compass. The blow of the point or thrust is the shortest, and in this blow, he that is nearest hits the soonest: So then he must thrust under any of these edge-blows. And farther, for as much as it is naturally given to every man to defend himself, he may encounter the right edge-blow after another way, and that is, to encounter it with the edge of his sword, and presently, to drive therewithal a thrust at the enemy's face, and to compass his hindfoot, towards the right side behind, to the end, that the thrust may be lengthened and his body thereby covered, considering he shall then stand right behind his sword.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/47|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/48|1|lbl=32|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/47|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/48|1|lbl=32|p=1}}
Line 734: Line 744:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>This manner of thrust is called the reversed thrust. But if one would ward a reverse, he must oppose the edge of sword without, and therewithall increase a slope pace, and then deliver a thrust with the increase of a straight or right pace. And this may suffice for all that may be used against a lofty, reversed, edgeblow, as far forth as a man endeavors to oppose himself against the weapon. And this is the very same also with which may be used for the warding of the thrust.</p>
+
| <p>This manner of thrust is called the reversed thrust. But if one would ward a reverse, he must oppose the edge of sword without, and therewithal increase a slope pace, and then deliver a thrust with the increase of a straight or right pace. And this may suffice for all that may be used against a lofty, reversed, edge-blow, as far forth as a man endeavors to oppose himself against the weapon. And this is the very same also with which may be used for the warding of the thrust.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/48|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/48|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/52|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/52|2|lbl=-}}
Line 740: Line 750:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>'''THE HURT OF THE BROAD WARD AT SINGLE RAPIER'''</p>
+
| <p>'''The hurt of the broad ward at single rapier'''</p>
  
 
<p>The most sure, most true principal blow that may be used in this ward is the thrust underhand, so that a man draw his left foot near his right foot, and then discharge it with the _ of the said foot, and settle himself in the low ward.</p>
 
<p>The most sure, most true principal blow that may be used in this ward is the thrust underhand, so that a man draw his left foot near his right foot, and then discharge it with the _ of the said foot, and settle himself in the low ward.</p>
Line 748: Line 758:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>He may also in this ward with the said increase of the right foot, deliver a right edgeblow from the wrist of the hand, and stay himself in the low ward. And perchance he may (although with great danger) bestow also a reverse: yet considering he shall do it out of the straight line, in the which only he strikes safely, I do not think it good, that he use either the said reverse, either the said right blow except it be very seldom, and for the same cause, assuring himself in the blow of the point, or thrust, the which he shall not give, except it be very commodious, or that he be forced of necessity, considering this thrust does not only easily and commodiously defend, but also, at one instant, safely strike, and offend, as shall be showed in the defense of this ward. That therefore which he may safely do, in this ward, is to expect and watch for his enemy's coming.</p>
+
| <p>He may also in this ward with the said increase of the right foot, deliver a right edge-blow from the wrist of the hand, and stay himself in the low ward. And perchance he may (although with great danger) bestow also a reverse: yet considering he shall do it out of the straight line, in the which only he strikes safely, I do not think it good, that he use either the said reverse, either the said right blow except it be very seldom, and for the same cause, assuring himself in the blow of the point, or thrust, the which he shall not give, except it be very commodious, or that he be forced of necessity, considering this thrust does not only easily and commodiously defend, but also, at one instant, safely strike, and offend, as shall be showed in the defense of this ward. That therefore which he may safely do, in this ward, is to expect and watch for his enemy's coming.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/48|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/49|1|lbl=33|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/48|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/49|1|lbl=33|p=1}}
Line 756: Line 766:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>'''THE DEFENSE OF THE BROAD WARD AT SINGLE RAPIER'''</p>
+
| <p>'''The defense of the broad ward at single rapier'''</p>
  
<p>If a man would defend himself from the blows of the aforesaid broad ward, it is good that he stand against his enemy in the low ward: for the whilst he is so opposite in the same ward, the enemy may neither easily enter, neither commodiously defend himself. So that he which is in the low ward may very easily withstand the downright blow, and the reverse by giving a thrust, for that he shall hit him first, And if he would only oppose his sword, and not strike also therewithall, he must encounter his enemy's sword with the edge of his own, and turning the same edge fetch a reverse, striking at the face of the enemy. And as he so turns his hand and edge of his sword, it shall be good that he carry his forefoot a half crooked or slope pace towards his right side, staying himself in the broad ward. For defense of the reverse, it is to be marked, when the enemy lifts up the end of the Rapier out of the straight line, because then of force he fetches a compass: And whilst he so does, a man must make a straight pace forwards, and with his left hand take holdfast of the sword hand of his enemy, and incontinently wound him with a thrust underneath already prepared.</p>
+
<p>If a man would defend himself from the blows of the aforesaid broad ward, it is good that he stand against his enemy in the low ward: for the whilst he is so opposite in the same ward, the enemy may neither easily enter, neither commodiously defend himself. So that he which is in the low ward may very easily withstand the downright blow, and the reverse by giving a thrust, for that he shall hit him first, And if he would only oppose his sword, and not strike also therewithal, he must encounter his enemy's sword with the edge of his own, and turning the same edge fetch a reverse, striking at the face of the enemy. And as he so turns his hand and edge of his sword, it shall be good that he carry his forefoot a half crooked or slope pace towards his right side, staying himself in the broad ward. For defense of the reverse, it is to be marked, when the enemy lifts up the end of the Rapier out of the straight line, because then of force he fetches a compass: And whilst he so does, a man must make a straight pace forwards, and with his left hand take holdfast of the sword hand of his enemy, and incontinently wound him with a thrust underneath already prepared.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/49|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/50|1|lbl=34|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/49|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/50|1|lbl=34|p=1}}
Line 765: Line 775:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>Now, the very same defense is to be used against the thrust underneath, which is against the right edgeblow. Neither is there any other difference between these two defenses, but that whilst the right blow fetches his compass, a man may give a thrust and hit him first: For the thrust underneath, must only of necessity be warded, because, coming in the straight line, it ministers no advantage or time to hit home first.</p>
+
| <p>Now, the very same defense is to be used against the thrust underneath, which is against the right edge-blow. Neither is there any other difference between these two defenses, but that whilst the right blow fetches his compass, a man may give a thrust and hit him first: For the thrust underneath, must only of necessity be warded, because, coming in the straight line, it ministers no advantage or time to hit home first.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/50|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/50|2|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
Line 772: Line 782:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>'''THE HURT OF THE LOW WARD AT SINGLE RAPIER'''</p>
+
| <p>'''The hurt of the low ward at single rapier'''</p>
  
 
<p>A Man may in like manner in this ward, as in others, deliver a thrust, a right blow, and a reverse: but the true and principal effect of this ward, is to expect the enemy, as well for that a man bears himself without wariness, as also, because it is apt and ready to defend all blows either high or low: For being in the middle, it is easily somewhat lifted up, as something borne down: So that when one stands in this ward, he may not (as for his advantage) be the first that shall give either the downright blow, or the reverse: for both the one and the other (departing out of the straight line) are deadly, because they give time to the enemy to enter nimbly with a thrust. The thrust therefore, may be only used when one means to strike first, and it is practiced either within, or without, always regarding in either of the ways, so to bear and place his arm, that he have no need (before he thrust) to draw back the same. The enemy ward it, by the traverse or cross motion of his Rapier, as many use to do, then he ought to increase a straight pace and lift up his sword hand, holding the point thereof downwards betwixt the enemy's arm and his body and with the increase of a straight pace to deliver a thrust. And this manner of thrust does easily speed, because it increases continually in the straight line in such sort that the enemy can do no other then give back, and especially when it is done without, for then the sword is safe from the traverse motion of the other sword.</p>
 
<p>A Man may in like manner in this ward, as in others, deliver a thrust, a right blow, and a reverse: but the true and principal effect of this ward, is to expect the enemy, as well for that a man bears himself without wariness, as also, because it is apt and ready to defend all blows either high or low: For being in the middle, it is easily somewhat lifted up, as something borne down: So that when one stands in this ward, he may not (as for his advantage) be the first that shall give either the downright blow, or the reverse: for both the one and the other (departing out of the straight line) are deadly, because they give time to the enemy to enter nimbly with a thrust. The thrust therefore, may be only used when one means to strike first, and it is practiced either within, or without, always regarding in either of the ways, so to bear and place his arm, that he have no need (before he thrust) to draw back the same. The enemy ward it, by the traverse or cross motion of his Rapier, as many use to do, then he ought to increase a straight pace and lift up his sword hand, holding the point thereof downwards betwixt the enemy's arm and his body and with the increase of a straight pace to deliver a thrust. And this manner of thrust does easily speed, because it increases continually in the straight line in such sort that the enemy can do no other then give back, and especially when it is done without, for then the sword is safe from the traverse motion of the other sword.</p>
Line 782: Line 792:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>'''THE DEFENSE OF THE LOW WARD AT SINGLE RAPIER'''</p>
+
| <p>'''The defense of the low ward at single rapier'''</p>
  
<p>Because both the downright blow, and the reverse are very easily defended in this ward, I will not stand to speak of any other then of the thrust, restraining myself thereunto. The which thrust, if at the first it be not withstood, may prove very mortal and deadly. Therefore, when this thrust is given within, it must be beaten inwards with the edge of the Rapier, requiring the turn of the hand also inwards, and the compass of the hindfoot, so far towards the right side, as the hand goes towards the right side. And the enemy shall no sooner have delivered the thrust, and he found the sword, but he ought to turn his hand, and with a reverse to cut the enemy's face, carrying always his forefoot on that side where his hand goes. If the enemy's thrust come outwards, then it is necessary, that with the turn of his hand he beat it outwards with the edge of his sword increasing in the same instant one slope pace, by means whereof he delivers his body from hurt. And therewithall (increasing another straight pace, and delivering his thrust already prepared) he does most safely hurt the enemy.</p>
+
<p>Because both the downright blow, and the reverse are very easily defended in this ward, I will not stand to speak of any other then of the thrust, restraining myself thereunto. The which thrust, if at the first it be not withstood, may prove very mortal and deadly. Therefore, when this thrust is given within, it must be beaten inwards with the edge of the Rapier, requiring the turn of the hand also inwards, and the compass of the hindfoot, so far towards the right side, as the hand goes towards the right side. And the enemy shall no sooner have delivered the thrust, and he found the sword, but he ought to turn his hand, and with a reverse to cut the enemy's face, carrying always his forefoot on that side where his hand goes. If the enemy's thrust come outwards, then it is necessary, that with the turn of his hand he beat it outwards with the edge of his sword increasing in the same instant one slope pace, by means whereof he delivers his body from hurt. And therewithal (increasing another straight pace, and delivering his thrust already prepared) he does most safely hurt the enemy.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/51|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/51|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/55|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/55|2|lbl=-}}
Line 795: Line 805:
  
 
|}
 
|}
{{master end}}
+
{{master subsection end}}
  
== Temp ==
+
{{master subsection begin
{{master begin
 
 
  | title = Rapier and Dagger
 
  | title = Rapier and Dagger
 
  | width = 120em
 
  | width = 120em
Line 804: Line 813:
 
{| class="master"
 
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Images<br/>from the 1570</p>
+
! <p>Figures<br/>from the 1570</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Kelly Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Kelly Hatcher]]</p>
Line 811: Line 820:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''THE RAPIER AND DAGGER'''
+
| <p>'''The rapier and dagger'''</p>
Having as briefly as I might possibly finished all that which might be said, of true knowledge of single Rapier: it seems convenient, that coming from the simple to the compound, I handle these weapons first, which from the Rapier forwards are either most simple or least compound: And especially those which now adays are most used, and in the which men are most exercised, the which weapons are the Rapier and Dagger accompanied together, and are a great increase and furtherance both in striking and defending.
 
| '''DELLA SPADA ET PUGNALE'''
 
''Essendo con quanta breuita è stata poßibile uenuto al fine di quello che per la uera scienza della spada si può trattare, pare cosa conueneuole, uenendo dal semplice al composito, trattar di quelle armi prima ceh dalla spada sola in fuori sono o piu semplici o meno composite, & di quelle principalmente che piu hoggi di s’ufsano, & nelle quali piu gli huomini si esercitano, le quali sono la spada accompagnata dal pugnale, che è accrescimento si in offesa a come in difesa.''
 
| '''''The Rapier and Dagger.'''''
 
'''H'''aving as briefely as I might possibly finished all that which might be saide, of true knowledge of Single Rapier: it seemeth convenient, that comming from the simple to the compound, I handle those weapons first, which from the Rapier forwards are either most simple or least compound: And especially those which noweadayes are most used, and in the which men are most exercised, the which weapons are the Rapier & Dagger accompanied together, and are a great encrease and furtherance both in striking and defending.
 
  
|-
+
<p>Having as briefly as I might possibly finished all that which might be said, of true knowledge of single Rapier: it seems convenient, that coming from the simple to the compound, I handle these weapons first, which from the Rapier forwards are either most simple or least compound: And especially those which nowadays are most used, and in the which men are most exercised, the which weapons are the Rapier and Dagger accompanied together, and are a great increase and furtherance both in striking and defending.</p>
|
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/52|1|lbl=36}}
| Wherefore, it is to be first considered, that which these and the like weapons, a man may practice that most desired and renowned manner of skirmishing, which is said to strike and defend both in one time, which is thought to be impossible to be done with the single Rapier, and yet in truth is not so: For there are some kind of blows in the defense of which one may also strike (as in the blows of the edge, down right and reversed) both high and low, and other high blows which here are not spoken of.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/56|1|lbl=44}}
| ''Onde è da auertire che si pue in quests & simili arme esercitar quel tanto desiderato & apprezzato modo di schermire, che si dice pararare & ferir in uno istesso tempo, il che si ha per impoßibile nella sola spada, anchor che cosi non sia. Perche sono alcuni colpi nella difesa de quali s’offende come sono i tagli dritti & riuersi alti & baßi, & de gli alti che hora si tacciono, in queste arme dunque per potere una agiutar l’altra, su puo con gran comodità difendere, & ferire.''
 
| Wherefore, it is first to be considered, that with these and the like weapons, a man may practise that most desired and renowmed manner of skirmishing, which is saide to strike and defend both in one time, which is thought to be impossible to be done with the single Rapier, and yet in truth it is not so: For there are some kinde of blow in the defence of which one may also strike (as in the blowes of the edge, downe right and reversed) both high and lowe, and other high blowes which here are not spoken of.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Wherefore seeing with these weapons a man may very commodiously, both strike and defend, for that the one is a great help to the other, it is to be remembered, that because these weapons are two, and the one of lesser quantity than the other, to each one be allotted that part both of defending and striking, which it is best able to support. So that to the Dagger, by reason of his shortness, is assigned the left side to defend down to the knee: and to the sword all the right side, and the right and left side jointly downwards from the knee. Neither may it seem strange that the only Dagger ought to defend all blows of the left side : for it does most easily sustain every edgeblow, when it encounters the sword in the first and second part thereof.
+
| <p>Wherefore, it is to be first considered, that which these and the like weapons, a man may practice that most desired and renowned manner of skirmishing, which is said to strike and defend both in one time, which is thought to be impossible to be done with the single Rapier, and yet in truth is not so: For there are some kind of blows in the defense of which one may also strike (as in the blows of the edge, down right and reversed) both high and low, and other high blows which here are not spoken of.</p>
| ''Onde si deue auertir, che essendo queste arme due & di minor quantità l’una d l’altra, che a ciascuna si deue dar quella parte di difesa & offesa che puo sopportare, però al pugnale, per esser corto, si deue dar tutta la parte sinistra da diffendere sino al ginocchio. Et alla spada tutta la parte destra & la destra & sinistra insieme dal ginocchio in gia, ne deue parer strano che il pugual solo debba difender tutti colpi dalla parte sinistra; percioche facilißimamente il pugnale sostiene ogni gran colpo di taglio quando si uuol andar ad incontrar la spada nella prima & seconda parte,''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/52|2|lbl=-}}
| Wherefore seing with these weapons a man may verie commodiously, both strike and defend, for that the one is a great helpe to the other, it is to bee remembred, that because these weapons are two, and the one of lesser quantitie then the other, to each one bee allotted that part both of defendinge and strikinge, which it is best hable to support. So that to the Dagger, by reason of his shortnes, is assigned the left side to defend downe to the knee: and to the sword all the right side, & and the right and left side joyntly downwardes from the knee. Neither may it seeme strange that the onely Dagger ought to defend all the blowes of the left side: for it doth most easily sustaine everie edgeblowe, when it encountreth the sworde in the first and second parte thereof.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/56|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| But yet let no man assure himself, to bear any blow, with his only Dagger when he meets with the sword on the third and fourth part thereof, because that part carries more force with it then may be sustained with the only Dagger. And yet for all that, no man ought to accustom himself to defend blows with the Rapier and Dagger both together, which manner of defending is now commonly used because men believe, that they stand more assuredly by that means, although in truth it is not so. For the Rapier and Dagger are so bound thereby, that they may not strike before they be recovered, and therein spend two times, under the which a man may be struck when he strikes continuing by the straight line, increasing forwards, perceiving his enemy to be occupied and troubled in defending of himself. And albeit this is not seen to come to passe many times, yet that is because the advantage is not known, or being known, men either ready to execute it, either stand greatly in fear to do it.
+
| <p>Wherefore seeing with these weapons a man may very commodiously, both strike and defend, for that the one is a great help to the other, it is to be remembered, that because these weapons are two, and the one of lesser quantity than the other, to each one be allotted that part both of defending and striking, which it is best able to support. So that to the Dagger, by reason of his shortness, is assigned the left side to defend down to the knee: and to the sword all the right side, and the right and left side jointly downwards from the knee. Neither may it seem strange that the only Dagger ought to defend all blows of the left side: for it does most easily sustain every edge-blow, when it encounters the sword in the first and second part thereof.</p>
| ''ma non si deue già alcuno aßicurar di sostenire con il solo pugnale in contrando la spada nella terza & quarta parte, essendo quelle di troppo gran forza & da non esser sostenuta dal solo pugnale. Ne percio sideue alcuno asseufare di riparare i colpi con la spada & pugnale insieme, il qual modo di difender e hoggi da tutti usato credendo per tal modo di meglio aßicurarsi ancor che cosi non sia, percioche si mette la spada & pugnale in ser uitu talmente che non si puo offendere se prima non si riscuotono l’armi, onde qui si consumano doi tempi, sotto i quali si sarebbe ferito quando quello che ferisce cintinuando per la linea retta non abbandoasse il cresere uedendo l’inimico impazzato a difendersi, & se cio non si è ueduto molte uolte in fatto è perche non si consote questo auantaggio, o conoscendolo non sono presti ad esequir, o temono lasciando.''
+
|
| But yet let no man assure himselfe, to beare any blowe, with his only Dagger when he meeteth with the sword of the thirde and fourth parte thereof, because that parte carrieth more force with it then may be sustained with the onely Dagger. And yet for all that, no man ought to accustome himselfe to defende blowes with the Rapier and Dagger both together, which manner of defending is now commonly used because men beleeve, that they stand more assuredly by that meanes, although in trueth it is not so. For the Rapier and Dagger are so bound thereby, that they may not strike before they be recovered, and therein are spent two tymes, under the which a man may be strooken when he that striketh continuing by the straight lyne, encreaseth forwards, perceiving his enimie to be occupied and troubled in defending of himselfe. And albeit this is not seene to come to pass many times, yet that is because the advantage is not knowen, or being known, men either are not readie to execute it, either stand greatly in feare to do it.
+
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/52|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/53|1|lbl=37|p=1}}
 +
|
 +
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/56|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/57|1|lbl=45|p=1}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| <p>But yet let no man assure himself, to bear any blow, with his only Dagger when he meets with the sword on the third and fourth part thereof, because that part carries more force with it then may be sustained with the only Dagger. And yet for all that, no man ought to accustom himself to defend blows with the Rapier and Dagger both together, which manner of defending is now commonly used because men believe, that they stand more assuredly by that means, although in truth it is not so. For the Rapier and Dagger are so bound thereby, that they may not strike before they be recovered, and therein spend two times, under the which a man may be struck when he strikes continuing by the straight line, increasing forwards, perceiving his enemy to be occupied and troubled in defending of himself. And albeit this is not seen to come to pass many times, yet that is because the advantage is not known, or being known, men either ready to execute it, either stand greatly in fear to do it.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/53|2|lbl=-}}
 +
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/57|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| Therefore leaving aside this manner of defense, let each man use to oppose, one only weapon against the enemy's sword, keeping the other free, that he may be able to strike at his pleasure.
 
| Therefore leaving aside this manner of defense, let each man use to oppose, one only weapon against the enemy's sword, keeping the other free, that he may be able to strike at his pleasure.
| ''Dunque quel modo di riparare si userà di oppore una sola arma alla spada inimica tenendo l’altra libera da poter a suo piacer offendere.''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/53|3|lbl=-}}
| Therefore leaving aside this maner of defence, let each man use to oppose, one only weapon against the enimies sworde, keeping the other free, that he may be able to strike at his pleasure.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/57|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| And it is diligently to be noted, that not only the blows of the sword, but also of any other weapon be it never so great, may with the only Dagger be sustained and defended, when a man does boldly encounter it towards the hand.
+
| <p>And it is diligently to be noted, that not only the blows of the sword, but also of any other weapon be it never so great, may with the only Dagger be sustained and defended, when a man does boldly encounter it towards the hand.</p>
| ''Et molto è da aueetire che con il solo pugnale non solo i colpi di spada ma di qualunque altra arma anchor che grandißima si possono sostenire & difendere, quando si aßicura di andarli ad incontrar uerso la mano.''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/53|4|lbl=-}}
| And it is diligently to be noted, that not onely the blowes of the sworde, but also of any other weapon be itnever so great, may with the onely Dagger be sustained and defended, when a man doth boldly encounter it towards the hand.
+
|
 +
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/57|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/58|1|lbl=46|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| It is therefore to be known, that in the handling of these two weapons one may with less danger give a blow with the edge then at single Rapier: For albeit the point of the Rapier be moved out of the straight line: yet for all that there is not free power given to the enemy's to strike, considering there is an other weapon contrariwise prepared to defend: but this does not so fall out at the single Rapier, which bearing itself far off when it strikes with the edge, does present and give the means to the enemy to hit home first. And yet for all that, I would not counsel no man, either in this or in any other sort of weapon to accustom himself to give blows with the edge: for that he may under them be most easily struck with a thrust.
+
| <p>It is therefore to be known, that in the handling of these two weapons one may with less danger give a blow with the edge then at single Rapier: For albeit the point of the Rapier be moved out of the straight line: yet for all that there is not free power given to the enemy's to strike, considering there is another weapon contrariwise prepared to defend: but this does not so fall out at the single Rapier, which bearing itself far off when it strikes with the edge, does present and give the means to the enemy to hit home first. And yet for all that, I would not counsel no man, either in this or in any other sort of weapon to accustom himself to give blows with the edge: for that he may under them be most easily struck with a thrust.</p>
| ''Deuesi anco sapere, che con minor perice lo si può in quest’arme trar colpi di taglio, che nella spada sola percioche, quantunque si muoua la punta della spada dalla linea retta, non percio resta libero potere all’inimico di ferire, essendoui un altra arma contra preparata per difendere, ilche non auiene nella sola spada, laquale alluntanandosi per ferire di taglio appresenta, & da modo all’inimico do giungere prima. Ne gia per questo darei consiglio ad alcuno, che o in questa ouero in altra sorte d’arme s’auezzasse à trar colpi di taglio; percioche si puo sott’eßi facilmente ferir di punta.''
+
|
| It is therefore to be knowen, that in the handling of these two weapons one may with lesse danger give a blowe with the edge then at the single Rapier: For albeit the poynt of the Rapier be moved out of the straight lyne: yet for all that there is not free power given to the enimie to strike, considering there is an other weapon contrariwise prepared to defend: but this doth not so fall out at the single Rapier, which bearing it selfe farre off when it striketh with the edge, doth present & give the meanes to the enimie to hit home first. And yet for all that, I would counsell no man, either in this or in any other sort of weapon to accustome himselfe to give blowes with the edge: for that he may under them be most easily strooken by a thrust.
+
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/53|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/54|1|lbl=38|p=1}}
 +
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/58|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''OF THE WARDS'''
+
| <p>'''Of the wards'''</p>
In the handling of these weapons, men use to frame many wards, all which, because many of them carry no reason, for that they are ether out of the straight line, either under them a man may be easily be struck, I will cast aside as impertinent to my purpose, and retain myself unto those three with the which a man may safely strike and defend, whereunto all the rest may be reduced.
+
 
| '''DELLA GVARDIE.'''
+
<p>In the handling of these weapons, men use to frame many wards, all which, because many of them carry no reason, for that they are ether out of the straight line, either under them a man may be easily be struck, I will cast aside as impertinent to my purpose, and retain myself unto those three with the which a man may safely strike and defend, whereunto all the rest may be reduced.</p>
''Si sogliono in quest’arme porre molte quardie; delle quali sendone molte che non banno ragione per cioche o sono fuori della linea retta, o si puo sotiesse facilmente eßer ferito lequali tutte come danose, & nõ tõuenieti pute al proposito nosiro lasciero da parte ristringedomi a quelle tre sole co le quali si puo facilmete offedere et difendersi, le altre tutte facilmente a queste tre si possono ridurre.''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/54|2|lbl=-}}
| '''''Of the Wardes.'''''
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/58|3|lbl=-}}
'''I'''N the handling of these weapons, men use to frame manie wardes, all which, because many of them carrie no reason, for that they are ether out of the streight line, either under them a man maie easelie bee stroken, I wil cast aside as impertinent to my purpose, & regrain my self unto those three with the which a man may safele strike & defend, wherunto all the rest maie be reduced.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''HOW TO DEFEND WITH THE DAGGER'''
+
| <p>'''How to defend with the dagger'''</p>
said elsewhere that the left side of the person is that part which the dagger ought to defend, that is to say, from the knee upwards: the lower parts together with the right side ought wholly to be warded with the sword.
+
 
| '''DEL MODO DI RIPARARE COL PVGNALE.'''
+
<p>I have said elsewhere that the left side of the person is that part which the dagger ought to defend, that is to say, from the knee upwards: the lower parts together with the right side ought wholly to be warded with the sword.</p>
''Altrove ho detto quella parte della persona, che deue defendere il pugnale esser la sinistra cioè; dal ginocchio in su. Ma la parte piu bassa inseme con la destra uuole tuttoa esser difesa dalla spada per piu commodità, & sicurezza.''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/54|3|lbl=-}}
| '''''How to defend with the Dagger.'''''
+
|
'''I''' Have said elswhere that the left side of the eperson is that part which the dagger ought to defend, that is to saie, from the knee upwards: the lower parts together with the right side ought wholy to bee warded with the sword.
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/58|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/59|1|lbl=47|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Considering the dagger, that which is to be done therewith, it is to be noted, that for great advantage, it would be held before with the arm stretched forth and the point respecting the enemy, which although it be far from him, yet in that it has a point, it gives him occasion to bethink himself.
+
| <p>Considering the dagger, that which is to be done therewith, it is to be noted, that for great advantage, it would be held before with the arm stretched forth and the point respecting the enemy, which although it be far from him, yet in that it has a point, it gives him occasion to bethink himself.</p>
| ''Quanto a quello che si ha da fare co’l pugnale si deue auertire, che per grandißimo auantagio, il pugnale uuele esser tenuto inanti co’l braccio desteso, & con la punta, che guardia l’inimico , la qual punta, benche sia lontana dall offesa pur per esser punta da da pensare all’inimico.''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/54|4|lbl=-}}
| Concerning the dagger, that which is to bee done therewith, it is to be noted, that for great advantage, it would be holden before with the arme streched forth & the point respecting the enemie, which although it be far from him, yet in that it hath a point, it giveth him occasion to bethink himself.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/59|2|lbl=-|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Now whether a man ought to hold his Dagger with the edge or flat towards the enemy, it may be left to judgment of him that handles it, so to use it, as shall be most for his advantage. I have seen some, who bear it with the edge towards the enemy, alleging this to be their advantage, that as they encounter the enemy's sword (which comes with the edge or point) in the first or second part thereof, and therewithall do increase a pace forwards, of force the hand turns and places the edge of the Dagger there where the flat was first: So that they are to drive the enemy's sword far from them without any great trouble, because each little motion in the first part of the sword causes very great variety in the point, from which principally proceeds the hurt. In which case, it shall be very profitable to have a good large Dagger.
+
| <p>Now whether a man ought to hold his Dagger with the edge or flat towards the enemy, it may be left to judgment of him that handles it, so to use it, as shall be most for his advantage. I have seen some, who bear it with the edge towards the enemy, alleging this to be their advantage, that as they encounter the enemy's sword (which comes with the edge or point) in the first or second part thereof, and therewithal do increase a pace forwards, of force the hand turns and places the edge of the Dagger there where the flat was first: So that they are to drive the enemy's sword far from them without any great trouble, because each little motion in the first part of the sword causes very great variety in the point, from which principally proceeds the hurt. In which case, it shall be very profitable to have a good large Dagger.</p>
| ''Se si debba poi tenire il pugnale co’l taglio, o con la faccia uerso l’inimico, cio si puo rimettere algiuditio di chi l’adopra secondo che li torna piu auantagio. He ueduto alcuni, che lo teng no co’l taglio uerso l’inimico allegando in suo auantagio, che incontrando la spada che uenga di taglio, o punta ne la prima, & seconda parte, crescendo un passo inanti di neceßità uolta la mano, & meite il taglio del pugnale, oue prima era la faccia, di modo che uine aspingere la spada inimica lontana da se senza fatica molta percioche ogni peco di moto nelle prime parti della spada causa molta uarietà nella punta di doue principalmente uienel offensa nel qual caso sarebbe molto utile un pugnale largo.''
+
|  
| Now whether a man ought to holde his Dagger with the edge or flatt towardes the enimie, it may be left to the judgement of him that handleth it, so to use it, as shalbe most for his advantage. I have seene some, who beare it with the edge towards the edimie, alledging this to be their advantage, that as the encounter the enimies sworde (which commeth with the edge or poynt) in the first and second parte therof, & therewithall do increase a pace forwards, of force the hand turneth and placeth the edge of the Dagger there where the flatt was first: So that they are to drive the enimies sword farre from them without any great trouble, because each little motion in the first parte of the sworde causeth verie great varietie in the poynt, from whence principally proceedeth the hurt. In which case, it shalbe very profitable to have a good large Dagger.
+
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/54|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/55|1|lbl=39|p=1}}
 +
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/59|3|lbl=-|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| There be other some, whom it pleases to carry their Dagger with the flat towards the enemy, using for their defense, not only the Dagger, but also the guards thereof with the which (they say) they take holdfast of the enemy's sword : and to the end they may do it the more easily, they have daggers of purpose, which beside their ordinary hilts, have also two long sterts of Iron, four fingers length, and are distant from the dagger the thickness of a bowstring, into which distance, when it chances the enemy's sword to be driven, they suddenly strain and holdfast the sword, the which may come to pass, but I hold it for a thing rather to be imagined then practiced, the case so standing, that in the heat of fight, where disdain bickers with fear, little does a man discern whether the sword be in that straight or no. And when he is to premeditate and mark, endeavoring and striving in his lively judgment, he must advise himself to perform it with exquisite knowledge and perfect discerning of the enemy's motions, his nearness and farness, and to resolve himself to strike by the shortest way that may be : for there hence springs the victory.
+
| <p>There be other some, whom it pleases to carry their Dagger with the flat towards the enemy, using for their defense, not only the Dagger, but also the guards thereof with the which (they say) they take holdfast of the enemy's sword: and to the end they may do it the more easily, they have daggers of purpose, which beside their ordinary hilts, have also two long sterts of Iron, four fingers length, and are distant from the dagger the thickness of a bowstring, into which distance, when it chances the enemy's sword to be driven, they suddenly strain and holdfast the sword, the which may come to pass, but I hold it for a thing rather to be imagined then practiced, the case so standing, that in the heat of fight, where disdain bickers with fear, little does a man discern whether the sword be in that straight or no. And when he is to premeditate and mark, endeavoring and striving in his lively judgment, he must advise himself to perform it with exquisite knowledge and perfect discerning of the enemy's motions, his nearness and farness, and to resolve himself to strike by the shortest way that may be: for there hence springs the victory.</p>
| ''Altri sono a quali piace di tenir il pugnale con la faccia uerso l’inimico, sereundosi per difesa non solo del pugnale, ma delle guardia ancora di esso pugnale con la quali dicono che si fa presa d’una spada, & per cio fare piu facilmente, hanno i loro pugnali, i quali oltra l’else ordinaire hanno anchora due alette di ferro lunghe quatro ditta dirrittte distanti dal pugnale la grossezza d’una corda d’arco, nella quale distanza quando auiene, che ss gli cacci la spada inimica, eß subito uolgendo la mano stringono la spada facendo prese di essa, la qual cosa puo essere cheriesco, ma io l’ho per piu imaginabile, che per fattibile essendo che nel feruore dell’arme, ou cõtrasta lo sdegno co’l timore poco si discernese la spada sia nell’incastro o non & quando pure si ha da discorrere, & mantenir combatendo il guidito uiuo. Bisogna igegnar si di cio fare col conoscere accuraméte, et discernere con prudeza i moti dell’inimico , la uicináza & lútanáza, et rissoluersi di ferire per la piu corta che quindi nasce la uittoria.''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/55|2|lbl=-}}
| There be other some, whome it pleaseth to carrie their Dagger with the flatt towardes the enimie, using for their defence, not onely the Dagger, but also the guardes thereof with the which (they saye) they take holdfast of the enimies sword: and to the ende they may do it the more easily, they have daggers of purpose, which beside their ordinarie hilts, have also two long sterts of Iron, foure fingers length, and are distant from the dagger the thicknes of a bow-string, into which distance, when it chaunceth the enimies sworde to be driven, they suddenly straine and holde fast the sworde, the which may come to passe, but I holde it for a thing rather to be immagined then practised, the case to standing, that in the heate of fight, where disdaine bickereth with feare, little doth a man discerne whether the sworde be in that straight or no. And when he is to premeditate and marke, endevouring and striving in his lively judgement, he must advise himselfe to perfourme it with the exquisite knowledge and perfect discerning of the enimies motions, his neerenesse and farensse, and to resolve himselfe to strike by the shortest way that may be: for therchaence springeth the victorie.
+
|
 +
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/59|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/60|1|lbl=48|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Let every man therefore hold his dagger with the edge or flat towards the enemy, as it shall most advantage him, or as he has been most accustomed. True it is, that by holding the edge towards the enemy there is this advantage to be gotten, that with the dagger he may strike with the edge, which he may not do the other way. But let every man hold it as he will, yet he ought to carry his arm stretched out before him, with the point in the manner aforesaid, to the end he may find the enemy's sword a great deal before it hits his person.
+
| <p>Let every man therefore hold his dagger with the edge or flat towards the enemy, as it shall most advantage him, or as he has been most accustomed. True it is, that by holding the edge towards the enemy there is this advantage to be gotten, that with the dagger he may strike with the edge, which he may not do the other way. But let every man hold it as he will, yet he ought to carry his arm stretched out before him, with the point in the manner aforesaid, to the end he may find the enemy's sword a great deal before it hits his person.</p>
| ''Tenira dunq ciascuno il pugnale col taglio o faccia uerso l’inimico, secódo che co’l pugnale si puo ferire di taglio il che non auiene nell’altro modo ma tengasi come si uoglia si deue tenir il braccio disteso inanit con la punta al modo detto per poter trouare la spada molto ináti che ella giúga alapersona.''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/55|3|lbl=-}}
| Let every man therefore holde his dagger with the edge or flatte towardes the enimie, as it shall most advantage him, or as he hath beene most accustomed. True it is, that by holding the edge towards the enimie there is this advantage gotten, that with the dagger he may strike with the edge, which he may not do the other waie. But let every man hold it as he wil, yet he ought to carrie his arme stretched out before him, with the poynt in manner aforesaide, to the end he may be able to finde the enimies sworde a great deale before it hitteth his person.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/60|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Besides this, he ought to observe for an infallible rule, that when the point or edge comes on the left side, he must beat it from that side with the dagger. And in like sort defending himself with the sword, to drive it from the right side, for doing otherwise : that is, if he force the blows given on the left side outwards on the right side (forasmuch as the enemy's sword has by that means two motions, the one crossing, which is already given, the other straight which the enemy gives it, continuing the one with the other) it may be, that in the straight motion, it may hit the person, before that (by the thwart or crossing motion) it be driven quite outwards. Therefore all blows shall be beaten outwards toward that side or part of the body which is least to the end it may sooner avoid danger. And those blows that come on the right side must be beaten towards the right side : and those on the left side must in like manner be voided from the same side.
+
| <p>Besides this, he ought to observe for an infallible rule, that when the point or edge comes on the left side, he must beat it from that side with the dagger. And in like sort defending himself with the sword, to drive it from the right side, for doing otherwise: that is, if he force the blows given on the left side outwards on the right side (forasmuch as the enemy's sword has by that means two motions, the one crossing, which is already given, the other straight which the enemy gives it, continuing the one with the other) it may be, that in the straight motion, it may hit the person, before that (by the thwart or crossing motion) it be driven quite outwards.</p>
| ''Si deue oltra cio hauere o ordine infallibile, che quádo uiene púta o taglio nella parte sinistra, fa dibisogno trarli foura co'l pugnale dalla parte sinistra. Et cosi difendendoli con la spada farli uscire dalla parte destra, perche altramente facendo cioè spingendo fuora di copi sinistri dalla parte destra hauendo la spada inimica oltra il motto di trauerso che gli si da per trarla fuora il retto anco ra che gli da l'inimico, continuando l'uno & laltro può essere che giunga il moto retto in qualche parte della persona prima che il moto di trauerso la spinga fuora, però si traran sempre fuora i colpi inuerso quella parte di uita che è minore, affine che piu presto esca del periglio quelli colpi che uenir anno dalla banda destra spingerli dalla destra. Et quelli che ueniranno dalla sinistra far parimente che escano dalla sinistra.''
+
|
| Besides this, he ought to observe for an infallible rule, that when the poynt or edge commeth on the left side, he must beat it from that side with the dagger. And in like sort defending himselfe with the sword, to drive it from the right side, for doint otherwise: that is, if he force the blowes given on the left side outwardes: on the right side (forasmuch as the enimies sworde hath by that meanes two motions, the one crossing, which is alreadie given, the other straight which the enimie giveth it, continuing the one with the other) it may be, that in the straight motion, it may hit the person, before that (by the thwart or crossing motion) it be driven quite outwardes. Therefore all blowes shalbe beaten outwards toward that side or parte of the bodie which is leaft to the end it may the sooner avoide daunger. And those blowes that come on the right side must be beaten towards the right side: and those on the left side must in like manner be voided from the same side.
+
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/55|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/56|1|lbl=40|p=1}}
 +
|
 +
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/60|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/61|1|lbl=49|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Now, as concerning the fashion of the Dagger, thus much is to be said : that it would be strong, able to bear and encounter the blows of the sword : (indifferently long) that it may be quickly drawn out of the sheath somewhat short : and those that are of the middle size would be chosen.
+
| <p>Therefore all blows shall be beaten outwards toward that side or part of the body which is least to the end it may sooner avoid danger. And those blows that come on the right side must be beaten towards the right side: and those on the left side must in like manner be voided from the same side.</p>
| ''Della forma de pugnali tanto si ha da dire, che uogliono essere per sostenire i colpi della spada forti, & per incontrarla facilmente longhi, & per poterli presto trar del fodro uorebbeno esser corti onde s'ellegéran no mediocri.''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/56|2|lbl=-}}
| Now, as concerning the fashion of the Dagger, thus much is to be saide: that it would be strong, able to beare and incounter the blowes of the sword: indifferently long) that it may be quickly drawen out of the sheath some what short: and those that are of the middle size would be chosen.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/61|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Di Grassi 14.jpg|400x400px|center]]
+
|  
| '''THE OFFENSE OF THE HIGH WARD AT RAPIER AND DAGGER'''
+
| <p>Now, as concerning the fashion of the Dagger, thus much is to be said: that it would be strong, able to bear and encounter the blows of the sword: (indifferently long) that it may be quickly drawn out of the sheath somewhat short: and those that are of the middle size would be chosen.</p>
As in handling the single Rapier, so likewise in this, it shall not be amiss to begin with the High ward, which in managing these two weapons may be framed after two sorts. The one with the right foot before, which I call the first : and the other with the same foot behind, which I will term the second. This second requires a greater time, because the point of the sword is farther off from the enemy. The first (being more near) with the only increase of the foot forwards, strikes more readily, yet not with more forcible than the second, which, when it strikes with an increase of a straight pace, joins to the force of the arm and hand, the strength of the whole body.
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/56|2|lbl=-}}
| '''DELLA GVARDIA ALTA DI SPADA & pugnale.'''
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/61|3|lbl=-}}
<br/>ESSENDO ''questa guardia naturalmente prima si come ho detto nella sola spada, sarà conuencuole l'incominciar da questa, la quale in quest'arme, si può formare in duo modi,l'uno con il pié dritto inanti, ilquale dimanderemo primo, l'altro con l'istesso piede indietro, ilquale s'adimanderà secondo, & questo per hauere la punta della spada piu luntana da l'inimico , uiene ad hauere bisogno di maggior tempo, ma il primo, per essere piu d uicino, con la sola cresciuta del pie dinanzi serisce piu presto, ma non già contanta forza, come il secondo, ilquale ferendo con il passo retto, aggiunge alla forza del braccio , & della mano, anco la forza di tutta la uita .''
 
| '''''The offence of the High warde at Rapier and Dagger.'''''
 
<br/>'''A'''s in handling the single Rapier, so likewise in this, it shall not be amisse to begin with the High warde, which in managing these two weapons may be framed after two fortes. The one with the right foote before, which I will call the first: and the other with the same foot behind, which I will terme the second. This second requireth a greater time, because the point of the sworde is farther off from the enimie. The first (being more neere) with the onely encrease of the foote forwardes, striketh more readily, yet not more forcible than the second, which, when it striketh with the encrease of a straight pace, joyneth to the force of the arme & hand, the strength of the whole bodie.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| Beginning then with the first, as with that which each man does most easily find: I say, he ought if he will keep himself within the bounds of true Art, to thrust only with the increase of the foot forwards, settling himself in the low warde.
+
| [[File:Di Grassi 14.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| ''Cominciando dunque dalla prima, come da quella in che piu facilmente l'huomo si ritruoua dico che si de ue in questa, uolendo stare ne i termini della uera arte trar solo la punta con la cresciuta del pie dinanti , fermandosi in guardia bassa.''
+
| <p>'''The offense of the high ward at rapier and dagger'''</p>
| Beginning then with the first, as with that which each man doth most easilie find: I saie, he ought if he will keepe himselfe within the boundes of true Arte, to thrust onely with the increase of the foote forwards, setling himselfe in the lowe warde.
 
  
|-
+
<p>As in handling the single Rapier, so likewise in this, it shall not be amiss to begin with the High ward, which in managing these two weapons may be framed after two sorts. The one with the right foot before, which I call the first: and the other with the same foot behind, which I will term the second. This second requires a greater time, because the point of the sword is farther off from the enemy. The first (being more near) with the only increase of the foot forwards, strikes more readily, yet not with more forcible than the second, which, when it strikes with an increase of a straight pace, joins to the force of the arm and hand, the strength of the whole body.</p>
 +
|  
 +
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/57|1|lbl=41|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/58|1|lbl=42|p=1}}
 
|  
 
|  
| In the second way, which is framed with the right foot behind, the sword aloft, and the dagger before, and borne as aforesaid, he ought in like sort discharge a thrust as forcible as he may, with the increase of a straight pace, staying himself in the low ward. Neither ought any man in the handling of these weapons to assure himself to deliver edgeblows, because he knows that there is an other weapon which defends : For he that defends has the self same advantage, to wit, to be able to with one weapon (and happily the weaker) to defend himself and strike with the stronger. The which stroke is painfully warded by him, who has already bestowed all his force and power, in delivering the said edgeblow, by means whereof, because there remains in him small power to withstand any great encounter, let him provide to thrust only.
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/61|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/62|1|lbl=50|p=1}}
| ''Et nel secondo modo il quale si forma con il pie diritto indietro, & la spada in alto con il pugnale inanti tenendolo nel modo detto, in questo similmente si deue spingere solamente la punta con la maggior furia che si può con la cresciuta d un passo retto, fermand si pure in guardia bassa. Ne si deue in quest'arme asicure di trar colpi di taglio per sapere d hauere in mano un' arma da difendersi, perche il medesmo auantagio ha quello, che difende di poter con una arma difendere, & for fe con la piu debole, & ferir con la piu gagliarda ,la quale uien p i riparata con fatica da quello c'haueua gia posto ogni forza, & potere pér trar un colpo di taglio, onde poca uirtu gli resta da difendere un gran de incontro però, si procurera di ferir di punta.''
 
| In the socond waie, which is framed with the righte foote behind, the sword alofte, and the dagger before, & borne as aforesaid, he ought in like sorte discharge a thrust as forciblie as he may, with the increase of a straight pace, staying himselfe in the lowe warde. Neither ougt anie man in the handling of these weapos to assure himselfe to deliver edgeblowes, because he knoweth that there is an other weapon which defendeth: For he that defendeth hath the selfe same advatage, to witt, to be able with one weapon (and happelie the weaker,) to defend himself and strike with the stronger. The which stroake is painfully warded by him, who hath alreadie bestowed all his force and power, in delivering the saide edgeblowe, by meanes whereof, because there remaineth in him small power to withstand anie great encounter, let him provide to thrust onelie.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Of all, or of greater part of the edgeblows, as well of striking as defending, I will reason at large in the Treatise of Deceit.
+
| <p>Beginning then with the first, as with that which each man does most easily find: I say, he ought if he will keep himself within the bounds of true Art, to thrust only with the increase of the foot forwards, settling himself in the low warde.</p>
| ''Di tutti ó della maggior parte de tagli, si da offesa come di difesa se ne tratterrà abundantemente nell'inganno.''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/58|2|lbl=-}}
| Of all, or of the greater parte of the edgeblowes, as well of striking as defending, I wil reason at large in the Treatise of Deceite.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/62|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''THE DEFENSE OF THE HIGH WARD AT RAPIER AND DAGGER'''
+
| <p>In the second way, which is framed with the right foot behind, the sword aloft, and the dagger before, and borne as aforesaid, he ought in like sort discharge a thrust as forcible as he may, with the increase of a straight pace, staying himself in the low ward. Neither ought any man in the handling of these weapons to assure himself to deliver edge-blows, because he knows that there is another weapon which defends: For he that defends has the selfsame advantage, to wit, to be able to with one weapon (and happily the weaker) to defend himself and strike with the stronger. The which stroke is painfully warded by him, who has already bestowed all his force and power, in delivering the said edge-blow, by means whereof, because there remains in him small power to withstand any great encounter, let him provide to thrust only.</p>
To speak of the manner how to withstand the blows of the edge, having already said that all such blows may easily be warded by giving a thrust, I omit as superfluous. But for the defenses of both sides of the body: I say, it is great vantage, to stand at the low ward, with the right foot forwards which manner of standing, the right side is put forth toward the enemy, whereunto he will direct all his thrusts: and those may be encountered after three sorts, that is to say: with the Dagger only: with the Sword only: and with both joined together. But in each of them, a man must remember to increase a whereby that part of the body which is to be struck is voided out of the straight line.
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/58|3|lbl=-}}
| '''DIFESA DI GUARDIA ALTA DI spada, & pugnale.'''
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/63|1|lbl=51}}
<br/>''Come cosa superflua lascio di dire la maniera conlaqua.,le si uietano i colpi ai taglio, hauendo di gia detto, che có le pú te sipossono uietare tutti i colpi di taglio. per difesa dunq; delle due parte é grandißimo auàtagio ritrouarsi in guardia bassa con il pie diritto inanti , il qual sito uenirai ad esponere all inimico la parte destra, nella quale egli drizzera le sue pute, alle quali si puo opponere in tre modi, cioe, ó con il solo pugnale:, o con la sola spada, o con ambidoi inseieme; main ciascuno dessi si dee auertire di crescere un passo obliquoo, mediante il quale uiene arimo uere dalla linea retta quella parte de la uita nella qual si ueniua a ferire.''
 
| '''''Of the defence of high Warde at Rapier and Dagger.'''''
 
<br/>'''T'''O speake of the manner how to withstand the blowes of the edge, having alreadie saide that all such blowes may easelie be warded by givinge a thrust, I omit as superfluous. But for the defences of both sides of the bodie: I saie, it is greate vantage, to stand at the lowe warde, with the right foote forwardes, by the which manner of standing, the right side is put fourth towarde the enimie, whereunto he will direct all his thrustes: and those may be encountred after three fortes, that is to saye: with the Dagger onely: with the Sworde onely: and with both joyned together. But in each of them, a man must remember to encrease a slope pace, whereby that parte of the bodie which was to be strooken is voided out of the straight lyne.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| When one wards with his Dagger only, he shall increase a pace, and bear his arm forwards, and having found the enemy's sword, he shall (with the increase of a straight pace) strike him with a thrust underneath, already prepared.
+
| <p>Of all, or of greater part of the edge-blows, as well of striking as defending, I will reason at large in the Treatise of Deceit.</p>
| ''Quando si riparerà con il solo pugnale si crescerà il passo, il bracio inanti, & trouata la spada,si ferina con la cresciuta del passo diritto della punta bassa preparata.''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/58|4|lbl=-}}
| When one wardeth with his Dagger onely, he shall encrease a pace, and be are his arme forwards, and having found the enimies sworde, he shall (with the encrease of a straight pace) strike him with a thrust underneath, alreadie prepared
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/63|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| When he wards with his sword only, it is requisite, that making a slope pace, he lift up his sword, and bear it outwards, or else, as soon as he has found the enemy's sword, that with his dagger he strike at the temples of his enemy's head, staying his sword with his own : or else instead of striking with the Dagger, therewith to stay the enemy's sword, and with it, (increasing another straight pace) to deliver a thrust : but it is very commodious to strike with the Dagger.
+
| <p>'''The defense of the high ward at rapier and dagger'''</p>
| ''Se si difende con la sola spada, è di bisogno nel far il passo ,obliquo leuare la spada, portarla di fuora, ouero come si ha trouata la spada inimica ferir con il pugnale nelle temple fermando la spada con la spada, ouero in uece di ferir co' l pugnale, con esso fermare la spada inimica, & con quella' conia cresciuta de laltro passo diritto ferir a punta, ma é molto commodo il ferir del pugnale.''
 
| When he wardeth with his sworde onely, it is requisite, that making a slope pace, he lift up his sworde, and beare it outwards, or els, as soon as he hath found the enimies sworde, that with his dagger he strike at the temples of hes enimies head, staying his sworde with his owne: or els in steede of striking with the Dagger, therewith to staie the enimies sword, & with it, (encreasing another straight pace) to deliver a thrust: but it is verie commodious to strike with the Dagger.
 
  
|-  
+
<p>To speak of the manner how to withstand the blows of the edge, having already said that all such blows may easily be warded by giving a thrust, I omit as superfluous. But for the defenses of both sides of the body: I say, it is great vantage, to stand at the low ward, with the right foot forwards which manner of standing, the right side is put forth toward the enemy, whereunto he will direct all his thrusts: and those may be encountered after three sorts, that is to say: with the Dagger only: with the Sword only: and with both joined together. But in each of them, a man must remember to increase a whereby that part of the body which is to be struck is voided out of the straight line.</p>
 +
|  
 +
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/58|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/59|1|lbl=43|p=1}}
 
|  
 
|  
| The third way : As soon as he has made the slope pace, and found the enemy's sword, he ought to stay it with his Dagger, and therewithall, withdrawing his own sword, to discharge a thrust underneath with the increase of a straight pace.
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/63|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/64|1|lbl=52|p=1}}
| ''Il terzo mod dopo il passo obliquo poscia che si ha trouata la spada inimica, deue fermarla co'l pugnale, cauandone la spada ferire di punta di sotto con la cresciuta del passo retto.''
 
| The thirde waie: As soone as he hath made the slope pace, and found the enimies sworde, he ought to staie it with his Dagger, and therewithall, withdrawing his owne sworde, to discharge a thrust underneath with the encrease of a straight pace.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''THE HURT OF THE BROAD WARD AT RAPIER AND DAGGER'''
+
| <p>When one wards with his Dagger only, he shall increase a pace, and bear his arm forwards, and having found the enemy's sword, he shall (with the increase of a straight pace) strike him with a thrust underneath, already prepared.</p>
In each weapon and ward, I have laid down as a general precept, that no man ought, (either for the procuring of any advantage, either for striking the enemy more readily) deliver blows of the edge. And in like sort, I have said, that easily and with small danger, one may be struck under any such blow : which precepts, as in each time and place, they ought to be observed: so in this ward principally they may not be forgotten. For a man may not without great discommodity and loss of time, strike with any edgeblow, as he stands in this ward.
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/59|2|lbl=-}}
| '''OFFESA DI GVARDIA LARGA DI spada, & pugnale.'''
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/64|2|lbl=-}}
<br/>''Per uniuersale precetto ho dato in ogni arma & in ogni guardia, che no si debba per procurarsi auantagio ouero p fe¬rir piu presto linimico, trar colpi di taglio et pariméte che có facilità, et có poco pericolo si puo essere feriti sotto le coltellate. I quali precetti se ben si debbono in ogni luogo, & tempo osserrare, in questa guardia principalmente non si debbono giammai preterire, percioche in essa non si puo se non con grandißima discomodità, et lungezza di tempo ferire di tagliò.''
 
| '''''The hurt of the broad warde at Rapier and Dagger.'''''
 
<br/>'''I'''N each weapon and warde, I have layde downe as a generall precept, that no man ought, (either for the procuring of any advantage, either for striking the enimie more readily) deliver blowes of the edge, And in like sorte, I have saide, that easily and with small danger, one may be strooken under any such blowe: which precepts, as in each time and place, they ougth to be observed: so in this warde principally they may not be forgotten. For a man may not without great discommoditie and losse of time, strike with any edgeblowe, as he standeth at this warde.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| It rests therefore, that the thrust be only used, which ought to be delivered with the increase of the foot forwards, always regarding before it be given (if it be possible) to beat away the point of the enemy's sword with the Dagger.
+
| <p>When he wards with his sword only, it is requisite, that making a slope pace, he lift up his sword, and bear it outwards, or else, as soon as he has found the enemy's sword, that with his dagger he strike at the temples of his enemy's head, staying his sword with his own: or else instead of striking with the Dagger, therewith to stay the enemy's sword, and with it, (increasing another straight pace) to deliver a thrust: but it is very commodious to strike with the Dagger.</p>
| ''Resta solo dunque di usare la punta, la quale si debbe trar con la cresciuta del pie dinanzi, auer tendo prima, che si spinga, se è poßibile, battere la punta della spada inimica co'l pugnale.''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/59|3|lbl=-}}
| It resteth therefore, that the thrust be onely used, which ought to be delivered with the encrease of the foote forwards, alwaies regarding before it be given, if it be possible) to beate awaie the point of the enimies sworde with the Dagger.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/64|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''THE DEFENSE OF THE BROAD WARD AT RAPIER AND DAGGER'''
+
| <p>The third way: As soon as he has made the slope pace, and found the enemy's sword, he ought to stay it with his Dagger, and therewithal, withdrawing his own sword, to discharge a thrust underneath with the increase of a straight pace.</p>
This thrust as well as the other may be warded after three sorts, to wit: with the Dagger only, with the sword only, and with both joined together. But for a mans defense in any of these ways, it is good to stand at the low ward. And when he wards with the dagger only, he must make a slope pace, and finding the enemy's sword, with his said dagger, discharge a thrust underneath with the increase of a straight pace.
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/59|4|lbl=-}}
| '''DELLA DIFESA DI GVARDIA LARGA di spada, & pugnale.'''
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/64|4|lbl=-}}
VESTA ''ancora si come, l'altre punte, si può in tre modi difendere cioè o co'l solo pugnale, o con la sola spada, o có ambidoi insieme, ma per difendersi in qual si uoglia modo é utilisimo il ritrouarsi in guardia bassa & quando si parerà col solo pugnale, si douerà crescere il passo obliquo, & trouata co'l pugnale la spada inimica ferire subito d'une punta dissotto con la cresciuta del passo, retto.''
 
| '''''The defence of the broad warde at Rapier and Dagger.'''''
 
<br/>'''T'''His thrust also as well as the other may be warded after three sortes, to wit: with the Dagger only, with the sword only, and with both joyned together. But for a mans defence in any of these waies, it is good to stande at the lowe warde. And when he wardeth with the dagger only, he must make a slope pace, and finding the enimies sworde, with his said dagger, discharge a thrust underneath with the increase of a straight pace.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| And when he wards with the sword only (which is the best of any other, both to strike the enemy, and to defend himself) he must oppose the edge of his sword against the enemy's, and drive a thrust at his face, fetching a compass with his hindfoot, both for the lengthening of the thrust, and assuring of himself.
+
| <p>'''The hurt of the broad ward at rapier and dagger'''</p>
| ''Et difendendo con la spada sola che d il miglior d'ogn'altro modo per ferir l'inimico & difendere se stesso bisogno opponere il filo alla spada inimica & spingere la punta alla faccia girando pur il pie di dietro incerchio , per allungare piu la punta, & meglio aßicurarsi.''
 
| And when he wardeth with the sworde onely (which is the best of any other, both to strike the enimie, and defend himselfe) he must oppose the edge of his sworde against the enimies, and drive a thrust at his face, fetching a compasse with his hinderfoote, both for the lengthning of the thrust, and assuring of himselfe.
 
  
|-  
+
<p>In each weapon and ward, I have laid down as a general precept, that no man ought, (either for the procuring of any advantage, either for striking the enemy more readily) deliver blows of the edge. And in like sort, I have said, that easily and with small danger, one may be struck under any such blow: which precepts, as in each time and place, they ought to be observed: so in this ward principally they may not be forgotten. For a man may not without great discommodity and loss of time, strike with any edge-blow, as he stands in this ward.</p>
 +
|  
 +
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/59|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/60|1|lbl=44|p=1}}
 
|  
 
|  
| It is possible to withstand the thrust with the sword and dagger joined together : but it is so discommodious and so ridiculous a way, that I leave to speak thereof, as of a way nothing safe to be practiced.
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/64|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/65|1|lbl=53|p=1}}
| ''Con l'una& laltr'arma insieme, è poßibile opporsi punta. Ma questo é tanto discommodo , & sgarbato modo , che io come non conueneuole lascio di dirle.''
 
| It is possible to withstand the thrust with the sworde and dagger joyned together: but is is so discommodious and so rediculous a waie, that I leave to speake thereof, as of a waye nothing safe to be practised.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''THE HURT OF THE LOW WARD AT RAPIER AND DAGGER'''
+
| <p>It rests therefore, that the thrust be only used, which ought to be delivered with the increase of the foot forwards, always regarding before it be given (if it be possible) to beat away the point of the enemy's sword with the Dagger.</p>
In each ward, when one stands bearing the point of the sword towards the enemy, it does much disadvantage him to strike with the edge. And if in any sort it be lawful so to do, it is, when he stands at the low ward: For it is commodious, and there is spent but little time in the bestowing of an edgeblow between thrusts. or, the rather to try the enemy, there may be delivered an edgeblow from the wrist of the hand, in the which as there is spent little time, so the point is carried but a little out of the straight line, so that the enemy may very hardly enter to strike under either of these blows. But it is better, not to use them, resolving rather to discharge thrust after thrust, then any edgeblow.
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/60|2|lbl=-}}
| '''DELLA OFFESA DI GVARDIA BASSA di spada, & pugnale.'''
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/65|2|lbl=-}}
''In tutte le guardie qual uolta si truoua con la punta uerfo l'inimico, é grandßimo disauantagio il ferire di taglio, & se in modo alcuno è pur lecito ferire di taglio, è quando l'huomo si ritruoua in questa guardia bassa, percioche torna commodo, et f consuma poco tempo à trar qualche taglio tra le punte, ouero trahendo può facilmente, presto per tentare l'inimico trar un taglio di nodo, nel quale, & si consuma poco tempo, et si leua poco la punta dalla linea retta, di modo che dificilmente si puó sotto questi tagli entrar a ferire, pur il non usarl sarà meglio risoluendosi piu prestoa trar una púta dopo una punta, che un taglio.''
 
| '''''The hurt of the lowe warde at Rapier and dagger.'''''
 
<br/>'''I'''N each warde, when one standeth bearing the poynt of the sworde towards the enimie, it doth much disadvantage him to strike with the edge. And if in any sorte it be lawfull so to do, it is, when he standeth at the lowe warde: For it is commodious, and there is spent but little time in the bestowing of an edgeblowe betweene thrustes. Or, the rather to trie the enimie, there may be delivered an edgeblow from the wrist of the hand, in the which as there is spent little time, so the poynt is carried but a litle out of the straight lyne, so that the enimie may very hardly enter to strike under either of these blowes. But it is better, not to use them, resolving rather to discharge thrust after thrust, then any edgeblowe.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| This warde may (as the high ward) be framed after two sorts, to wit: with the right foot behind, and the same foot before : but that with the right foot behind, is used rather to respect the enemy than to strike first. For although it carries great force by reason that the sword is far off from hurting, and before it hits home, it spends much time, yet the hurt thereof may be easily warded, either with the weapon, or by retiring a pace. I will speak of that only which is framed with the right foot before. And in this, one may strike two ways, to wit: either within or without: By (Within) I understand, when his sword is borne between the enemy's sword and dagger. By (Without) I mean, when any one of them is borne in the middle against the other.
+
| <p>'''The defense of the broad ward at rapier and dagger'''</p>
| ''Questa guardia, si come l'alta, si puo formare in duo modi cioè con il pie dritto indietro, & ma quella con il pie diritto indietro e piu presto per aspettar l'inimico, che per esser prima a offendere , percioche l'offesa in questa , ancora che ella sia di gran forza, per esser la spada cosi lontana da l'offesa; alla quale prima, che giunga, consuma molto tempo. può facilmente' esser riparata, o con arme o con la ritirata d'un passo, pero dire di quella sola con il pie diritto inanti. In questa si puo ferir in duo modi , sendo dentro, o di fuori , dentro intendo quando la spada si truouatra la spada, & il pugnale de !'inimico; & di fuora quando ne sono alcuno d'essi in mezo a laltro .''
+
 
| This warde may (as the high ward) be framed after two sortes, to wit: with the right foote behinde, and the same foote before: but that with the right foote behind, is used rather to expect the enimie that to strike first. For although it carrieth great force by reason that the sworde is farre off from hurting, and before it hitteth home, it spendes much time, yet the hurt thereof may easily be warded, either with the weapon, or by retyring a pace. I will speake of that onely which is framed with the right foote before. And in this, one may strike two waies, to wit: either within or without: By (Within) I understand, when his sworde is borne betweene the enimies sword & dagger. By (Without) I meane, when any one of them is borne in the middle against the other
+
<p>This thrust as well as the other may be warded after three sorts, to wit: with the Dagger only, with the sword only, and with both joined together. But for a man's defense in any of these ways, it is good to stand at the low ward. And when he wards with the dagger only, he must make a slope pace, and finding the enemy's sword, with his said dagger, discharge a thrust underneath with the increase of a straight pace.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/60|3|lbl=-}}
 +
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/65|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| When one finds himself within, at the half of the enemy's sword, the point whereof, is directed to strike at the right side, he must very swiftly increase a slope pace, and in a manner straight, to the end he may approach the nearer his enemy, and therewithall suddenly barring the enemy's sword in the middle with his own sword and dagger, increase a straight pace, and deliver a thrust.
+
| <p>And when he wards with the sword only (which is the best of any other, both to strike the enemy, and to defend himself) he must oppose the edge of his sword against the enemy's, and drive a thrust at his face, fetching a compass with his hindfoot, both for the lengthening of the thrust, and assuring of himself.</p>
| ''Ritrouandoti dunque di dentro a mela la spada dellinimico nel qual caso si ha la punta inimica, che uiene a ferir nella parte destra , si deue con gran uelecità crescere il passo obliguo, & quasi retto per auicinarsi piu all’inimico, & subito serrando la spada inimica in mezzo alla propria spada, & pugnale & subito fermata crescere il passo retto & ferire di punta.''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/60|4|lbl=-}}
| When one findeth himselfe within, at the halfe of the enimies sword, the poynt whereof, is directed to strike at the right side, he must verie swiftly encrease a slope pace, and in a manner straight, to the ende he may approch the neerer his enimie, and therewithall suddenly barring the enimies sworde in the middle with his owne sworde and dagger, encrease a straight pace, and deliver a trhust.
+
|
 +
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/65|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/66|1|lbl=54|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| This may be done after another plainer way, and that is: when he stands at the half sword, to beat the enemy's swords point out of the straight line on that side which shall be most commodious, and in that line increasing his foot forwards to drive a forcible thrust, at the enemy's face or breast.
+
| <p>It is possible to withstand the thrust with the sword and dagger joined together: but it is so discommodious and so ridiculous a way, that I leave to speak thereof, as of a way nothing safe to be practiced.</p>
| ''Si puo in un altro modo, & piu semplice ritrouandosi à meza spada battondo se prima si puo, con il pugnale la punta sell’inimica spada duori della linea retta à quella banda che torna piu commodo, & in quel tempo crescendo il pie dinanzi spinger con gran forza una punta alla facia o petto.''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/60|5|lbl=-}}
| This may be done after another plainer waie, and that is: when he standeth at the halfe sworde, to beat the enimies swordes point out of the straight lyne on that side which shalbe most commodious, and in that lyne encreasing his foote forwards to drive a forcible thrust, at the enimiew face or brest.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/66|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| But standing without, he may (with the increase of his foot forwards) give a thrust at the face, which the enemy of necessity must defend with his sword : but therein the sword and the point thereof is commonly carried out of the straight line, in which case he may (with the increase of a slope pace) turn a reverse at the legs, and then presently something withdrawing his sword, deliver a thrust underneath with the increase of a straight pace.
+
| <p>'''The hurt of the low ward at rapier and dagger'''</p>
| ''Ritrouandosi poi di fuori, si puo crescnedo il pie dinanzi spingere una punta all facio. La quale quasi di neceßità uiene riparata dall spada dellinimico nel qual riparo si fuol portare la spada con la punta fuori della linea retta, nel qual caso si puo sicuramente crescendo il passo obliquo, uolger presto un riuerso alle gambe, & poi subito ritirando alquanto la spada spingere la punta baßa con la cresciuta del passo retto.''
+
 
| But standing without, he maie (with the encrease of his foote forwards) give a thrust at the face, which the enimie of necessitie must defend with his sword: but therein the sword and the poynt thereof is commonly carried out of the straight line, in which case he may (with the encrease of a slope pace) turne a reverse at the legges, and then presently something withdrawing his sworde, deliver a thrust underneath with the encrease of a straight pace.
+
<p>In each ward, when one stands bearing the point of the sword towards the enemy, it does much disadvantage him to strike with the edge. And if in any sort it be lawful so to do, it is, when he stands at the low ward: For it is commodious, and there is spent but little time in the bestowing of an edge-blow between thrusts. or, the rather to try the enemy, there may be delivered an edge-blow from the wrist of the hand, in the which as there is spent little time, so the point is carried but a little out of the straight line, so that the enemy may very hardly enter to strike under either of these blows. But it is better, not to use them, resolving rather to discharge thrust after thrust, then any edge-blow.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/61|1|lbl=45}}
 +
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/66|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| He may also after a second manner, give a right edgeblow from the wrist, as short and strong as is possible, not so much pretending to strike as to find the enemy's sword : And it being suddenly found he must with the increase of a slope or crooked pace, lift up his hand and drive a thrust downwards, with the increase of a straight pace.
+
| <p>This warde may (as the high ward) be framed after two sorts, to wit: with the right foot behind, and the same foot before: but that with the right foot behind, is used rather to respect the enemy than to strike first. For although it carries great force by reason that the sword is far off from hurting, and before it hits home, it spends much time, yet the hurt thereof may be easily warded, either with the weapon, or by retiring a pace. I will speak of that only which is framed with the right foot before. And in this, one may strike two ways, to wit: either within or without: By (Within) I understand, when his sword is borne between the enemy's sword and dagger. By (Without) I mean, when any one of them is borne in the middle against the other.</p>
| ''Si puo nel secondo modo trar un taglio diritto di nodo piu breue, & forte che sia poßibile, non tanto per il ferire quanto la spada inimica, la qual subito trouata si dee crescendo il passo obliquo leuar la mano, & caceiar una punta all’ingiu con la cresciuta d’un passo retto.''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/61|2|lbl=-}}
| He may also after a second manner, give a right edgeblow from the wrist, as short and strong as is possible, not so much pretending to strike as to finde the enimies sworde: And it being suddenly found hee must with the encrease of a slope or crooked pace, lift up his hand and drive a thrust downwards, with the increase of a straight pace.
+
|
 +
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/66|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/67|1|lbl=55|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| After a third sort also, he may strike, and that is to deliver the aforesaid blow from the wrist, and having met with the enemy's sword, to make presently a slope pace, and stay the sword with his dagger, and then nimbly recovering his own sword, to thrust underneath with the increase of a straight pace.
+
| <p>When one finds himself within, at the half of the enemy's sword, the point whereof, is directed to strike at the right side, he must very swiftly increase a slope pace, and in a manner straight, to the end he may approach the nearer his enemy, and therewithal suddenly barring the enemy's sword in the middle with his own sword and dagger, increase a straight pace, and deliver a thrust.</p>
| ''Nel terzo modo si puo anco ferire menando il detto nodo di mano, & trouata la spada inimica, crescere subito il passo obliquo, & fermarla con il pugnale, poscia subito cauatane la spada ferire d’una punta di sotto con il passo retto.''
+
|
| After a thride sort also, he may strike, and that is to deliver the foresaid blowe from the wrist, and having met with the enimies sworde, to make presently a slope pace, and staie the sworde with his dagger, and then nimbly recovering his owne sworde, to thrust underneath with the increase of a straight pace.
+
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/61|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/62|1|lbl=46|p=1}}
 +
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/67|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| These be sufficient, concerning that which may be done in this warde with the sword both within and without, at least, for so much as may be done by true Art.
+
| <p>This may be done after another plainer way, and that is: when he stands at the half sword, to beat the enemy's swords point out of the straight line on that side which shall be most commodious, and in that line increasing his foot forwards to drive a forcible thrust, at the enemy's face or breast.</p>
| ''Et questo basti quanto à quello, che per di dentro, & di fuori si puo fare della spada, & pugnale in questa guardia uolendo quel solo che per la uera arte, & per la retta si puo fare.''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/62|2|lbl=-}}
| These be sufficient, concerning that which may be done in this warde with the sworde both within and without, at least, for so much as may be done by true Arte.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/67|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''THE DEFENSE OF THE LOW WARD AT RAPIER AND DAGGER'''
+
| <p>But standing without, he may (with the increase of his foot forwards) give a thrust at the face, which the enemy of necessity must defend with his sword: but therein the sword and the point thereof is commonly carried out of the straight line, in which case he may (with the increase of a slope pace) turn a reverse at the legs, and then presently something withdrawing his sword, deliver a thrust underneath with the increase of a straight pace.</p>
Although in the defense of blows in each ward there is great consideration and heed to be taken: yet in this especially is required a far more excellent judgment and readiness in action. For this ward does oppose itself against all others. And the greater part of blows which are of importance, proceed from this ward. Besides, every man does naturally more accustom himself to stay and repose himself in it, than in any other. Neither is it (as I believe) for any other cause, then that he knows, by so bearing himself, he may easily both strike and defend. And because in this ward, as I have before said, in the hurt or offense thereof, it more commodious to strike with the edge than in any other ward, albeit, it is not there given for counsel to be good to use it.
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/62|3|lbl=-}}
| '''DIFESA DI GVARDIA BASS DI spada, & pugnale.'''
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/67|4|lbl=-}}
<br/>''Ancora che perdifesa de i colpi di ogni guardia uisia bisogno di grandißima consideratione, in questa nulla uimeno molto piu eccelente giudito, & prestezza, percioche questa guardia si oppone a tutte l’altre, & la maggior parte de colpi importanti piu che in ciascun’ altra si ferma, & riposa, ne credo per altra cagi ne, che per conoscere di potersi in tal sito facilmente difendere, & offendere, & perche in questa come si detto nell offesa piu che in niun’ altro modo torna comodo il ferir di taglio, ancora che non si sia datao per consiglio che sia buono usarlo;''
 
| '''''The defence of the lowe warde at Rapier & Dagger.'''''
 
<br/>'''A'''Lthough in the defence of blowes in eche warde, there is great consideration & heede to be taken: yet in this especially is required a farr more excellent judgement and readines in action. For this warde doth oppose it selfe against all others. And the greater part of blowes which are of importance, proceed from this warde. Besides, every man doth naturally more accustom himself to staie and repose himselfe in it, than in any other. Neither is it (as I beleeve) for any other cause, then that he knoweth, by so bearing himselfe, he may easilie both strike and defend. And because in this warde, as I have before saide, in the hurt or offence thereof, it is more commodious to strike with the edge than in any other warde, albeit, it is not there given for counsell to be good to use it.  
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| But yet because it may easily happen, there shall be here laid down some defense for it: calling this principle before any other to remembrance, (He that is nearest hits soonest) to the end, that knowing what way either sword makes, each man may resolve himself to deliver a thrust under an edgeblow, by the which is prevented the fall of the said blow.
+
| <p>He may also after a second manner, give a right edge-blow from the wrist, as short and strong as is possible, not so much pretending to strike as to find the enemy's sword: And it being suddenly found he must with the increase of a slope or crooked pace, lift up his hand and drive a thrust downwards, with the increase of a straight pace.</p>
| ''pure per poter facilmente accadere senc porra qualche difesa. Raccordando inanzi ad’ognaltra cosa quel principio. Chi è piu uicino giunge piu presto. Accio conoscendo quanto uiagio facia l’una, & l’altra pada, sempre ciascuno si risolua di ferire di punta sotto i colpi di taglio, per la qual punta si uieta il cader del taglio;''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/62|4|lbl=-}}
| But yet because it may easily happen, there shall be here layde downe some defence for it: calling this principle before any other to remembrance, (He that is nearest, hitteth soonest,) to the ende, that knowing what way either sworde maketh, each man may resolve himselfe to deliver a thrust under an edge blowe, by the which is prevented the fall of the saide blowe.
+
|
 +
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/67|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/68|1|lbl=56|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| But because none, but such as are endued with deep judgment, great activity, and stout courage, do or may safely put this in practice: And to the end also, that those, who accustom to defend every blow, performing that in two times which might as well be done in one, may rest satisfied : I will lay down the defense of the edgeblow. Therefore, whensoever edgeblows are given, they are either right or reversed, high or low.
+
| <p>After a third sort also, he may strike, and that is to deliver the aforesaid blow from the wrist, and having met with the enemy's sword, to make presently a slope pace, and stay the sword with his dagger, and then nimbly recovering his own sword, to thrust underneath with the increase of a straight pace.</p>
| ''ma perche à cio fare s’aßicurano, ouer aßicurar solamente presti, & di gran cuore; Affine che quelli ancora restino sodisfati che uogliono riparare tutti i colpi, & fare in duo tempi quello, che potrebbono fare in uno, ponerò per cio la difesa del taglio. Ogni uolta dunque che uenirano colpi di taglio sarano dritti o riuersi, alti, o baßi.''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/62|5|lbl=-}}
| But because none, but such as are endued with deepe judgement, great activitie, and stout courage, do or may safely put this in practise: And to the end also, that those, who accustom to defend every blow, perfourming that in two times which might as well be done in one, may rest satisfied: I will laye downe the defence of the edgeblow. Therefore, whensoever edgeblows are given, they are either right or reversed, high or low.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/68|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Against the right high blow, either the only dagger is to be opposed, either the sword and Dagger both together. When the only dagger is used, then a straight pace must be increased, and the dagger hand lifted up to encounter the enemy's sword in the weakest part thereof, and being suddenly found a straight pace is to be increased, and a thrust underneath (already prepared) to be discharged. But if the sword and dagger be both together opposed, they both must be lifted up, and as soon as the blow is encountered, the enemy's face be cut by discharging a reverse, with the only turn of the hand, resting and staying itself in the broad warde. The right blow, given beneath, or below, must be warded after no manner, then by driving a thrust at the enemy's thigh, which thrust is to this purpose, that it hits home safely under that blow, and farther is a let, or bar, to the enemy's sword, so that it may not light on the legs, considering that in the discharge of the said thrust, the hindfoot must necessarily go compassing towards the right side behind.
+
| <p>These be sufficient, concerning that which may be done in this warde with the sword both within and without, at least, for so much as may be done by true Art.</p>
| ''Al dritto alto si oppone o il solo pugnale, o la spada & pugnale insieme . quando si oppenerà il pugnale solo, si deue crescere il passo retto, leuar la mano dal pugnale per incontrare la spada inimica nella parte piu debole & subito trouata col pugnale la spada inimica crescere un passo dritto, & ferire della punta bassa preparata. E se si opponerà la spada & pugnale insieme siluerà la spada & pugnale insieme, & come si haurà incontrata l’ofessa, si taglierà d’un riuerso la faccia col spingere una punta alla coscia dell’inimico, la qual punta fa questo effeto che ferisce sotto il taglio al sicuro, & uiene ad essere come impedimente & sbarra alla spada inimica che non possa cader uolle gambe, uogliendo necessariamente nel spingerela il pie di dietre in giro nella parte destra.''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/62|6|lbl=-}}
| Against the right high blowe, either the onely dagger is to be opposed, either the sworde and Dagger both together. When the onely dagger is used, then a straight pace must be encreased, & the dagger handle lifted up to encounter the enimies sword in the weakest parte thereof, & being suddenly found a straight pace is to be encreased, and a thrust underneath (alreadie prepared) to be discharged. But if the sword and dagger be both together opposed, they both must be lifted up, and as soone as the blowe is encountred, the enimies face is to be cut by discharging a reverse, with the onely turne of the hand, resting & staying it selfe in the brode warde. The right blowe, given beneath, or belowe, must be warded after no other manner, then by driving a thrust at the enimies thigh, which thrust is to this purpose, that it hitteth home safely under that blow, and farther is a let, or barre, to the enimies sword, so that it maie not light on the legges, considering that in the discharge of the saide thrust, the hinder foote must necessarily go compassing towardes the right side behinde.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/68|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Reverses also, are either high or low. If high: they may be warded with the dagger only, therewithall discharging a thrust underneath, with the increase of a straight pace, as soon as the dagger has met with the enemy's sword. Either, they may be warded with the sword only increasing a straight pace with the left foot, therewithall discharging a thrust (already lifted up in the ward) with the increase of a straight pace of the right leg. And this manner of warding, is more according to Art, because it has been said, That all blows on the left side, are to be warded with the dagger only.
+
| <p>'''The defense of the low ward at rapier and dagger'''</p>
| ''Il Riuersi ancora saranno o alti, o baßi; se faranno alti si potranno difender, o con il solo pugnale spingende la punta bassa con la cresciuta, del passo retto poscia che si haurà trouata con il pugnale la spada inimica, ouero con la sola spada crescendo un passo retto col pie sinistro ferendo d’una punta gia inalzata per il riparo con la cresciuta pur del passo retto del pie destro; & questo modo di riparare è piu secondo l’arte, percioche si e detto che tutti colpi, che uengono dalla parte sinistra, si deueno ripara recol pugnale, & i destro con la sola spada.''
+
 
| Reverses also, are either high or low. If high: they may be warded with the dagger onely, therewithall discharging a thrust underneath, with the encrease of a straight pace, as soone as the dagger hath met with the enimies sworde. Either, they may be warded with the sworde onely encreasing a straight pace with the left foote, therewithall discharging a thrust (alreadie lifted up in the warde) with the encrease of a straight pace of the right legge. And this manner of warding, is more according to Arte, because it hath beene saide, That all blowes on the left side, are to be warded with the dagger onely.
+
<p>Although in the defense of blows in each ward there is great consideration and heed to be taken: yet in this especially is required a far more excellent judgment and readiness in action. For this ward does oppose itself against all others. And the greater part of blows which are of importance, proceed from this ward.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/63|1|lbl=47}}
 +
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/68|4|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| The reverse blow would be warded with giving a thrust which safely hits, and hinders the sword to light on the legs. This blow also, may be warded after each other and diverse manners, which shall be declared in the treatise of Deceit: for this is not their proper place.
+
| <p>Besides, every man does naturally more accustom himself to stay and repose himself in it, than in any other. Neither is it (as I believe) for any other cause, then that he knows, by so bearing himself, he may easily both strike and defend. And because in this ward, as I have before said, in the hurt or offense thereof, it more commodious to strike with the edge than in any other ward, albeit, it is not there given for counsel to be good to use it. But yet because it may easily happen, there shall be here laid down some defense for it: calling this principle before any other to remembrance, (He that is nearest hits soonest) to the end, that knowing what way either sword makes, each man may resolve himself to deliver a thrust under an edge-blow, by the which is prevented the fall of the said blow.</p>
| ''Il riuerso basso uuol essere difeso col spingere una punta con la quale al sicuro si ferisce & si mette impedimento, & sbarra che la spada inimica non cada nelle gambe. In altri modi ancora questo si puo riparare, i quali tutti si diranno nell’inganno per non esser questo il fuo luogo.''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/63|2|lbl=-}}
| The reverse blowe would be warded with giving a thrust which safely hitteth, and hindreth the sworde to light on the legges. This blowe also, may be warded after other and divers manners, which shalbe declared in the treatise of Disceit: for this is not their proper place.
+
|
 +
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/68|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/69|1|lbl=57|p=1}}
 +
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| There is great regard to be taken in warding of thrusts, to wit: to bear the body out of the straight line, because this is the safest way that may be found to void them, because it very difficult to meet with them, when they come barred and closed in, and are forcibly discharge. For when a thrust comes within (at the very time that the enemy strikes) he ought to increase a slope pace, ensuring himself of the enemy's sword with his dagger, and then to discharge a thrust with an increase of a straight pace.
+
| <p>But because none, but such as are endued with deep judgment, great activity, and stout courage, do or may safely put this in practice: And to the end also, that those, who accustom to defend every blow, performing that in two times which might as well be done in one, may rest satisfied: I will lay down the defense of the edge-blow.</p>
| ''Nel riparare delle punte si deue hauer grandissima auertenza nel portar la uita fuor della linea retta percioche questo è il piu sicuro modo di difender queste punte che trouar si possa, per esser difficile da trouare queste punte, quando elle uengono serrate & con furia. Percio uenendo la punta di dentro, si deura nel tempo che l’inimico uuol ferire crescere un passo obliquo aßicurandosi co’l pugnale dalla spada inimica, & poscia ferendo di punta con la cresciuta del passo retto.''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/63|3|lbl=-}}
| There is great regarde to be taken in warding of thrustes, to wit: to be are the bodie out of the straight lyne, because this is the safest waie that may be found to voide them, because it verie difficult to meete with them, when they come barred and closed in, and are forciblie discharged. For when a thrust commeth within (at the verie time that the enimie striketh) hee ought to encrease a slope pace, ensuring himself of the enimies sword with his dagger, and then to discharge a thrust with the increase of a straight pace.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/69|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| The thrust without is warded after the first manner, to wit, when the enemy strikes, to increase a slope pace (whereby the body voids danger) and to give a thrust with the increase of a straight pace. In this order one may warde himself from other ways of striking.
+
| <p>Therefore, whenever edge-blows are given, they are either right or reversed, high or low.</p>
| ''La punta di fuora nel primo modo pur si diffende crescendo nel tempo che l’inimico ferisce di punta con la cresciuta del passo retto & cosi si defendono anco gli altri modi,''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/63|4|lbl=-}}
| The thrust without is warded after the first maner, to wit, when the enimie striketh, to encrease a slope pace (whereby the bodie voideth danger) & to give a thrust with the encrease of a straight pace. In this order one may warde himselfe from other wayes of stryking.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/69|3|lbl=-}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| <p>Against the right high blow, either the only dagger is to be opposed, either the sword and Dagger both together. When the only dagger is used, then a straight pace must be increased, and the dagger hand lifted up to encounter the enemy's sword in the weakest part thereof, and being suddenly found a straight pace is to be increased, and a thrust underneath (already prepared) to be discharged. But if the sword and dagger be both together opposed, they both must be lifted up, and as soon as the blow is encountered, the enemy's face be cut by discharging a reverse, with the only turn of the hand, resting and staying itself in the broad ward.</p>
 +
|
 +
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/63|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/64|1|lbl=48|p=1}}
 +
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/69|4|lbl=-}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| <p>The right blow, given beneath, or below, must be warded after no manner, then by driving a thrust at the enemy's thigh, which thrust is to this purpose, that it hits home safely under that blow, and farther is a let, or bar, to the enemy's sword, so that it may not light on the legs, considering that in the discharge of the said thrust, the hindfoot must necessarily go compassing towards the right side behind.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/64|2|lbl=-}}
 +
|
 +
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/69|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/70|1|lbl=58|p=1}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| <p>Reverses also, are either high or low. If high: they may be warded with the dagger only, therewithal discharging a thrust underneath, with the increase of a straight pace, as soon as the dagger has met with the enemy's sword. Either, they may be warded with the sword only increasing a straight pace with the left foot, therewithal discharging a thrust (already lifted up in the ward) with the increase of a straight pace of the right leg. And this manner of warding, is more according to Art, because it has been said, That all blows on the left side, are to be warded with the dagger only.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/64|3|lbl=-}}
 +
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/70|2|lbl=-}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| <p>The reverse blow would be warded with giving a thrust which safely hits, and hinders the sword to light on the legs. This blow also, may be warded after each other and diverse manners, which shall be declared in the treatise of Deceit: for this is not their proper place.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/64|4|lbl=-}}
 +
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/70|3|lbl=-}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| <p>There is great regard to be taken in warding of thrusts, to wit: to bear the body out of the straight line, because this is the safest way that may be found to void them, because it very difficult to meet with them, when they come barred and closed in, and are forcibly discharge. For when a thrust comes within (at the very time that the enemy strikes) he ought to increase a slope pace, ensuring himself of the enemy's sword with his dagger, and then to discharge a thrust with an increase of a straight pace.</p>
 +
|
 +
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/64|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/65|1|lbl=49|p=1}}
 +
|
 +
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/70|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/71|1|lbl=59|p=1}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|  
 +
| <p>The thrust without is warded after the first manner, to wit, when the enemy strikes, to increase a slope pace (whereby the body voids danger) and to give a thrust with the increase of a straight pace. In this order one may warde himself from other ways of striking.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/65|2|lbl=-}}
 +
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/71|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | In like case, when the enemy (only to try and provoke) does deliver an edgeblow from the wrist of the hand: let every man be advised, as soon as the blow is delivered, to increase a slope pace, and deliver a thrust with the increase of a straight pace before the enemy (after his blow given) do determine to discharge any more. This may suffice, for the handling of the Rapier and Dagger truly, with advantage.
+
| class="noline" | <p>In like case, when the enemy (only to try and provoke) does deliver an edge-blow from the wrist of the hand: let every man be advised, as soon as the blow is delivered, to increase a slope pace, and deliver a thrust with the increase of a straight pace before the enemy (after his blow given) do determine to discharge any more. This may suffice, for the handling of the Rapier and Dagger truly, with advantage.</p>
| class="noline" | ''& parimente quando l’inimico per tentare trara un taglio di nodo si sarà auertiti di subito tratto il nodo, crescer il passo obliquo & ferire di punta con la cresciuta del passo retto, pria che l’inimico dopo il nodo possa risoluersi di fare altri coplo. Et questo basti quanlo all’adoprare la spada, & il pugnale con auantagio, & ueramente.''
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/65|3|lbl=-}}
| class="noline" | In like case, when the enimie (onely to trye and provoke) doth deliver an edgeblowe from the wrist of the hande: let every man be advised, as soone as the blowe is delivered, to encrease a slope pace, and deliver a thrust with the encrease of a straight pace, before the enimie (after his blowe given) do determine to discharge any more. This may suffice, for the handling of the Rapier and Dagger truely, with advantage.
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/71|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|}
 
|}
{{master end}}
+
{{master subsection end}}
  
{{master begin
+
{{master subsection begin
 
  | title = Rapier and Cloak
 
  | title = Rapier and Cloak
 
  | width = 120em
 
  | width = 120em
Line 1,114: Line 1,158:
 
{| class="master"
 
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Images<br/>from the 1570</p>
+
! <p>Figures<br/>from the 1570</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Kelly Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Kelly Hatcher]]</p>
Line 1,121: Line 1,165:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''THE RAPIER AND CLOAK'''
+
| <p>'''The rapier and cloak'''</p>
That I may continue in the weapons which are most usual and most commonly worn: After the Dagger, I come to the Cloak: The use whereof was first found by chance and reduced into Art. Neither was this for any other cause, than for that nature does not only delight to invent things, but also to preserve them being invented. And that she may the better do it, she takes for her help all those thins that are commodious for her. Wherefore, as men in diverse accidents have casually proved, that the Cloak helps greatly (for as much as they are to wear it daily) they have devised how they may behave themselves in that, in which the Cloak may serve their turn. Which accidents, because they are infinite, and do not generally serve for our purpose, I will restrain myself and speak of those only which appertain to this Art, the which are such and so effectual, that they may greatly help to the obtaining of safe victory, if they happen to be placed in such a man as knows how to use and handle them. And for that in true Art it does little prevail, the use thereof being in a manner altogether deceitful, I was resolved to put over all this to the treatise of Deceit, as unto his proper place. Notwithstanding, to the end it may not seem strange to any man, to read nothing of the Cloak in all the handling of true Art, I am minded to lay down a certain few blows in the accustomed wards, referring the more abundant handling thereof unto the treatise of Deceit.
 
| '''DELLA SPADA ET CAPA'''
 
''Per continuare nelle arme piu usate, con li quali piu facilmente l’huomo si truoua, dopo il pugnale uengo all capa, l’uso della quale è stato prima ritrouato dal caso, & poi ridotto in arte, ne cio per altra causa, se non che la Natura non solo intende di genarare le cose, me ancora le generate conseruare, & per cio fare piglia in suo agiuto tutte quelle cose che le sono commode. Onde hauendo prouato gli huomini in diuersi Accidente casualmente esserli stat la capa di grande agiuto, douendola ogni hora portrare, si sono imaginati di ualersene in tutto quello, che ella gli può seruire, i quali accidenti per eßer infiniti, & non fare tutti al nostro proposito, mi ristringerò à parlare di questi solamente, che à quest'arte appertengono, i quali anche eßi son tanti, & tali, che possono apportrare gran giouamento, & sicura uittoria, s’auiene che si truoui huomo, che se ne sappia ualere; uero che per la uerà arte poco se ne potiamo seruire, per essere l’uso dela capa quasi tutto inganneuole; Onde me era quasi risoluto di uoler diferir tutto questo trattato all’inganno, come a suo proprio luego. Tuttauia accio non paia adalcuno strano il non uedere nel uero trattato cosa alcun della capa, ho uoloto porui nelle solite guardie alcuni pochi colpi riserbandomi a palarne poi nell’inganno diffusamente, & quanto si conuiene.''
 
| '''''The Rapier and Cloake.'''''
 
'''T'''hat I maie continue in the weapons which are most usuall and most commonly worne: After the Dagger, I come to the Cloade: The use whereof was first founde out by chaunce and after reduced into Arte. Neither was this for any other cause, then for that nature doth not onely delight to invent things, but also to preserve them being invented. And that shee may the better doe it, shee taketh for her help all those things that are commodious for her. Wherefore, as men in divers accidets have casually proved, that the Cload helpeth greatly (for as much as they are to weare it daily) they have devised how they may behave them selves in all that, in which the Cload may serve their turne. Which accidents, because they are infinite, & do not generally serve for our purpose, I wil restraine my selfe and speake of those onely which appertaine to this Arte, the which are such and so effectuall, that they may greatly helpe to the obteining of safe victorie, if they happen to be placed in such a man as knoweth howe to use and handle them. And for that in true Arte it doth little pervaile, the use thereof being in a manner altogether deceitfull, I was resolved to put over all this to the treatise of Deceit, as unto his proper place, Notwithstanding, to the ende it may not seeme strange to any man, to read nothing of the Cload in al the handling of true Art, I am minded to laye downe a certaine fewe blowes in the accustomed wardes, referring the more abundant handling thereof unto the treatise of Deceit.
 
  
|-
+
<p>That I may continue in the weapons which are most usual and most commonly worn: After the Dagger, I come to the Cloak: The use whereof was first found by chance and reduced into Art. Neither was this for any other cause, than for that nature does not only delight to invent things, but also to preserve them being invented. And that she may the better do it, she takes for her help all those things that are commodious for her. Wherefore, as men in diverse accidents have casually proved, that the Cloak helps greatly (for as much as they are to wear it daily) they have devised how they may behave themselves in that, in which the Cloak may serve their turn. Which accidents, because they are infinite, and do not generally serve for our purpose, I will restrain myself and speak of those only which appertain to this Art, the which are such and so effectual, that they may greatly help to the obtaining of safe victory, if they happen to be placed in such a man as knows how to use and handle them. And for that in true Art it does little prevail, the use thereof being in a manner altogether deceitful, I was resolved to put over all this to the treatise of Deceit, as unto his proper place. Notwithstanding, to the end it may not seem strange to any man, to read nothing of the Cloak in all the handling of true Art, I am minded to lay down a certain few blows in the accustomed wards, referring the more abundant handling thereof unto the treatise of Deceit.</p>
 +
|  
 +
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/65|4|lbl=49|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/66|1|lbl=50|p=1}}
 
|  
 
|  
| '''THE MANNER HOW TO HANDLE THE CLOAK'''
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/71|4|lbl=59|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/72|1|lbl=60|p=1}}
As the Cloak in this Art, has in it three things to be considered, to wit: length, largeness, and flexibility: so it is to be weighed how far each of these will stretch, to serve the turn. of which three, one does properly belong to it, and that is flexibility, which may neither be increased nor diminished: The other two, may receive alteration. But yet it is at any hand to be provided, that these two also be not diminished. For the Cloak is no strong thing, which of itself may withstand the blows of the weapon, being directly opposed against them.
 
| '''DEL MODO DI ADOPRARE la capa.'''
 
''Havendo la cap in se tre cose da confidare in quest’arte, cio é lungezza, larhezza, & Flesibilità, ci deue in qunato quelle si estendon seruire, della quali luna é, come sua propria, cio é la Flesibilità, la qual non si puo gia ne accrescere ni isminuire, l’altre due possono ricuere alteration. Ma però si deue in ogni inodo procurare di non minuire, ne anco quest’ altre due; Percio che la capa non é cosa forté , che per su possa resistere alli copa della spada, opponendosele rettamente.''
 
| '''''The manner how to handle the Cloake.'''''
 
'''A'''S the Cloake in this Arte, hath in it three things to be considered, to wit: length, largenesse, and flexibilitie: so it is to be wayed how far each of these will stretch, to serve the turne. Of which tree, one doth properly belong unto it, and that is flexibilitie, which maie neither be encreased nor diminished: The other two, may receive alteration. But yet it is at any hande to be provided, that these two also be not diminished. For the Cloake is no strong thing, which of it selfe may withstand the blowes of the weapon, being directly opposed against them.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| And therefore he shall prove himself but a fool, who trusting to the cloth wrapped about his arm, does encounter any right edgeblow therewith. For seeing the Cloak is not flexible in that part (which flexibility is his only strength) little prevails either length or largeness, wrapped about a solid substance. But being opposite in that part thereof, where it has length, largeness and flexibility (which is from the arm downwards) it is available: for all three being joined together will warde any edgeblow: the which manner of warding should not be so sure, if the Cloak had only length and flexibility: For having behind it little air, which is the thing that does strengthen it, it may be easily be beaten too, and cut, by any great blow. Therefore, if a man have so much leisure, he ought to wrap his Cloak once or twice about his arm, taking it by the Cape or collar, and folding his arm therein up to the elbow, and therewithall to warde all edgeblows from the flank thereof downwards, as well on the right side, as on the left side, always remembering to carry his foot differing from his arm, for the avoiding of danger that may arise by bearing his leg on the selfsame side, near his cloak knowing the Cloak wards not when there is any hard substance behind it.
+
| <p>'''The manner how to handle the cloak'''</p>
| ''Onde sciocco sarribe colui che aßicurandosi dal panno inuoluto intorno al braccio; percioche non hauendo ella in quella parte punto di Flisibilità, la qual é la fua fortezza, poco le gioua la lunghezza, & la larghezza a uolte a quel modo intorno a un corpo sodo. Ma oppendondoseli in quella parte che ha lunghezza, larghezza, & Flesibilità che é dal braccio in giu all hora si, che tutte tre insieme diffenderanno ogni colpo di taglio, la qual difesa non sarebbe cosi sicura, se nella capa fosse solamente lunghezza & Flesibilità perche hauendo ella dopo se poco aere da un gran colpo oppressa, & tagliata; dunque se ui sara tempo si deurà in uoltar la capa una, o doe uolte intorno al braccio, pigliandola per il capuccio, coprendosi con eßa il braccio sino al gombito, & con eßa riparar tutti i colpi di taglio dal fianco in gui si dalla parte destra, come dalla sinistra, auertendo di sempre portare il piede diuersamente dal braccio per non andare à periglio portandolo in quella medesma parte, di accostar la gamba all capa, & restar ferito, perche la capa non difende quando ha dopo se un corpo sodo;''
 
| And therefore he shall prove himselfe but a foole, who trusting to the Cloth wrapped about his arme, doth encounter any right edgeblowe therewith. For seeing the Cload is not flexible in that parte (which flexibilitie is his onely strength) litle prevaileth either length or largenes, wrapped about a solide substace. But being opposite in that parte thereof, where it hath length, largenes and flexibilitie (which is from the arme downwardes) it is available: for all three being joyned togither will warde any edgeblow: which manner of warding should not be so sure, if the cloade had onely leng th and flexibilitie: For having behind it litle ayre, which is the thing that doeth strengthen it, it may easily be beaten too, and cut, by any great blowe. Therefore, if a man have so much leisure, he ought to wrapp his Cloake once or twice about his arme, taking it by the Cape coller, and folding his arme therein up to the elbowe, and therewithall to warde all edgeblowes from the flanke thereof downwardes, as well on the right side, as on the left side, alwaies remembring to carrie his foote differing from his arme, for the avoyding of danger that may rise by bearing his legg on the selfe same side, neere his cload knowing the Cload wardeth not when there is any harde substance behind it.
 
  
|-
+
<p>As the Cloak in this Art, has in it three things to be considered, to wit: length, largeness, and flexibility: so it is to be weighed how far each of these will stretch, to serve the turn. of which three, one does properly belong to it, and that is flexibility, which may neither be increased nor diminished: The other two, may receive alteration. But yet it is at any hand to be provided, that these two also be not diminished. For the Cloak is no strong thing, which of itself may withstand the blows of the weapon, being directly opposed against them.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| Thrusts also themselves, may be given without, if with the Cloak, or with the hand in the Cloak, the enemy's sword be beaten off, one handful within the point thereof. For the edge having but small power in that case, is not able in so little time, to cut the hand. The blows also, as well of the point, as of the edge, from the flank upwards, ought to warded with the sword: For to lift the arm so high being burdened with the weight of the Cloak, which naturally draws downwards, as it is a violent thing it is also perilous, least the arm be placed instead of the Cloak, and so rest wounded, or lest the arm or Cloak be placed before the eyes, which by that means remain blinded.
+
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/66|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/67|1|lbl=51|p=1}}
| ''Le punte anch’esse si poßono trar fuora se si ua a batter la spada inimica o con la capa on con la mano nella capa in uolta, ma un palmo dopo la punta perche non hauendoin quel caso il taglio uiolenza alcuna, non è potente in quel poco tempo di tagliar la capa, & ferir la mano. Li colpo poi si di punta come di taglio dal fianco in su deuono essere riparati con la spada, percioche il leuar il braccio tanto in alto essendo carico dal peso della capa, che per sua natura tira in giu, oltra che è cosa uiolenta si ua periglio di porre il braccio in uece della capa, & restar grauemente ferito ouero porre il braccio o la capa dinanzi a gli occhi & restar orbato.''
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/72|2|lbl=-}}
| Thrustes also themselves, may be given without, if with the Cloake, or with the hand in the Cloak, the enimies sworde be beaten off, one handfull within the poynt thereof. For the edge having but small power in that case, is not hable in so litle time, to cut the hand. The blowes also, as well of the poynt, as of the edge, from the flanke upwardes, ought to be warded with the sworde: For to lift the arme so high being burdened with the waight of the Cload, which naturally draweth downwards, as it is a violent thing it is also perilous, least the arme be placed in steede of the Cloade, and so rest wounded, or lest the arme or Cloade be placed before the eyes, which by that meanes remaine blinded.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''AN ADVERTISEMENT CONCERNING THE WARDING AND WRAPPING OF THE CLOAK.'''
+
| <p>And therefore he shall prove himself but a fool, who trusting to the cloth wrapped about his arm, does encounter any right edge-blow therewith. For seeing the Cloak is not flexible in that part (which flexibility is his only strength) little prevails either length or largeness, wrapped about a solid substance. But being opposite in that part thereof, where it has length, largeness and flexibility (which is from the arm downwards) it is available: for all three being joined together will ward any edge-blow: the which manner of warding should not be so sure, if the Cloak had only length and flexibility: For having behind it little air, which is the thing that does strengthen it, it may be easily be beaten too, and cut, by any great blow. Therefore, if a man have so much leisure, he ought to wrap his Cloak once or twice about his arm, taking it by the Cape or collar, and folding his arm therein up to the elbow, and therewithal to warde all edge-blows from the flank thereof downwards, as well on the right side, as on the left side, always remembering to carry his foot differing from his arm, for the avoiding of danger that may arise by bearing his leg on the selfsame side, near his cloak knowing the Cloak wards not when there is any hard substance behind it.</p>
There are two ways (in these days) to wrap the Cloak, the one is, when one having leisure takes the Cloak by the cape or collar, and so folds it once or twice about his arm: The other is, as often times it falls out, when letting the Cloak fall down upon from the shoulder, it is happily taken by one side, and so is turned once or twice about the arm.
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/67|2|lbl=-}}
| '''AVERTIMENTO CIRCA IL PARAR CON la capa, & imbracciarla.'''
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/73|1|lbl=61}}
''Doi sono i modi per hora di iimbracciar la capa l'uno quando hauendo tempo si piglia la capa nel capuccio, & si uolge una ò due uolte intorno al braccio. Laltro che spesse uolte accade quando lasciandosi cader la capa qiu della spalla si piglia casualmente da un lato & si uoltegia intorno al braccio una o piu uolte.''
 
| '''''An advertisement concerning the warding and wrapping of the Cloake.'''''
 
'''T'''Here are two waies (in these daies) to wrappe the Cloade, the one is, when one having leasure taketh the Cloake by the cape or coller, and so fouldeth it once or twice about his arme: The other is, as often times it falleth out, when letting the Cloke fall downe from the shoulder, it is happelie taken by one side, & so is turned once or twice about the arme.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Now as concerning striking a man ought in the handling of these weapons as he would strike, first to increase and carry the one foot near to the other, and then farther to increase a half, not a whole pace, as in other weapons: For at these weapons, it is dangerous lest (making a whole pace) he entangle his foot or feet in the Cloak and fall down therewith. And this must be taken heed of, in the first and second folding, but principally in the second, because in it the Cloak is longer, and therefore does more easily touch the earth and entangle his feet: In the first told, although the cloak not touch the earth, because the arm does orderly bear it, yet by reason of weariness, the arm falls and causes the foresaid effect.
+
| <p>Thrusts also themselves, may be given without, if with the Cloak, or with the hand in the Cloak, the enemy's sword be beaten off, one handful within the point thereof. For the edge having but small power in that case, is not able in so little time, to cut the hand. The blows also, as well of the point, as of the edge, from the flank upwards, ought to warded with the sword: For to lift the arm so high being burdened with the weight of the Cloak, which naturally draws downwards, as it is a violent thing it is also perilous, least the arm be placed instead of the Cloak, and so rest wounded, or lest the arm or Cloak be placed before the eyes, which by that means remain blinded.</p>
| ''Quanto al ferir si deue in quest'arme solamente crescer a ferir portando luno appresso laltro piede, poi crescendo cioè con mezzo passo & non con passo intiero, come nelle altre arme perche in quest'arme si ua a periglio, crescendo il passo intiero di intricare il piedo ouero li piedi nella capa & cadere & questo si deue osseruar nella prima & seconda imbracciatura, ma principalmente nella seconda per esser in quella la capa piu lunga & percio piu facile a toccar terra & ad intracarsi ni i piedi. Nella prima se ben la capa non tocca terra tenendola con il braccio debitamente pure in essa ancora per stanchezza il braccio cala & fa l'istesso effetto.''
+
|
| Nowe as concerning striking, a man ought in the handling of these weapons as he would strike, first to increase and carrie the one foote neere to the other, and then farther to increase a halfe, not a whole pace, as in other weapons: For at these weapons, it is daungerous least (making a whole pace) he entangle his foote or feete in the Cloake and fall downe therewith. And this must be taken heede of, in the first and second foulding, but principallie in the second, because in it the Cloake is longer, and therefore doth more easilie touch the earth & intangle his feet: In the first fold, although the cloak touch not the earth, because the arme doth orderlie beare it, yet by reason of werines, the arme falleth & causeth the foresaid effect.
+
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/67|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/68|1|lbl=52|p=1}}
 +
|
 +
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/73|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/74|1|lbl=62|p=1}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| <p>'''An advertisement concerning the warding and wrapping of the cloak'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>There are two ways (in these days) to wrap the Cloak, the one is, when one having leisure takes the Cloak by the cape or collar, and so folds it once or twice about his arm: The other is, as often times it falls out, when letting the Cloak fall down upon from the shoulder, it is happily taken by one side, and so is turned once or twice about the arm.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/68|2|lbl=-}}
 +
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/74|2|lbl=-}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| <p>Now as concerning striking a man ought in the handling of these weapons as he would strike, first to increase and carry the one foot near to the other, and then farther to increase a half, not a whole pace, as in other weapons: For at these weapons, it is dangerous lest (making a whole pace) he entangle his foot or feet in the Cloak and fall down therewith. And this must be taken heed of, in the first and second folding, but principally in the second, because in it the Cloak is longer, and therefore does more easily touch the earth and entangle his feet: In the first told, although the cloak not touch the earth, because the arm does orderly bear it, yet by reason of weariness, the arm falls and causes the foresaid effect.</p>
 +
|
 +
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/68|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/69|1|lbl=53|p=1}}
 +
|
 +
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/74|3|lbl=-|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Di Grassi 15.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Di Grassi 15.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| '''THE HURT OF THE HIGH WARD AT RAPIER AND CLOAK.'''
+
| <p>'''The hurt of the high ward at rapier and cloak'''</p>
In these manner of weapons as in others, I will frame three wards: The first by the foresaid reasons, shall be the high warde, which in these kind of weapons more then in any other deserve the name of a ward. For the Rapier (something bending) wards as far as the cloak hand, and the cloakhand down to the middle leg: so that in this ward a man is warded from the top of the hand down to the foot. Therefore standing at this ward, whether it be with the right foot before or behind, he may deliver a thrust with the increase of a half pace forwards, staying himself in the low ward.
+
 
| '''DELLA OFFESA DI GUARDIA ALTA di spada & capa.'''
+
<p>In these manner of weapons as in others, I will frame three wards: The first by the foresaid reasons, shall be the high ward, which in these kind of weapons more than in any other deserve the name of a ward. For the Rapier (something bending) wards as far as the cloak hand, and the cloak hand down to the middle leg: so that in this ward a man is warded from the top of the hand down to the foot. Therefore standing at this ward, whether it be with the right foot before or behind, he may deliver a thrust with the increase of a half pace forwards, staying himself in the low ward.</p>
<br/>''Formermo in questa sorte d’arme si come nelle altre, tre guardie & la prima per la raggion dette sarà l’alta, la quale in questa qualità d’arme piu che in niun’ altra merita il nome di guardia, percioche la spada alquanto piegata difende sino alla man della capa & lei da li in giu sino a mezza gamba di modo che in questa quardia l’huomo si truoua diffeso dalla cima del capo sino a i piedi. Ritrouandosi dunque in questa guardia o sia con il piede dritto inanzi, o indietro si puo ferir di punta con la cresciuta di mezo passo inanzi affermandosi in guardia bassa.''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/70|1|lbl=54}}
| <br/><br/>
+
|
'''I'''N these maner of weapons, asin others, I will frame three wardes: The first by the foresaid reasons, shall be the high warde, which in these kind of wepons more then in anie other deserve the name of a ward. For the Rapier (something bending) wardeth as farre as the clok hand, and the clokhand down to the middle legg: soe that in this ward a man is warded from the top of the head down to the foot. Therefore standing at this warde, whether it be with the right foote before or behinde, he may deliver a thrust with the encrease of a halfe pace forwards, staying himselfe in the lowe warde.
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/75|1|lbl=63|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/76|1|lbl=64|p=1}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| <p>The right edge-blow ought to be delivered from the wrist without any motion of the feet, resting in the low ward: but in delivering of the reverse, it is necessary to fetch a whole pace, and in a manner straight. If the enemy ward it with his sword, then the encounter of the enemy's sword, must be stayed suddenly with the Cloakhand in the first part thereof, and a thrust be delivered underneath, with the increase of a straight pace.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/70|2|lbl=-}}
 +
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/76|2|lbl=-|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| The right edgeblow ought to be delivered from the wrist without any motion of the feet, resting in the low ward: but in delivering of the reverse, it is necessary to fetch a whole pace, and in a manner straight. If the enemy ward it with his sword, then the encounter of the enemy's sword, must be stayed suddenly with the Cloakhand in the first part thereof, and a thrust be delivered underneath, with the increase of a straight pace.
+
|  
| ''Il mandrito si deurà trar di nodo senza punto muoere i piedi affermandosi in guardia bassa, ma nel trar il riuerso bisogna portar un passo intero quasi retto & diffendolo l’inimico con la spada subito trouato l’incontro si deue affermare con la capa o mano la spada inimica nelle prime parti & con la spada di sotto ferire di punta con la cresciuta dun passo retto.''
+
| <p>'''The defense of the thrust, right and reversed blows of the high ward at rapier and cloak'''</p>
| The right edgeblowe ought to be delivered from the wrist without any motion of the feete, resting in the lowe warde: but in delivering of the reverse, it is necessarie to fetch a whole pace, and in a manner straight. If the enimie warde it with his sworde, then the encounter of the enimies sworde, must be stayed suddenly with the Cloake-hand in the first part thereof, and a thrust be delivered underneath, with the encrease of a straight pace.
+
 
 +
<p>For the better avoiding of the hurts which proceed from the high ward: it is necessary to stand at the low ward, in the which the thrust is to be warded 4 manner of ways, to wit: either with the single sword within or without, either with the single Cloak within or without. If with the single sword within, it is requisite to fetch a compass with the foot backwards on the right side. In like case to turn the body the same way, to the intent, to carry it out of the straight line (in which the blow comes) and to drive a reversed thrust at the face, the which thrust in such order delivered is the longest that is, and such a one, as thereby the hurt is not only voided, but also at the selfsame time, the enemy is struck in the face. If it chance, that the sword be encountered without then it is not only profitable but also necessary, to step forwards and with the Cloak to encounter the enemy's sword in the first part thereof. And recovering his own sword, to discharge a thrust underneath with the increase of the right foot. And although it be laid down for a rule, not to use a whole pace when handling the Cloak, this ought to be understood in striking, the which (whilst one endeavors to strike with the sword) it may be forgetting the Cloak, his arm may fall, by means whereof he may stumble against it: but in warding, it does not so happen. For nature being careful to defend herself (at every little danger) lifts up both her arms, yea, although they be oppressed with weight and burden.</p>
 +
|
 +
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/70|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/71|1|lbl=55|p=1}}
 +
|
 +
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/76|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/77|1|lbl=65|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''THE DEFENSE OF THE THRUST, RIGHT AND REVERSED BLOWS OF THE HIGH WARD AT RAPIER AND CLOAK.'''
+
| <p>Wherefore it is not to be feared, that in warding this thrust, the hand will be drawn down by the weight of the Cloak.</p>
For the better avoiding of the hurts which proceed from the high ward: it is necessary to stand at the low ward, in the which the thrust is to be warded iiii manner of ways, to wit: either with the single sword within or without, either with the single Cloak within or without. If with the single sword within, it is requisite to fetch a compass with the foot backwards on the right side. In like case to turn the body the same way, to the intent, to carry it out of the straight line (in which the blow comes) and to drive a reversed thrust at the face, the which thrust in such order delivered is the longest that is, and such a one, as thereby the hurt is not only voided, but also at the self same time, the enemy is struck in the face. If it chance, that the sword be encountered without then it is not only profitable but also necessary, to step forwards and with the Cloak to encounter the enemy's sword in the first part thereof. And recovering his own sword, to discharge a thrust underneath with the increase of the right foot. And although it be laid down for a rule, not to use a whole pace when handling the Cloak, this ought to be understood in striking, the which (whilst one endeavors to strike with the sword) it may be forgetting the Cloak, his arm may fall, by means whereof he may stumble against it: but in warding, it does not so happen. For nature being careful to defend herself (at every little danger) lifts up both her arms, yea, although they be oppressed with weight and burden.
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/71|2|lbl=-}}
| '''DIFESA DI PUNTA DRITTO ET RIVERSO di guardia alta.'''
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/77|2|lbl=-}}
<br/>''Per vietar leffese che possono nascer dalla guardia alta, gli è dibisogno ritrouarsi in guardia bassa, nellaqule si puo in quatro modi uietar la punta, cioè, o con la sola spada di dentro & di fuori & con la sola capa pur di dentro & di fuori. Se si uorrà riparar con la sola spada di dentro sarà dibisogno girar il piede per di dietro nella parte destra girando similmente la uita in quella parte, per leuarsi dalla linea retta in che si ferisce spingendo nel medesmo tempo una punta riuersa atta faccia la qual punta in questo modo tratta e la piu lunga che sia & con questa non solo si uieta l’offesa ma nell istesso tempotempo so ferisce l’inimico nella faccia. M s’auiene che si incontri la spada di fuori all hora è non solamente utile ma necessario portar il passo inanti & con la capa incontrar la spada & ferir d’una punta disotto con la cresciuta del pie destro. Et benche si sia dato precetto di non usar passo intiero nella capa, questo si deue intender nelle offese nelle quali attendendosi solo al ferir con la spada, puo facilmente esser che l’huomo scordatosi della cpa cali il braccio, & percio uenga ad incontrarsi coi piedi in iessa, ma nel riparar non auiene cosi, percioche la natura intenta a conseruarsi leua a ogni poco di periglio ambe le braccia ancora che fossero da peso opresse.''
 
| '''''The defence of the thrust, right and reversed blowes of the high warde at Rapier and Cloake.'''''
 
<br/>'''F'''Or the better avoyding of the hurts which proceede from the high warde: it is necessarie to stande at the lowe warde, in the which the thrust is to be warded iiii. manner of waies, to wit: either with the single sworde within and without, either with the single Cloade within and without. If with the single sword within, it is requisite to fetch a compas with the foot backwards on the right side. In like case to turne the bodie the same waie, to the intent, to carrie it out of the straight lyne (in which the blowe commeth) and to drive a reversed thrust at the face, the which thrust in such order delivered is the longest that is, and such a one, as thereby the hurt is not onely voyded, but also at the selfe same time, the enimie is stroken in the face, If it chaunce, that the sworde be encountred without then it is not onely profitable but also necessarie, to step forwardes and with the Cloade to encounter the enimies sworde in the first parte thereof. And recovering his owne sworde, to discharge a thrust underneath with the encrease of the right foote. And although it be laide down for a rule, not to use a whole pace in handling of the Cloade, this ought to be understoode in striking, in the which (whilest one endevoureth to strike with his sworde) it may be forgetting the Cloake, his arme may fall, by meanes whereof he may stumble against it: but in warding, it doth not so happen. For nature being carefull to defende her selfe (at every litle danger) lifteth up both her armes, yea, although they be oppressed with waight and burden.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Wherefore it is not to be feared, that in warding this thrust, the hand will be drawn down by the weight of the Cloak. The same wards and defenses may be used with the single Cloak, in the which, one must likewise strike, with the increase of the right foot. This manner of warding is not very sure, and therefore it requires great activity and deep judgment, considering he ought to bear his Cloak and arm stretched out before him, and to mark when the enemy's swords point shall pass within the Cloakhand one handful or little more: and not to suffer it pass farther, but to beat it off, and increasing to discharge a thrust underneath, with the increase of a pace with the right foot. But as I have said, this manner of warding has little certainty and great peril in it, and yet it strikes well, if it be done in short time.
+
| <p>The same wards and defenses may be used with the single Cloak, in the which, one must likewise strike, with the increase of the right foot. This manner of warding is not very sure, and therefore it requires great activity and deep judgment, considering he ought to bear his Cloak and arm stretched out before him, and to mark when the enemy's swords point shall pass within the cloak hand one handful or little more: and not to suffer it pass farther, but to beat it off, and increasing to discharge a thrust underneath, with the increase of a pace with the right foot. But as I have said, this manner of warding has little certainty and great peril in it, and yet it strikes well, if it be done in short time.</p>
| ''Onde non è da temere che nella diffesa di questa punta, la mano sia tirata a l’ingiu dal peso della capa, le medesme defese si possono fare con la sola capa, ferendo poi similmente con la cresciuta del pie destro. Ma questa difesa non è molto sicura percioche ui è bisogno di gran prestezza & giudito douendosi tenir la capa col braccio disteso inanti & auertit quando la punta inimica sarà passata dentro dalla mano della capa per un palmo o poco piu di non la lasciar passar piu oltra, ma spingerla & crescer a ferir di punta bassa, con la cresciuta del passo del pie destro, ma com’ho detto questa difesa poco sicura & di gran rischio, ma be ferisce in piu breue tempo.''
+
|
| Wherefore it is not to be feared, that in warding this thrust, the hand will be drawen downe by the waight of the Cloake. The same wardes and defences may be used with the single Cloake, in the which, one must likewise strike, with the encrease of the right foote. This manner of warding is not verie sure, and therefore it requireth great activitie and deepe judgement, considering he ought to beare his Cloake and arme stretched out before him, & to make when the enimies swords poynt shall passe within the Cloakhand one handful or litle more: and not to suffer it to passe farther, but to beat it off, and encreasing to discharge a thrust underneath, with the encrease of a pace with the right foote. But as I have saide, this manner of warding hath litle certaintie and great perill in it, and yet it striketh well, if it be done in short time.
+
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/71|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/72|1|lbl=56|p=1}}
 +
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/77|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| The right edgeblow may in like manner be warded with the single sword or Cloak: but when it comes aloft, it shall not be commodious to encounter it with the single Cloak, for by that means the eyes blind themselves. How much this imports, let others judge. But, when the said right blow comes in a manner low, so that it may well be warded, keeping the enemy in sight, then the Cloak is to be opposed, with the increase of the left pace, and presently thereupon, a thrust to be discharged, with the increase of a right pace.
+
| <p>The right edge-blow may in like manner be warded with the single sword or Cloak: but when it comes aloft, it shall not be commodious to encounter it with the single Cloak, for by that means the eyes blind themselves. How much this imports, let others judge. But, when the said right blow comes in a manner low, so that it may well be warded, keeping the enemy in sight, then the Cloak is to be opposed, with the increase of the left pace, and presently thereupon, a thrust to be discharged, with the increase of a right pace.</p>
| ''Il diritto si puo parimente difendere con se la spada o capa ma quádo uenisse tropp’ alto nõ sarà utile andarlo ad in contrar con la sola capa, perche si uenirebbe a coprir gli occhi a se stesi, la qual cosa quanto importa ne lascio altrui il guidito, ma quando il taglio dritto uenisse in modo basso che si potesse difender & ueder l’inimico all hora si che si deue opponer la capa con la cresciuta del passo sinistro, & poscia subito ferir di punta con la cresciuta del passo destro.''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/72|2|lbl=-}}
| The right edgeblowe may in like manner be warded with the single sworde or cloake: but when it cometh aloft, it shall not be commodious to encounter it with the single cloake, for by that meanes the eyes blinde themselves. How much this importeth, let others judge. But, when the saide right blowe commeth in a manner lowe, so that it may well be warded, keeping the enimie in sight, then the cloake is to be opposed, with the encrease of the left pace, & presently thereupon, a thrust to be discharged, with the encrease of a right pace.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/78|1|lbl=66}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| When one opposes the single sword against the right blow, he must drive a thrust at the face, and fetch a compass with his hindfoot, cutting the face with the said thrust and stay himself in the broad ward. The self same must be done, when he defends himself with both together, to wit, with the sword and Cloak.
+
| <p>When one opposes the single sword against the right blow, he must drive a thrust at the face, and fetch a compass with his hindfoot, cutting the face with the said thrust and stay himself in the broad ward. The selfsame must be done, when he defends himself with both together, to wit, with the sword and Cloak.</p>
| ''Et quando a questo diritto si opponerà la sola spada si deura spinger la punta alla faccia & girar il pie di dietro tagliando di riuerso la faccia affermandosi in guardia larga, & l’istesso si fa uolende con ambe due insieme difendersi cioè spada & capa.''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/72|3|lbl=-}}
| When one opposeth the single sworde against the right blowe, he must drive a thrust at the face, & fetch a compas with his hinder foote, cutting the face with the saide thrust and staie himselfe in the broad ward. The selfe same must be done, when he defendeth him selfe with both together, to wit, with the sword and cloake.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/78|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Against the reversed blow, the self same manner is used in warding to wit, either with the one, or with the other, either with both joined together.
+
| <p>Against the reversed blow, the selfsame manner is used in warding to wit, either with the one, or with the other, either with both joined together.</p>
| ''Al Riuerso s’usano le medesme difese, o con l’una, oc con l’altra, o con ambedeue;''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/72|4|lbl=-}}
| Against the reversed blowe, the sefle same manner is used in warding to wit, either with the one, or with the other, either with both joyned together
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/78|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| With the Cloak, by the increase of a pace, and by encountering the enemy's sword, as far forwards as is possible, that thereby it may be done the more commodiously, delivering a thrust therewithall underneath, with the increase of a pace of the right foot.
+
| <p>With the Cloak, by the increase of a pace, and by encountering the enemy's sword, as far forwards as is possible, that thereby it may be done the more commodiously, delivering a thrust therewithal underneath, with the increase of a pace of the right foot.</p>
| ''con la capa crescendo il passo & andando ad incontrar l’inimica spada piu inanti che sia posißle per che si puo commondamente ferendo poi di punta di sotto con la cresciutta del passo destro,''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/72|5|lbl=-}}
| With the cloake, by the encrease of a pace, and by encountring the enimies sworde, as farre forwards as is possible, that thereby it may be done the more comodiously, delivering a thrust therewithall underneath, with the encrease of a pace of the right foot.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/78|4|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| With the single Rapier, the same defense may suffice, which is laid down in the treatise of the single Rapier, and that is, to discharge a thrust at the enemy's thigh, the which withstands the fall of the reverse blow.
+
| <p>With the single Rapier, the same defense may suffice, which is laid down in the treatise of the single Rapier, and that is, to discharge a thrust at the enemy's thigh, the which withstands the fall of the reverse blow.</p>
| ''con la sola spada basterà quel riparo che si desse nella sola spada di spinger la punta alla coscia la qual uieta il cader del riuerso,''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/72|6|lbl=-}}
| With the single Rapier, the same defence may suffice, which is layde downe in the treatise of the single Rapier, and that is, to discharge a thrust at the enimies thigh, the which withstandeth the full of the reversed blowe.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/78|5|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Now, if one would defend himself with both these weapons joined together, he must increase a pace with the right foot, and staying the enemy's sword with his cloak, recover his own sword nimbly, and then deliver a thrust with the increase of a pace of the right foot.
+
| <p>Now, if one would defend himself with both these weapons joined together, he must increase a pace with the right foot, and staying the enemy's sword with his cloak, recover his own sword nimbly, and then deliver a thrust with the increase of a pace of the right foot.</p>
| ''se si uorrà con ambe questa armi diffendersi deurà pur crescer il passo destro & affermando con la capa la spada inimica, cauar prestamente la sua & ferir di punta con la cresciuta pur del passo destro.''
+
|  
| Nowe, if one would defend himselfe with both these weapons joyned togither, he must encrease a pace with the right foot, & staying the enimies sword with his cloke, recover his owne sworde nimbly, and then diliver a thrust with the encrease of a pace of the right foote.
+
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/72|7|lbl=-}}
 +
|
 +
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/78|6|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/79|1|lbl=67|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''THE HURT OF THE BROAD WARD, AT RAPIER AND CLOAK.'''
+
| <p>'''The hurt of the broad ward, at rapier and cloak'''</p>
In this ward, as well as in others, a man may both thrust and strike, yet diversely; For he may not discharge a right edgeblow beneath. And the reverse is manifestly dangerous: So that, when he is to deliver it, he ought to perform it in this order.
+
 
| '''OFFESA DI GUARDIA LARGA.'''
+
<p>In this ward, as well as in others, a man may both thrust and strike, yet diversely; For he may not discharge a right edge-blow beneath. And the reverse is manifestly dangerous: So that, when he is to deliver it, he ought to perform it in this order.</p>
<br/>In questa guardia parimente si come nell’ altre si puo ferir di punta & tagli, ma diuersamente, percioche non si deue in questa guardia trar solo dritto & il Riuerso e manifestamente percioloso, però douendoli trar, si traranno a questo modo
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/73|1|lbl=57}}
| '''''The hurt of the broad warde, at Rapier and Cloade.'''''
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/79|2|lbl=-}}
<br/>'''I'''N this warde, as well as in others, a man may both thrust and strike, yet diversly: For he may not discharge a right edgeblowe beneath. And the reverse is manifestly dangerous: So that, when he is to deliver it, he ought to perfourme it in this order.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| First, he shall drive a thrust, fetching a compass with his hindfoot, that by that means it may reach the farther, then suddenly (without moving of himself) he shall deliver a right edgeblow, from the wrist, after the which presently, the reverse must follow, with the increase of a pace of the right foot: and further, must follow on the thrust already prepared, and increase the like pace.
+
| <p>First, he shall drive a thrust, fetching a compass with his hindfoot, that by that means it may reach the farther, then suddenly (without moving of himself) he shall deliver a right edge-blow, from the wrist, after the which presently, the reverse must follow, with the increase of a pace of the right foot: and further, must follow on the thrust already prepared, and increase the like pace.</p>
| ''prima si spingerà la punta girando alquanto il pie di dietro per allungarla piu, & pui subito senza punto muouersi & trara il diritto, di nodo dietro alquale subito deue seguitar il riuerso con la cresciuta del passo destro, seguitando tuttauia la punta preparata con cresciuta del passo destro.''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/73|2|lbl=-}}
| First, he shall drive a thrust, fetching a compas with his hinder foote, that by that meanes it may reach the farther, then suddenly (without moving of himselfe) he shall discharge a right edgeblowe, from the wrist, after the which presently, the reverse must followe, with the encrease of a pace of the right foote: and further, must follow on with the thrust alreadie prepared, and increase the like pace.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/79|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''THE DEFENSE OF THE BROAD WARD, AT RAPIER AND CLOAK.'''
+
| <p>'''The defense of the broad ward, at rapier and cloak'''</p>
To him that will safely ward himself from the hurt of the broad ward, it is requisite, that he stand at the low ward. And when the thrust underneath comes, he shall thrust at the face, fetching a compass with his hindfoot towards the right side, with which kind of thrust, it does lightly happen that the enemy is hit in the face: but if it fail, yet for all that, the enemy obtains not his purpose, in the discharge of the thrust of the broad ward: For by delivering the thrust underneath, and compassing of the hindfoot, the body is carried out of the straight line: So that, as soon as the thrust is delivered at the face, and the enemy not struck therewith, but passes beyond his head, the reverse is to be turned at the face, and the foot to be plucked back, settling in the broad ward. To ward the right and reversed blows, there is a thrust to be given at the thighs or some other place that may most hinder them, in the very same time that such blows are in their circle or compass. Although I do not believe that there is a man so foolish, that (in this ward) will deliver a reverse only.
+
 
| '''DIFESA DI GUARDIA LARGA'''
+
<p>To him that will safely ward himself from the hurt of the broad ward, it is requisite, that he stand at the low ward. And when the thrust underneath comes, he shall thrust at the face, fetching a compass with his hindfoot towards the right side, with which kind of thrust, it does lightly happen that the enemy is hit in the face: but if it fail, yet for all that, the enemy obtains not his purpose, in the discharge of the thrust of the broad ward: For by delivering the thrust underneath, and compassing of the hindfoot, the body is carried out of the straight line: So that, as soon as the thrust is delivered at the face, and the enemy not struck therewith, but passes beyond his head, the reverse is to be turned at the face, and the foot to be plucked back, settling in the broad ward. To ward the right and reversed blows, there is a thrust to be given at the thighs or some other place that may most hinder them, in the very same time that such blows are in their circle or compass. Although I do not believe that there is a man so foolish, that (in this ward) will deliver a reverse only.</p>
<br/>''A Uolersi sivuramente difender da l’offese di guardia larga fa dibisogno trouarsi in guardia bassa nella qual stando & uenendo la stocatta si spingera una punta all afacia, girando il piede di dietro nella parte destra con la qual punta puo facilmente auenir che si uolga l’inimico nella faccia, ma quando uenisse fallato, nõ percio puo ottenir l’inimico l’intento suo di ferir con la punta di guardia larga perche di gia nel ferir con la punta bassa & con il girar il piede di dietro si tolse la uia della linea retta, però subito spinta la punta alla facci, se non colto l’inimico, ma sendoli passata la spada ddietro alla testa all’hora si deue uoltar di riuerso alla faccia ritirando il piede & affermandosi in guardia larga per riparar il diritto & il riuerso, si deue in quel tépo chegirano, spinger una punta o alla coscia in altro luogo che li sia di maggior impdeimente et danno, benche io nõ credo che si troui alcuno si sciocco che ferisca in questa guardia di riuerso solo.''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/73|3|lbl=-}}
| '''''The defence of the broad warde, at Rapier and Cloake.'''''
+
|
<br/>'''T'''O him that will safely warde himselfe from the hurt of the broad warde, it is requisite, that he stand at the lowe warde. And when the thrust underneath hand commeth, he shall thrust at the face, fetching a compas with his hinder foote towardes the right side, with which kinde of thrust, it doth lightly happen that the enimie is hit in the face: but if it faile, yet for all that, the enimie obtaineth not his purpose, in the discharge of the thrust underneath, and compassing of the hinder foote, the bodie is carried out of the straight lyne: So that, as soone as the thrust is delivered at the face, and the enimie not strooken therewith, but passeth beyond his head, the reverse is to be turned at the face, and the foote to be plucked backe, setling in the broad warde. To warde the right and reversed blows, there is a thrust to be given at the thighes or some other place that may most hinder them, in the verie same time that such blowes are in their circle or compas. Although I do not beleve that there is any man so foolish, that (in this warde) will deliver a reverse onely.
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/79|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/80|1|lbl=68|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''OF THE HURT OF THE LOW WARD, AT RAPIER AND CLOAK.'''
+
| <p>'''Of the hurt of the low ward, at rapier and cloak'''</p>
This ward is so straight and perilous, that in no man ought to assure himself to deliver an edgeblow any manner of way. For under any of them he may be easily struck, and each of them may easily be warded with the Cloak. Therefore, he must diligently take heed, that he thrust only, the which must never be discharged before the enemy's sword be found, and then as far forwards as possible . So then f finding it, he may thrust both within and without. Neither is there in this thrust any other advantage to be gotten, then to steal a half pace unawares of the enemy, which may be done very commodiously, considering the cloak occupies the enemy's sight, And having drawn his half pace, and found the enemy's sword, he must increase another half pace forwards, and strike him, costing and forcing the enemy's sword, on that side where it may do no hurt. And this may be used both within and without: But he whom it pleases, and who doubts not to be entangled in the Cloak, may (finding himself within) carry his left foot making a pace therewith, and between his Cloak and his sword, close the enemy's sword, and deliver a thrust with the increase of a pace of the right foot: And finding his enemy's sword without, he may use the self same increase and thrust. But if he find not the enemy's sword, he must deliver a little edge blow from the wrist of the hand, in such sort, that the enemy have no leisure to enter in: And having found the Sword, to discharge a right or straight thrust, or else not voiding the enemy's sword by the increase of a left pace, to drive a thrust from aloft downwards, lifting up the fist somewhat high, and delivering it with the increase of a pace of the right foot.
+
 
| '''DELLA OFFESA DI guardia bassa.'''
+
<p>This ward is so straight and perilous, that in no man ought to assure himself to deliver an edge-blow any manner of way. For under any of them he may be easily struck, and each of them may easily be warded with the Cloak. Therefore, he must diligently take heed, that he thrust only, the which must never be discharged before the enemy's sword be found, and then as far forwards as possible. So then f finding it, he may thrust both within and without. Neither is there in this thrust any other advantage to be gotten, then to steal a half pace unawares of the enemy, which may be done very commodiously, considering the cloak occupies the enemy's sight, And having drawn his half pace, and found the enemy's sword, he must increase another half pace forwards, and strike him, costing and forcing the enemy's sword, on that side where it may do no hurt. And this may be used both within and without: But he whom it pleases, and who doubts not to be entangled in the Cloak, may (finding himself within) carry his left foot making a pace therewith, and between his Cloak and his sword, close the enemy's sword, and deliver a thrust with the increase of a pace of the right foot: And finding his enemy's sword without, he may use the self same increase and thrust. But if he find not the enemy's sword, he must deliver a little edge blow from the wrist of the hand, in such sort, that the enemy have no leisure to enter in: And having found the Sword, to discharge a right or straight thrust, or else not voiding the enemy's sword by the increase of a left pace, to drive a thrust from aloft downwards, lifting up the fist somewhat high, and delivering it with the increase of a pace of the right foot.</p>
<br/>''Questa guardia è talmente stretta et pericola che non si deue aßicura alcuno di ferir di taglio in niun modo, percioche sotto ciascuno di eßi si puo facilmente esser ferito & dalla capa possono ambidoi ageuolmente esser riparati, si userà dunque ogni diligenza per ferir di punta solamente, la qual anco mai non se trarà, se prima con la propria spada non si baurà trouata la spada inimica, & piu inanti che sia possibile. Ritrouandola dunque si può ferir di punta, di dentro & di fuori, ne altro auantagio in questa si puo hauer che procurar di robbar un mezzo passo che l’inimico non si accorga, il che uien benissimo fatto, per rispetto che la capa occupa la uista & hauendo ritirato questo mezzo passo, & trouata la spada si deue crescendo il suo mezo passo inanti andar a ferir l’inimico; costegiando la spada inimica & spingerdola da parte che non possa nocere, & questo si userà di dentro & di fuori, ma a chi piacesse & non dubitassi di intricarsi in la capa, si puo trouandosi di dentro portar il passo sinistro & tra la sua capa & spada ferrar la spada de l’inimico, & ferir poscia di punta con la cresciuta del passo destro & trouando la spada inimica di fuora far la medesma cresciuta & ferita. Ma se non uenisse fatto di trouar la spada inimica si puo trar un piccolo taglio di nodo, di modo che non si dia tempo all’inimico di entrare, & trouatola subito andare a ferire o di punta diritta, ouero senza punto abbandonar la spada inimica, con la cresciuta del passo sinistro spinger una punta da alto a basso leuando il pugno al quanto in alto, & cacsiarla con la cresciuta del passo destro.''
+
|  
| '''''Of the hurt of the lowe warde, at Rapier and Cloake.'''''
+
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/74|1|lbl=58|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/75|1|lbl=59|p=1}}
<br/>'''T'''His warde is so straight and perilons, that no man ought to assure himself to deliver an edgeblow any manner of waie. For under any of them he may be easily strooken, and each of them may easily be warded with the Cloake. Therefore, he must diligently take heed, that he thrust onely, the which must never be discharged before the enimies sworde be found, and then as farre forwardes as is possible. So then finding it, he may thrust both within and without. Neither is there in this thrust any other advantage to be gotten, then to steale a halfe pace unwares of the enimie, which may be done verie commodiously, considering the cloak occupieth the enimies sight, And having drawen this halfe pace, and found the enimies sword, he must encrease an other halfe pace forwardes, and strike him, costing and forcing the enimies sworde, on that side where it may do no hurt. And this maie be used both within and without: But he whome it pleaseth, and who doubteth not to be entangled in the Cloake, maie (finding himselfe within) carrie his left foote making a pace therewith, and betweene his cloake & his sworde, close the enimies sworde, and deliver a thrust with the encrease of a pace of the right foote: And finding the enimies sword without, he may use the selfe same encrease and thrust. But if he finde not the enimies sword, he may deliver a litle edgeblow from the wrist of the hand, in such sorte, that the enimy have no leasure to enter in: And having found the Sword, to discharge a right or streight thrust, or else not voyding the enimies sword by the encrease of a left pace, to drive a thrust from aloft downwards, lifting up the fist somewhat high, and delivering it with the increase of a pace of the right foote.
+
|  
 +
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/80|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/81|1|lbl=69|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''OF THE DEFENSE OF THE LOW WARD AT RAPIER AND CLOAK.'''
+
| <p>'''Of the defense of the low ward at rapier and cloak'''</p>
To the end a man may ward himself from all the thrusts reckoned in the hurts of this ward, he neither ought, neither happily may do any other thing then void his body from the straight line, wherein the enemy purposes to strike, making a left pace forwards, somewhat thwarting or crossing and striking the enemy safely. The which does not so chance, when one defends himself either with the single Cloak or single Rapier: For whilst he assays to defend himself, he cannot strike. And if the enemy do first move, and strike straight, in the which, his sword is not carried much outwards (and it is hardly done,) I say, the enemy may by stealing of half paces, discharge a thrust perforce. And therefore he must take heed, that (as the enemy moves) he increase a slope pace (by that means voiding the hurt) then a thwart or crossing pace next, with the increase of a straight pace of the right foot, to strike the enemy with a thrust underneath.
+
 
| '''DELLA DIFESA DI guardia bassa.'''
+
<p>To the end a man may ward himself from all the thrusts reckoned in the hurts of this ward, he neither ought, neither happily may do any other thing then void his body from the straight line, wherein the enemy purposes to strike, making a left pace forwards, somewhat thwarting or crossing and striking the enemy safely. The which does not so chance, when one defends himself either with the single Cloak or single Rapier: For whilst he assays to defend himself, he cannot strike. And if the enemy do first move, and strike straight, in the which, his sword is not carried much outwards (and it is hardly done,) I say, the enemy may by stealing of half paces, discharge a thrust perforce. And therefore he must take heed, that (as the enemy moves) he increase a slope pace (by that means voiding the hurt) then a thwart or crossing pace next, with the increase of a straight pace of the right foot, to strike the enemy with a thrust underneath.</p>
<br/>''Per Difendersi da tutte le punte nel offesa raccontate non si deue, ne forse si puo far altro che fuggir cò la uita dalla linea retta nella quale intende diferir l’inimico, facendosi inanti un passo sinistro al quanto di trauerso, & ferendo l’inimico al sicuro, il che non auiene difendendosi con la capa o spada sola perche attendendo a difendersi non si può offendere, & l’inimico essendosi prima mosso a ferir rettamente non essendoil molto tratta fuora la spada, ilche difficilmente si fa, pupo con corsa di mezi passi cacciar una punta per forza, pero si deurà esser auertito, che mouendosi l’inimico per ferir si deue crescere un passo obliquo & leuarsi da l’offesa, & poscia di trauerso, con la cresciuta del passo retto destro ferir lui di una punta bassa,''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/75|2|lbl=-}}
| '''''Of the defence of the lowe Warde at Rapier and Cloak.'''''
+
|
<br/>'''T'''O the ende a man may warde himselfe from all the thrustes reckned in the hurtes of this warde, he neither ough, neither happely may doe any other thing then voide his bodie from the straight line, wherein the enimie purposeth to strike, making a left pace forwards, somewhat thwarting or crossing and striking the enimie safely. The which doth not so chaunce, when one defendeth himselfe, either with the single Cloake or single Rapier: For whilest he assaieth to defend himself, he cannot strike. And if the enimie do first move, and strike straight, in the which, his sworde is not carried much outwardes (and it is hardly done,) I saie, the enimie may be stealing of half paces, discharge a thrust perforce. And therefore he must take heede, that (as the enimie moveth) he encrease a slope pace (by that meanes voyding the hurt) then a thwart or crossing pace next, with the encrease of a straight pace of the right foote, to strike the enimie with a thrust underneath.
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/81|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/82|1|lbl=70|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | This may suffice, for the handling of these weapons as much as appertains to sure play. All that which remains is reserved to the treatise of deceit, in which place shall be seen many handlings of the Cloak no less profitable then pleasant.
+
| class="noline" | <p>This may suffice, for the handling of these weapons as much as appertains to sure play. All that which remains is reserved to the treatise of deceit, in which place shall be seen many handlings of the Cloak no less profitable then pleasant.</p>
| class="noline" | ''& qui basti quanto a quello che di quest’ arme si puo dire per quanto appertiene al giuoco sicuro, tutto quel restanta che se ne potesse dire si reserba al’inganno nel qual loco si uedranno molti tiri di capa non meno utili che diletteuoli.''
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/75|3|lbl=-}}
| class="noline" | This may suffice, for the handling of these weapons as much as appertaineth to sure plaie. All that which remaines is referued to the treatise of deceit, in which place shall be seene manie handlings of the cloake no less profitable then pleasant.
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/82|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|}
 
|}
{{master end}}
+
{{master subsection end}}
  
{{master begin
+
{{master subsection begin
 
  | title = Rapier and Buckler
 
  | title = Rapier and Buckler
 
  | width = 120em
 
  | width = 120em
Line 1,286: Line 1,344:
 
{| class="master"
 
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Images<br/>from the 1570</p>
+
! <p>Figures<br/>from the 1570</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/></p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/></p>
Line 1,293: Line 1,351:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''OF THE SWORD AND BUCKLER'''
+
| <p>'''Of the sword and buckler'''</p>
Forasmuch as the Buckler is a weapon very commodious and much used, it is reason that I handle it next after the Cloak. For my purpose is, to reason of those weapons first which men do most ordinarily use, then of those that are extraordinary and less accustomed, discoursing upon each of them, as much as is requisite when I come unto them. Therefore I will first consider of the Buckler, therewith proceeding orderly.
+
 
|  
+
<p>Forasmuch as the Buckler is a weapon very commodious and much used, it is reason that I handle it next after the Cloak. For my purpose is, to reason of those weapons first which men do most ordinarily use, then of those that are extraordinary and less accustomed, discoursing upon each of them, as much as is requisite when I come unto them. Therefore I will first consider of the Buckler, therewith proceeding orderly.</p>
| '''''Of the Sworde and Buckler'''''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/75|4|lbl=59}}
'''F'''Or asmuch as the Buckler is a weapon verie commodious & much used, it is reason that I handle it next after the Cloak. For my purpose is, to reason of those weapons first which men do most ordinarily use, then of those that are extraordinarie and lesse accustomed, discoursing upon eache of them, as much as is requisite when I come unto them. Therefore I will first consider of the Buckler, therewith proceeding orderly.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/82|3|lbl=70}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| First his form, as much as appertains to this Art. Next the manner how to use it, giving to every man to understand that the Buckler and other weapons (which are said to be weapons only of warding) may also be of striking, as I will declare in his proper place.
+
| <p>First his form, as much as appertains to this Art. Next the manner how to use it, giving to every man to understand that the Buckler and other weapons (which are said to be weapons only of warding) may also be of striking, as I will declare in his proper place.</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
| First his fourme, as much as appertaineth to this Arte. Next the manner how to use it, giving every man to understand that the Buckler and other weapons (which are said to be weapons only of warding) may also be of striking, as I will declare in his proper place.
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/82|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/83|1|lbl=71|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''OF THE FORM OF THE BUCKLER'''
+
| <p>'''Of the form of the buckler'''</p>
As the form of the Buckler is round and small, and ought to be a shield and safeguard of the whole body, which is far greater then it: So it is to be understood how it may accomplish the same, being a matter in a manner impossible.
+
 
 +
<p>As the form of the Buckler is round and small, and ought to be a shield and safeguard of the whole body, which is far greater then it: So it is to be understood how it may accomplish the same, being a matter in a manner impossible.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''Of the Forme of the Buckler.'''''
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/83|2|lbl=-}}
'''A'''S the form of the Buckler is round and small, and ought to be a shilde and safegard of the whole bodie, which is farr greater then it: So it is to be understood how it may accompolish the same, being a matter in a manner impossible.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Let every one therefore know, that the little Buckler is not equal in bigness to the body simply, but after a certain manner, from which springs this commodity, that he which understands it, shall be resolved of the manner how to bear and handle it, and shall know that in it, which shall not only advantage him in the use thereof, but also of many other weapons.
+
| <p>Let every one therefore know, that the little Buckler is not equal in bigness to the body simply, but after a certain manner, from which springs this commodity, that he which understands it, shall be resolved of the manner how to bear and handle it, and shall know that in it, which shall not only advantage him in the use thereof, but also of many other weapons.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| Let every one therefore know, that the litle Buckler is not equall in bignes to the bodie simplie, but after a certaine sorte or manner, from which springeth this commoditie, that he which understandeth it, shall be resolved of the manner how to beare and handle it, and shall know that in it, which shal not onelie advantage him in the use thereof, but also of many other weapons.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/83|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| It is to be understood, that the Buckler bears the self same respect to the body, which the little prick or sight, on the top of the harquebus artillery or such like bears to the object which they respect and behold. For when a Harquebuser or Gunner, discharges happily against a Pigeon or Tower, if they behold and find that the Prick strikes the object, although the prick or sight be very little, and of a thousand parts one: yet I say, the said prick of the Harquebuser shall cover the whole Pigeon, and that of the Artillery in a manner the whole Tower: The effect proceeding of no other thing then of the distance. And it is in this manner. The eye beholding directly through the straight sight, as soon as it arrives at the object, and may not pass through, tears it, and sends through a line sidewise, spreading itself like unto two sides of a Triangle, the which overthrows the foundation of that thing which it strikes: The which foundation, the instrument strikes with which the discharge was made. And if it work otherwise, that comes either of that defect of the instrument, or of that it was not firm.
+
| <p>It is to be understood, that the Buckler bears the self same respect to the body, which the little prick or sight, on the top of the harquebus artillery or such like bears to the object which they respect and behold. For when a Harquebusier or Gunner, discharges happily against a Pigeon or Tower, if they behold and find that the Prick strikes the object, although the prick or sight be very little, and of a thousand parts one: yet I say, the said prick of the Harquebusier shall cover the whole Pigeon, and that of the Artillery in a manner the whole Tower: The effect proceeding of no other thing then of the distance. And it is in this manner. The eye beholding directly through the straight sight, as soon as it arrives at the object, and may not pass through, tears it, and sends through a line sidewise, spreading itself like unto two sides of a Triangle, the which overthrows the foundation of that thing which it strikes: The which foundation, the instrument strikes with which the discharge was made. And if it work otherwise, that comes either of that defect of the instrument, or of that it was not firm.</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
| It is to bee understoode, that the Buckler beareth the self same respect to the bodie, which the litle prike or sighte, on the toppe of the harquebush artilirie or such like beareth to the object which they respect and behold. For when a Harquebusher or Gonner, dischargeth happelie against a Pigion or Tower, if they behold and finde that the Prike striketh the object, although the prike or sight be verie litle, and of a thousand partes one: yet I saie, the said prike of the Harquebush shal cover the hwole Pigion, and that of the Artilery in a manner the whole Tower: The effect procedinge of no other thing then of the distance. And it is in this manner. The eye behoulding directlie through the straight sight, as soone as it arriveth at the object, and may not passe through, teareth it, and sendeth through a lyne sidewise, spreading it selfe like unto the two sides of a Triangle, the which overthroweth the foundation of that thing which it striketh: The which foundation, the instrument striketh with which the discharge was made. And if it worke otherwise, that commeth either of the defect of the instrument, or of that it was not firme.
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/83|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/84|1|lbl=72|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Wherefore, applying this example to our purpose I say, that the enemy's sword is as the line of the eyesight, The Buckler, even as the little prick or sight in the Harquebus, the body of him that holds the Buckler, as the object unto which the stroke is directed: And so much the rather the Buckler shall be the more like this prick or sight, and have power to cover the whole body, by how much it shall be the further of from the thing that is to cover.
+
| <p>Wherefore, applying this example to our purpose I say, that the enemy's sword is as the line of the eyesight, The Buckler, even as the little prick or sight in the Harquebus, the body of him that holds the Buckler, as the object unto which the stroke is directed: And so much the rather the Buckler shall be the more like this prick or sight, and have power to cover the whole body, by how much it shall be the further of from the thing that is to cover.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| Wherefore, applying this example to our purpose I saie, that the enemies sworde is as the lyne of the eiesight, The Buckler, even as the little pricke or sight in the Harquebush, the bodie of him that holdeth the Buckler, as the object unto the which the strok is directed: And so much the rather the Buckler shall be the more like this pricke or sight, and have power to cover the whole bodie, by how much it shall be the further of from the thing that is to cover.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/84|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| As concerning his greatness, standing still on the form of the Buckler, by how much the greater it is, by so much the better it voids the blows. But it is to be regarded, that it hinder not the eye sight, or at least as little as is possible. Besides this, there is required, that about the middle thereof, there be a little strong circle of Iron, well nailed and hollowed from the Buckler, so that between that circle and the Buckler the Sword may enter, by means whereof, a man may either take holdfast of the sword, or break a piece of the point. But, this is done rather by chance then that any rule may be given how a man should so take hold and break it, for the sword comes not with such slowness, and in such quantity of time, as is requisite in that behalf.
+
| <p>As concerning his greatness, standing still on the form of the Buckler, by how much the greater it is, by so much the better it voids the blows. But it is to be regarded, that it hinder not the eye sight, or at least as little as is possible. Besides this, there is required, that about the middle thereof, there be a little strong circle of Iron, well nailed and hollowed from the Buckler, so that between that circle and the Buckler the Sword may enter, by means whereof, a man may either take holdfast of the sword, or break a piece of the point. But, this is done rather by chance then that any rule may be given how a man should so take hold and break it, for the sword comes not with such slowness, and in such quantity of time, as is requisite in that behalf.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| As concerning his greatnesse, standing still on the forme of the Buckler, by how much the greater it is, by so much the better it voydeth the blowes. But it is to be regarded, that it hinder not the eye sight, or at least as litle as is possible. Besides this, there is required, that about the middle thereof, there be a little strong circle of Iron. well nayled and hollowed from the Buckler, so that betweene that circle & the Buckler the Sword may enter, by meanes whereof a man may either take holdfast of the sword, or breake a peece of the poynt. But this is done rather by chaunce than that any rule may be given how a man should so take hold and breake it, for the sword commeth not with such slowenes, and in such quantitie of time, as is requisite in that behalfe.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/84|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| It shall be also very profitable, that in the midst of the Buckler, there be a sharp point or stert of Iron, to the end the enemy may be struck therewith when occasion serves.
+
| <p>It shall be also very profitable, that in the midst of the Buckler, there be a sharp point or stert of Iron, to the end the enemy may be struck therewith when occasion serves.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/84|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/85|1|lbl=73|p=1}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Di Grassi 16.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 +
| <p>'''The manner how to handle the buckler'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>If a man would, that the Buckler work the said effect, to wit: that it may be able with his smallness to cover the whole body, he must hold and bear it in his fist, as far off from the body as the arm may possibly stretch forth, moving always the arm and buckler together, as one entire and solid thing, having no bending, or as if the arm were united to the buckler, turning continually all the flat thereof towards the enemy. From which kind of holding proceed all these commodities following.</p>
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/85|2|lbl=-}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| <p>1 The first is, that the arm (standing directly behind the Buckler) is wholly covered, neither may be struck by any manner of thing which is before it.</p>
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/85|3|lbl=-}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| <p>2 The second, that all edge-blows are of force encountered in the first or second part thereof, where they carry least force: neither can it fall out otherwise, if the enemy would (in manner as he ought) strike either at the head or the body. For if the enemy would strike them, it is necessary, that his sword come within the buckler so much as the arm is long: For otherwise it shall never hit home. And in this case he may well ward each great blow, and therewithal easily strike, and that in a short time.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| It shall be also verie profitable, that in the midst of the Buckler, there be a sharpe poynt or stert of Iron, to the end the enemie may be stroken therwith when occasion serveth.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/85|4|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Di Grassi 16.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| '''THE MANNER HOW TO HANDLE THE BUCKLER'''
 
If a man would, that the Buckler work the said effect, to wit: that it may be able with his smallness to cover the whole body, he must hold and bear it in his fist, as far off from the body as the arm may possibly stretch forth, moving always the arm and buckler together, as one entire and solid thing, having no bending, or as if the arm were united to the buckler, turning continually all the flat thereof towards the enemy. From which kind of holding proceed all these commodities following.
 
# The first is, that the arm (standing directly behind the Buckler) is wholly covered, neither may be struck by any manner of thing which is before it.
 
# The second, that all edgeblows are of force encountered in the first or second part thereof, where they carry least force: neither can it fall out otherwise, if the enemy would (in manner as he ought) strike either at the head or the body. For if the enemy would strike them, it is necessary, that his sword come within the buckler so much as the arm is long : For otherwise it shall never hit home. And in this case he may well ward each great blow, and therewithal easily strike, and that in a short time.
 
# The third commodity is, that all thrusts are most easily warded : for the Buckler being round, with the directly flat opposite against the enemy, and warding all the body, the enemy will not resolve himself to give a thrust but only against those parts which are so well covered by the Buckler, as, the head, the thighs, or some part of the body, being discovered by ill bearing of the buckler. And seeing that these thrusts, having to hit home, ought to enter so far in, as is from the buckler to the body and more (and that is the length of the arm) they may easily and without doubt (making less motion, and therefore in little time) be driven outwards by the Buckler before they come to the body.
 
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''The manner how to handle the Buckler.'''''
+
| <p>3 The third commodity is, that all thrusts are most easily warded: for the Buckler being round, with the directly flat opposite against the enemy, and warding all the body, the enemy will not resolve himself to give a thrust but only against those parts which are so well covered by the Buckler, as, the head, the thighs, or some part of the body, being discovered by ill bearing of the buckler. And seeing that these thrusts, having to hit home, ought to enter so far in, as is from the buckler to the body and more (and that is the length of the arm) they may easily and without doubt (making less motion, and therefore in little time) be driven outwards by the Buckler before they come to the body.</p>
'''I'''F a man would, that the Buckler worke the said effect, to wit: that it may be hable with his smalnesse to cover the whole bodie, he must holde and beare it in his fist, as farre off from the bodie as the arme may possibly stretch foorth, moving alwaies the arme & buckler together, as one entire and solide thing, having no bendign, or as if the arme were united to the buckler, turning continually al the flatt thereof towards the enimie. From which kionde of holding proceed all these commodities following.
+
|
# The first is, that the arme (standing directly behinde the Buckler) is wholy covered, neither may be strooken by any manner of thing which is before it.
+
|
# The second, that all edgeblows are of force encountred in the firste and second parte thereof, where they carrie least force: neither can it fall out otherwise, if the enimie woulde (in manner as he ought) strike either at the head or bodie. For if the enimie would strik them, it is necessarie, that his sword come within the buckler so much as the arme is long: For otherwise it shal never hit home. And in this case he may well warde each great blow, and therewithal easily strike, and that in short time.<br/><br/>
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/85|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/86|1|lbl=74|p=1}}
# The thirde commoditie is, that all thrustes are most easily warded: for the Buckler being rounde, with the directly flatt opposite against the enimie, & warding all the bodie, the enimie will not resolve himselfe to give a thrust but onely against those partes which are so well covered by the Buckler, as, the head, the thighes, or some parte of the bodie, being found discovered by ill bearing of the Buckler. And seeing that these thrustes, having to hit home, ought to enter so farre in, as is from the buckler to the bodie & more (and that is the length of an arme) they maye easily and without doubt (making lesse motion, and therefore in little time) be driven outwardes by the Buckler before they come to the bodie.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| There are many other commodities to be gathered by so holding the buckler, which at this present are not to be recited.
+
| <p>There are many other commodities to be gathered by so holding the buckler, which at this present are not to be recited.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| There are many other commodities to be gathered by so holding of the buckler, which at this present are not to be recyted.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/86|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Wherefore being to finish this Chapter, I say, that the Buckler ought not to defend, but only down to the knee and less. And reason would that it should defend no farther than the arm can stretch itself, that is to the middle thigh. In the act of fighting, a man stands always somewhat bowing, therefore a little more is allowed. The rest of the body downwards must be warded with the Sword only.  
+
| <p>Wherefore being to finish this Chapter, I say, that the Buckler ought not to defend, but only down to the knee and less. And reason would that it should defend no farther than the arm can stretch itself, that is to the middle thigh. In the act of fighting, a man stands always somewhat bowing, therefore a little more is allowed. The rest of the body downwards must be warded with the Sword only.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| Wherefore being to finish this Chapter, I say, that the Buckler ought not to defend, but onely down to the knee and lesse. And reason that it should defend no farther than the arme can stretch it selfe, that is to the middle thigh. In the act of fighting, a man standeth alwaies somewhat bowing, therefore a little more is allowed. The rest of the bodie downwardes must be warded with the Sword onely.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/86|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''OF THE HURT OF THE HIGH WARD AT SWORD AND BUCKLER'''
+
| <p>'''Of the hurt of the high ward at sword and buckler'''</p>
Because it is a very easy matter to ward both the right and reversed blows of the edge : And for that a man may easily strike under them, I will not lay down either for the one or the other their strikings or defendings, but only talk of the thrust. I say, the thrust above may be delivered in the one with the right foot behind, the other with the right foot before.
+
 
 +
<p>Because it is a very easy matter to ward both the right and reversed blows of the edge: And for that a man may easily strike under them, I will not lay down either for the one or the other their striking or defending, but only talk of the thrust. I say, the thrust above may be delivered in the one with the right foot behind, the other with the right foot before.</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''Of the hurt of the high warde at Sword and Buckler.'''''
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/86|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/87|1|lbl=75|p=1}}
<br/>'''B'''Ecause it is a verie easie matter to ward both the right and reversed blowes of the edge: And for that a man may easily strike under them, I will not lay down either for the one or the other their strikings or defendings, but onely talke of the thrust. I saye, the thrust above may be delivered in two sortes, the one with the right foote behinde, the otehr with the right foote before.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,381: Line 1,454:
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| When the thrust is discharged that carrieth the right foote behinde, there must (in deliverie thereof) be encreased a straight pace of the right foote. And it must be driven & forced with all that strength which it requireth, and that is verie great, then setling in the lowe warde.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/87|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| When one should deliver a thrust with the right foot before, he must remember in any case, first (unawares of the enemy) to _ half pace, that is to say: to draw the hindfoot near the forefoot, and then to cast a thrust with the increase of a half pace forwards, settling himself after the delivery thereof in the low ward.
+
| <p>When one should deliver a thrust with the right foot before, he must remember in any case, first (unawares of the enemy) to _ half pace, that is to say: to draw the hindfoot near the forefoot, and then to cast a thrust with the increase of a half pace forwards, settling himself after the delivery thereof in the low ward.</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
| When one would deliver a thrust with the right foote before, he must remember in any case, first (unawares of the enimie) to steale a halfe pace, that is to saie: to drawe the hinder foote neere the forefoote, & then to cast a thrust with the encrease of a halfe pace forwardes, setling himselfe after the deliverie thereof in the lowe warde.
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/87|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/88|1|lbl=76|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''OF THE DEFENSE OF THE HIGH WARD AT SWORD AND BUCKLER'''
+
| <p>'''Of the defense of the high ward at sword and buckler'''</p>
As a man stands at the low ward he may easily defend both those lofty thrusts. When they come, he standing at the said ward, it shall be best to drive them outwards, with the increase of a left pace, and with his sword and buckler to stay the enemy's sword. And because this left pace is a great increase : and likewise the enemy, driving his thrusts, comes with great force, it may easily come to pass that both may approach so near one to the other, that he may with his buckler give the enemy, the Mustachio, in the face, but that must be done when fit occasion is offered, and then further recovering his own sword to discharge a thrust underneath with the increase of a pace of the right foot.
+
 
 +
<p>As a man stands at the low ward he may easily defend both those lofty thrusts. When they come, he standing at the said ward, it shall be best to drive them outwards, with the increase of a left pace, and with his sword and buckler to stay the enemy's sword. And because this left pace is a great increase: and likewise the enemy, driving his thrusts, comes with great force, it may easily come to pass that both may approach so near one to the other, that he may with his buckler give the enemy, the Mustachio, in the face, but that must be done when fit occasion is offered, and then further recovering his own sword to discharge a thrust underneath with the increase of a pace of the right foot.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''Of the defence of the high warde at Sworde and Buckler'''''
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/88|2|lbl=-}}
'''A'''S a man standeth at the lowe warde he may easily defend both those loftie thrustes. When they come, he standing at the saide warde, it shall be best to drive them outwardes, with the encrease of a left pace, and with his sword and buckler to s[??]ie the enimies sworde. And because this left pace is a great increase: and likewise the enimie, driving his thrustes, commeth with great force, it may easily come to passe that both may approach so neare one to the other, that he may with his bukler give the enimie, the Mustachio, in the face, but that must be done when fit occasion is offered, and then further recovering his own sword to discharge a thrust underneath with the encrease of a pace of the right foote.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''OF THE HURT OF THE BROAD WARD, AT SWORD AND BUCKLER'''
+
| <p>'''Of the hurt of the broad ward, at sword and buckler'''</p>
If a man would step forward, and strike as he stands in the broad ward, it is not lawful for him to use any other then the thrust, considering the right and reversed blows may not be delivered without great peril and danger. For in the sight or placing of this ward, the sword is far off from the body. And as he moves to fetch a right or reversed edgeblow, his sword of force will be much farther: So that it may not be done without great danger. Therefore he shall use the thrust only: in forcing and delivery whereof, he shall proceed first to carry his hindfoot a half pace forwards, and then to drive it on with the increase of another half pace of the right foot, staying himself in the broad ward.
+
 
 +
<p>If a man would step forward, and strike as he stands in the broad ward, it is not lawful for him to use any other then the thrust, considering the right and reversed blows may not be delivered without great peril and danger. For in the sight or placing of this ward, the sword is far off from the body. And as he moves to fetch a right or reversed edge-blow, his sword of force will be much farther: So that it may not be done without great danger. Therefore he shall use the thrust only: in forcing and delivery whereof, he shall proceed first to carry his hindfoot a half pace forwards, and then to drive it on with the increase of another half pace of the right foot, staying himself in the broad ward.</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''Of the hurt of the broad VVarde, at Sworde and Buckler.'''''
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/88|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/89|1|lbl=77|p=1}}
'''I'''F a man would stepp forward, and strike as he standeth in the broad warde, it is not lawfull for him to use any other than the thrust, considering the right & reversed blowes may not be delivered without great perill and danger. For in the site or placing of this warde, the sword is farre off from the bodie. And as he moveth to fetch a right or reversed edge blowe, his sworde of force wil be much farther: So that it may not be done without great danger. Therefore he shall use the thrust onely: in forcing and deliverie wherof, he shall proceede first to carrie his hinder foote a halfe pace forwardes, and then to drive it on with the encrease of another halfe pace of the right foote, staying himselfe in the broad warde.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''OF THE DEFENSE OF THE BROAD WARD AT SWORD AND BUCKLER'''
+
| <p>'''Of the defense of the broad ward at sword and buckler'''</p>
Against the thrust of the broad ward, the Buckler is to be opposed, standing at the low ward. And when the enemy comes resolutely to thrust, then without warding it at all, he shall drive a thrust at the face, carrying the hindfoot in a compass towards the right side as well to lengthen the thrust, as also to carry himself out of the straight line, in the which the enemy comes resolutely to strike, who, by this manner of thrust is easily hurt.
+
 
 +
<p>Against the thrust of the broad ward, the Buckler is to be opposed, standing at the low ward. And when the enemy comes resolutely to thrust, then without warding it at all, he shall drive a thrust at the face, carrying the hindfoot in a compass towards the right side as well to lengthen the thrust, as also to carry himself out of the straight line, in the which the enemy comes resolutely to strike, who, by this manner of thrust is easily hurt.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''The defence of the broad warde at Sword and Buckler.'''''
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/89|2|lbl=-}}
<br/>'''A'''Gainst the thrust of the broad warde, the Buckler is to be opposed, standing at the lowe warde. And when the enimie commeth resolutely to thrust, then without warding it at all, he shall drive a thrust at the face, carrying the hinder foote in a compasse towards the right side as well to lengthen the thrust, as also to carrie himselfe out of the straight lyne, in the which the enimie commeth resolved to strike, who, by this manner of thrust is easily hurt.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''OF THE HURT OF THE LOW WARD AT SWORD AND BUCKLER'''
+
| <p>'''Of the hurt of the low ward at sword and buckler'''</p>
As this low ward is framed in two manner of ways, that is to say, with the right foot before and behind: So likewise a man may strike therein after two sorts, Standing with the right foot behind (leaving aside, the blows of the edge, being to small purpose) he shall deliver a thrust with the increase of a the right foot, between the enemy's sword and buckler, or else, if it be more commodious without the sword and buckler, settling in the low ward, with the right foot before, in which ward, a man may strike in two manner of ways, within and without. Finding himself without, having first met the enemy's sword with his own, he shall increase a left pace, not to the intent to avoid himself from the enemy's sword, but shall with his buckler also, stay the enemy's sword, and forasmuch as he did not at the first deliver the said thrust, he shall then continue and force it on directly with the increase of a pace of the right foot. Finding himself within, the same thrust is to be used but more strongly. For, with the increase of a pace, leaving his buckler or the enemy's sword, he shuts it in between his own sword and the buckler: and keeping it in that straight, (whereby he is sure the enemy can deliver no edgeblow because it may not move neither upwards nor downwards, neither forwards, but is then without the body,) he shall continue on, and resolutely deliver this manner of thrust , with the increase of a pace of the right foot.
+
 
 +
<p>As this low ward is framed in two manner of ways, that is to say, with the right foot before and behind: So likewise a man may strike therein after two sorts, Standing with the right foot behind (leaving  
 +
aside, the blows of the edge, being to small purpose) he shall deliver a thrust with the increase of a the right foot, between the enemy's sword and buckler, or else, if it be more commodious without the sword and buckler, settling in the low ward, with the right foot before, in which ward, a man may strike in two manner of ways, within and without. Finding himself without, having first met the enemy's sword with his own, he shall increase a left pace, not to the intent to avoid himself from the enemy's sword, but shall with his buckler also, stay the enemy's sword, and forasmuch as he did not at the first deliver the said thrust, he shall then continue and force it on directly with the increase of a pace of the right foot. Finding himself within, the same thrust is to be used but more strongly. For, with the increase of a pace, leaving his buckler or the enemy's sword, he shuts it in between his own sword and the buckler: and keeping it in that straight, (whereby he is sure the enemy can deliver no edge-blow because it may not move neither upwards nor downwards, neither forwards, but is then without the body,) he shall continue on, and resolutely deliver this manner of thrust, with the increase of a pace of the right foot.</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''The hurt of the lowe warde at Sworde and Buckler.'''''
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/89|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/90|1|lbl=78|p=1}}
<br/>'''A'''S this lowe warde is framed two maner of waies, that is to saie, with the right foot before & behind: So likewise a man may strike therein after two sortes, Standing with the right foote behinde (leaving aside, the blowes of the edge, being to small purpose) he shal deliver a thrust with the encrease of a pace of the right foote, betweene the enimies sworde and buckler, or els, if it be more commodious without the sword and buckler, setling in the lowe warde, with the right foot before, in which warde, a man may strike two manner of waies, within and without. Finding himselfe without having first met the enimies sword with his own, he shall encrease a left pace, not to the intent to avoid himselfe from the enimies sworde, but shall with his buckler also, staie the enimies sworde, and forasmuch as he did not at the first deliver the said thrust, he shal then continue and force it on directly with the encrease of a pace of the right foote. Finding himselfe within, the same thrust is to be used but more strongly. For, with the encrease of a pace, leaving his buckler or thenimies sworde, he shutteth it in betweene his own sword & the buckler: and keping it in that strait, (wherby he is sure the enimy can deliver no edgblow because it may not move neither upwards nor downwards, neither forwards, but is then without the bodie,) he shal continue on, & resolutely deliver this manner of thrust, with the encrease of a pace of the right foote.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''OF THE DEFENSE OF THE LOW WARD, AT SWORD AND BUCKLER'''
+
| <p>'''Of the defense of the low ward, at sword and buckler'''</p>
For the defense of all these thrusts, it is necessary that he stand at the low ward, and standing thereat, whilst the thrust comes which is delivered with the right foot behind, he shall do no other, than in the selfsame time, deliver a thrust at the thigh or breast, turning the hilt of his sword against the enemy's sword, and compassing his hindfoot, withal bearing his body out of the straight line, in which the enemy strikes. And in this manner of warding does not only defend, but also safely hurt.
+
 
 +
<p>For the defense of all these thrusts, it is necessary that he stand at the low ward, and standing thereat, whilst the thrust comes which is delivered with the right foot behind, he shall do no other, than in the selfsame time, deliver a thrust at the thigh or breast, turning the hilt of his sword against the enemy's sword, and compassing his hindfoot, withal bearing his body out of the straight line, in which the enemy strikes. And in this manner of warding does not only defend, but also safely hurt.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''The defence of the lowe warde, at Sword & buckler.'''''
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/90|2|lbl=-}}
<br/>'''F'''Or the defence of all these thrusts, it is necessarie that he stand at the lowe warde, & standing therat, whilest the thrust cometh which is delivered with the right foote behinde, he shal do no other, than in the selfesame time, deliver a thrust at the thight or brest, turning the hilte of his sword against the enimies sworde, & compassing his hinder foot, withal bearing his body out of the straite line, in which the enimie striketh. And this maner of wardiong doth not only defend, but also safely hurt.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | For the defense of the other two thrusts, the one within, and the other without, a man must take great heed, and it is very necessary that as the enemy increases pretending to strike safely) he carry a slope pace with the left foot and deliver a thrust above hand, upon the which the enemy of himself shall run and invest himself. And it is to be considered, that in these thrusts, he that defends has great advantage: For the enemy comes resolutely to strike, not thinking that it may in any other sort be warded then by giving back, But he that wards by increase in, defending and drawing near unto the enemy, is so placed that he may easily hurt him.
+
| class="noline" | <p>For the defense of the other two thrusts, the one within, and the other without, a man must take great heed, and it is very necessary that as the enemy increases pretending to strike safely) he carry a slope pace with the left foot and deliver a thrust above hand, upon the which the enemy of himself shall run and invest himself. And it is to be considered, that in these thrusts, he that defends has great advantage: For the enemy comes resolutely to strike, not thinking that it may in any other sort be warded then by giving back, But he that wards by increase in, defending and drawing near unto the enemy, is so placed that he may easily hurt him.</p>
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | For the defence of the other two thrustes, the one within, & the other without, a man must take great heede, and it is verie necessarie that as the enimie encreaseth pretending to strike safely he carrie a slope pace with the left foot & deliver a thrust above hand, upon which the enimie of himselfe shal runne & invest himselfe. And it is to be considered, that in these thrustes, he that defendeth hath great advantage: For the enimie cometh resolutely to strike, not thinking that it may in any other sort be warded then by giving backe, But he that wardeth by encreasing, defending & drawing neere unto the enimie, is so placed, that he may easily hurt him.
+
| class="noline" |  
 +
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/90|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/91|1|lbl=79|p=1}}
  
 
|}
 
|}
{{master end}}
+
{{master subsection end}}
  
{{master begin
+
{{master subsection begin
 
  | title = Rapier and Square Shield
 
  | title = Rapier and Square Shield
 
  | width = 120em
 
  | width = 120em
Line 1,444: Line 1,522:
 
{| class="master"
 
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Images<br/>from the 1570</p>
+
! <p>Figures<br/>from the 1570</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}</p>
Line 1,451: Line 1,529:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''OF THE SWORD AND TARGET, CALLED THE SQUARE TARGET'''
+
| <p>'''Of the sword and target, called the square target'''</p>
It is most manifest, that the Target is a most ancient weapon, found out only for the use of warfare, and peculiar quarrels between man and man : albeit, since the finding thereof, there have been devised by the industry of man a thousand ways to serve them at their need: From whence it has come to pass, (because it seemed convenient unto the Professors of this Art) that this weapon was very commodious and profitable, as well for his fashion, as for it is a mean or middle weapon, between the buckler and the round Target: That they have framed a special kind of play therewith, although it differs from the other two weapons in no other thing then fashion. Therefore, diverse professors of this Art, being moved some by reason of the form, some by the bigness, and some by the heaviness thereof, have accustomed to bear it after diverse ways, Those who make most account of the heaviness, would for some consideration, that the right and proper bearing thereof, was to hold it leaning on the thigh, not moving there hence, but being greatly constrained thereunto.
+
 
|  
+
<p>It is most manifest, that the Target is a most ancient weapon, found out only for the use of warfare, and peculiar quarrels between man and man: albeit, since the finding thereof, there have been devised by the industry of man a thousand ways to serve them at their need: From whence it has come to pass, (because it seemed convenient unto the Professors of this Art) that this weapon was very commodious and profitable, as well for his fashion, as for it is a mean or middle weapon, between the buckler and the round Target: That they have framed a special kind of play therewith, although it differs from the other two weapons in no other thing then fashion. Therefore, diverse professors of this Art, being moved some by reason of the form, some by the bigness, and some by the heaviness thereof, have accustomed to bear it after diverse ways, Those who make most account of the heaviness, would for some consideration, that the right and proper bearing thereof, was to hold it leaning on the thigh, not moving there hence, but being greatly constrained thereunto.</p>
| '''''Of the Sworde & Target, called the Square Target.'''''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/94|2|lbl=68}}
<br/>'''I'''T is most manifest, that the Target is a most auncient weapon, found out only for the use of warfare, & not for frayes & peculiar quarels betweene man & man: albeit, since the finding therof, there have beene devised by the industrie of man a thousand waies to serve them at their neede: From whence it hath come to passe, (because it seemed convenient unto the professors of this Art) that this weapon was verie commodious & profitable, aswel for his fashion, as for that it is a meane or middle wepon, betweene the buckler & the round Target: That they have framed a speciall kinde of plaie therwith, although it differeth from the other two weapons in no other thing then in fashion. Therefore, divers professors of this Arte, being moved, some by reason of the forme, some by the bignes, & some by the heavinesse thereof, have accustomed to beare it after divers wayes, Those who make most account of the heavines, would for some consideration, that the right & proper bearing therof, was to hold it leaning on the thigh, not moving therehence, but being greatly constrained thereunto.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/91|2|lbl=79}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Others, who esteemed the form and bigness thereof, because it seemed unto them that the Target without any motion was most apt of itself to ward all that part of the body which is betwixt the neck and the thigh, bare it with their arm drawn back and close to their breast. The which opinion, I mean not at this present to confute, forasmuch as by the showing of mine own opinion, it shall appear how mightily they were deceived in the holding thereof, from the true holding whereof springs all the profit which his form and bigness does give it.
+
| <p>Others, who esteemed the form and bigness thereof, because it seemed unto them that the Target without any motion was most apt of itself to ward all that part of the body which is betwixt the neck and the thigh, bare it with their arm drawn back and close to their breast. The which opinion, I mean not at this present to confute, forasmuch as by the showing of mine own opinion, it shall appear how mightily they were deceived in the holding thereof, from the true holding whereof springs all the profit which his form and bigness does give it.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| Others, who esteemed the forme & bignes therof, because it seemed unto them that the Target without any other motion was most apt of it selfe to ward all that parte of the bodie which is betwixt the neck & and the thigh, bare it with their arme drawne backe close to their brest. The which opinion, I meane not at this present to confute, forasmuch as by the shewing of mine owne opinion, it shall appeare how mightily they were deceived in the holding thereof, from the true holding whereof springeth all the profite which h is forme and bignes doth give it.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/92|1|lbl=80}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Di Grassi 17.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Di Grassi 17.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| '''THE MANNER HOW TO HOLD THE SQUARE TARGET'''
+
| <p>'''The manner how to hold the square target'''</p>
Being desirous to bear great respect as well to all the qualities of this Target (Figure 13) (which are, the form, the bigness, and heaviness) as unto that wherewith it may either help or hurt, I say (if a man would that the form thereof do bring him profit without hurt) it is to be held with the high point thereof upwards respecting the head: the part opposite, the low parts of the body: the right part thereof, the right side, and the left, the left side: from this manner of bearing spring these advantages. First, a man may more easily see his enemy, and view what he does by the point of the corner, which is on the one side, and that is by the high point, by which, if he would behold his enemy, from the head to the feet, it is requisite that he carry his Target, so low, that he discover not too much of his body which is above it: to the warding whereof he cannot come again, but discommodiously, and in long time.
+
 
 +
<p>Being desirous to bear great respect as well to all the qualities of this Target (which are, the form, the bigness, and heaviness) as unto that wherewith it may either help or hurt, I say (if a man would that the form thereof do bring him profit without hurt) it is to be held with the high point thereof upwards respecting the head: the part opposite, the low parts of the body: the right part thereof, the right side, and the left, the left side: from this manner of bearing spring these advantages. First, a man may more easily see his enemy, and view what he does by the point of the corner, which is on the one side, and that is by the high point, by which, if he would behold his enemy, from the head to the feet, it is requisite that he carry his Target, so low, that he discover not too much of his body which is above it: to the warding whereof he cannot come again, but discommodiously, and in long time.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''The manner how to holde the Square Target.'''''
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/92|2|lbl=-}}
'''B'''Eing desirous to beare great respect aswel to all the qualities of this Target (which are, the forme, the bignesse, and the heavines) as unto that wherwith it may either helpe or hurt, I saie (if a man would that the fourme thereof do bring him profit without hurt) it is to be holden with the high poynt therof upwards respecting the head: the parte opposit, the low partes of the bodie: the right parte therof, the right side, and the left, the left side: from this manner of bearing spring these advantages. First, a man may more easily see his enimie, and view what he doth by the point of his corner, which is on the one side, and that is by the high point, by which, if he woulde beholde his enimie, from the head to the feete, it is requisite that he carrie his Target, so lowe, that he discover not too much of his bodie which is above it: to the warding whereof he cannot come againe, but discommodiously, and in long time.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Di Grassi 18.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Di Grassi 18.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| Besides, the said commodity of beholding the enemy, there is also another that is of this warding: For the Target being borne after this manner (framing a triangle) the sharp corner thereof respects the forehead, and the sides thereof so spread themselves, that through the least motion, any big man whosoever, may stand safe behind them. And if blows come at the head, be they thrusts or edgeblows, all of them light upon one of the said sides, behind which stands the head safe without hindering of the eyesight. The other two sides of the Target, right, and left, with very small motion, ward the right and left side of the body, in such sort, that a man may also draw back his arm: For the left side of the Target wards the elbow, which it does not do, when the high side thereof is carried equal. To conclude therefore, that in holding the Target, his bigness may the better ward, for the causes abovesaid being superfluous to be repeated again, I counsel, it to be held with the arm stretched forth from the body, not accounting the heaviness to be hurtful, because continues not long in so holding it: and if the too long holding be painful, he may draw back his arm, and rest himself. The better to do this and to be able to see the enemy, I say, he shall hold it, his arm stretched out, with the high point outwards, respecting the forehead.
+
| <p>Besides, the said commodity of beholding the enemy, there is also another that is of this warding: For the Target being borne after this manner (framing a triangle) the sharp corner thereof respects the forehead, and the sides thereof so spread themselves, that through the least motion, any big man whosoever, may stand safe behind them. And if blows come at the head, be they thrusts or edge-blows, all of them light upon one of the said sides, behind which stands the head safe without hindering of the eyesight. The other two sides of the Target, right, and left, with very small motion, ward the right and left side of the body, in such sort, that a man may also draw back his arm: For the left side of the Target wards the elbow, which it does not do, when the high side thereof is carried equal. To conclude therefore, that in holding the Target, his bigness may the better ward, for the causes abovesaid being superfluous to be repeated again, I counsel, it to be held with the arm stretched forth from the body, not accounting the heaviness to be hurtful, because continues not long in so holding it: and if the too long holding be painful, he may draw back his arm, and rest himself. The better to do this and to be able to see the enemy, I say, he shall hold it, his arm stretched out, with the high point outwards, respecting the forehead.</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
| Besides, the said commoditie of beholding the enimie, there is also another that is of warding: For the Target being borne after this manner (framing a triangle) the sharpe corner thereof respecteth the forehead, and the sides thereof so spread themselves, that through the least motion, any bigg man whosoever, may stand safe behind them. And if blowes come at the head, be they thrustes or edgeblows, al of them light upon one of the said sides, behind which standeth the head safe without hindering of the eyesight. The other two sides of the Target, right, & left, with verie small motion, warde the right and left side of the bodie, in such sort, that a man may also draw back his arme: For the left side of the Target wardeth the elbowe, which it doth not do, when the high side thereof is carried equall. To conclude therefore, that in holding the Target, his bignes may the better warde, for the causes abovesaid being superfluous to be repeated againe, I counsell, it to be holden with the arme stretched forth from the bodie, not accompting the heavines to be hurtfull, because a man continueth not long in so holding it: and if the too long holding be painfull, he may drawe back his arme, and rest him selfe. The better to do this and to be able to see the enimie, I saie, he shall hold it, his arme stertched out, with the high point outwards, respecting the forehed.
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/92|3|lbl=-}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/93|1|lbl=81|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''THE HURT OF THE HIGH WARD, AT SWORD and SQUARE TARGET'''
+
| <p>'''The hurt of the high ward, at sword and square target'''</p>
Many Deceits, Falses, and Wards, may be practiced in the handling of these weapons: All which I reserve to the treatise of Deceit or falsing, as unto his proper place, framing likewise in this all the rest, three ordinary wards, upon which, all the rest depend, and against which they may be opposed.
+
 
 +
<p>Many Deceits, Falses, and Wards, may be practiced in the handling of these weapons: All which I reserve to the treatise of Deceit or falsing, as unto his proper place, framing likewise in this all the rest, three ordinary wards, upon which, all the rest depend, and against which they may be opposed.</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''The hurt of the high warde, at Sworde & Square Target.'''''
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/93|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/94|1|lbl=82|p=1}}
<br/>'''M'''Anie Deceites, Falses, and Wardes, may bee practised in the handling of these weapons: All which I reserve to the treatise of Deceite or falsing, as unto his proper place, framing likewise in this as in all the rest, three ordinarie wardes, upon which, all the rest depend, and against which they may be opposed.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Standing at this high ward, and pretending to strike the enemy, it is first of all to be provided, that one steal a false pace from behind, and then discharge a thrust above hand, with the increase of another half pace forwards, which being warded by the enemy with his Target only, not moving his body, he may then increase a straight pace of the left foot, and (somewhat lifting up his hand, and abasing the point of his sword) force a thrust from above downwards between the Target and body of the enemy, with the increase of a pace of the right foot: the which thrust will safely speed the enemy, if his body be not first voided. The self same thrust may be delivered in this high ward, standing with the right foot behind.
+
| <p>Standing at this high ward, and pretending to strike the enemy, it is first of all to be provided, that one steal a false pace from behind, and then discharge a thrust above hand, with the increase of another half pace forwards, which being warded by the enemy with his Target only, not moving his body, he may then increase a straight pace of the left foot, and (somewhat lifting up his hand, and abasing the point of his sword) force a thrust from above downwards between the Target and body of the enemy, with the increase of a pace of the right foot: the which thrust will safely speed the enemy, if his body be not first voided. The self same thrust may be delivered in this high ward, standing with the right foot behind.</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
| Standing at this high warde, and pretending to strike the enimie, it is first of all to be provided, that one steale a false pace from behinde, and then discharge a thrust above hande, with the increase of an other half pace forwards, which being warded by the enimie with his Target onely, not moving his bodie, he may then increase a straight pace of the left foote, & (somewhat lifting up his hand, and abasing the poynt of his sworde) force a thrust from above downwards betweene the Target & bodie of the enimie, with the encrease of a pace of the right foote: the which thrust will sfaely speede the enimie, if his bodie be not first voided. The selfe same thrust may be delivered in this high ward, standing with the right foote behind.
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/94|2|lbl=82|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/95|1|lbl=83|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''THE DEFENSE OF THE HIGH WARD, AT SWORD SQUARE TARGET'''
+
| <p>'''The defense of the high ward, at sword and square target'''</p>
The foresaid thrust may easily be warded, if in the very time that it comes it be encountered with the high point of the Target, but yet with that side which bends towards the right hand. And as soon as the enemy's sword is come one handful within the Target, it must be strongly beaten off by the Target towards the right hand, increasing the same instant a left pace. Then with as great an increase of a pace of the right foot as may be possible, a thrust underneath most be given, already prepared, because a man ought to stand at the low ward for the warding of the thrust abovehand.
+
 
 +
<p>The foresaid thrust may easily be warded, if in the very time that it comes it be encountered with the high point of the Target, but yet with that side which bends towards the right hand. And as soon as the enemy's sword is come one handful within the Target, it must be strongly beaten off by the Target towards the right hand, increasing the same instant a left pace. Then with as great an increase of a pace of the right foot as may be possible, a thrust underneath most be given, already prepared, because a man ought to stand at the low ward for the warding of the thrust above-hand.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''The defence of the high warde, at Sworde & Square Target.'''''
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/95|2|lbl=-}}
'''T'''HE foresaid thrust may easily be warded, if in the verie time that it commeth it be encountred with the high poynt of the Target, but with that side which bendeth towardes the right hand. And as soone as the enimies sworde is come one handfull within the Target, it must be strongly beaten off by the Target towardes the right hand, increasing the same instant a left pace. Then with as great an increase of a pace of the right foote as may be possible, a thrust underneath most be given, already prepared, because a man ought to stand at the lowe warde for the warding of the thrust abovehand.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''THE HURT OF THE BROAD WARD, AT SWORD and SQUARE TARGET'''
+
| <p>'''The hurt of the broad ward, at sword and square target'''</p>
In this ward likewise, the enemy may be invested on the point of the sword, by going forwards as straightly as is possible, and by striking quickly before the enemy. For the Target (whose charge is only to defend) is so great, that it may easily ward all edgeblows, and those chiefly which come from the knee upwards. Farther, when a blow is pretended to be delivered, it is manifest, that a thrust does enter by a more narrow straight than any edgeblow does. And therefore, when one would strike the enemy standing at the lock or low ward, he must remember that he approach as near him as he may possible: and being so near, that with his Target put forth one handful more forwards, he may beat away the enemy's sword, then by so beating of it, he shall increase a left pace, and presently after it, with the increase of the right foot, deliver him a thrust, if it so chance that at the first encounter he strike him not strongly.
+
 
 +
<p>In this ward likewise, the enemy may be invested on the point of the sword, by going forwards as straightly as is possible, and by striking quickly before the enemy. For the Target (whose charge is only to defend) is so great, that it may easily ward all edge-blows, and those chiefly which come from the knee upwards. Farther, when a blow is pretended to be delivered, it is manifest, that a thrust does enter by a more narrow straight than any edge-blow does. And therefore, when one would strike the enemy standing at the lock or low ward, he must remember that he approach as near him as he may possible: and being so near, that with his Target put forth one handful more forwards, he may beat away the enemy's sword, then by so beating of it, he shall increase a left pace, and presently after it, with the increase of the right foot, deliver him a thrust, if it so chance that at the first encounter he strike him not strongly.</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''The hurt of the broad warde, at Sworde and Square Target.'''''
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/95|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/96|1|lbl=84|p=1}}
'''I'''N this warde likewise, the enimie may be invested on the poynt of the sworde, by going forwardes as straightly as is possible, and by striking quickly before the enimie. For the Target (whose charge is onely to defend) is so great, that it may easily warde all edgeblowes, & those chiefly which come from the knee upwardes. Farther, when a blowe is pretended to be delivered, it is manifestly, that a thrust doth enter by a more narrowe straight than any edgeblowe doth. And therefore, when one woulde strike the enimie standing at the locke or lowe warde, he must remember that he approch as neere him as he may be possible: and being so neere, that with his Target put forth one handfull more forwards, he may beate awaie the enimies sworde, then by so beating of it, he shal encrease a left pace, and presently after it, with the increase of a pace of the right foote, deliver him a thrust, if it so chaunce that at the first encounter he strake him not strongly.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''THE DEFENSE OF THE BROAD WARD, AT SWORD SQUARE TARGET'''
+
| <p>'''The defense of the broad ward, at sword and square target'''</p>
Standing at the low ward, one may ward and defend the thrust of the broad ward, diverse ways, among all which, there is one way, very easy and sure and thus is it.  
+
 
 +
<p>Standing at the low ward, one may ward and defend the thrust of the broad ward, diverse ways, among all which, there is one way, very easy and sure and thus is it.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''The defence of the broad warde, at Sworde and Square Target.'''''
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/96|2|lbl=-}}
'''S'''Tanding at the lowe ward, one may warde and defend the thrust of the broad warde, divers waies, among all which, there is one waie, verie easie and sure and thus it is.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| For the defense of this thrust, it is necessary, that he stand at the low ward, his sword and arm being in their proper place: and that with his Target something stretched out from his body, he provoke the enemy, who being determined in himself, and coming resolutely to give a thrust, he then ought with the increase of a pace of the right foot, to strike the enemy with a low thrust, underneath both his own and his enemy's Target.
+
| <p>For the defense of this thrust, it is necessary, that he stand at the low ward, his sword and arm being in their proper place: and that with his Target something stretched out from his body, he provoke the enemy, who being determined in himself, and coming resolutely to give a thrust, he then ought with the increase of a pace of the right foot, to strike the enemy with a low thrust, underneath both his own and his enemy's Target.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| For the defence of this thrust, it is necessarie, that he stande at the lowe warde, his sword and arme being in their proper place: and that with his Target something stretched out from his bodie, he provoke the enimie, who being determined in himselfe, and comming resolutely to give a thrust, hee then ought with the increase of a pace of the right foote, to strike the enimie with a lowe thrust, underneath both his owne and his enimies Target.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/96|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''THE HURT OF THE LOW WARD AT SWORD AND SQUARE TARGET'''
+
| <p>'''The hurt of the low ward, at sword and square target'''</p>
There are many blows to be bestowed, standing at the low ward, all which I esteem as vain and to no purpose, considering the manifold and abundant defense of the Target. Therefore I will restrain myself unto two only which are very strong and hardly to be warded. And they are two thrusts, the one within, the other without, with the right foot both before and behind.
+
 
 +
<p>There are many blows to be bestowed, standing at the low ward, all which I esteem as vain and to no purpose, considering the manifold and abundant defense of the Target. Therefore I will restrain myself unto two only which are very strong and hardly to be warded. And they are two thrusts, the one within, the other without, with the right foot both before and behind.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''Of the hurt of the lowe warde, at Sworde and Square Target.'''''
+
|  
'''T'''Here are manie blowes to be bestowed, standing at the lowe warde, all which I esteeme as vaine & to no purpose, considering the manifold and abundant defence of the Target. Therefore I will restraine my selfe unto two onely which are verie strong and hardly to be warded. And they are two thrustes, the one within, the other without, with the right foote both before and behinde.
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/96|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/97|1|lbl=85|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| When one finds himself within, with his right foot before, and so near his enemy, that by the increase of a left pace, he may with the right side of his Target, beat away the enemy's sword in the middle thereof, then he ought nimbly to increase that left pace, and (closing in the enemy's sword between his Target and his own sword) to deliver a forcible thrust at the thighs, with the increase of the right foot. He may also do the very self same when he finds himself to stand with his right foot behind, but then he must farther of the right foot first, and then continuing still force his sword and paces directly onwards, if he hit not the enemy as he would at the first.
+
| <p>When one finds himself within, with his right foot before, and so near his enemy, that by the increase of a left pace, he may with the right side of his Target, beat away the enemy's sword in the middle thereof, then he ought nimbly to increase that left pace, and (closing in the enemy's sword between his Target and his own sword) to deliver a forcible thrust at the thighs, with the increase of the right foot. He may also do the very self same when he finds himself to stand with his right foot behind, but then he must farther of the right foot first, and then continuing still force his sword and paces directly onwards, if he hit not the enemy as he would at the first.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| When one findeth himselfe within, with his right foote before, and so neere his enimie, that by the increase of a left pace, he may with the right side of his Target, beate awaie the enimies sworde in the middle thereof, then he ought nimblie to encrease that lefte pace, and (closing in the enimies sworde between his Target and his owne sworde) to deliver a forcible thrust at the thighes, with the encrease of a pace of the right foote. He may also do the verie selfesame when he findeth himselfe to stande with his right foote behinde, but then he must farther increase a pace of the right foote first, and then continuing still force his sworde and paces directly onwards, if he hit not the enimie as he would at the first.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/97|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| But if it chance that he find himself without, then he must (having first found out fit opportunity to beat off the enemy's sword with his Target) increase a left pace, and placing the high side of his Target under his enemy's sword and his own sword upon it, closing it in, in the middle, increase a pace of the right foot, and discharge a forcible thrust, at the breast or face. And he may do the self same, when he stands with the right foot behind.
+
| <p>But if it chance that he find himself without, then he must (having first found out fit opportunity to beat off the enemy's sword with his Target) increase a left pace, and placing the high side of his Target under his enemy's sword and his own sword upon it, closing it in, in the middle, increase a pace of the right foot, and discharge a forcible thrust, at the breast or face. And he may do the self same, when he stands with the right foot behind.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| But if it chaunce that he finde himselfe without, then he must (having first found out fit opportunitie to beate off the enimies sworde with his Target) encrease a elft pace, and placing the high side of his Target under the enimies sworde and his owne sworde upon it, closing it i n, in the middle, encrease a pace of the right foote, and discharge a forcible thrust, at the brest or face. And he may do the selfe same, when he standeth with the right foote behind.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/97|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''THE DEFENSE OF THE LOW WARD, AT SWORD and SQUARE TARGET'''
+
| <p>'''The defense of the low ward at sword and square target'''</p>
For the warding of those two thrusts of the low ward, it is necessary, that a man stand at the same ward. And as the enemy comes resolutely determined to thrust within, he must as soon, or more readily then he, increase a left pace, and with the right side of his Target close in the enemy's sword, between it and his own sword, and then to enter perforce, and thrust either between the two Targets or else under them, with the increase of a pace of the right foot.
+
 
 +
<p>For the warding of those two thrusts of the low ward, it is necessary, that a man stand at the same ward. And as the enemy comes resolutely determined to thrust within, he must as soon, or more readily then he, increase a left pace, and with the right side of his Target close in the enemy's sword, between it and his own sword, and then to enter perforce, and thrust either between the two Targets or else under them, with the increase of a pace of the right foot.</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''Of the defence of the high warde, at Sworde and Square Target.'''''
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/97|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/98|1|lbl=86|p=1}}
'''F'''Or the warding of those two thrustes of the lowe warde, it is necessarie, that a man stande at the same warde. And as the enimie commeth resolutely determined to thrust within, he must as soone, or more redily then he, encrease a left pace, and with the right side of his Target close in the enimies sword, between it and his own sworde, and then to enter perforce, & thrust either betweene the two Targets or els under them, with the increase of a pace of the right foote.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | But if the enemy come without, he must increase the self same slope pace, and with the right side of his Target beat off the point of the enemy's sword, and then thrust either above, either beneath, as in that occasion it shall be most to his advantage with the increase of the pace of the right foot. And when in consideration of the abundant defenses of the Target, he may neither increase his paces, not deliver a thrust, he must settle himself in the low ward with the right foot behind, which ward I will largely handle in the treatise of deceit or falsing, being as it were his proper place, here ending the true handling of the sword and square Target.
+
| class="noline" | <p>But if the enemy come without, he must increase the self same slope pace, and with the right side of his Target beat off the point of the enemy's sword, and then thrust either above, either beneath, as in that occasion it shall be most to his advantage with the increase of the pace of the right foot. And when in consideration of the abundant defenses of the Target, he may neither increase his paces, not deliver a thrust, he must settle himself in the low ward with the right foot behind, which ward I will largely handle in the treatise of deceit or falsing, being as it were his proper place, here ending the true handling of the sword and square Target.</p>
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | But if the enimie come without, he must encrease the selfe same slope pace, & with the right side of his Target beat off the point of the enimies sword, & then thrust either above, either beneath, as in that occasion it shal be most for his advantage with the increase of the pace of the right foote. And when in consideration of the aboundant defence of the Target, he may neither increase his paces, nor deliver a thrust, he must settle himselfe in the lowe warde with the right foote behinde, which ward I will largely handle in the treatise of deceite or falsing, being as it were his proper place, here ending the true handling of the sword and square Target.
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/98|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|}
 
|}
{{master end}}
+
{{master subsection end}}
  
{{master begin
+
{{master subsection begin
 
  | title = Rapier and Round Shield
 
  | title = Rapier and Round Shield
 
  | width = 120em
 
  | width = 120em
Line 1,564: Line 1,648:
 
{| class="master"
 
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Images<br/>from the 1570</p>
+
! <p>Figures<br/>from the 1570</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}</p>
Line 1,571: Line 1,655:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''OF THE SWORD AND ROUND TARGET.'''
+
| <p>'''Of the sword and round target'''</p>
The round Target would require a long and most exquisite consideration because it is of circular form, most capable, and most perfect of all others. But for that my purpose in this my work, is to write that only which I know does appertain to this Art, giving leave to every man to busy himself in his own profession. And leaving a great part of this consideration to the Mathematicians and Historiographers to reason of his diverse qualities or passions, either who was inventor thereof, either, whether it be a weapon of antiquity, or of this our age, And coming to discourse of that, wherein it profits in this our time, (being a weapon so greatly honored and esteemed of Princes, Lords, and Gentlemen, that besides the use thereof in their affairs, as well by day as by night, they also keep their hoses richly decked and beautified therewith) And considering only that thing, in the round Target, among all weapons which may profit or hurt in the handling thereof, I say, that the said round Target has been diversely held, borne and used, by diverse men in diverse ages, as well as the other square Target, and other weapons of defense, as well as of offense. And there want not also men in our time, who to the intent they be not wearied, bear it leaning on their thigh as though that in this exercise (in which only travail and pains are available) a man should only care for rest and quietness. For by the means of these two, strength and activity, (parts in the exercise of weapons, both important and necessary) are obtained and gotten.
+
 
 +
<p>The round Target would require a long and most exquisite consideration because it is of circular form, most capable, and most perfect of all others. But for that my purpose in this my work, is to write that only which I know does appertain to this Art, giving leave to every man to busy himself in his own profession. And leaving a great part of this consideration to the Mathematicians and Historiographers to reason of his diverse qualities or passions, either who was inventor thereof, either, whether it be a weapon of antiquity, or of this our age, And coming to discourse of that, wherein it profits in this our time, (being a weapon so greatly honored and esteemed of Princes, Lords, and Gentlemen, that besides the use thereof in their affairs, as well by day as by night, they also keep their hoses richly decked and beautified therewith) And considering only that thing, in the round Target, among all weapons which may profit or hurt in the handling thereof, I say, that the said round Target has been diversely held, borne and used, by diverse men in diverse ages, as well as the other square Target, and other weapons of defense, as well as of offense. And there want not also men in our time, who to the intent they be not wearied, bear it leaning on their thigh as though that in this exercise (in which only travail and pains are available) a man should only care for rest and quietness. For by the means of these two, strength and activity, (parts in the exercise of weapons, both important and necessary) are obtained and gotten.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/101|2|lbl=75}}
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''Of the Sworde & rounde Target.'''''
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/98|3|lbl=86|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/99|1|lbl=87|p=1}}
'''T'''HE round Target would require a long & most exquisite consideration because it is of cerculer forme, most capable, and most perfect of all others. But for that my purpose in this my worke, is to write that only which I know doth appertaine to this Arte, giving leave to every man to busie him selfe in his owne profession. And leaving a great part of this consideration to the Mathematicians & Historiographers to reason of his divers qualities or passions, either who was inventor thereof, either, whether it be a weapon of antiquitie, or of this our age, And comming to discourse of that, wherein it profiteth in this our time, (being a weapon sogreatly honoured and estemed of Princes, Lords, & Gentlemen, that besids thuse thereof in their affairs, as wel by day as by night, they also keepe their houses richly decked and beautified therewith,) And considering onely that thing, in the round Target, among al other weapons which may either profite or hurt in the handling thereof, I saie, that the said round Target hath beene diversely holden, borne and used, by divers men in divers ages, as well as the other square Target, and other weapons of defence, as well as of offence. And there want not also men in our time, who to the intent they be not wearied, beare it leaning on their thigh as though that in this exercise (in which only travaile and paines are availeable,) a man should onelie care for rest and quietnesse. For by meanes of these two, strength and activitie, (partes in the exercise of weapons, both important and necessarie) are obtained and gotten.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Other some, holding their whole Arm bowed together, have carried it altogether flat against their body, not regarding either to ward their belly, or utterly to lose the sight of the enemy, but will at any hand stand (as they think) safe behind it, as behind a wall, not knowing what a manner of weight it is, both to see the enemy, and work other effects, which, (by so holding it) may not be brought to pass.
+
| <p>Other some, holding their whole Arm bowed together, have carried it altogether flat against their body, not regarding either to ward their belly, or utterly to lose the sight of the enemy, but will at any hand stand (as they think) safe behind it, as behind a wall, not knowing what a manner of weight it is, both to see the enemy, and work other effects, which, (by so holding it) may not be brought to pass.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| Other some, holding their whole Arme bowed togeither, have carried it altogeither flat against their bodie, not regarding either to warde their bellie, or utterlie to lose the sight of the enimie, but will at any hande stand (as they thinke) safe behind it, as behinde a wal, not knowing what a matter of weight it is, both to see the enimie, and worke other effects, which, (by so holding it) may not be brought to passe.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/99|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Di Grassi 19.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Di Grassi 19.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| '''OF THE MANNER HOW TO HOLD THE ROUND TARGET.'''
+
| <p>'''Of the manner how to hold the round target'''</p>
If a man would so bear the round Target, that it may cover the whole body, and yet nothing hinder him from seeing his enemy, which is a matter of great importance, it is requisite, that he bear it towards the enemy, not with the convex or outward part thereof, altogether equal, plain or even, neither to hold his arm so bowed, that in his elbow there be made (if not a sharp yet) at least a straight corner. For besides that (by so holding it) it wearies the arm: it likewise so hinders the sight, that if he would see his enemy from the breast downwards, of necessity he must abase his Target, or bear his head so peeping forwards, that it may be sooner hurt than the Target may come to ward it. And farther it so defends, that only so much of the body is warded, as the Target is big, or little more, because it cannot more then the half arm, from the elbow to the shoulder, which is very little, as every man knows or may perceive: So that the head shall be warded with great pain, and the thighs shall altogether remain discovered, in such sort, that to save the belly, he shall leave all the rest of the body in jeopardy. Therefore, if he would hold the said Target, that it may well defend all that part of the body, which is from the knee upwards, and that he may see his enemy, it is requisite that he bear his arm, if not right, yet at least bowed so little, that in the elbow there be framed so blunt an angle or corner, that his eyebeams passing near that part of the circumference of the Target, which is near his hand, may see his enemy from the head to the foot. And by holding the said convex part in this manner, it shall ward all the left side, and the circumference near the hand shall with the least motion defend the right side, the head and the thighs. And in this manner he shall keep his enemy in sight and defend all that part of the body, which is allotted unto the said Target. Therefore the said Target shall be born, the arm in a manner so straight towards the left side, that the eyesight may pass to behold the enemy without moving, for this only occasion, either the head, or the Target.
+
 
 +
<p>If a man would so bear the round Target, that it may cover the whole body, and yet nothing hinder him from seeing his enemy, which is a matter of great importance, it is requisite, that he bear it towards the enemy, not with the convex or outward part thereof, altogether equal, plain or even, neither to hold his arm so bowed, that in his elbow there be made (if not a sharp yet) at least a straight corner. For besides that (by so holding it) it wearies the arm: it likewise so hinders the sight, that if he would see his enemy from the breast downwards, of necessity he must abase his Target, or bear his head so peeping forwards, that it may be sooner hurt than the Target may come to ward it. And farther it so defends, that only so much of the body is warded, as the Target is big, or little more, because it cannot more then the half arm, from the elbow to the shoulder, which is very little, as every man knows or may perceive: So that the head shall be warded with great pain, and the thighs shall altogether remain discovered, in such sort, that to save the belly, he shall leave all the rest of the body in jeopardy. Therefore, if he would hold the said Target, that it may well defend all that part of the body, which is from the knee upwards, and that he may see his enemy, it is requisite that he bear his arm, if not right, yet at least bowed so little, that in the elbow there be framed so blunt an angle or corner, that his eyebeams passing near that part of the circumference of the Target, which is near his hand, may see his enemy from the head to the foot. And by holding the said convex part in this manner, it shall ward all the left side, and the circumference near the hand shall with the least motion defend the right side, the head and the thighs. And in this manner he shall keep his enemy in sight and defend all that part of the body, which is allotted unto the said Target. Therefore the said Target shall be born, the arm in a manner so straight towards the left side, that the eyesight may pass to behold the enemy without moving, for this only occasion, either the head, or the Target.</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''Of the maner how to holde the round Target.'''''
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/100|1|lbl=88|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/101|1|lbl=89|p=1}}
'''I'''F a man would so beare the rounde Target, that it may cover the whole bodie, and yet nothing hinder him from seeing his enimie, which is a matter of great importance, it is requisite, that he beare it towardes the enimie, not with the convexe or outward parte thereof, altogither equall, plaine or even, neither to holde his arme so bowed, that in his elbowe there be made (if not a sharpe yet) at least a straight corner. For besides that (by so holding it) it wearieth the arme: it likewise so hindereth the sight, that if hee would see his enimie from the brest downwardes, of necessitie he must either abase his Target, or beare his head so peeping forwardes, that it may be sooner hurt than the Target may come to warde it. And farther it so defendeth, that onely so much of the bodie is warded, as the Target is bigg, or little more, because it cannot more then the halfe arme, from the elbowe to the shoulder, which is verie little, as everie man knoweth or may perceive: So that the head shal be warded with great paine, and the thighes shal altogether remaine discovered, in such sort, that to save the bellie, he shal leave all the rest of the bodie in jeopardie. Therefore, if he would so holde the said Target, that it may well defend all that part of the bodie, which is from the knee upwardes, and that he maie see his enimie, it is requisite that he beare his arme, if not right, yet at least bowed so little, that in the elbowe there be framed so blunt an angle or corner, that his eyebeames passing neere that part of the circumference of the Target, which is neere his hande, may see his enimie from the head to the foot. And by holding the saide convexe parte in this manner, it shall warde all the left side, and the circumference neere the hande shall with the least motion defend all the right side, the head and the thighes. And in this maner he shall keepe his enimie in sight & defend all that parte of the body, which is allotted unto the said Target. Therefore the said Target shall be born, th arme in a manner so streight towards the left side, that the eyesight may passe to beholde the enimie without mooving, for this onely occasion, either the head, or the Target.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''THE HURT OF THE HIGH WARD, AT SWORD AND ROUND TARGET'''
+
| <p>'''The hurt of the high ward, at sword and round target'''</p>
Because the round Target contains in it most great and sure defense, therefore ought not any edgeblow which may be easily warded with the single sword without the help of the Target be delivered. Thrusts also enter very difficultly to strike the body, because the Target, by means of the least motion that is, seems to be, as it were a wall before the body. And to thrust at the leg is no sure play. That which remains to be done, is to thrust forcibly with the sword: and when one perceives, that the point thereof is entered within the circumference of the enemy's Target, it is necessary that he increase a left pace, and with the circumference of his own Target, to beat off the enemy's sword and Target, to the end, it suffer the thrust so given of force to enter in. And (having so beaten and entered) to continue on the thrust in the straight line, with the increase of a pace of the right foot.
+
 
 +
<p>Because the round Target contains in it most great and sure defense, therefore ought not any edge-blow which may be easily warded with the single sword without the help of the Target be delivered. Thrusts also enter very difficultly to strike the body, because the Target, by means of the least motion that is, seems to be, as it were a wall before the body. And to thrust at the leg is no sure play. That which remains to be done, is to thrust forcibly with the sword: and when one perceives, that the point thereof is entered within the circumference of the enemy's Target, it is necessary that he increase a left pace, and with the circumference of his own Target, to beat off the enemy's sword and Target, to the end, it suffer the thrust so given of force to enter in. And (having so beaten and entered) to continue on the thrust in the straight line, with the increase of a pace of the right foot.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''The hurt of the high warde, at sworde and round Target.'''''
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/102|1|lbl=90}}
'''B'''Ecause the round Target containeth in it most great & sure defence, therefore ought not any edgeblowe which may easily warded with the single sword without the helpe of the Target be delivered. Thrustes also enter verie difficultlie to strike the bodie, because the Target, by meanes of the lest motion that is, seemeth to be, as it were a wall before the bodie. And to thrust at the legge is no sure plaie. That which remaineth to be done is, to thrust forcibly with the sworde: and when one perceiveth, that the point therof is entred within the circumference of the enimies Target, it is necessary that he encrease a left pace, and with the circumference of his owne Target, to beat off the enimies sworde and Target, to the end, it suffer the thrust so given of force to enter in. And (having so beaten & entred) to continue on the thrust in the straight lyne, with the encrease of a pace of the right foote.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| When he finds himself in the high ward, he shall increase a half pace with the hindfoot, gathering upon the enemy, as near as he may without danger. And being so nigh that he may drive his sword within the circumference, then as soon as he perceives his sword to be within it, (his arm being stretched out at the uttermost length) he ought suddenly to increase a left pace, beating off with the circumference of his own Target, the enemy's Target: and with the increase of a pace of the right foot, to cause his thrust to enter perforce. This also he may practice when the enemy endeavors, to withstand the entrance of the thrust, when it is already past, within the circumference of his Target.
+
| <p>When he finds himself in the high ward, he shall increase a half pace with the hindfoot, gathering upon the enemy, as near as he may without danger. And being so nigh that he may drive his sword within the circumference, then as soon as he perceives his sword to be within it, (his arm being stretched out at the uttermost length) he ought suddenly to increase a left pace, beating off with the circumference of his own Target, the enemy's Target: and with the increase of a pace of the right foot, to cause his thrust to enter perforce. This also he may practice when the enemy endeavors, to withstand the entrance of the thrust, when it is already past, within the circumference of his Target.</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
| When he findeth himselfe in the high ward, he shal encrease a halfe pace with the hinderfoote, gathering upon the enimie, as neere as he may without danger. And being so nigh that he may drive his sword within the circumference, then as soone as he perceiveth his sworde to be within it, (his arme being stretched out at the uttermost length) he ought suddenly to encrease a left pace, beating off with the circumference of his owne Target, the enimies Target: and with the increase of a pace of th right foote, to cause his thrust to enter perforce. This also he may practise when the enimie endevoureth, to withstand the entrace of the thrust, when it is alreadie past, within the circumference of his Target.
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/102|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/103|1|lbl=91|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| But if the enemy (as it may fall out) ward this thrust not with part of the circumference, which is near his hand, but that which is above it (by means whereof his Target discovers his eyes) then he may very commodious, increasing his paces as aforesaid, recover his thrust above, and force it underneath, with the increase of a pace of the right foot. And this is a more sure way of thrusting than any other.
+
| <p>But if the enemy (as it may fall out) ward this thrust not with part of the circumference, which is near his hand, but that which is above it (by means whereof his Target discovers his eyes) then he may very commodious, increasing his paces as aforesaid, recover his thrust above, and force it underneath, with the increase of a pace of the right foot. And this is a more sure way of thrusting than any other.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| But if the enimie (as it may fall out) ward this thrust not with that parte of the circumference, which is neere his hand, but with that which is above it (by meanes whereof his target discovereth his eyes) then he may verie commodiously, encreasing his paces as aforesaid, recover his thrust above, and force it underneath, with the increase of a pace of the right foote. And this is a more sure waie of thrusting than any other.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/103|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''THE DEFENSE OF THE HIGH WARD, AT SWORD AND ROUND TARGET'''
+
| <p>'''The defense of the high ward, at sword and round target'''</p>
For the defending of the thrust of the high ward, it is most sure standing at the low ward, and to endeavor to overcome the enemy, by the same skill by the which he himself would obtain the victory. In the very same time, that he delivers his thrust, a man must suddenly increase a slope pace with the left foot, beating off the enemy's Target with his own, and driving of a thrust perforce with the increase of a pace of the right foot. And with this manner of defense being done with such nimbleness as is required, he does also safely strike the enemy, who cannot strike him again, because, by means of the said slope pace he is carried out of the line in the which the enemy pretended to strike.
+
 
 +
<p>For the defending of the thrust of the high ward, it is most sure standing at the low ward, and to endeavor to overcome the enemy, by the same skill by the which he himself would obtain the victory. In the very same time, that he delivers his thrust, a man must suddenly increase a slope pace with the left foot, beating off the enemy's Target with his own, and driving of a thrust perforce with the increase of a pace of the right foot. And with this manner of defense being done with such nimbleness as is required, he does also safely strike the enemy, who cannot strike him again, because, by means of the said slope pace he is carried out of the line in the which the enemy pretended to strike.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''The defence of the high ward, at Sword & round Target.'''''
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/103|3|lbl=-}}
<br/>'''F'''Or the defending of the thrust of the high warde, it is most sure standing at the lowe warde, and to endevour to overcome the enimie, by the same skill by the which he himselfe would obtaine the victorie. In the very same time, that he delivereth his thrust, a man must suddenly encrease a slope pace with the lefte foote, beating of the enimies Target with his owne, & driving of a thrust perforce with the increase of a pace of the right foote. And with this manner of defence being done with such nimblenesse as is required, hee doth also safely strike the enimie, who cannot strike him againe, because, by meanes of the saide slope pace he is carried out of the lyne in which the enimie pretended to strike.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''THE HURT OF THE BROAD WARD, AT SWORD AND ROUND TARGET'''
+
| <p>'''The hurt of the broad ward, at sword and round target'''</p>
It is very difficult to strike in this broad ward, if first with much compassing and gathering of the enemy, a man do not assay with the circumference of his Target near his hand, to beat off the enemy's sword. And being so beaten, to increase a left pace, and farther by adding thereunto the increase of a pace of the right foot, to discharge a thrust. But it shall happily be better in the handling of these weapons, not to use this broad ward: for the hand is borne out of the straight line, in the which he may strike both safely and readily: And before it return to said line, there is much time spent.
+
 
 +
<p>It is very difficult to strike in this broad ward, if first with much compassing and gathering of the enemy, a man do not assay with the circumference of his Target near his hand, to beat off the enemy's sword. And being so beaten, to increase a left pace, and farther by adding thereunto the increase of a pace of the right foot, to discharge a thrust. But it shall happily be better in the handling of these weapons, not to use this broad ward: for the hand is borne out of the straight line, in the which he may strike both safely and readily: And before it return to said line, there is much time spent.</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''The hurt of the broad warde, at Sworde & round Target.'''''
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/103|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/104|1|lbl=92|p=1}}
<br/>'''I'''T is verie difficulte to strike in this broad ward, if first with much compassing & gathering of the enimie, a man do not assaie with the circumference of his Target neere his hand, to beate off the enimies sworde. And being so beaten, to encrease a left pace, and farther by adding thereunto the increase of a pace of the right foote, to discharge a thrust. But it shall happely be better in the handling of these weapons, not to use this broad ward: for the hand is borne out of the straight lyne, in the which he may strike both safely and readily: And before it returne into the saide lyne, there is much time spent.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| And farther, a man is not then in case with his Target to beat off the enemy's sword: But if happily he be, yet (though he be very ready, as well with the hand as foot) his thrust shall never enter so far that it may hit home: For the enemy, with a very small motion of his Target forwards, may very easily drive the enemy's sword out of the straight line. Therefore, he that would change or shift out of this ward, to the intent to strike, must of necessity be passing nimble and ready, and before he delivers his blow, must beat the enemy's sword with his Target.
+
| <p>And farther, a man is not then in case with his Target to beat off the enemy's sword: But if happily he be, yet (though he be very ready, as well with the hand as foot) his thrust shall never enter so far that it may hit home: For the enemy, with a very small motion of his Target forwards, may very easily drive the enemy's sword out of the straight line. Therefore, he that would change or shift out of this ward, to the intent to strike, must of necessity be passing nimble and ready, and before he delivers his blow, must beat the enemy's sword with his Target.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| And farther, a man is not then in case with his Target to beate off the enimies sworde: But if happily he be, yet (though he be verie readie, as well with the hand as foote) his thrust shall never enter so farre that it may hit home: For the enimie, with a verie small motion of his Target forwards, may verie easily drive thenimies sword out of the strait lyne. Therefore, he that would change or shifte out of this warde, to the intent to strike, must of necessitie be passing nimble & readie, and before he delivereth his blowe, must beat the enimies sword with his Target.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/104|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''THE DEFENSE OF THE BROAD WARD, AT SWORD AND ROUND TARGET'''
+
| <p>'''The defense of the broad ward, at sword and round target'''</p>
Because in every occasion or accident a man stands safe in the low ward, I will endeavor in this case, to place him also in the same ward, for the encountering of the hurt of the broad ward. That therefore which by mine advise he shall do, is that -eat heed, not to suffer his sword to be beaten off any manner of way. And when the enemy without this beating presumes to enter, he must in the self same time increase a left pace and safely deliver a thrust underneath with the increase of the right foot. And farther, when the enemy shall perform, that is, first find the sword and beat it off, (seeing of necessity if he would enter and hit home, his sword must pass by the circumference of the Target near the hand) then, to withstand the entry, it is requisite that he drive the enemy's sword outwards on the right side with his Target and with the increase of the said pace, that he enter and strike him.
+
 
 +
<p>Because in every occasion or accident a man stands safe in the low ward, I will endeavor in this case, to place him also in the same ward, for the encountering of the hurt of the broad ward. That therefore which by mine advise he shall do, is that -eat heed, not to suffer his sword to be beaten off any manner of way. And when the enemy without this beating presumes to enter, he must in the self same time increase a left pace and safely deliver a thrust underneath with the increase of the right foot. And farther, when the enemy shall perform, that is, first find the sword and beat it off, (seeing of necessity if he would enter and hit home, his sword must pass by the circumference of the Target near the hand) then, to withstand the entry, it is requisite that he drive the enemy's sword outwards on the right side with his Target and with the increase of the said pace, that he enter and strike him.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''The defence of the broad warde, at Sword & round Target.'''''
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/104|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/105|1|lbl=93|p=1}}
'''B'''Ecause in everie occasion or accident a man standeth safe in the lowe warde, I will endevour in this case, to place him also in the same warde, for the encountring of the hurt of the broad warde. That therefore which by mine advise he shall do, is that he take great heede, not to suffer his sworde to be beaten off any manner of waie. And when the enimie without this beating presumeth to enter, he must in the selfesame time increase a left pace & safely deliver a thrust underneath with the increase of the right foote. And farther, when the enimie shall perfourme, that is, first finde the sworde and beate it off, (seeing of necessitie if he would enter and hit home, his sword must passe by the circumference of the Target neere the hande) then, to withstande the entrie, it is requisite that hee drive the enimies sworde outwards on the right side with his Target and with the increase of the said pace, that he enter and strike him.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''THE HURT OF THE LOW WARD, AT SWORD AND ROUND TARGET'''
+
| <p>'''The hurt of the low ward, at sword and round target'''</p>
A man may strike in this ward, the right foot being behind, and before, and in both ways, he may bear his sword either within or without. If therefore he find himself to stand with the right foot behind and without, he shall assay at any hand, before he determine to strike, to find the enemy's sword with his own, and as soon as he finds it shall clap to his Target, and strike perforce with a low thrust, increasing with the right foot. But finding himself to stand within, no more with his sword, then he does with his Target, he shall prove whether he can find the enemy's sword, and having found it, shall strain it fast between his own sword and Target, and then shall deliver a thrust with the increase of a pace of the right foot, the which thrust of force speeds: This being performed, he shall settle himself in this, or in either of these ways in the low ward with the right foot before. And as he so stands in this ward, he may after the same sort strike either within or without.
+
 
 +
<p>A man may strike in this ward, the right foot being behind, and before, and in both ways, he may bear his sword either within or without. If therefore he find himself to stand with the right foot behind and without, he shall assay at any hand, before he determine to strike, to find the enemy's sword with his own, and as soon as he finds it shall clap to his Target, and strike perforce with a low thrust, increasing with the right foot. But finding himself to stand within, no more with his sword, then he does with his Target, he shall prove whether he can find the enemy's sword, and having found it, shall strain it fast between his own sword and Target, and then shall deliver a thrust with the increase of a pace of the right foot, the which thrust of force speeds: This being performed, he shall settle himself in this, or in either of these ways in the low ward with the right foot before. And as he so stands in this ward, he may after the same sort strike either within or without.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''The hurt of the lowe warde, at Sword & round Target.'''''
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/105|2|lbl=-}}
<br/>'''A''' Man may strike in this ward, the right foote being behinde, and before, & in both waies, he may beare his sworde either within or without. If therefore he finde h imselfe to stande with the right foote behinde and without, he shall assaie at any hande, before he determine to strike, to finde the enimies sworde with his owne, and as soone as hee findes it shall clap to his Target, and strike perforce with a low thrust, encreasing with the right foote. But finding himselfe to stand within, no more with his sworde, then he doth with with his Target, he shall prove whether he can finde the enimies sworde, and having found it, shall straine it fast betweene his owne sworde and Target, & then shall deliver a thrust with the increase of a pace of the right foote, the which thrust of force speedeth: This being perfourmed, he shall settle himselfe in this, or in either of these waies in the lowe warde with the right foote before. And as he so standeth in this arde, he may after the same sorte strike either within or without.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Therefore finding himself within, he shall provide to meet with the enemy's sword, and with the increase of a left pace, shall clap to his Target, for the most safety, and then drive on a forcible thrust. with the increasing of the right foot. And finding himself to bear his sword within in the said ward, and with his right foot behind, he shall endeavor to find the enemy's sword with his Target, and having found it, shall close it in between his own sword and Target, and with the increase of a left pace, shall perforce hurt the enemy, with the increase of a pace of the right foot.
+
| <p>Therefore finding himself within, he shall provide to meet with the enemy's sword, and with the increase of a left pace, shall clap to his Target, for the most safety, and then drive on a forcible thrust. with the increasing of the right foot. And finding himself to bear his sword within in the said ward, and with his right foot behind, he shall endeavor to find the enemy's sword with his Target, and having found it, shall close it in between his own sword and Target, and with the increase of a left pace, shall perforce hurt the enemy, with the increase of a pace of the right foot.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| Therefore finding himselfe within, he shall provide to meete with the enimies sword, and with the increase of a left pace, shal clap to his Target, for the more safetie, and then drive on a forcible thrust, with the increase of a pace of the right foote. And finding himselfe to beare his sword within the said ward, and with his right foote behind, he shall indevour to find the enimies sword with the Target, and having found it, shal close it in betwen his own sword and Target, & with the increase of a a left pace, shal perforce hurt the enimie, with the increaes of a pace of the right foote.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/106|1|lbl=94}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Now, all these thrusts, no doubt shall speed every time that the enemy either makes no traverse motion with his body, either as he strikes, comes directly forwards, or else being fearful, goes directly backwards, for it is not possible that one man go so fast directly backwards, as an other may forwards. Yet it is therefore diligently to be observed in this ward, never to determine to strike, either in the handling of these, or of any other kind of weapons, if (with one of them) he shall not first find the enemy's sword. The which redoings to great profit of every man, but especially of those, who have strong arms, for that they are better able to beat back the enemy's weapon.
+
| <p>Now, all these thrusts, no doubt shall speed every time that the enemy either makes no traverse motion with his body, either as he strikes, comes directly forwards, or else being fearful, goes directly backwards, for it is not possible that one man go so fast directly backwards, as another may forwards. Yet it is therefore diligently to be observed in this ward, never to determine to strike, either in the handling of these, or of any other kind of weapons, if (with one of them) he shall not first find the enemy's sword. The which redoings to great profit of every man, but especially of those, who have strong arms, for that they are better able to beat back the enemy's weapon.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| Now, all these thrusts, no doubt shall speede every time that the enimie either maketh no traverse mocion with his bodie, either as he striketh, commeth directlie forwards, or els beeing fearefull, goeth directly backwards, for it is not possible that one man go so fast directlie backwardes, as an other may forwardes. Yt is therefore diligently to be observed in this ward, never to determin to strike, either in the handling of these, or of any other kind of weapons, if (with one of them) he shall not first finde the enimies sworde. The which redowneth to the great profite of everie man, but especially of those, who have strong armes, for that they are the better hable to beate backe the enimies weapon.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/106|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | '''OF THE DEFENSE OF THE LOW WARD, AT SWORD AND ROUND TARGET.'''
+
| class="noline" | <p>'''Of the defense of the low ward, at sword and round target'''</p>
All the foresaid thrusts are warded, by not suffering the sword to be found by the enemy with either of his weapons. For the enemy (not finding it, will not assure himself, or presume to enter, without first finding of the sword) may most easily be struck and not strike, if a man increase a slope pace, (to the end he may void his body from hurt,) and with the increase of a straight pace of the right foot, do also discharge a thrust beneath. And after this order he may strike safely, (not only when his sword is not found by the enemy, but also when it chances to be found) if he be ready and nimble to make his slope pace, and to beat off, as forcible as he may, the enemy's Target with his own sword and Target, thereby forcing a low thrust to enter in, with the increase of a pace with the right foot. And thus much concerning the true striking and defending of the sword and round Target.
+
<p>All the foresaid thrusts are warded, by not suffering the sword to be found by the enemy with either of his weapons. For the enemy (not finding it, will not assure himself, or presume to enter, without first finding of the sword) may most easily be struck and not strike, if a man increase a slope pace, (to the end he may void his body from hurt,) and with the increase of a straight pace of the right foot, do also discharge a thrust beneath. And after this order he may strike safely, (not only when his sword is not found by the enemy, but also when it chances to be found) if he be ready and nimble to make his slope pace, and to beat off, as forcible as he may, the enemy's Target with his own sword and Target, thereby forcing a low thrust to enter in, with the increase of a pace with the right foot. And thus much concerning the true striking and defending of the sword and round Target.</p>
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | '''''Of the defence of the lowe warde, at Sword and round Target.'''''
+
| class="noline" |  
'''A'''L the foresaid thrusts are warded, by not suffering the sworde to be found by the enimie with either of his weapons. For the enimie (not finding it, will not sasure himselfe, or presume to enter, without first finding of the sworde) may most easilie be stroken and not strike, if a man increase a slope pace, (to the end he may voide his bodie from hurt,) and with the increase of a straight pace of the right foote, do also discharge a thrust beneath. And after htis order he may strike safelie, (not onelie when his sword is not found by the enimie, but also when it chanceth to be found) if he be readie and nimble to make his slope pace, and to beate off, as forcible as he may, the enimies Target with his owne sword and Target, thereby forcing a low thrust to enter in, with the increase of a pace with the right foote. And thus much concerning the true striking & defending of the sword and round Target.
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/106|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/107|1|lbl=95|p=1}}
  
 
|}
 
|}
{{master end}}
+
{{master subsection end}}
  
{{master begin
+
{{master subsection begin
 
  | title = Double Rapiers
 
  | title = Double Rapiers
 
  | width = 120em
 
  | width = 120em
Line 1,678: Line 1,766:
 
{| class="master"
 
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Images<br/>from the 1570</p>
+
! <p>Figures<br/>from the 1570</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}</p>
Line 1,685: Line 1,773:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''OF THE CASE OF RAPIERS.'''
+
| <p>'''Of the case of rapiers'''</p>
There are also used now adays, as well in the schools, as in the lists, two Swords or Rapiers, admitted, and approved both of Princes, and of the professors of this art, for honorable and knightly weapons, albeit they be not used in the wars. Wherefore I shall not vary from my purpose, if I reason also of these, as far as is agreeable to true art. To him that would handle these weapons, it is necessary that he can as well manage the left hand as the right, which thing shall be (if not necessary) yet most profitable in every other kind of weapon. But in these principally he is to resolve himself, that he can do no good, without that kind of nimbleness and dexterity. For seeing they are two weapons, and yet of one self same kind, they ought equally and indifferently to be handled, the one performing that which the other does, and every of them being apt as well to strike as defend. And therefore a man ought to accustom his body, arms and hands as well to strike as defend. And he which is not much practiced and exercised therein, ought not to make profession of this Art: for he shall find himself to be utterly deceived.
+
 
|  
+
<p>There are also used now adays, as well in the schools, as in the lists, two Swords or Rapiers, admitted, and approved both of Princes, and of the professors of this art, for honorable and knightly weapons, albeit they be not used in the wars. Wherefore I shall not vary from my purpose, if I reason also of these, as far as is agreeable to true art. To him that would handle these weapons, it is necessary that he can as well manage the left hand as the right, which thing shall be (if not necessary) yet most profitable in every other kind of weapon. But in these principally he is to resolve himself, that he can do no good, without that kind of nimbleness and dexterity. For seeing they are two weapons, and yet of one selfsame kind, they ought equally and indifferently to be handled, the one performing that which the other does, and every of them being apt as well to strike as defend. And therefore a man ought to accustom his body, arms and hands as well to strike as defend. And he which is not much practiced and exercised therein, ought not to make profession of this Art: for he shall find himself to be utterly deceived.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/110|3|lbl=84}}
 
|  
 
|  
 +
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/107|2|lbl=95|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/108|1|lbl=96|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''THE MANNER HOW TO HANDLE TWO RAPIERS.'''
+
| <p>'''The manner how to handle two rapiers'''</p>
It is most manifest that both these weapons may strike in one and the same time: for there may be delivered jointly together two downright edgeblows on high and two beneath: two reverses, and two thrusts, and are so rich and plentiful in striking, that it seems they may be used only to strike. But this ought not to be practiced, neither may it without great danger For all that, whatsoever may be done with either of them, is divided into striking and defending. That this is true, it may be perceived in the single Sword, which assays both to strike and defend. And those who have taken no such heed, but have been bent only to strike being moved either through cholera, either believing, that they had to deal with an ignorant person, have remained thereby mightily wounded. of this, there might be laid down infinite examples, which I leave to the intent I may not swerve from my purpose. I say therefore that of the two Rapiers which are handled, the one must be applied towards the other to strike, regarding always to use that first which wards, then that which strikes: for first a man must endeavor to defend himself, and then to strike others.
+
 
|
+
<p>It is most manifest that both these weapons may strike in one and the same time: for there may be delivered jointly together two downright edge-blows on high and two beneath: two reverses, and two thrusts, and are so rich and plentiful in striking, that it seems they may be used only to strike. But this ought not to be practiced, neither may it without great danger For all that, whatsoever may be done with either of them, is divided into striking and defending. That this is true, it may be perceived in the single Sword, which assays both to strike and defend. And those who have taken no such heed, but have been bent only to strike being moved either through cholera, either believing, that they had to deal with an ignorant person, have remained thereby mightily wounded. of this, there might be laid down infinite examples, which I leave to the intent I may not swerve from my purpose. I say therefore that of the two Rapiers which are handled, the one must be applied towards the other to strike, regarding always to use that first which wards, then that which strikes: for first a man must endeavor to defend himself, and then to strike others.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/108|2|lbl=-|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Di Grassi 20.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Di Grassi 20.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| '''OF THE HIGH WARD AT TWO RAPIERS.'''
+
| <p>'''Of the high ward at two rapiers'''</p>
Presupposing always, that either hand is very well exercised, as well in striking as in defending, this ward shall be framed after two ways, which yet in manner is all one. The one with the right foot, and the other with the left, so working continually, that the hind arm be aloft, the former beneath in manner, as when the low ward is framed at single sword. And as a man strikes, he must always maintain and continue this high ward, which at the two rapiers, is the most perfect and surest and he may easily perform and do it: for whilst he enters to give a high thrust with his hind foot, although that foot be behind yet it must accompany the arm until it has finished his thrust, and settled itself in the low ward. The other sword and hand (which was borne together with the former foot in the low ward) remaining behind by reason of the increase of the high thrust, must presently be lifted placed in the same high ward.
+
 
 +
<p>Presupposing always, that either hand is very well exercised, as well in striking as in defending, this ward shall be framed after two ways, which yet in manner is all one. The one with the right foot, and the other with the left, so working continually, that the hind arm be aloft, the former beneath in manner, as when the low ward is framed at single sword. And as a man strikes, he must always maintain and continue this high ward, which at the two rapiers, is the most perfect and surest and he may easily perform and do it: for whilst he enters to give a high thrust with his hind foot, although that foot be behind yet it must accompany the arm until it has finished his thrust, and settled itself in the low ward. The other sword and hand (which was borne together with the former foot in the low ward) remaining behind by reason of the increase of the high thrust, must presently be lifted placed in the same high ward.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/109|1|lbl=97|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/110|1|lbl=98|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Therefore it is to be noted, that whosoever means to shift from this ward and strike, whether it be with his right or left foot, before or behind, it is requisite that he stand without, and when he would strike, he shall first prove with his low sword, whether he can find the enemy's weapons, and having suddenly found them, he shall nimbly beat them back, and (in a manner) in the same instant force on a high thrust, with the increase of a pace of the right foot: from the which, if the enemy (for saving of himself) shall hastily and directly give backwards, he shall follow him, delivering presently the other high thrust behind, already lifted up. And this thrust will safely hit him and speed, because it is not possible that one may go so fast backwards, as an other may forwards.
+
| <p>Therefore it is to be noted, that whosoever means to shift from this ward and strike, whether it be with his right or left foot, before or behind, it is requisite that he stand without, and when he would strike, he shall first prove with his low sword, whether he can find the enemy's weapons, and having suddenly found them, he shall nimbly beat them back, and (in a manner) in the same instant force on a high thrust, with the increase of a pace of the right foot: from the which, if the enemy (for saving of himself) shall hastily and directly give backwards, he shall follow him, delivering presently the other high thrust behind, already lifted up. And this thrust will safely hit him and speed, because it is not possible that one may go so fast backwards, as another may forwards.</p>
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/110|2|lbl=-}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>Farther, as well in this ward, as in others, the ward may be framed with the right foot before, and the right arm lifted, and so contrariwise. But because there is small force in this ward both in the feet and hands, which stand not commodiously either to strike or defend, and seeing that there is required in the handling of those weapons, great strength and steadfastness I have thought good, not to lay it down, as to small purpose.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/110|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Farther, as well in this ward, as in others, the ward may be framed with the right foot before, and the right arm lifted, and so contrariwise. But because there is small force in this ward both in the feet and hands, which stand not commodiously either to strike or defend, and seeing that there is required in the handling of those weapons, great strength and steadfastness I have thought good, not to lay it down, as to small purpose.
+
| <p>'''The defense of the high ward at two rapiers'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>The direct opposition and defense of the high ward is the low ward, the manner whereof shall be seen in his proper place. That which principally is to be considered (for the low ward also, in like sort as the other may be framed after two sorts) is this, that of necessity a man stand with the same foot before as the enemy does, to wit: if he bear the right foot before, to put forth the right foot also, and to endeavor as the enemy does, to stand without, for of both ways that is of the more advantage and safety. Finding himself therefore without, in the low ward, he must not refuse, but rather suffer his sword to be found and beaten by the enemy: for this does redown much more to his advantage then to his enemy's because the enemy carries small force in his low hand wherewith he endeavors to find and beat off the sword, considering it is borne to far off from the other: for that which is slenderly united, is less forcible: whereas standing at the low ward, he bears both his hands low near together and sufficiently strong. Therefore as soon as the enemy having beaten back the sword, shall resolve himself to give a thrust, he must increase a slope pace, and with his hind low sword, drive the enemy's high thrust outwards toward the right side, if it chance that he were in the low ward with his right foot before, And suddenly with the other low sword behind (which was suffered to be beaten off by the enemy, because it might turn the more to his disadvantage: for seeing the enemy's sword being slenderly united, as I have said before, carried but small force, it was the rather beaten off and disappointed: So that as soon as the slope pace is increased, and the said high thrust warded, before the enemy place his other sword also in the high ward, he may with the straight pace of the right foot deliver a low thrust continuing still to eat down the enemy's sword with his own low sword, that is borne before. And this manner of warding is most safe and sure: for besides that it strikes the enemy with the slope pace, it does likewise in such sort deliver the body from hurt, that of force the enemy is disappointed. Neither is there any other sure way to ward this high thrust, being so strong, and besides, having so great increase of pace.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/111|1|lbl=99|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/112|1|lbl=100|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''THE DEFENSE OF THE HIGH WARD AT TWO RAPIERS.'''
+
| <p>This manner of defense is most strong and sure, and is done with that sword which is farthest off. Yet there is another way, and that is, with the low sword before, the which is no less stronger and sure than the other, but yet much shorter. For look in what time the other defends, this strikes.</p>
The direct opposition and defense of the high ward is the low ward, the manner whereof shall be seen in his proper place. That which principally is to be considered (for the low ward also, in like sort as the other may be framed after two sorts) is this, that of necessity a man stand with the same foot before as the enemy does, to wit: if he bear the right foot before, to put forth the right foot also, and to endeavor as the enemy does, to stand without, for of both ways that is of the more advantage and safety. Finding himself therefore without, in the low ward, he must not refuse, but rather suffer his sword to be found and beaten by the enemy: for this does redown much more to his advantage then to his enemy's because the enemy carries small force in his low hand wherewith he endeavors to find and beat off the sword, considering it is borne to far off from the other: for that which is slenderly united, is less forcible: whereas standing at the low ward, he bears both his hands low near together and sufficiently strong. Therefore as soon as the enemy having beaten back the sword, shall resolve himself to give a thrust, he must increase a slope pace, and with his hind low sword, drive the enemy's high thrust outwards toward the right side, if it chance that he were in the low ward with his right foot before, And suddenly with the other low sword behind (which was suffered to be beaten off by the enemy, because it might turn the more to his disadvantage: for seeing the enemy's sword being slenderly united, as I have said before, carried but small force, it was the rather beaten off and disappointed: So that as soon as the slope pace is increased, and the said high thrust warded, before the enemy place his other sword also in the high ward, he may with the straight pace of the right foot deliver a low thrust continuing still to eat down the enemy's sword with his own low sword, that is borne before. And this manner of warding is most safe and sure: for besides that it strikes the enemy with the slope pace, it does likewise in such sort deliver the body from hurt, that of force the enemy is disappointed. Neither is there any other sure way to ward this high thrust, being so strong, and besides, having so great increase of pace.
+
|
 +
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/112|2|lbl=-}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>Therefore in the low ward it is to be noted, (when the enemy moves, pretending to beat off the sword and therewithal to enter,) that then the point of the sword be lifted up, keeping the hand so steadfast, that it oppose itself and keeping outwards the enemy's high thrust, and having made this bar, to keep out his weapons, then and in the selfsame time, he shall increase a straight pace, and with the low sword behind shall strike the enemy in the breast, to whom it is impossible to do any effectual thing, or to avoid the said stroke, for that (by means of the point of the sword lifted up in the manner aforesaid) both his swords are so hindered, that they may not safely strike, either with the edge or point.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/112|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| This manner of defense is most strong and sure, and is done with that sword which is farthest off. Yet there is another way, and that is, with the low sword before, the which is no less stronger and sure than the other, but yet much shorter. For look in what time the other defends, this strikes.
+
| <p>'''Of the hurt of the broad ward at two rapiers'''</p>
|
+
 
 +
<p>This broad ward, may in the selfsame manner be framed two ways, and it may deliver the selfsame blows, in the one as in the other: This ward is framed with one foot before, and one foot behind, the arm (which is borne on the side of the hind foot) being stretched wide, and broad outwards. Therefore when one stands at this ward, and would deliver as straight and as safe a thrust as is possible, he shall first prove with his low Rapier, whether he can find his enemy's Rapier, which being found, he shall turn his fist outwards, and force the enemy's Rapier so much, that it may do no hurt, and then withal increasing presently a slope pace, shall go forwards to strike the enemy in the thigh, with the wide thrust. He might as well also thrust him in the flank, or in the head, but yet the other thrust is used, because the Rapier, which is directed to the thigh, is in place, to hinder the enemy's other Rapier to light on the legs.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/113|1|lbl=101}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Therefore in the low ward it is to be noted, (when the enemy moves, pretending to beat off the sword and therewithall to enter,) that then the point of the sword be lifted up, keeping the hand so steadfast, that it oppose itself and keeping outwards the enemy's high thrust, and having made this bar, to keep out his weapons, then and in the self same time, he shall increase a straight pace, and with the low sword behind shall strike the enemy in the breast, to whom it is impossible to do any effectual thing, or to avoid the said stroke, for that (by means of the point of the sword lifted up in the manner aforesaid) both his swords are so hindered, that they may not safely strike, either with the edge or point.
+
| <p>And as in the high ward, so likewise in this, he must always stand without, and having delivered the wide thrust, he ought presently to widen the other arm, and settle himself in the broad ward.</p>
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/113|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''OF THE HURT OF THE BROAD WARD AT TWO RAPIERS.'''
+
| <p>'''Of the Defense of the Broad Ward at Two Rapiers'''</p>
This broad ward, may in the self same manner be framed two ways, and it may deliver the self same blows, in the one as in the other: This ward is framed with one foot before, and one foot behind, the arm (which is borne on the side of the hind foot) being stretched wide, and broad outwards. Therefore when one stands at this ward, and would deliver as straight and as safe a thrust as is possible, he shall first prove with his low Rapier, whether he can find his enemy's Rapier, which being found, he shall turn his fist outwards, and force the enemy's Rapier so much, that it may do no hurt, and then withall increasing presently a slope pace, shall go forwards to strike the enemy in the thigh, with the wide thrust. He might as well also thrust him in the flank, or in the head, but yet the other thrust is used, because the Rapier, which is directed to the thigh, is in place, to hinder the enemy's other Rapier to light on the legs.
+
 
 +
<p>For the defense of the thrust of the broad ward, it is necessary that a man stand at the low ward, and therewithal diligently observe, the motions of the enemy's body, how it compasses and passes to and fro, by knowledge and due consideration whereof, he may easily defend himself. If therefore the right arm be stretched out wide, the right foot also (being behind) shall be in like manner widened, the which, when it increases forwards, shall also carry with it the right shoulder, voiding always with the left side.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/113|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/114|1|lbl=102|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| And the self same must be considered, and practiced, when he stands at this ward, the contrary way. That therefore which he must do, for the defense of himself, shall be to void that part of his body, which may be hurt by the enemy's wide and broad thrust, and to oppose himself against that part of his enemy, which comes forwards pretending to strike: And this he shall do, at what time the enemy (finding the sword) would come forwards in his thrust. And in the self same time, (assuring himself with his own low sword) shall increase a slope pace, thereby investing and encountering that part of the enemy, which came striking, and with the which framed the broad ward. Neither can it be safe striking at any other place, for either, he shall find nothing to encounter, by means of the motion of the body, or else if he do not oppose himself against the shoulder of the enemy which carries the hurt, he is in hazard to be struck by the enemy's broad thrust.
+
| <p>And the selfsame must be considered, and practiced, when he stands at this ward, the contrary way. That therefore which he must do, for the defense of himself, shall be to void that part of his body, which may be hurt by the enemy's wide and broad thrust, and to oppose himself against that part of his enemy, which comes forwards pretending to strike: And this he shall do, at what time the enemy (finding the sword) would come forwards in his thrust. And in the selfsame time, (assuring himself with his own low sword) shall increase a slope pace, thereby investing and encountering that part of the enemy, which came striking, and with the which framed the broad ward. Neither can it be safe striking at any other place, for either, he shall find nothing to encounter, by means of the motion of the body, or else if he do not oppose himself against the shoulder of the enemy which carries the hurt, he is in hazard to be struck by the enemy's broad thrust.</p>
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/114|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''OF THE HURT OF THE LOW WARD AT THE TWO RAPIERS'''
+
| <p>'''Of the hurt of the low ward at the two rapiers'''
The low ward shall be framed after two ways, the one with the right foot before, the other with the left, and each of them may strike, either within, either without. The way which strikes within, has one blow, the way which strikes without has two, and in all, they are six. I will lay down but three, because they differ not from the other three, but only in the hand and foot, which must be place before, so that they are the self same, for I have already presupposed, that he who takes upon him to handle these weapons, can as well use the one hand, as he can the other. He may therefore find himself to stand with his right foot before and within, (I understand by within, when he bears one of his swords between both his enemy's swords, and likewise when the enemy carries one of his, between the other two. It is likewise true, that this also may be said within, to wit, when both weapons are borne in the middle between the other two. But I suppose no man so foolish, who handling these weapons, will suffer both his swords to be without, being a very unsure ward whereof I leave to speak.
+
 
 +
<p>The low ward shall be framed after two ways, the one with the right foot before, the other with the left, and each of them may strike, either within, either without. The way which strikes within, has one blow, the way which strikes without has two, and in all, they are six. I will lay down but three, because they differ not from the other three, but only in the hand and foot, which must be place before, so that they are the selfsame, for I have already presupposed, that he who takes upon him to handle these weapons, can as well use the one hand, as he can the other. He may therefore find himself to stand with his right foot before and within, (I understand by within, when he bears one of his swords between both his enemy's swords, and likewise when the enemy carries one of his, between the other two. It is likewise true, that this also may be said within, to wit, when both weapons are borne in the middle between the other two. But I suppose no man so foolish, who handling these weapons, will suffer both his swords to be without, being a very unsure ward whereof I leave to speak.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/114|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/115|1|lbl=103|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| That therefore, which he is to do, (finding himself with both his rapiers below, and within, with his right foot before, and after the said first way of being within) shalbe, that marking when he may close in the enemy's Rapier, between the which the enemy's rapier shall be so shut in and barred, that it may do no hurt, and one of the two Rapiers, that is to say, the right Rapier shall passe under the enemy's rapier, and thrust safely. And his other Rapier, albeit, it may thrust directly, yet (for the better saving of himself, from the enemy's other Rapier that is at liberty) he shall bear it somewhat abasing his hand, with the point upwards, the which point shall safeguard him, from the enemy's said Rapier, although this last note, be superfluous. For seeing the enemy must ward himself from the thrust that hurts him, he has no leisure, nor happily minds to strike, but only to defend himself, either by voiding his body, or else by some other shift, which he shall then find out.
+
| <p>That therefore, which he is to do, (finding himself with both his rapiers below, and within, with his right foot before, and after the said first way of being within) shall be, that marking when he may close in the enemy's Rapier, between the which the enemy's rapier shall be so shut in and barred, that it may do no hurt, and one of the two Rapiers, that is to say, the right Rapier shall pass under the enemy's rapier, and thrust safely. And his other Rapier, albeit, it may thrust directly, yet (for the better saving of himself, from the enemy's other Rapier that is at liberty) he shall bear it somewhat abasing his hand, with the point upwards, the which point shall safeguard him, from the enemy's said Rapier, although this last note, be superfluous. For seeing the enemy must ward himself from the thrust that hurts him, he has no leisure, nor happily minds to strike, but only to defend himself, either by voiding his body, or else by some other shift, which he shall then find out.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/115|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/116|1|lbl=104|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| The way of warding without, may strike directly after two ways: The first, by beating off the enemy's Rapier, with his own that is before, and by delivering a thrust, either at the breast or head, with the Rapier that is behind, increasing therewithall a slope pace, and settling himself in the low ward, with his left foot before.
+
| <p>The way of warding without, may strike directly after two ways: The first, by beating off the enemy's Rapier, with his own that is before, and by delivering a thrust, either at the breast or head, with the Rapier that is behind, increasing therewithal a slope pace, and settling himself in the low ward, with his left foot before.</p>
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/116|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| The second is, by taking opportunity, which he may do, if he be nimble. And he ought with the increase of a slope pace, to drive the point of his former Rapier directly towards the enemy, and above the enemy's Rapier. And his other own rapier, which before the increase was behind, he must force on, under the enemy's rapier. And thus, not giving over, these two thrusts must be strongly and nimbly driven towards the enemy, by means whereof being overtaken, the enemy has no other remedy to save himself, then to retire back: for he may not come forwards, but he must run himself upon the weapons, and that he will not do. So then, the enemy retiring himself may be followed, as far as the increase of the right foot will bear, then, settling in the low ward.
+
| <p>The second is, by taking opportunity, which he may do, if he be nimble. And he ought with the increase of a slope pace, to drive the point of his former Rapier directly towards the enemy, and above the enemy's Rapier. And his other own rapier, which before the increase was behind, he must force on, under the enemy's rapier. And thus, not giving over, these two thrusts must be strongly and nimbly driven towards the enemy, by means whereof being overtaken, the enemy has no other remedy to save himself, then to retire back: for he may not come forwards, but he must run himself upon the weapons, and that he will not do. So then, the enemy retiring himself may be followed, as far as the increase of the right foot will bear, then, settling in the low ward.</p>
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/116|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''OF THE DEFENSE OF THE LOW WARD AT THE TWO RAPIERS.'''
+
| <p>'''Of the defense of the low ward at the two rapiers'''</p>
All three thrusts of the low ward, by standing at the same ward, may easily be warded, and that after one manner. If a man remember first to void his body from hurt, by the increase of a pace, that is very slope, or crooked, either before the enemy comes thrusting, either as soon as he moves himself for the same purpose, or if he be active and nimble to traverse, and in defending himself to strike the enemy.
+
 
 +
<p>All three thrusts of the low ward, by standing at the same ward, may easily be warded, and that after one manner. If a man remember first to void his body from hurt, by the increase of a pace, that is very slope, or crooked, either before the enemy comes thrusting, either as soon as he moves himself for the same purpose, or if he be active and nimble to traverse, and in defending himself to strike the enemy.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/116|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/117|1|lbl=105|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | Therefore when any of the same three thrusts come, and before he perceives his Rapier to be closed, and barred in, he shall move a slope pace, to the intent to avoid himself from hurt, and with his Rapier, which is at liberty, he shall go forwards and deliver a thrust at the enemy's face, which thrust, does surely speed, if he be resolute to enter.
+
| class="noline" | <p>Therefore when any of the same three thrusts come, and before he perceives his Rapier to be closed, and barred in, he shall move a slope pace, to the intent to avoid himself from hurt, and with his Rapier, which is at liberty, he shall go forwards and deliver a thrust at the enemy's face, which thrust, does surely speed, if he be resolute to enter.</p>
| class="noline" |
 
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/117|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|}
 
|}
{{master end}}
+
{{master subsection end}}
  
{{master begin
+
{{master subsection begin
 
  | title = Two-Handed Sword
 
  | title = Two-Handed Sword
 
  | width = 120em
 
  | width = 120em
Line 1,795: Line 1,911:
 
{| class="master"
 
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Images<br/>from the 1570</p>
+
! <p>Figures<br/>from the 1570</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Niccolò Menozzi]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Niccolò Menozzi]]</p>
Line 1,804: Line 1,920:
 
| <p>'''Of the Two Hand Sword.'''</p>
 
| <p>'''Of the Two Hand Sword.'''</p>
  
<p>The two hand Sword, as it is used now a days being four handfuls in the handle, or more, having also the great cross, was found out, to the end it should be handled one to one at an equal match, as other weapons, of which I have entreated. But because one may with it (as a galleon among many galleys) resist many Swords, or other weapons: Therefore in the wars, it is used to be place near unto the Ensign or Ancient, for the defense thereof, because, being of itself able to contend with many, it may the better safeguard the same. And it is accustomed to be carried in the City, as well by night as by day, when it so chances that a few are constrained to withstand a great many.</p>
+
<p>The two hand Sword, as it is used now a days being four handfuls in the handle, or more, having also the great cross, was found out, to the end it should be handled one to one at an equal match, as other weapons, of which I have entreated. But because one may with it (as a galleon among many galleys) resist many Swords, or other weapons: Therefore in the wars, it is used to be place near unto the Ensign or Ancient, for the defense thereof, because, being of itself able to contend with many, it may the better safeguard the same. And it is accustomed to be carried in the City, as well by night as by day, when it so chances that a few are constrained to withstand a great many. And because his weight and bigness, requires great strength, therefore those only are allotted to the handling thereof, which are mighty and big to behold, great and strong in body, of stout and valiant courage. Who (forasmuch as they are to encounter many, and to the end they may strike the more safely, and amaze them with the fury of the Sword) do altogether use to deliver great edge blows, downright and reversed, fetching a full circle, or compass therein, staying themselves sometimes upon one foot, sometimes on the other, utterly neglecting to thrust, and persuading themselves, that the thrust serves to amaze one man only, but those edge blows are of force to encounter many. The which manner of skirmishing, besides that, it is most gallant to behold, being accompanied with exceeding swiftness in delivery, (for otherwise it works no such effect) it also most profitable, not properly of itself, because men considering the fury of the sword, which greatly amazes them, are not so resolute to do that, which otherwise they could not choose but do. That is, either to encounter the sword in the middle towards the handle, when it carries small force, or else to stand far off, watching whilst the sword goes, and is carried compassing in his great circle, being of the compass of ten arms, or more, and then to run under it, and deliver a thrust. And these two ways are effectual, when such men are met withal, who are exercised to enter nimbly and strike, or such as dare, and have the spirit and courage, to set, and oppose themselves single against the two hand sword, even as the single two hand sword adventures to oppose itself against many. Neither is this thing to be marveled at, for in these our days, there be things performed of greater activity and danger. And there be some which dare do this with the sword and round Target, but yet they are not resolute to strike first, but will receive and sustain the blow, with the round Target, and then enter and thrust, this truly betokens great courage and activity, although not such is required in this behalf.</p>
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/119|3|lbl=93}}
 
|
 
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>And because his weight and bigness, requires great strength, therefore those only are allotted to the handling thereof, which are mighty and big to behold, great and strong in body, of stout and valiant courage. Who (forasmuch as they are to encounter many, and to the end they may strike the more safely, and amaze them with the fury of the Sword) do altogether use to deliver great edge blows, downright and reversed, fetching a full circle, or compass therein, staying themselves sometimes upon one foot, sometimes on the other, utterly neglecting to thrust, and persuading themselves, that the thrust serves to amaze one man only, but those edge blows are of force to encounter many.</p>
+
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/119|3|lbl=93|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/120|1|lbl=94|p=1}}
|
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/119|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/120|1|lbl=94|p=1}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/117|3|lbl=105|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/118|1|lbl=106|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/119|1|lbl=107|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>The which manner of skirmishing, besides that, it is most gallant to behold, being accompanied with exceeding swiftness in delivery, (for otherwise it works no such effect) it also most profitable, not properly of itself, because men considering the fury of the sword, which greatly amazes them, are not so resolute to do that, which otherwise they could not choose but do. That is, either to encounter the sword in the middle towards the handle, when it carries small force, or else to stand far off, watching whilst the sword goes, and is carried compassing in his great circle, being of the compass of ten arms, or more, and then to run under it, and deliver a thrust. And these two ways are effectual, when such men are met withal, who are exercised to enter nimbly and strike, or such as dare, and have the spirit and courage, to set, and oppose themselves single against the two hand sword, even as the single two hand sword adventures to oppose itself against many.</p>
+
| <p>This much concerning that, which appertains to the defense of circular blows, of the two hand sword, when it endeavors to oppose itself against many. And forasmuch as men have, and sometimes do use, both in the lists and other places, to fight single combats, one to one with the single two hand sword, I will also declare my opinion touching the same.</p>
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/120|2|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/120|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/121|1|lbl=95|p=1}}
 +
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/119|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>Neither is this thing to be marveled at, for in these our days, there be things performed of greater activity and danger. And there be some which dare do this with the sword and round Target, but yet they are not resolute to strike first, but will receive and sustain the blow, with the round Target, and then enter and thrust, this truly betokens great courage and activity, although not such is required in this behalf.</p>
+
| <p>'''Of the Manner How to Handle the Two Hand Sword, in Single Combat.'''</p>
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/120|3|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
  
|-
+
<p>To those, who would cunningly handle the Two hand Sword in single combat, it is principally necessary that (as in other weapons) they be practiced and have the skill, to use the one hand as well as the other, and they both be active in body, and strong in the arms, which are required in the managing of each weapon. And farther it is requisite that they carry the principles of this Art, surely fixed in their minds and memories, by means whereof they may become bold and resolute, in as much as they have to do, either in striking or defending.</p>
|
 
| <p>This much concerning that, which appertains to the defense of circular blows, of the two hand sword, when it endeavors to oppose itself against many. And forasmuch as men have, and sometimes do use, both in the lists and other places, to fight single combats, one to one with the single two hand sword, I will also declare my opinion touching the same.</p>
 
|
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/120|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/121|1|lbl=95|p=1}}
 
|
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>'''Of the Manner How to Handle the Two Hand Sword, in Single Combat.'''</p>
 
 
 
<p>To those, who would cunningly handle the Two hand Sword in single combat, it is principally necessary that (as in other weapons) they be practiced and have the skill, to use the one hand as well as the other, and they both be active in body, and strong in the arms, which are required in the managing of each weapon. And farther it is requisite that they carry the principles of this Art, surely fixed in their minds and memories, by means whereof they may become bold and resolute, in as much as they have to do, either in striking or defending. They ought furthermore to consider, how the two hand sword is used, and how it ought to be used.</p>
 
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/121|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/121|2|lbl=-}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/119|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>Touching the first, All men use to deliver thrusts, as well as edge blows, down right, and reversed, with both hands to the Sword which way albeit, it be profitable in the bestowing of edge blows, as being the better able to sustain the Sword, yet in the discharge of thrusts it is hurtful, for it causes them to be much shorter, then they would be, if in the beginning, they were forcibly delivered with both the hands, and then by taking away one hand from the cross, they were springed as far forth, as the pommel hand, foot, and all the body of that side, may be stretched out. For, being discharged in this manner, if they hit home they make great passage, and if they be voided, yet the Two hand sword may be quickly had again, by the retiring of a pace, and of the hand and arm, placing the other hand there where it was, and so settling in the low ward.</p>
+
| <p>They ought furthermore to consider, how the two hand sword is used, and how it ought to be used.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/121|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/121|3|lbl=-}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/119|4|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>Therefore, when one finds himself to stand at the high ward, (the which at the two hand Sword, is framed, either with the right side towards the enemy, either with the left, in either of which ways, the arm would be borne aloft, and far off from the body, causing the point somewhat to bend both towards the ground and the body, to the end it may defend both the length of the body, and cover it in a manner thwarting or crossing, it being so far off from the sword.</p>
+
| <p>Touching the first, All men use to deliver thrusts, as well as edge blows, down right, and reversed, with both hands to the Sword which way albeit, it be profitable in the bestowing of edge blows, as being the better able to sustain the Sword, yet in the discharge of thrusts it is hurtful, for it causes them to be much shorter, then they would be, if in the beginning, they were forcibly delivered with both the hands, and then by taking away one hand from the cross, they were springed as far forth, as the pommel hand, foot, and all the body of that side, may be stretched out. For, being discharged in this manner, if they hit home they make great passage, and if they be voided, yet the Two hand sword may be quickly had again, by the retiring of a pace, and of the hand and arm, placing the other hand there where it was, and so settling in the low ward. Therefore, when one finds himself to stand at the high ward, (the which at the two hand Sword, is framed, either with the right side towards the enemy, either with the left, in either of which ways, the arm would be borne aloft, and far off from the body, causing the point somewhat to bend both towards the ground and the body, to the end it may defend both the length of the body, and cover it in a manner thwarting or crossing, it being so far off from the sword.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/121|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/122|1|lbl=96|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/121|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/122|1|lbl=96|p=1}}
 
|  
 
|  
 +
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/119|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/120|1|lbl=108|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,859: Line 1,959:
 
| <p>Farther, in this ward, the hand that is towards the enemy, must take hold fast of the handle near the cross, and underneath, the other hand above, and near the pommel. I say standing thus at the high ward, he may either deliver a thrust, either a down right blow of the edge.</p>
 
| <p>Farther, in this ward, the hand that is towards the enemy, must take hold fast of the handle near the cross, and underneath, the other hand above, and near the pommel. I say standing thus at the high ward, he may either deliver a thrust, either a down right blow of the edge.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/122|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/122|2|lbl=-}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/120|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Di Grassi 21.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Di Grassi 21.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>The thrust is discharged (as soon as the enemy's sword is found) as far in the beginning as he may with both arms: Then, taking away the cross hand, he shall force it farther on with the pommel hand, as much as he may stretch it forth, always in the discharge, increasing a slope pace. And the thrust being thus delivered, he shall presently retire his said pace, and return his hand again to the cross, settling himself either in the high or low warde.</p>
+
| <p>The thrust is discharged (as soon as the enemy's sword is found) as far in the beginning as he may with both arms: Then, taking away the cross hand, he shall force it farther on with the pommel hand, as much as he may stretch it forth, always in the discharge, increasing a slope pace. And the thrust being thus delivered, he shall presently retire his said pace, and return his hand again to the cross, settling himself either in the high or low ward. But if he would deliver a down right blow with the edge which I counsel him not to do, because he may easily be struck under it, he shall first discharge a thrust with both his hands, and then increasing a pace, shall turn the said downright blow, stretching out the arm as much as he may. In the delivery of which blow, if he meet with the enemy's sword, he shall take away his hand from the cross, and stretch out the pommel hand as much as he may, with the increase of a pace. And farther, turning the said hand which holds the sword upwards, to the end, to lengthen the thrust, he shall drive, and force it on, and presently retire himself in the manner aforesaid.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/122|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/122|3|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/120|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/121|1|lbl=109|p=1}}
|-
 
|
 
| <p>But if he would deliver a down right blow with the edge which I counsel him not to do, because he may easily be struck under it, he shall first discharge a thrust with both his hands, and then increasing a pace, shall turn the said downright blow, stretching out the arm as much as he may. In the delivery of which blow, if he meet with the enemy's sword, he shall take away his hand from the cross, and stretch out the pommel hand as much as he may, with the increase of a pace. And farther, turning the said hand which holds the sword upwards, to the end, to lengthen the thrust, he shall drive, and force it on, and presently retire himself in the manner aforesaid.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/122|4|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,879: Line 1,974:
 
<p>The low ward, shall be the defense of the high ward, and it may be framed with the right foot before and behind, in such sort, as the said high ward, the which shall be declared in his proper place.</p>
 
<p>The low ward, shall be the defense of the high ward, and it may be framed with the right foot before and behind, in such sort, as the said high ward, the which shall be declared in his proper place.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/123|1|lbl=97}}
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/123|1|lbl=97}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/122|1|lbl=110}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>Therefore, regarding to place himself for his defense in the low ward (and that directly contrary to his enemy, that is to say, if the enemy stand with the right foot before, to put his left foot foremost, and as the thrust or downright blow comes) he shall encounter it without, and as soon as he has found the enemy's sword, he shall void his cross hand, and increase a pace, and therewithall deliver a thrust, with the pommel hand, as far as it will stretch out. The which thrust will easily speed, if the enemy come resolutely in delivering of his blow: for he shall come directly to encounter the point of his sword, with that part of his body which increases forwards. Thus much for the defense of the high thrust.</p>
+
| <p>Therefore, regarding to place himself for his defense in the low ward (and that directly contrary to his enemy, that is to say, if the enemy stand with the right foot before, to put his left foot foremost, and as the thrust or downright blow comes) he shall encounter it without, and as soon as he has found the enemy's sword, he shall void his cross hand, and increase a pace, and therewithal deliver a thrust, with the pommel hand, as far as it will stretch out. The which thrust will easily speed, if the enemy come resolutely in delivering of his blow: for he shall come directly to encounter the point of his sword, with that part of his body which increases forwards. Thus much for the defense of the high thrust.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/123|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/124|1|lbl=98|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/123|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/124|1|lbl=98|p=1}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/122|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,892: Line 1,987:
 
| <p>The downright blow may be warded, if whilst the enemy's sword is in his compass, he nimbly deliver a thrust under it. or else, if he would encounter it, (as soon as he has so done) he do void his cross hand, and with the increase of a pace, thrust as far forth as the pommel hand will stretch out.</p>
 
| <p>The downright blow may be warded, if whilst the enemy's sword is in his compass, he nimbly deliver a thrust under it. or else, if he would encounter it, (as soon as he has so done) he do void his cross hand, and with the increase of a pace, thrust as far forth as the pommel hand will stretch out.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/124|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/124|2|lbl=-}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/122|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,901: Line 1,996:
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/124|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/124|3|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
 +
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/122|1|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/123|1|lbl=111|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,906: Line 2,002:
 
| <p>Finding himself therefore within, and bearing the sword firmly, he shall force and drive on a thrust, as far as both arms may stretch out together, increasing a pace and settling in the low ward, if he do not speed.</p>
 
| <p>Finding himself therefore within, and bearing the sword firmly, he shall force and drive on a thrust, as far as both arms may stretch out together, increasing a pace and settling in the low ward, if he do not speed.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/124|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/124|4|lbl=-}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/123|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,912: Line 2,008:
 
| <p>But finding himself to stand without, and as soon as he has found the enemy's sword, he shall deliver a thrust, first, at the length of both arms, then, voiding the cross hand, increase a pace and deliver it out at uttermost length of the pommel hand, and immediately after the thrust, retire his hand and pace, staying himself again in the said low ward.</p>
 
| <p>But finding himself to stand without, and as soon as he has found the enemy's sword, he shall deliver a thrust, first, at the length of both arms, then, voiding the cross hand, increase a pace and deliver it out at uttermost length of the pommel hand, and immediately after the thrust, retire his hand and pace, staying himself again in the said low ward.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/124|5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/124|5|lbl=-}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/123|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,920: Line 2,016:
 
<p>It is a general rule, that the true defense of all blows is the low ward. Therefore, when one stands thereat, if there come a thrust without (because it is necessary in this case to stand within,) he shall do no other then encounter the enemy's sword, and thrust his arm forwards, to the end he may void it from his body, and farther retire his foot more backwards, and as it were, in a compass, thereby the better saving his body from hurt.</p>
 
<p>It is a general rule, that the true defense of all blows is the low ward. Therefore, when one stands thereat, if there come a thrust without (because it is necessary in this case to stand within,) he shall do no other then encounter the enemy's sword, and thrust his arm forwards, to the end he may void it from his body, and farther retire his foot more backwards, and as it were, in a compass, thereby the better saving his body from hurt.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/125|1|lbl=99}}
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/125|1|lbl=99}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/123|4|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,927: Line 2,023:
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/125|2|lbl=-}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/125|2|lbl=-}}
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 +
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/123|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/124|1|lbl=112|p=1}}
  
 
|}
 
|}
{{master end}}
+
{{master subsection end}}
  
{{master begin
+
{{master subsection begin
  | title = Pole Weapons
+
  | title = Polearms
 
  | width = 120em
 
  | width = 120em
 
}}
 
}}
 
{| class="master"
 
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Images<br/>from the 1570</p>
+
! <p>Figures<br/>from the 1570</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/></p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/></p>
Line 1,944: Line 2,041:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''OF THE WEAPONS OF THE STAFF, NAMELY, THE BILL, THE PARTISAN, THE HALBERD, AND THE JAVELIN.'''
+
| <p>'''Of the weapons of the staff, namely, the bill, the partisan, the halberd, and the javelin.'''</p>
Because it may seem strange unto many, that I have here placed these iiii. sorts of weapons together, as though I would frame but one only way for the handling of all, although they differ in form, from which form is gathered their difference in use. Therefore, forasmuch as I am of opinion, that all of them may be handled in manner after one way, it shall not be amiss, if I declare the reason thereof, speaking first of every one severally by itself, and then generally of all together, holding and maintaining always for my conclusion, that the skill of handling of them, helps a man to the knowledge of all the rest, for as much as concerns true Art.
+
 
|  
+
<p>Because it may seem strange unto many, that I have here placed these 4 sorts of weapons together, as though I would frame but one only way for the handling of all, although they differ in form, from which form is gathered their difference in use. Therefore, forasmuch as I am of opinion, that all of them may be handled in manner after one way, it shall not be amiss, if I declare the reason thereof, speaking first of every one severally by itself, and then generally of all together, holding and maintaining always for my conclusion, that the skill of handling of them, helps a man to the knowledge of all the rest, for as much as concerns true Art.</p>
| '''''Of the weapons of the Staffe, namely, the Bill, the Partisan, the Holbert, and the Javelin.'''''
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/125|3|lbl=99}}
<br/>'''B'''Ecause it may seeme strange unto many, that I have here placed these iiij sortes of weapons together, as though I woulde frame but one only waie for the handling of all, although they differ in forme, from which form is gathered their difference in use. Therefore, forasmuch as I am of opinion, that all of them may be handled in manner after one waye, it shall not be amisse, if I declare the reason thereof, speaking first of every one severally by it selfe, and then generally of all togither, holding and maintaining alwaies for my conclusion, that the skill of handling of them, helpeth a man to the knowledge of all the rest, for as much as concerneth true Arte.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/124|2|lbl=112}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Di Grassi 22.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Di Grassi 22.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| '''OF THE PARTISAN.'''
+
| <p>'''Of the partisan'''</p>
Coming therefore to the Partisan, as unto the plainest, as unto that, whereupon all the rest depend, omitting to show who was the inventor thereof, as being to small purpose: I say, that it was found out to no other end, then for that the foot men in the wars, might be able with them to hurt those horsemen (whom they might not reach with their swords) as well with their point as with their edge. Further, weapons which are to be cast, or sprung forth at the length of the arm, are for the most part deceitful, by means whereof, they might hurt as well the Archers on horseback, as other horsemen.
+
 
 +
<p>Coming therefore to the Partisan, as unto the plainest, as unto that, whereupon all the rest depend, omitting to show who was the inventor thereof, as being to small purpose: I say, that it was found out to no other end, then for that the foot men in the wars, might be able with them to hurt those horsemen (whom they might not reach with their swords) as well with their point as with their edge. Further, weapons which are to be cast, or sprung forth at the length of the arm, are for the most part deceitful, by means whereof, they might hurt as well the Archers on horseback, as other horsemen.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''Of the Partesan.'''''
+
|  
'''C'''Omming therefore to the Partesan, as unto the plainest, and as unto that, whereupon all the rest depend, omitting to shewe who was the inventer thereof, as being to small purpose: I saie, that it was found out to no other end, then for that the foot men in the warres, might be able with them to hurt those horsemen (whome they might not reach with their swords) as well with their point as with their edge. Further, weapons which are to be cast, or sprong forth at the length of the arme, are for the most part deceitfull, by meanes whereof, they might hurt as well the Archers on horsebacke, as other horsemen.
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/124|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/125|1|lbl=113|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| Therefore, these Partisans were made big and of great paize, and of perfect good steel, to the end they might break the mail and divide the Iron.
 
| Therefore, these Partisans were made big and of great paize, and of perfect good steel, to the end they might break the mail and divide the Iron.
 
|  
 
|  
| Therefore, these Partesans were made bigg and of great paize, and of perfect good steele, to the end they might breake the maile and devyde the Iron.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/125|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| And that this is true, it is to be seen in the ancient weapons of this sort, which are great and so well tempered, that they are of force to cut any other Iron. Afterwards, as men had considered, that as this weapon was only to strike, it might in some part thereof, have as well something to ward withal, whereby it might be said to be a perfect weapon, they devised to add unto it two crooks or forks, by the which, that blow might be warded, which parting from the point and continuing down the staff, should come to hurt the person. And these forks, or (I may say) these defenses were by some men placed on that part of the Iron, which next adjoins to the staff, making them crooked and sharp, and handful long, and for the most part, with the points toward the enemy, to the end they might serve not only to defend, but also to strike. And to the end, the bigness and weight of the Partisan, (which ought to be apt and commodious to be handled) might not be increased, they diminished part of the Iron thereof, and gave the same to the forks or defenses: And by that means they framed another weapon called the javelin which (because the broadness, and happily the weight and place thereof is diminished) is not very forcible to strike with the edge, but all his power consists in three thrusts. others afterwards would not that these defenses should be placed at the lowermost part of the Iron, but in the middle thereof. And these men bearing great respect to the blows of the edge, left the Iron which should serve for the defense behind, in his breadth and weight, adjoining thereunto in the opposite part of the right edge, a most sharp point of Iron, to the end, that what way soever it were moved, it might strike and hurt. But if any man object and say: if the said point of Iron were put there in respect of striking, they might also as well have left there an edge, which being longer would strike more easily. I answer, that the blows of the false (that is to say, the hinder or back edge of the weapon) are very weak, and the point does strike and hurt more easily then the edge. And therefore it was requisite that there be facility where there was weakness. These men by these means framed the ancient weapon called the Halberd, out of the which, men of our age have derived and made another kind of Halberd and Bill. And these bearing also respect to some one profitable thing or other, did maintain the defense, and increase the hurting or offense. The respect was, that as they discoursed and pondered with themselves, at length they very warily perceived that a man with his weapon in his hand, might make size motions, that is to say, one towards the head, one towards the feet, one towards the right side, one towards the left, one forwards and towards the enemy, the other backward and toward himself. of all the which, five of them might very well strike, and the last might neither strike nor defend. Therefore, providing that this last motion also should not be idle and unprofitable, they added a hook with the point turned towards the handle, with the which one might very easily tear armor, and draw perforce men from their horses. Those who framed the middle or mean Halberd, would that the same hook should be placed in the safe or back edge. And those that devised the Bill, would have it on the right edge, leaving the edge so long that the hook might not altogether hinder the low of the edge, but rather (to the end the edge might make the greater effect) they would that the hook should bear and edge and be cutting in every part thereof. Where I gather, that the Bill is the most perfect weapon of all others, because it strikes and hurts in every of these six motions, and his defenses both cut and prick: which the new kind of Halberd does not perform, because framed after the said fashion, and rather for lightness aptness and bravery, then for that it carries any great profit with it: for the edge is not so apt to strike, and the point thereof is so weak, that hitting any hard thing, either it bows or breaks: neither is it much regarded in the wars, the Harquebus and the Pike being now adays the strength of all armies.
+
| <p>And that this is true, it is to be seen in the ancient weapons of this sort, which are great and so well tempered, that they are of force to cut any other Iron. Afterwards, as men had considered, that as this weapon was only to strike, it might in some part thereof, have as well something to ward withal, whereby it might be said to be a perfect weapon, they devised to add unto it two crooks or forks, by the which, that blow might be warded, which parting from the point and continuing down the staff, should come to hurt the person. And these forks, or (I may say) these defenses were by some men placed on that part of the Iron, which next adjoins to the staff, making them crooked and sharp, and handful long, and for the most part, with the points toward the enemy, to the end they might serve not only to defend, but also to strike. And to the end, the bigness and weight of the Partisan, (which ought to be apt and commodious to be handled) might not be increased, they diminished part of the Iron thereof, and gave the same to the forks or defenses: And by that means they framed another weapon called the javelin which (because the broadness, and happily the weight and place thereof is diminished) is not very forcible to strike with the edge, but all his power consists in three thrusts. others afterwards would not that these defenses should be placed at the lowermost part of the Iron, but in the middle thereof. And these men bearing great respect to the blows of the edge, left the Iron which should serve for the defense behind, in his breadth and weight, adjoining thereunto in the opposite part of the right edge, a most sharp point of Iron, to the end, that what way soever it were moved, it might strike and hurt. But if any man object and say: if the said point of Iron were put there in respect of striking, they might also as well have left there an edge, which being longer would strike more easily. I answer, that the blows of the false (that is to say, the hinder or back edge of the weapon) are very weak, and the point does strike and hurt more easily then the edge. And therefore it was requisite that there be facility where there was weakness. These men by these means framed the ancient weapon called the Halberd, out of the which, men of our age have derived and made another kind of Halberd and Bill. And these bearing also respect to someone profitable thing or other, did maintain the defense, and increase the hurting or offense. The respect was, that as they discoursed and pondered with themselves, at length they very warily perceived that a man with his weapon in his hand, might make size motions, that is to say, one towards the head, one towards the feet, one towards the right side, one towards the left, one forwards and towards the enemy, the other backward and toward himself. of all the which, five of them might very well strike, and the last might neither strike nor defend. Therefore, providing that this last motion also should not be idle and unprofitable, they added a hook with the point turned towards the handle, with the which one might very easily tear armor, and draw perforce men from their horses. Those who framed the middle or mean Halberd, would that the same hook should be placed in the safe or back edge. And those that devised the Bill, would have it on the right edge, leaving the edge so long that the hook might not altogether hinder the low of the edge, but rather (to the end the edge might make the greater effect) they would that the hook should bear and edge and be cutting in every part thereof. Where I gather, that the Bill is the most perfect weapon of all others, because it strikes and hurts in every of these six motions, and his defenses both cut and prick: which the new kind of Halberd does not perform, because framed after the said fashion, and rather for lightness aptness and bravery, then for that it carries any great profit with it: for the edge is not so apt to strike, and the point thereof is so weak, that hitting any hard thing, either it bows or breaks: neither is it much regarded in the wars, the Harquebus and the Pike being now adays the strength of all armies.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| And that this is true, it is to be seene in the auncient weapons of this sort, which are great and so well tempered, that they are of force to cut any other Iron. Afterwardes, as men had considered, that as this weapon was only to strike, it might in some part thereof, have as well something to warde withall, whereby it might be said to be a perfect weapon, they devised to add unto it two crookes or forkes, by the which, that blow might be warded, which parting from the point and continuing downe along the staffe, would come to hurt the person. And these forkes, or (I may saie) these defences were by some men placed on that part of the Iron, which next adjoyneth to the staffe, making them crooked & sharp, & a handfull long, & for the most part, with the pointes toward the enimie, to the end that they might serve not only to defend, but also to strike. And to the end, the bignesse and weight of the Partesan, (which ought to be apt and commodious to be handled) might not be encreased, they diminished part of the Iron thereof, and gave the same to the forkes or defences: And by that meanes they framed another weapon called a Javelin which (because the broadnes, and happily the weight and paize thereof is diminished) is not very forcible to strike with the edge, but all his power consisteth in there thrustes. Othersome afterwards would not that these defences should be placed at the lower-most part of the Iron, but in the middle thereof. And these men bearing great respect to the blowes of the edge, left the Iron which should serve for the defence behinde, in his bredth and waight, adjoyning thereunto in the opposite parte of the right edge, a most sharpe point of Iron, to the end, that what way soever it were moved, it might strike and hurt. But if any man object & saie: if the said point of Iron were put there in respect of striking, they might also as well have left there an edge, which being longer would strike more easily. I answere, that the blowes of the false (that is to saye, the hinder or backe edge of the weapon) are verie weake, and the point doth strike and hurt more easily then the edge. And therefore it was requisite that there be facilitie where there was weaknes. These men by these meanes framed the auncient weapon called the Holberd, out of the which, men of our age have dirived & made another kind of Holberd & Bill. And these baring also respect to some one profitable thing or other, did maintaine the defence, and encrease the hurting or offence. The respect was, that as they discoursed & pondred with themselves, at length they verie warily perceived that a man with weapon in his hand, might make sixe motions, that is to saie, one towards the head, one towards the feete, one towardes the right side, one towards the left, one forwards & towards the enimie, the other backward & toward him selfe. Of all the which, five of them might verie well strike, & the last might neither strike nor defend. Ther fore providing that this last motion also should not be idle & unprofitable, they added a hook with the point turned towards the handle, with the which one might verie easily teare armour, & draw perforce men from their horses. Those, who framed the middle or meane Holbert, would that the said hooke should be placed in the safe or backer edge. And those that devised the Bill, would have it on the right edge, leaving the edge so long that the hook might not altogether hinder the blow of the edge, but rather (to the end the edg might make the greater effect) they would that the hooke shuld beare and edg & be cutting in every part therof. Where I gather, that the Bil is the most perfect weapon of all others, because it striketh & hurteth in every of these sixe motions, & his defences both cut & prick: which the new kind of Holbert doth not perform, being framed after the said fashion, & rather for lightnes aptnes & braverie, then for that it carrieth any great profit with it: for the edge is not so apt to strike, & the point thereof is so weake, that hitting any hard thing, either it boweth or breaketh: neither is it much regarded in the warres, the Harquebush & the Pike being now adaies the strength of all armyes.
+
|  
 +
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/125|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/126|1|lbl=114|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/127|1|lbl=115|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''OF BILL AGAINST BILL, HALBERD AGAINST HALBERD, OR HALBERD AGAINST BILL'''
+
| <p>Hereby it may be gathered, that with the Partisan: a man may strike with the point and edge in five motions: with the Javelin, with the point only and in such motions as it may: with the Halberd and Bill, both with the point and edge, in six motions. But because these weapons for the most part are exercised and used to enter through diverse Pikes and other weapons, and to break and disorder the battle array, to which end, and purpose, if it be used, then that manner of managing and handling is very convenient which is much practiced now adays, and thus it is. The Partisan, Halberd, and Bill (but not the Javelin, being in this case nothing effectual because it has small force in the edge) must be born in the middle of the staff, with the heel thereof before, and very low, and the point near a man's head. And with the said heel, or half-staff underneath, from the hand downwards, he must ward and beat off the points and thrusts of the Pikes and other weapons, and having made way, must enter with the increase of a pace of the hindfoot, and in the same instant, let fall his weapon as forcibly as he may, and strike with the edge athwart the Pikes. This kind of blow is so strong (being delivered as it ought, considering it comes from above downwards, and the weapon of itself is very heavy) that it will cut asunder not only Pikes, but also any other forcible impediment. In these affairs the Javelin is not used, because it works no such effect. But when one is constrained to use it, he ought neither to beat off, neither to ward with the staff, but altogether with the Iron and his defenses, remembering, as soon as he has beaten off and made way of entrance, to thrust only: for to handle it in delivering of edge-blows prevails not, considering the small force it carries in that manner of striking. And as among all the foresaid iiii. weapons, the Javelin in this kind of skirmish, is least profitable, so the Partisan is most excellent and commodious, for having no other defense, it is provided in the staff, and is most forcible, to cut the Pikes by means of his heaviness and weight, and the rather, because it is unfurnished and void of other things, which in this case might let and hinder the edge blow. Therefore the Partisan shall be used (as in his own proper quality) to enter among the Pikes, and cut them a sunder, and other weapons also partly for that cause, and partly to skirmish single, one to one. Which although it be not ordinarily accustomed, yet nevertheless, because both this, and the rest of the weapons, may be handled in single combat, and do contain in them, as well offense, as defense, Farther, to the end, the wise and discrete (happening to be in such affairs) may be skillful to determine with themselves, what they may and ought to do: I will show my opinion what may be done with these weapons in single combat, reasoning jointly of the Javelin, Bill, and Halberd, because there is but a small difference in the Javelin, And the Bill, and the Halberd, are in a manner all one, and the very selfsame.</p>
Forasmuch, as the Bill and Halberd, have the self same offense and defense, and be of one length: I thought it not good to make two Treatises thereof, because I should be forced to repeat the self same thing in both, the which, being superfluous, would breed loathsomeness. I say therefore, that whosoever would handle the Bill or Halberd, which being all one, I will name indifferently, by the name of the Halberd, I say, to him that would use them, and strike as well with the point, as with the edge, which blows at these weapons are mighty and forcible, it is necessary, that he consider the difficulty in striking with the point, and the danger in striking with the edge. That it is difficult to strike with the point, it is most clear, because the full course of the point, may very easily be hindered and tied, by means of so many hooks and forks which are in the Halberd.
 
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''Of Bill against Bill, Holberd against Holberd, or Holberd against Bill.'''''
+
|  
'''F'''Orasmuch, as the Bill and Holberd, have the selfe same offence and defence, and be of one length: I thought it not good to make two Treatises thereof, because I should be forced to repeat the selfesame thing in both, the which, being superfluous, would breed loathsomenes. I say therefore, that whosoever would handle the Bill or Holberd, which beeing all one, I will name indifferently, by the name of the Holberd, I say, to him that would use them, & strike as well with the point, as with the edge, which blowes at these weapons are mightie and forcible, it is necessarie, that he consider the difficultie in striking with the point, and the daunger in striking with the edge. That it is difficult to strike with the point, it is most cleere, because the full course of the point, may verie easilie be hindered and tyed, by meanes of so many hookes and forkes which are in the Holberd.
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/127|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/128|1|lbl=116|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/129|1|lbl=117|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| And that it is perilous to strike with the edge, has been declared when I entreated of the single Rapier, which peril ought the more to be considered in this weapon, because by means of his length, it frames a greater circle, and therein gives more time to enter under it.
+
| <p>'''Of bill against bill, halberd against halberd, or halberd against bill'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Forasmuch, as the Bill and Halberd, have the selfsame offense and defense, and be of one length: I thought it not good to make two Treatises thereof, because I should be forced to repeat the selfsame thing in both, the which, being superfluous, would breed loathsomeness. I say therefore, that whosoever would handle the Bill or Halberd, which being all one, I will name indifferently, by the name of the Halberd, I say, to him that would use them, and strike as well with the point, as with the edge, which blows at these weapons are mighty and forcible, it is necessary, that he consider the difficulty in striking with the point, and the danger in striking with the edge. That it is difficult to strike with the point, it is most clear, because the full course of the point, may very easily be hindered and tied, by means of so many hooks and forks which are in the Halberd.</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
| And that it is perilous to strike with the edge, hath bin declared when I intreated of the single Rapier, which perill ought the more to be considered in this weapon, because by meanes of his length, it frameth a greater circle, and therein giveth more time to enter under it.
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/129|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/130|1|lbl=118|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Therefore no man may safely handle the Halberd, if first he does not consider these two things, the one, (which he may very hardly withstand) and that is the thrust, because these hooks and forks, are properly belonging unto it, and are impossible to be untied and taken away, when a man would, the form being as it is. 2. The peril of the edge blow, may some time be voided, if he be nimble and bold, performing all that in due time, which shall here be laid down for his instruction.
+
| <p>And that it is perilous to strike with the edge, has been declared when I entreated of the single Rapier, which peril ought the more to be considered in this weapon, because by means of his length, it frames a greater circle, and therein gives more time to enter under it.</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
| Therefore no man may safelie handle the Holberd, if first he do not consider these two thinges, the one, (which he may verie hardlie withstand) and that is the thrust, because these hookes and forkes, are properlie belonging unto it, and are impossible to bee untyed and taken away, when a man would the forme being as it is. 2. The peril of the edge blow, may some time be voided, if he be nimble and bold, performing all that in due time, which shall heere be laid down for his instruction.
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/130|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/131|1|lbl=119|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''HOW TO STRIKE WITH THE HALBERD.'''
+
| <p>Therefore no man may safely handle the Halberd, if first he does not consider these two things, the one, (which he may very hardly withstand) and that is the thrust, because these hooks and forks, are properly belonging unto it, and are impossible to be untied and taken away, when a man would, the form being as it is. 2. The peril of the edge blow, may sometimes be voided, if he be nimble and bold, performing all that in due time, which shall here be laid down for his instruction.</p>
In the handling of this weapon, there shall be framed (by my counsel) no more than one ward, bearing the hands, for the more surety in the middle of the staff. And that ward must be the low ward. The hands must be somewhat distant, one from an other, and the point of the weapon directly towards the enemy, regarding always to place himself with the contrary foot before, to that, which the enemy shall set forth, that is to say: If the enemy be before with the left foot, then to stand with the right foot, or contrary wise. And standing in manner aforesaid, he must always prove and try (before he be determined to deliver a thrust) to beat off the enemy's weapon, which being done, presently deliver a forcible thrust toward the enemy. But because it may lightly so fall out, that in beating off the enemy's weapon ( the enemy happily pretending to do the like) the weapons be entangled fast together. Therefore, as soon perceived that they be grappled fast, standing sure, and firmly on his feet, he shall increase a pace towards the enemy, lifting up aloft the enemy's weapon, together with his own by the force of the said entangling, and then with the heel, or blunt end of the Halberd shall strike the enemy in the breast, (for which consideration it should not dislike me, if for that purpose, there shall be fastened in the said blunt end, a strong and sharp pike of iron) and as soon as he has stroked with the said blunt end, (because, by means of the said lifting up, the weapons shall now be unhooked) and retiring that pace which he had before increased, without removing of his hands, he shall deliver a strong edge blow, which is then very commodious.
 
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''How to strike with the Holberd.'''''
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/131|2|lbl=-}}
'''I'''N the handling of this weapon, there shall be framed (by my counsel) no more than one ward, bearing in the hands, for the more suretie in the middle of the staffe. And that ward must be the lowe ward. The hands must be somewhat distant, one from an other, and the point of the weapon directlie towards the enimie, regarding alwaies to place himselfe with the contrarie foote before, to that, which the enimie shall set forth, that is to say: Yf the enimie be before with the left foote, then to stand with his right foote, or contrarie wise. And standing in maner aforesaid, he must alwaies prove & trie (before he be determined to deliver a thrust) to beat off the enimies weapon, which being done, presently deliver a forcible thrust toward the enimie. But because it may lightly so fall out, that in beating off the enimies weapon (the enimie happelie pretending to do the like) the weapons be intangled fast together. Therefore, as soone as it is perceaved that they be grappled fast, standing sure, and firmelie on his feete, he shall increase a pace towardes the enimie, lifting up aloft the enimies weapon, together with his owne by force of the said intangling, and then with the heele, or the blunt end of the Holberd shall strike the enimie in the brest, (for which consideration it should not dislike me, if for that purpose, there be fastned in the said blunt end, a strong and sharpe pike of iron) and as soone as he hath stroken with the said blunt end, (because, by meanes of the said lifting upp, the weapons shall b e now unhooked) and retyring that pace which he had before increased, without removing of his hands, he shall deliver a strong edge blow, which then is verie commodious.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| And it is to be understood, that this edgeblow being delivered in this manner, is so strong, that it is apt to cut the enemy's sword, if it be opposed in this ward. only that which is to be regarded in the delivering of this blow, is, that he be nimble, and of stout courage, not doubting that he shall be struck again, because he is to go so near his enemy, for besides, that he is in such case, that he may easily ward any blow, the enemy finds no way, to strike, except he perform it in two times, to wit, by retiring his pace and Halberd, and then by delivering a thrust.
+
| <p>'''How to strike with the halberd'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>In the handling of this weapon, there shall be framed (by my counsel) no more than one ward, bearing the hands, for the more surety in the middle of the staff. And that ward must be the low ward. The hands must be somewhat distant, one from another, and the point of the weapon directly towards the enemy, regarding always to place himself with the contrary foot before, to that, which the enemy shall set forth, that is to say: If the enemy be before with the left foot, then to stand with the right foot, or contrary wise. And standing in manner aforesaid, he must always prove and try (before he be determined to deliver a thrust) to beat off the enemy's weapon, which being done, presently deliver a forcible thrust toward the enemy. But because it may lightly so fall out, that in beating off the enemy's weapon (the enemy happily pretending to do the like) the weapons be entangled fast together. Therefore, as soon perceived that they be grappled fast, standing sure, and firmly on his feet, he shall increase a pace towards the enemy, lifting up aloft the enemy's weapon, together with his own by the force of the said entangling, and then with the heel, or blunt end of the Halberd shall strike the enemy in the breast, (for which consideration it should not dislike me, if for that purpose, there shall be fastened in the said blunt end, a strong and sharp pike of iron) and as soon as he has stroked with the said blunt end, (because, by means of the said lifting up, the weapons shall now be unhooked) and retiring that pace which he had before increased, without removing of his hands, he shall deliver a strong edge blow, which is then very commodious.</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
| And it is to be understood, that this edge blow being delivered in this maner, is so strong, that it is apt to cutt the enimies sword, if it be opposed in his ward. Only that which is to be regarded in the delivering of this blow, is, that he be nimble, and of stout courage, not doubting that he shal be strooken againe, because he is to goe so neere his enimie, for besides, that he is in such case, that he may easilie ward any blowe, the enimie findeth no waie, to strike, except he performe it in two times, to witt, by retyring his pace and Holberd, and then by delivering a thrust.
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/131|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/132|1|lbl=120|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| That this way of striking is good, after the tying, and entangling of the weapons, it may be hereby understood, that as a man endeavors to untie, and unloosen the weapons, either by retiring himself, either by carrying them on the one side, to the intent to strike, he may then go forth of the straight line, by going to one of the both sides, or else lose one time, by retiring himself, under which two inconveniences, either he must needs be hurt, or else defending himself, tie fast the weapons again. But these inconveniences happen not in the foresaid manner of striking.
+
| <p>And it is to be understood, that this edge-blow being delivered in this manner, is so strong, that it is apt to cut the enemy's sword, if it be opposed in this ward. only that which is to be regarded in the delivering of this blow, is, that he be nimble, and of stout courage, not doubting that he shall be struck again, because he is to go so near his enemy, for besides, that he is in such case, that he may easily ward any blow, the enemy finds no way, to strike, except he perform it in two times, to wit, by retiring his pace and Halberd, and then by delivering a thrust.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| That this waie of striking is good, after the tying, and intangling of the weapons, it may be hereby understood, that as a man indevoreth to untye, and unloosen the weapons, either by retyring himselfe, either by carying them on the one side, to the intent to strike, he may then go foorth of the straight lyne, by going to one of the both sides, or els lose one time, by retyring himselfe, under which two inconveniences, either he must needes be hurt, or els defending himselfe, tye fast the weapons againe. But these inconveniences happen not in the foresaid maner of striking.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/132|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Farther, a man may strike after an other way to wit, as soon as by the entangling of the weapons they are lifted up, to the intent to unhook, and untie them, he must change his hands, and n edge blow, either a thwart, either on high, either on low, for it is commodious anyway, so that he change his hands and retire a pace. But this is not so commodious in the other way, because he may not strike but only downwards. But in this manner of changing hands, he may easily strike the enemy in that place, where he perceives him to be most discovered, be it above or beneath.
+
| <p>That this way of striking is good, after the tying, and entangling of the weapons, it may be hereby understood, that as a man endeavors to untie, and unloosen the weapons, either by retiring himself, either by carrying them on the one side, to the intent to strike, he may then go forth of the straight line, by going to one of the both sides, or else lose one time, by retiring himself, under which two inconveniences, either he must needs be hurt, or else defending himself, tie fast the weapons again. But these inconveniences happen not in the foresaid manner of striking.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/132|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/133|1|lbl=121|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''OF THE DEFENSE OF THE HEEL, OR BLUNT END OF THE HALBERD.'''
+
| <p>Farther, a man may strike after another way to wit, as soon as by the entangling of the weapons they are lifted up, to the intent to unhook, and untie them, he must change his hands, and n edge blow, either a thwart, either on high, either on low, for it is commodious anyway, so that he change his hands and retire a pace. But this is not so commodious in the other way, because he may not strike but only downwards. But in this manner of changing hands, he may easily strike the enemy in that place, where he perceives him to be most discovered, be it above or beneath.
For the defense of the abovesaid two blows, it is requisite as I have already said, that a man stand with the contrary foot before, to that, of the enemy's. And as the enemy (after the fastening of the weapons) endeavors to lift them up, (being well awares thereof) he ought to recover his Halberd by the increase of a pace, and strike with the heel at the enemy's thigh or belly, and then changing his hands, he shall deliver an edge blow, without any other retiring of himself, or moving of his hands, The which blow shall lightly speed, being nimbly delivered. And when it speeds not, yet, it will safely ward the edge blow, which the enemy shall give. And this may suffice for asmuch as concerns the blows of the Halberd in single combat, wherein there is any difficulty to be found, the which, a man must seek to avoid by all means, especially endeavoring by all possible ways to deliver thrusts, without tying or entangling of his weapon. But although the enemy's weapon, may not be tied to any prescript law or order, (for he also uses, all the policy he may to avoid danger) yet these blows with their fastenings are laid down, because I presuppose, that who so is skillful to strike, notwithstanding these difficulties, will be much more adventurous, in striking when he shall find little, or nothing to hinder him, As for example, when in fight he meets with a weapon of the Staff of the self same, or of greater length, but yet, void of hooks or forks: For seeing his own weapon, is only able to hook, and drive outwards the enemy's weapon, he may safely deliver an edge blow, with the increase of a pace, being sure, that he may not be stroked again, but only with a thrust, which the enemy may not deliver, but of force, must either retire his staff, either his feet, under which time, an edge blow may be delivered without danger.
 
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''Of the defence of the heele, or blunt ende of the Holberd.'''''
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/133|2|lbl=-}}
'''F'''Or the defence of the abovesaid two blowes, it is requisite as I have alreadie said, that a man stand with the contrarie foote before, to that, of the enimies. And as the enimie (after the fastning of the weapons) endevoreth to lift them upp, (being well awares therof) he ought to recover his Holberd by the increase of a pace, and strike with the heele at the enimies thigh or bellie, and then chaunging his handes, he shall deliver an edge b low, without any other retyring of him selfe, or moving of his hands, The which blow shall lightlie speede, being nimblie delivered. And when it speedeth not, yet, it will safelie ward the edge blow, which the enimie shall give. And this may suffice for asmuch as concerneth the blowes of the Holberd in single combat, wherein there is anie difficultie to be found, the which, a man must seeke to avoide by all meanes, especiallye endevouryng by all possible wayes to deliver thrustes, without tying or intangling of his weapon. But although the enimies weapon may not be tyed to any prescript law or order, (for he also useth, all the pollicie he may to avoid daunger) yet these blowes with their fastnings are laid downe, because I presuppose, that who so is skilfull to strike, notwithstanding these difficulties, will be much more adventrous, in striking when he shall find little, or nothing to hinder him, As for example, when in fight he meetheth with a weapon of the Staffe of the selfesame, or of a greater length, but yet, void of hookes or forkes: For seeing his owne weapon, is onlie hable to hooke, and drive outwards the enimies weapon, he may savelie deliver an edge blow, with the increase of a pace, being sure, that he may not be stroken againe, but onelie with a thrust, which the enimie may not deliver, but of force, must either retyre his staffe, either his feete, under which time, an edge blow may be delivered without daunger.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''OF THE HURT AND WARD OF THE JAVELIN.'''
+
| <p>'''Of the defense of the heel, or blunt end of the halberd'''</p>
The self same ward, shall be framed with the Javelin, as with the Halberd. And because, of necessity, the weapons will be entangled, I say, the very same thrusts shall be given therewith, as are delivered with the Halberd. And because the edge of the Javelin is weak, and the pacing which is made when the weapons are fastened, is only profitable for the giving of the edge blow: Therefore in handling of the Javelin, this entangling or fastening is by all means possible to be avoided. But when a man is to strike his enemy, let him first prove, to beat off his Javelin, and then to force on a thrust, in this manner.
+
 
 +
<p>For the defense of the abovesaid two blows, it is requisite as I have already said, that a man stand with the contrary foot before, to that, of the enemy's. And as the enemy (after the fastening of the weapons) endeavors to lift them up, (being well aware thereof) he ought to recover his Halberd by the increase of a pace, and strike with the heel at the enemy's thigh or belly, and then changing his hands, he shall deliver an edge blow, without any other retiring of himself, or moving of his hands, The which blow shall lightly speed, being nimbly delivered. And when it speeds not, yet, it will safely ward the edge blow, which the enemy shall give. And this may suffice for asmuch as concerns the blows of the Halberd in single combat, wherein there is any difficulty to be found, the which, a man must seek to avoid by all means, especially endeavoring by all possible ways to deliver thrusts, without tying or entangling of his weapon. But although the enemy's weapon, may not be tied to any prescript law or order, (for he also uses, all the policy he may to avoid danger) yet these blows with their fastenings are laid down, because I presuppose, that who so is skillful to strike, notwithstanding these difficulties, will be much more adventurous, in striking when he shall find little, or nothing to hinder him, As for example, when in fight he meets with a weapon of the Staff of the selfsame, or of greater length, but yet, void of hooks or forks: For seeing his own weapon, is only able to hook, and drive outwards the enemy's weapon, he may safely deliver an edge blow, with the increase of a pace, being sure, that he may not be stroked again, but only with a thrust, which the enemy may not deliver, but of force, must either retire his staff, either his feet, under which time, an edge blow may be delivered without danger.</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''Of the hurt and ward of the Javelyn.'''''
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/133|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/134|1|lbl=121|p=1}}
'''T'''He selfe same ward, shalbe framed with the Javelyn, as with the Holberd. And because, of necessitie, the weapons will be intangled, I say, the verie same thrusts shal be given therwith, as are delivered with the Holberd. But because the edge of the Javelyn is weake, and the pacing which is made when the weapons are fastned, is onelie profitable for the giving of the edge blow: Therfore in handling of the Javeling, this intangling or fastning is by al means possible to be avoided. But when a man is to strike his enimie, let him first prove, to beat off his Javelyn, and then to force on a thrust, in this maner.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Finding the enemy's Javelin to be within, (by within, I understand, when the Javelin is between the enemy's arms, or against them) then he must force it outwards, and drive a thrust with his own Javelin, at the length of the staff (without moving of his feet) at the enemy's face. Finding it without, he ought to beat it backwards, and increasing a pace, to launch out the Javelin at the enemy's face, at the length of the staff and arm, immediately retiring his pace, and hand, and afterwards settle himself in the same low ward.
+
| <p>'''Of the hurt and ward of the javelin'''</p>
|
 
| Finding the enimies Javelyn to b e within, (by within, I understand, when the Javelyn is betweene the enimies armes, or against them) then he must force it outwards, and drive a thrust with his owne Javelyn, at the length of the staffe (without moving of his feete) at the enimies face. Finding it without, he ought to beat it backwards, and increasing a pace, to launch out the Javelyn at the enimies face, at the length of the staffe and arme, immediatlie retyring his pace, & hand, and afterwards settle himselfe in the same low ward.
 
  
|-
+
<p>The self same ward, shall be framed with the Javelin, as with the Halberd. And because, of necessity, the weapons will be entangled, I say, the very same thrusts shall be given therewith, as are delivered with the Halberd. And because the edge of the Javelin is weak, and the pacing which is made when the weapons are fastened, is only profitable for the giving of the edge blow: Therefore in handling of the Javelin, this entangling or fastening is by all means possible to be avoided. But when a man is to strike his enemy, let him first prove, to beat off his Javelin, and then to force on a thrust, in this manner.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| '''OF THE DEFENSE OF THE THRUSTS OF THE JAVELIN.'''
 
For him that would defend himself from those two thrusts, and strike under them, it is necessary to call to remembrance the most subtle consideration of times, without knowledge whereof, there is no man that may safely bear himself under any weapon: Coming therefore to the said consideration, I say, that if the enemy would beat of the Javelin, (his own Javelin being either within, either without) of force he must enlarge and widen it from out the straight line, if he would as aforesaid forcibly beat off the other Javelin. Therefore at what time soever a man sees the enemy's Javelin wide of the straight line, then, and in the same time (in the which it comes purposing to beat off) he must nimbly deliver a thrust. And in like manner, finding himself, either within, either without, and the enemy's Javelin something wide of the straight line, then before it come into the said line again, he shall with the increase of a pace deliver a thrust, at the length of the hinder arm, and then retiring his said pace, settle himself at his ward again.
 
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''Of the defence of the thrustes of the Javelyn.'''''
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/134|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/135|1|lbl=123|p=1}}
'''F'''Or him that would defend himselfe from those two thrusts, and strike under them, it is necessarie to call to remembraunce the most subtill consideration of times, without knowledge whereof, there is no man that may safelie beare himselfe under anie weapon: Comming therefore to the said consideration, I saie, that if the enimie would beate of the Javelyn, (his owne Javelyn being either within, either without) of force hee must enlarge and widen it from out the straight lyne, if he would as aforesaid forciblie beat off the other Javelyn. Therefore at what time soever a man seeth the enimies Javelyn wide of the straight lyne, then, and in the same time (in the which it commeth purposing to beat off) he must nimblie deliver a thrust. And in like maner, finding himselfe, either within, either without, and the enimies Javelyn something wide of the straight lyne, then before it come into the said lyne againe, he shall with the increase of a pace deliver a thrust, at the length of the hinder arme, and then retyring his said pace, settle himselfe at his ward againe.
 
 
 
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''OF THE PARTISAN.'''
+
| <p>Finding the enemy's Javelin to be within, (by within, I understand, when the Javelin is between the enemy's arms, or against them) then he must force it outwards, and drive a thrust with his own Javelin, at the length of the staff (without moving of his feet) at the enemy's face. Finding it without, he ought to beat it backwards, and increasing a pace, to launch out the Javelin at the enemy's face, at the length of the staff and arm, immediately retiring his pace, and hand, and afterwards settle himself in the same low ward.</p>
If any would handle the Partisan in single combat, they shall not strike with the edge, because the time is too long, and they may easily be stroked under the same. Therefore practicing the thrust, they shall use the self same offense and defense, which I have showed in the Javelin, to the which I refer them.
 
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''Of the Partisan.'''''
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/135|2|lbl=-}}
'''I'''F any would handle the Partisan in single combat, they shall not strike with the edge, because the time is too long, and they may easilie be stroken under the same. Therefore practizing the thrust, they shall use the selfe same offence and defence, which I have shewed in the Javelyn, to the which I referre them.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''OF THE PIKE.'''
+
| <p>'''Of the defense of the thrusts of the javelin'''</p>
As among all other weapons, which are worn by the side, the single sword is the most honorable, as being such a one which is left capable of deceit of any other: So among the weapons of the Staff, the Pike is the most plain, most honorable, and most noble weapon of all the rest.
 
|
 
| '''''Of the Pike.'''''
 
'''A'''S among all other weapons, which are worn by the side, the single sword is the most honorable, as beeing such a one which is left capable of deceit of any other: So among the weapons of the Staffe, the Pike is the most plaine, most honorable, and most noble weapon of all the rest.
 
  
|-
+
<p>For him that would defend himself from those two thrusts, and strike under them, it is necessary to call to remembrance the most subtle consideration of times, without knowledge whereof, there is no man that may safely bear himself under any weapon: Coming therefore to the said consideration, I say, that if the enemy would beat of the Javelin, (his own Javelin being either within, either without) of force he must enlarge and widen it from out the straight line, if he would as aforesaid forcibly beat off the other Javelin. Therefore at what time soever a man sees the enemy's Javelin wide of the straight line, then, and in the same time (in the which it comes purposing to beat off) he must nimbly deliver a thrust. And in like manner, finding himself, either within, either without, and the enemy's Javelin something wide of the straight line, then before it come into the said line again, he shall with the increase of a pace deliver a thrust, at the length of the hinder arm, and then retiring his said pace, settle himself at his ward again.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| Therefore among renowned knights and great Lords this weapon is highly esteemed, because it is as well void of deceit, as also, for that in well handling thereof, there is required great strength of body, accompanied with great value and deep judgment: for there is required in the use thereof a most subtle delicate knowledge and consideration of times, and motions, and a ready resolution to strike. These qualities may not happen or be resident in any persons, but in such as are strong of arms and courageous of stomach. Neither may they procure to get any other advantage in the handling thereof, then to be more quick and resolute both in judgment and hand than their enemy is. Therefore seeing every man may hereby know what is necessary for him so to handle it, as he may obtain victory thereby: let him resolve himself either to give it over quite, or else to handle it as he ought, and is required.
 
 
|  
 
|  
| Therefore among renowned knightes and great Lords this weapon is highly esteemed, because it is as well voide of deceite, as also, for that in well handling thereof, there is required great strength of bodie, accompanied with great valure and deepe judgement: for there is required in the use thereof a most subtill & delicate knowledge and consideration of times, and motions, and a readie resolution to strike. These qualities may not happen or be resident in any persons, but in such as are strong of armes and couragious of stomacke. Neither may they procure to get any other advantage in the handling thereof, then to be more quick and resolute both in judgement and hande than their enimie is. Therefore seeing every man may hereby knowe what is necessarie for him so to handle it, as he may obtaine victorie thereby: let him resolve himselfe either to give it over quite, or els to handle it as he ought, and is required.
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/135|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/136|1|lbl=124|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Di Grassi 23.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| '''THE MANNER HOW TO HANDLE THE PIKE.'''
 
This renowned weapon has been of diverse diversely handled, in single combat: (for in the manner of using it in the wars, makes not at this present for my purpose.) Therefore it shall not be amiss, if (speaking of the manner of his use in these our days) I declare also mine opinion concerning the same. There have been some (who greatly regarding ease and little pain) would have the Pike to be borne in the middle. other some, more strong of arm, but weaker of heart, (to the end they might be the farther off, from hurt) accustomed to bear it at the beginning near the heel or blunt end thereof: which two ways in my judgment are to be refused, the one being too dangerous (I mean, the bearing of it in the middle) the other too difficult (I mean, the bearing it at the blunt end,) because a man is not able to stand long at his ward, neither to defend himself strongly, not offend safely, considering, much of his force is taken away, by sustaining and bearing it at the said end. So that, when a forcible blow comes he has not sufficient power to beat it off. And forasmuch as the Pike is a long straight line, which has his motion in the head or beginning thereof, which motion be it never so small, near the hand, is yet very great at the point, it is requisite, if he would strike just and straight, (when he so holds it at the end) that he be greatly practiced, and have great strength whereby he may be both skillful and able to bear it so just and even, that the point thereof strike or hit there where the hand and eye would have it. This is very hardly accomplished, as well because it is a thing impossible to strike by the straight line, as also for that the arms being weakened with the place of the Pike, do shake and deliver it unsteadfastly. Therefore, for the avoiding of these two inconveniences, the Pike must be born within an arms length of the said heel or blunt end, in which place, it is sufficiently distant from hurt, and it is not borne with much difficulty if the hands be placed an arms length one from another of the which the hinder hand must be steadfast, I mean, hold the Pike hard, and the forehand somewhat loose: So that the Pike may shift thorough it to and fro.
 
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''The manner how to handle the Pyke'''''
+
| <p>'''Of the partisan'''</p>
'''T'''His renowmed weapon hath beene of divers diversly handled, in single combat: (for the manner of using it in the warres, maketh not at this present for my purpose.) Therefore it shall not be amisse, if (speaking of the manner of his use in these are daies) I declare also mine opinion concerning the same. There have beene some (who greatly regarding ease & little paine) would have the Pike to be borne in the middle. Other some, more strong of arme, but weaker of hart, (to the end they might be the farther off, from hurte) accustomed to beare it at the beginning neere the heele or blunt end thereof: which two waies in my judgement are to be refused, the one being too daungerous (I meane the bearing of it in the middle) the other too difficult (I mean, the bearing it at the blunt end,) because a man is not able to stande long at his ward, neither to defend himselfe strongly, nor offend safely, considering, much of his force is taken away, by ststeining and bearing it at the said end. So that, when a forcible blow commeth he hath not sufficient power to beat it off. And forasmuch as the Pike is a long straight lyne, which hath his motion in the head or beginning thereof, which motion be it never so finall, neere the hand, is yet verie great at the point, it is requisite, if he would strike just and straight, (when he so holdeth it at the end) that he be greatly practised, and have great strength whereby he may be both skilfull & able to beare it so just & even, that the point thereof strik or hit there where the hand & eie would have it. This is verie hardly accomplished, aswel beecause it is a thing impossible to strike by the straight lyne, as also for that the armes being weakened with the paize of the Pike, do shake and deliver unstedfastly. Therefore, for the avoyding of these two inconveniences, the Pike must be born within an armes length of the said heele or blunt end, in which place, it is sufficiently distant from hurt, & it is not borne with much difficultie if the hands be placed an armes length one from another of the which the hinder hand must be stedfast, I meane, holde the Pike harde, and the forehand somewhat lookse: So that the Pike may shift through it to and fro.
 
  
|-
+
<p>If any would handle the Partisan in single combat, they shall not strike with the edge, because the time is too long, and they may easily be stroked under the same. Therefore practicing the thrust, they shall use the selfsame offense and defense, which I have showed in the Javelin, to the which I refer them.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| '''FOR THE CAUSE THE PIKE MAKES GREATER PASSAGE WITH THE POINT THEN ANY OTHER SHORTER WEAPON.'''
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/136|2|lbl=-}}
It is most manifest, that the Pike makes greater passage with his point than any other weapon: and the two hand sword, more then the ordinary sword: and the sword more then the dagger. And among all weapons, this is generally true, that the longer the weapon is, the greater the passage it makes with the point, and the greater blow with the edge. Neither does this so chance, because the weapon is more heavy, neither because there is applied more force unto it in action, as most men suppose, but rather through a natural cause which is as follows.
+
|}
|  
+
{{master subsection end}}
| '''''For what cause the Pike maketh greater passage with the point than any other shorter weapon.'''''
 
<br/>'''I'''T is most manifest, that the Pike maketh greater passage with his point than any other weapon: and the twohand sworde, more then the ordinarie sword: & the sword more then the dagger. And among al weapons, this is generally true, that the longer the weapon, the greater passage it maketh with the point, and the greater blow with the edge. Neither doeth this so chaunce, because the weapon is more heavie, neither because there is applyed more force unto it in action, as most men suppose, but rather through a naturall cause which is as followeth.
 
  
 +
{{master subsection begin
 +
| title = Pike
 +
| width = 120em
 +
}}
 +
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Di Grassi 24.jpg|400x400px|center]]
+
! <p>Figures<br/>from the 1570</p>
| If there be two circles, the one greater then the other, and are moved by one manner of motion, the greater shall be more swift then the less: for being greater in circumference and turning round, in the same time that the less turns it must needs be, that it goes more swiftly. So it comes to pass, that one self same hand may deliver a greater blow with the two hand sword then with a single sword, and with a long sword, then one that is shorter, and with that, then with the dagger: And with a Bill, a greater blow, then with two hand sword, and so likewise in all other weapons. Wherefore it is most clear, that of edgeblows that makes the greater stroke, which is delivered with the longer weapon. It remains now to be considered, how this falls out in the blows of the point. I say therefore, the blows of the point are also circular, so that the Pike being very long, makes the greater circle, and by consequence the greater blow of the point or the greater thrust. That the blows of the point are circular, may be showed by this reason. The arm (being as a straight line, and fixed fast in one part, as for example in the shoulder, and movable in the other, as in the hand, standing I say, fixed as a straight line, and the one end moving from the other) shall always move circularly: So that the arm cannot otherwise move, except when it is bowed, and would then make itself straight again, the which motion is also doubtful, whether it be straight yea or no. Therefore imagining that on the movable part of this arm, or straight line, there be also another thwart line, to wit, a Pike, a sword, or any other weapon, then the arm moving, carries also, circularly with it, the said thwart line, by how much, the longer it is, by so much the greater circle, as may be seen in this figure.
+
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 +
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/></p>
 +
! <p>English Transcription (1594){{edit index|DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf}}<br/>by [[Early English Books Online]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|- 
 
|  
 
|  
| If there be two circles, the one greater then the other, and are moved by one manner of motion, the greater shall be more swift then the lesse: for being greater in circumference & turning round, in the same time that the lesse turneth it must needes be, that it goeth more swiftly. So it commeth to passe, that one selfe-same hand may deliver a greater blow with the two hande sworde than with a single sworde, and with a long sworde, then one that is shorter, and with that, then with the dagger: And with a Bill, a greater blowe, then with the two hand sworde, and so likewise in all other weapons. Wherefore it is most cleere, that of edgeblowes that maketh the greater stroke, which is delivered with the longer weapon. It remaineth now to be considered, how this falleth out in the blowes of the point. I saie therefore, if the blowes of the point are also circuler, so that the Pike being verie long, maketh the greater circle, and by consequence the greater blowe of the point or the greater thrust. That the blowes of the point are circuler, may be shewed by this reason. The arme (being as a straight line, & fixed fast in one parte, as for example in the shoulder, and movable in the other, as in the hand, standing I saye, fixed as a straight lyne, and the one end moving from the other) shall alwaies move circulerly: So that the arme cannot otherwise move, except when it is bowed, and would then make it selfe straight againe, the which motion is also doubtfull, whether it be straight yea or no. Therefore imagining that on the movable parte of this arme, or straight lyne, there be also another thwart lyne, to wit, a Pike, a sworde, or any other weapon, then the arme moving, carrieth also, circulerly with it, the said thwart lyne: which lyne, by how much, the longer it is, by so much it maketh the greater circle, as may be seene in this figure.
+
| <p>'''Of the pike'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>As among all other weapons, which are worn by the side, the single sword is the most honorable, as being such a one which is less capable of deceit of any other: So among the weapons of the Staff, the Pike is the most plain, most honorable, and most noble weapon of all the rest.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/136|2|lbl=110}}
 +
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/136|3|lbl=124}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Whereby, it is manifest, that the Pike, the longer it is, it frames the greater circle, and consequently, is more swift, and therefore makes the greater passage. The like is to be understood of all other weapons, which the longer they are being moved by the arm, cause the greater edgeblow, and greater passage with the point.
+
| <p>Therefore among renowned knights and great Lords this weapon is highly esteemed, because it is as well void of deceit, as also, for that in well handling thereof, there is required great strength of body, accompanied with great value and deep judgment: for there is required in the use thereof a most subtle delicate knowledge and consideration of times, and motions, and a ready resolution to strike. These qualities may not happen or be resident in any persons, but in such as are strong of arms and courageous of stomach. Neither may they procure to get any other advantage in the handling thereof, then to be more quick and resolute both in judgment and hand than their enemy is. Therefore seeing every man may hereby know what is necessary for him so to handle it, as he may obtain victory thereby: let him resolve himself either to give it over quite, or else to handle it as he ought, and is required.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| Whereby, it is manifest, that the Pike, the longer it is, frameth the greater circle, and consequently, is more swifte, and therefore maketh the greater passage. The like is to be understood of all other weapons, which the longer they are being moved by the arme, cause the greater edgeblow, and greater passage with the point.
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/137|1|lbl=125}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| [[File:Di Grassi 23.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 +
| <p>'''The manner how to handle the pike'''</p>
 +
 +
<p>This renowned weapon has been of diverse diversely handled, in single combat: (for in the manner of using it in the wars, makes not at this present for my purpose.) Therefore it shall not be amiss, if (speaking of the manner of his use in these our days) I declare also mine opinion concerning the same. There have been some (who greatly regarding ease and little pain) would have the Pike to be borne in the middle. other some, more strong of arm, but weaker of heart, (to the end they might be the farther off, from hurt) accustomed to bear it at the beginning near the heel or blunt end thereof: which two ways in my judgment are to be refused, the one being too dangerous (I mean, the bearing of it in the middle) the other too difficult (I mean, the bearing it at the blunt end,) because a man is not able to stand long at his ward, neither to defend himself strongly, not offend safely, considering, much of his force is taken away, by sustaining and bearing it at the said end. So that, when a forcible blow comes he has not sufficient power to beat it off. And forasmuch as the Pike is a long straight line, which has his motion in the head or beginning thereof, which motion be it never so small, near the hand, is yet very great at the point, it is requisite, if he would strike just and straight, (when he so holds it at the end) that he be greatly practiced, and have great strength whereby he may be both skillful and able to bear it so just and even, that the point thereof strike or hit there where the hand and eye would have it. This is very hardly accomplished, as well because it is a thing impossible to strike by the straight line, as also for that the arms being weakened with the place of the Pike, do shake and deliver it unsteadfastly. Therefore, for the avoiding of these two inconveniences, the Pike must be born within an arm's length of the said heel or blunt end, in which place, it is sufficiently distant from hurt, and it is not borne with much difficulty if the hands be placed an arm's length one from another of the which the hinder hand must be steadfast, I mean, hold the Pike hard, and the forehand somewhat loose: So that the Pike may shift thorough it to and fro.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| '''OF THE WARDS OF THE PIKE.'''
 
In mine opinion, if a man would either strike, or defend with the Pike, he may not otherwise use it then by the framing of two wards, in one of which, he shall then strike the body from the middle upwards, & this I will term the low ward: the other shall strike the body from the middle downwards, & shall be called the high ward. Neither shall they be so termed for any other cause, then for that it is very necessary for him that strikes, first to beat off the enemy's Pike, & then to deliver his own. But yet it should breed great inconvenience, & there would be two much time spent if finding it good & commodious to strike in the low ward, he would first beat off the enemy's weapon, & then shift from the low to the high ward. For that cause I will frame the high ward, which shall be, when one bears his arms high, & the point of the Pike low. And the low ward is, when the arms are low, & the point of the Pike high. There is another ward which would be framed as a mean between these two, & that is, when the Pike is borne directly towards the enemy. And it falls out that is most sure & long, when it is opposed against any of the other two aforesaid, because then a man is in case both to beat off the weapon & to enter therewithall with great advantage. But putting the case, the enemy do likewise directly oppose himself against this ward, then the Pikes may not beat off one another, but both parties are like to be invested & run through at one instant, without any defense or warding thereof. So that this straight ward may not be used except it be against one of the two aforesaid. And when the enemy stands in any of the said two, then a man must resolutely bring his weapon into the said straight ward, for as he gets thereby the greater advantage both of length & time, so he may very easily beat off the enemy's Pike.
 
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''Of the wardes of the Pike.'''''
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/137|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/138|1|lbl=126|p=1}}
'''I'''N mine opinion, if a man would either strike, or defend with the Pike, he may not otherwise use it then by framing of two wardes, in one of which, he shal strike the bodie from the middle upwards, & this I will terme the low warde: the other shall strike the bodie from the middle downwadrs, & shalbe called the high ward. Neither shalthey be so termed for any other cause, then for that it is verie necessarie for him that striketh, first to beat off the enimies Pike, & then to deliver his owne. But yet it should breed great inconvenience, & there would be two much time spent if finding it good & commodious to strike in the lowe warde, he would first beat off the enimies weapon, & then shift from the lowe to the high warde, which shal bee, when one beareth his armes high, & the point of the Pike low. And the low warde is, when the armes are low, & the point of the Pike high. There is another warde which would be framed as a meane betweene these two, & that is, when the Pike is borne directly towards the enimie. And it falleth out that it is most sure & long, when it is opposed against any of the other two aforesaid, because then a man is in case both to beat off the weapon & to enter therewithall with great advantage. But putting the case, the enimie do likewise directly oppose himselfe against this warde, then the Pikes may not beat off one another, but both parties are like to be invested & runne through at one instant, without any defence or warding thereof. So that this straight ward may not be used except it be against one of the two aforesaid. And when the enimie standeth in any of the said two, then a man must resolutely bring his weapon into the said straight ward, for as he getteth therby the greater advantage both of length & time, so he may very easily beat off the enimies Pike.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''OF THE MANNER HOW TO STRIKE IN THE SAID WARDS.'''
+
| <p>'''For the cause the pike makes greater passage with the point than any other shorter weapon'''</p>
When the enemy is in the low ward, a man ought always tostand either at the high or straight ward. And contrarily, in the low or straight ward, when the enemy is in the high ward. And must endeavor as forcibly and as nimble as he may, first of all, to beat off the enemy's Pike, whether it be within or without, but yet in such sort, that he depart not much from the straight line, and thereby be constrained, to spend much time in returning thither again, And as soon as he has beaten off the enemy's weapon, to thrust, bearing his body contrary to his arms, to the end, he may be the more covered from the thrusts, and deliver his own thrusts with the more force, always regarding in the high ward, to thrust downwards, and in the low ward, upwards, & in the straight ward, in the middle: for in this manner of thrusting, is very commodious, and consumes little time.
+
 
 +
<p>It is most manifest, that the Pike makes greater passage with his point than any other weapon: and the two hand sword, more than the ordinary sword: and the sword more than the dagger. And among all weapons, this is generally true, that the longer the weapon is, the greater the passage it makes with the point, and the greater blow with the edge. Neither does this so chance, because the weapon is more heavy, neither because there is applied more force unto it in action, as most men suppose, but rather through a natural cause which is as follows.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| '''''Of the maner how to strike in the said wardes.'''''
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/139|1|lbl=127}}
<br/>'''W'''Hen the enimie is in the low ward, a man ought alwayes to stand either at the high or straight ward. And contrarilie, in the low or straight ward, when the enimie is in the high ward. And must indevour as forciblie and as nimblie as he may, first of all, to beat off the enimies Pike, whether it be within or without, but yet in such sort, that he depart not much from the straight lyne, and be therby constrayned, to spend much time in returning thither againe, And as soone as he hath beaten off the enimies weapon, to thrust, bearing his bodie contrarie to his armes, to the end, he may be the more covered from the thrustes, and deliver his owne thrusts with the more force, alwaies regarding in the high ward, to thrust downewards, and in the low ward, upwards, & in the straight ward, in the middle: for this maner of thrusting, is verie commodious, and consumeth little time.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| [[File:Di Grassi 24.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| '''OF THE DEFENSE OF THE WARDS.'''
+
{| style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto; width: 28em;"
The hurts of these wards, are defended in the self same manner, as those of the Javelin are, to which Chapter, (having there reasoned sufficiently) I refer you, to the intent I may not repeat one thing often.
+
|-
|  
+
| <p>Center</p>
| '''''Of the defence of the wardes.'''''
 
'''T'''He hurts of these wardes, are defended in the selfe same maner, as those of the Javelyne are, to which Chapter, (having htere reasoned sufficiently) I referre you, to the intent I may not repeat one thing often.
 
  
|-
+
<p>The circle of the Short weapon</p>
|
 
| And it is to be considered, that there is greater regard to be had of the times in managing this weapon then in any other, because it is not furnished with any forks, or other defenses which may help a man, but all hope of victory consists in the judgment of the times, and in dexterity of delivery.
 
|
 
| And it is to be considered, that there is greater regard to be had of the times in managing this weapon then in any other, because it is not furnished with any forkes, or other defences which may helpe a man, but all hope of victorie consisteth in the judgement of the times, and in dexteritie of deliverie.
 
  
 +
<p>The circle of the pike</p>
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/141|1|lbl=115}}
| I will not therefore at this present stand to declare any more of the true knowledge of the weapon, then that, which only appertains to be spoken in this work, but will hereafter at my more leisure, handle it more at large, at what time, it shall be known, that men (giving over all other false & vain kind of skirmishing) ought to settle themselves in this, by means whereof, their judgments are perfected, and they more insured under their weapons, and so by consequence are made more bold and hardy. And forasmuch as all this ought to be verified in deeds, and not in words, it shall be every mans part, that will exercise himself in this Art, first diligently to learn the principles, & afterwards by exercise of the weapon to attain to the most subtle and delicate knowledge & consideration of the times, without which (as I have said elsewhere) is not possible to profit therein. For although there be happily some, who (being strong of arm, and nimble in delivering falses, either right, reversed, or straight) have been in our time accompted for tall men, yet for all that, those who are skillful in this true Art, ought not to give credit unto it, because they know assuredly that not right or reversed edge blows, get the mastery, but rather the thrusts of the point, neither the bestowing of them every way, but with advantage and in due time. Neither ought a man to strike, thereby to be stroked again, (which is the part and point, rather of a brute beast, then of a reasonable man) but to strike and remain without danger. And all which things by this true Art are easily learned.
 
|  
 
| I will not therfore at this present stand to declare any more of the true knowledge of the weapon, then that, which onelie appertayneth to be spoken in this worke, but will hereafter at my more leasure, handle it more at large, at what time, it shal be knowen, that men (giving over all other false & vain kind of skimrmishing) ought to settle them selves in this, by meanes wherof, their judgements are perfected, and they more insured under their weapons, and so by consequence are made more bold and hardie. And forasmuch as all this ought to be verified in deedes, and not in wordes, it shall be every mans part, that will exercise himselfe in this Art, first diligentlie to learn the principles, & afterwards by exercise of the weapon to attaine to the most subtil and delicate knowledge & consideration of the times, without which (as I have said els where) it is not prossible to profit therin. For although there be happilie some, who (being strong of arme, and nimble in delivering falses, either right reversed, or straight) have bin in our time accompted for tall men, yet for al that, those who are skilfull in this true Art, ought not to give credite unto it, because they know assuredlie that not right or reversed edge blowes, get the masterie, but rather the thrusts of the point, neither the bestowing of them every way, but with advantage and in due time. Neither ought a man to strike, therby to be stroken againe, (which is the part and point, rather of a bruite beast, then of a reasonable man) but to strike and remaine without daunger. All which things by this true Art are easilie learned.
 
 
 
 
|-  
 
|-  
| class="noline" |  
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/141|2|lbl=129}}
| class="noline" | '''FINIS'''
 
| class="noline" |
 
| class="noline" | '''FINIS.'''
 
 
 
 
|}
 
|}
{{master end}}
+
| <p>If there be two circles, the one greater than the other, and are moved by one manner of motion, the greater shall be more swift then the less: for being greater in circumference and turning round, in the same time that the less turns it must needs be, that it goes more swiftly. So it comes to pass, that one selfsame hand may deliver a greater blow with the two hand sword then with a single sword, and with a long sword, then one that is shorter, and with that, then with the dagger: And with a Bill, a greater blow, then with two hand sword, and so likewise in all other weapons. Wherefore it is most clear, that of edge-blows that makes the greater stroke, which is delivered with the longer weapon. It remains now to be considered, how this falls out in the blows of the point. I say therefore, the blows of the point are also circular, so that the Pike being very long, makes the greater circle, and by consequence the greater blow of the point or the greater thrust. That the blows of the point are circular, may be showed by this reason. The arm (being as a straight line, and fixed fast in one part, as for example in the shoulder, and movable in the other, as in the hand, standing I say, fixed as a straight line, and the one end moving from the other) shall always move circularly: So that the arm cannot otherwise move, except when it is bowed, and would then make itself straight again, the which motion is also doubtful, whether it be straight yea or no. Therefore imagining that on the movable part of this arm, or straight line, there be also another thwart line, to wit, a Pike, a sword, or any other weapon, then the arm moving, carries also, circularly with it, the said thwart line, by how much, the longer it is, by so much the greater circle, as may be seen in this figure.</p>
 
 
{{master begin
 
| title = Deceits and Falsings
 
| width = 120em
 
}}
 
{| class="master"
 
|-
 
! <p>Images<br/>from the 1570</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>