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Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS 1825)

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Paulus Kal Fechtbuch
MS 1825, Biblioteca Universitaria di Bologna
Bologna, Italy

MS 1825 01v.jpg
MS 1825 02r.jpg
Folia 1v - 2r
Date 1460 - 1480
Language(s) Early New High German
Illustrator(s) Unknown
Dedicated to Ludwig IX "the Rich"
Material Paper
Size 44 folia (92 mm × 87 mm)
Format Double-sided; one illustration per side
Exemplar(s) Cgm 1507 (ca. 1470)
Treatise scans

The MS 1825 is a German fencing manual created by Paulus Kal in the latter part of the fifteenth century, probably between 1460 and 1480.[1] The original currently rests in the holdings of the Biblioteca Universitaria di Bologna in Bologna, Italy. It is dedicated to Ludwig IV "the Rich" of Wittelsbach (1417-1479), Duke of Bavaria-Landshut.[2]

Kal's writings (exemplified in the Cgm 1507 (PKM) consist of a redaction of some of the teachings of Johannes Liechtenauer on mounted fencing, armored fencing, and unarmored fencing, as well as Kal's own teachings on a variety of other weapons. It differs from the works of other followers of Liechtenauer in that instead of offering extensive glosses of the high master's verse, Kal relies on detailed illustrations. Apart from the preface, this manuscript does not contain any of the text included in the contemporary Cgm 1507, suggesting that it may be an incomplete copy of the other.



2r - 6r Preface by Paulus Kal
6v - 8v Illustrations of mounted fencing from Paulus Kal
9r - 14v Illustrations of armored fencing from Paulus Kal
15r - 17r Illustrations of Sword and Buckler from Paulus Kal
18r - 24v Illustrations of Bloßfechten from Paulus Kal
25r - 26v Illustrations of Messer from Paulus Kal
27v - 30r Illustrations of Dagger from Paulus Kal
31r - 44r Illustrations of Grappling from Paulus Kal
45rv Long sword by Johannes Liechtenauer (fragment)


Front Cover
Inside Cover
Folio 1r
Folio 1v
MS 1825 01v.jpg
Folio 2r
MS 1825 02r.jpg
Folio 2v
MS 1825 02v.jpg
Folio 3r
MS 1825 03r.jpg
Folio 3v
MS 1825 03v.jpg
Folio 4r
MS 1825 04r.jpg
Folio 4v
Folio 5r
Folio 5v
MS 1825 05v.jpg
Folio 6r
MS 1825 06r.jpg
Folio 6v
MS 1825 06v.jpg
Folio 7r
MS 1825 07r.jpg
Folio 7v
MS 1825 07v.jpg
Folio 8r
MS 1825 08r.jpg
Folio 8v
MS 1825 08v.jpg
Folio 9r
MS 1825 09r.jpg
Folio 9v
MS 1825 09v.jpg
Folio 10r
MS 1825 10r.jpg
Folio 10v
MS 1825 10v.jpg
Folio 11r
MS 1825 11r.jpg
Folio 11v
MS 1825 11v.jpg
Folio 12r
MS 1825 12r.jpg
Folio 12v
MS 1825 12v.jpg
Folio 13r
MS 1825 13r.jpg
Folio 13v
MS 1825 13v.jpg
Folio 14r
MS 1825 14r.jpg
Folio 14v
MS 1825 14v.jpg
Folio 15r
MS 1825 15r.jpg
Folio 15v
MS 1825 15v.jpg
Folio 16r
MS 1825 16r.jpg
Folio 16v
MS 1825 16v.jpg
Folio 17r
MS 1825 17r.jpg
Folio 17v
MS 1825 17v.jpg
Folio 18r
MS 1825 18r.jpg
Folio 18v
MS 1825 18v.jpg
Folio 19r
MS 1825 19r.jpg
Folio 19v
MS 1825 19v.jpg
Folio 20r
MS 1825 20r.jpg
Folio 20v
MS 1825 20v.jpg
Folio 21r
MS 1825 21r.jpg
Folio 21v
MS 1825 21v.jpg
Folio 22r
MS 1825 22r.jpg
Folio 22v
MS 1825 22v.jpg
Folio 23r
MS 1825 23r.jpg
Folio 23v
MS 1825 23v.jpg
Folio 24r
MS 1825 24r.jpg
Folio 24v
MS 1825 24v.jpg
Folio 25r
MS 1825 25r.jpg
Folio 25v
MS 1825 25v.jpg
Folio 26r
MS 1825 26r.jpg
Folio 26v
MS 1825 26v.jpg
Folio 27r
MS 1825 27r.jpg
Folio 27v
MS 1825 27v.jpg
Folio 28r
MS 1825 28r.jpg
Folio 28v
MS 1825 28v.jpg
Folio 29r
MS 1825 29r.jpg
Folio 29v
MS 1825 29v.jpg
Folio 30r
MS 1825 30r.jpg
Folio 30v
MS 1825 30v.jpg
Folio 31r
MS 1825 31r.jpg
Folio 31v
MS 1825 31v.jpg
Folio 32r
MS 1825 32r.jpg
Folio 32v
MS 1825 32v.jpg
Folio 33r
MS 1825 33r.jpg
Folio 33v
MS 1825 33v.jpg
Folio 34r
MS 1825 34r.jpg
Folio 34v
MS 1825 34v.jpg
Folio 35r
MS 1825 35r.jpg
Folio 35v
MS 1825 35v.jpg
Folio 36r
MS 1825 36r.jpg
Folio 36v
MS 1825 36v.jpg
Folio 37r
MS 1825 37r.jpg
Folio 37v
MS 1825 37v.jpg
Folio 38r
MS 1825 38r.jpg
Folio 38v
MS 1825 38v.jpg
Folio 39r
MS 1825 39r.jpg
Folio 39v
MS 1825 39v.jpg
Folio 40r
MS 1825 40r.jpg
Folio 40v
MS 1825 40v.jpg
Folio 41r
MS 1825 41r.jpg
Folio 41v
MS 1825 41v.jpg
Folio 42r
MS 1825 42r.jpg
Folio 42v
MS 1825 42v.jpg
Folio 43r
MS 1825 43r.jpg
Folio 43v
MS 1825 43v.jpg
Folio 44r
MS 1825 44r.jpg
Folio 44v
MS 1825 44v.jpg
Folio 45r
MS 1825 45r.jpg
Folio 45v
MS 1825 45v.jpg
Inside Cover
Back Cover

Additional Resources


  1. Leng (2008) dates it to the second half of the fifteenth century but does not attempt to narrow it down further; Christian Tobler suggested a date closer to 1480 based on the style of the armor in a private communication.
  2. According to folio 2r

Copyright and License Summary

For further information, including transcription and translation notes, see the discussion page.

Work Author(s) Source License
Images Biblioteca Universitaria di Bologna HROARR.com
Public Domain.png
Transcription Dierk Hagedorn Index:Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS 1825)