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| style="min-width:55%; text-align:center;" | <h1 style="padding:0.2em; margin-bottom:0.1em; font-size:175%; font-family:sans-serif;">Welcome&nbsp;to&nbsp;the&nbsp;Wiktenauer!</h1>The free library of [[Historical European Martial Arts]] books and manuscripts
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| style="font-size:90%; line-height:110%;" | ''Without books no one can be a good teacher nor even a good student of this art.''<br/ style="margin-bottom:0.5em;"><span style="margin-left:2em;">~ Master [[Fiore de'i Liberi]], ca. 1405</span>
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<div style="background:#f9f9f9; border:1px solid #ddd; -moz-box-shadow: 0 1px 3px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.35); -webkit-box-shadow: 0 1px 3px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.35); box-shadow: 0 1px 3px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.35); -moz-border-radius: 7px; -webkit-border-radius: 7px; border-radius: 7px; background: -moz-linear-gradient(top, #fff 75%, #f9f9f9 100%); background: -webkit-gradient(linear, left top, left bottom, color-stop(75%,#fff), color-stop(100%,#f9f9f9)); background: -webkit-linear-gradient(top, #fff 75%,#f9f9f9 100%); background: -o-linear-gradient(top, #fff 75%,#f9f9f9 100%); background: -ms-linear-gradient(top, #fff 75%,#f9f9f9 100%); background: linear-gradient(top, #fff 75%,#fff 100%); height:auto; padding-left:10px; padding-right:10px; padding-bottom:5px; padding-top:5px; margin-left:auto; margin-right:auto; margin-bottom:6px; width:90%; min-width:50em;">
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| style="width:51%; text-align:center;" | <h1 style="padding:0.2em; margin: 0 0 0.2em 0; color:#343A47; font-size:225%;">Welcome&nbsp;to&nbsp;the&nbsp;Wiktenauer!</h1>The free library of [[Historical European Martial Arts]] books and manuscripts
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''Without books no one can be a good teacher nor even a good student of this art.''<br/ style="margin-bottom:0.5em;"><span style="margin-left:1em;">~ Master [[Fiore de'i Liberi|Fiore Furlano de’i Liberi]], ca. 1405</span>
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Wiktenauer is an ongoing collaboration among researchers and practitioners from across the Western martial arts community, seeking to collect all of the primary and secondary source literature that makes up the text of historical European martial arts research and to organize and present it in a scholarly but accessible format. The Wiktenauer project started in 2009, later receiving sponsorship from the [[Historical European Martial Arts Alliance]], and is named for [[Johannes Liechtenauer]], grand master of the oldest known longsword fencing style; his tradition was also the best-documented of the early Modern era, the subject of many dozens of manuscripts and books over a period of more than three centuries. Here are a few basic categories of pages that are being constructed:
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<div style="margin:0 auto 0 auto; padding:1em; clear:both; width:90%; min-width:50em;">
* '''Master Pages''' host biographical information about each master, as well as the transcription and translation of his complete works. In cases of multiple copies of a master's work, the transcriptions are laid out side-by-side to facilitate the most accurate translation possible. To aid in interpretation, the writings will also be illustrated with images from the masters' work as available. A bibliography at the end of each page lists additional transcriptions, translations, and scans that are available in print. The exemplar for this category of pages is [[Fiore de'i Liberi]]. Ultimately, every master in all of the traditions of Western Martial Arts will have a dedicated page.
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{{Wiktenauer:About}}
* '''Treatise Pages''' host all relevant data on a book or manuscript, including description, provenance, table of contents (with links to the appropriate master pages), gallery of page scans, and bibliography of additional print resources. The exemplar for manuscripts is the [[Goliath (MS Germ.Quart.2020)|Goliath Fechtbuch]], while the exemplar for printed books is ''[[Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey (Andre Paurñfeyndt)|Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey]]''. Ultimately, every text in the corpus of Historical European Martial Arts literature will have a dedicated page.
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* '''Technique Pages''' compile all of the relevant information from all of the relevant manuals on a particular technique, including transcriptions, translations, and images. There is also a section at the end of each page where groups may embed videos of their interpretations. The template for techniques is the [[Zornhaw]]. Ultimately, every technique mentioned in the manuals will have a dedicated page.
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* '''Weapon Pages''' provide information about how a specific weapon form is described and used in the treatises, data on surviving artifacts, an overview of archaeological research pertinent to a given weapon, and a comprehensive index of the treatises and writers that discuss each weapon.
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                FIRST COLUMN
 
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The wiki also features pages for [[:Category:Groups|HEMA groups]], pages for HEMA events, general information pages, and almost other topic of interest to the HEMA community you can think of. If you'd like to pitch in, simply request an account and consult [[How can I help?]]
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{{Main Page/Frame
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| title      = Announcements
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| content    = {{#lst:Wiktenauer:Blog|current}}
! style="padding:2px;" | <h3 style="margin:3px; background:#cedff2; border:1px solid #a3b0bf; text-align:left; color:#000; padding:0.2em 0.4em;">Announcements</h3>
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''From our sister site [http://www.hroarr.com/hema-scholar-awards/hema-scholar-awards-2014/ HROARR]:''
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                 SECOND COLUMN
 
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[[File:hroarr-hema-scholar-awards-2014-01.gif|250px|left|thumb|link=http://www.hroarr.com/hema-scholar-awards/hema-scholar-awards-2014/|Rules for nomination and other information can be found [http://www.hroarr.com/hema-scholar-awards/hema-scholar-awards-2014/ here].]]
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{{Main Page/Frame
As we all know HEMA has many different aspects that are all equally important in our shared effort in recreating these forgotten martial arts.
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| color      = d14836
 
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| title      = Featured article
However, all of our success rests on the hard work of ''researchers'', ''transcribers'', ''translators'' and ''interpreters'', hard work, a work that often receives little recognition or actual reward in the way that tournament fighting does, not least since much work is done silently and generously published online for free.
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| content    = {{Wiktenauer:Main page/Featured}}
 
 
With this in mind, and acting as a neutral party within the HEMA community, in 2013 HROARR introduced annual awards for Best efforts in HEMA research, with all aspects it includes. The idea was to create a highly prestigious award, our very own ''Oscar'' or ''Nobel Prize'', if you will.
 
 
 
Each year 5 winners are awarded. Nominations are up to the community to send in, and decisions are based on actual ''achievements during the preceding year'', not through community voting. At this time, all published work has to have been written in ''English'', except for transcriptions, of course.
 
 
 
Decisions will be made by a quite small panel consisting of last year’s awardees and if needed new elected jury members. As the awards become more and more established, these awards will also be more and more independently managed by the new juries and the growing list of awardees and less so by HROARR.
 
 
 
All winners will be presented on a special awards page, where the winners for each year are listed with their achievements.
 
 
 
I sincerely hope this will serve as both an inspiration and an encouragement for all the hard working people in our community!
 
 
 
Thank you and have a great day, everyone!
 
 
 
:[[Roger Norling]]<br/>Responsible publisher and Chief Editor<br/>[http://www.hroarr.com/ HROARR.com]
 
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{| style="width:100%; vertical-align:top; background:#faf6ed;"
 
! style="padding:2px;" | <h3 style="margin:3px; border:1px solid #e1bd64; background:#faecc8; text-align:left; padding:0.2em 0.4em;">What's New?</h3>
 
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| style="color:#000; padding:2px 5px 5px;" | {{infobox medieval text
 
<!----------Name---------->
 
| name                  = “Die Blume des Kampfes”
 
| alternative title(s)  = ''The Flower of Battle''
 
<!----------Image---------->
 
| image                 = File:Cod.10799 287v288r.png
 
| width                = 250px
 
| caption              =
 
<!----------Information---------->
 
| full title            =
 
| also known as        =
 
| author(s)            = {{plainlist | [[Ludwig VI von Eyb]] | Unknown }}
 
| ascribed to          = {{plainlist | [[Nicholai de Toblem]] (?) | [[Johannes Suvenus]] (?) }}
 
| compiled by          =
 
| illustrated by        = Unknown
 
| patron                =
 
| dedicated to          =
 
| audience              =
 
| language              = [[Early New High German]]
 
| date                  = before 1420s
 
| state of existence    = Original hypothetical; multiple incomplete copies exist
 
<!----------Manuscript Information---------->
 
| genre                = {{plainlist | [[Fencing manual]] | [[Wrestling manual]] }}
 
| series                =  
 
| archetype(s)          =  
 
| manuscript(s)        = {{plainlist | [[Die Blume des Kampfes (Cod.5278)|Cod. 5278]] (1420s?) | [[Gladiatoria (Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º)|Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º]] (?) (1465-80) | [[Eyb Kriegsbuch (MS B.26)|MS B.26]] (1500) | [[Bũech von fechter Vnnd Ringstückhen zũ Ross vnnd Fuoß (Cod.10799)|Cod. 10799]] (1623) }}
 
| principal manuscript(s)=
 
| first printed edition =
 
| wiktenauer compilation by=[[Michael Chidester]]
 
| below                =
 
 
}}
 
}}
'''''Die Blume des Kampfes''''' (“The Flower of Battle”) is a nickname given to a group of three German manuscripts that share a common technical syllabus and set of illustrations. It might be based on the tradition of 14th century Italian master [[Fiore de'i Liberi]], from whose treatise ''Fior di Battaglia'' it derives its nickname, given that his works include considerable technical overlap. It is equally likely, though, that they represent an earlier German tradition of which Fiore was himself an initiate. Fiore mentions in his prefaces that he owned books on the art and he also names two older masters in his tradition, [[Johane Suveno]] and [[Nicholai de Toblem]]; it is possible that either or both of those masters authored texts which inspired both this tradition as well as Fiore's own writings.
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The oldest manuscript in the ''Blume des Kampfes'' group is the [[Die Blume des Kampfes (Cod.5278)|Cod. 5278]], which dates to the late 1420s and contains only simple line drawings somewhat reminiscent of the art of Fiore de'i Liberi, though lacking many signature characteristics such as garters and crowns and generally less organized than the Friulian master's work. The second entry was completed in ca. 1500 by [[Ludwig VI von Eyb]], and contains a significant degree of overlap with the 5278 but also a wealth of new material. While the artwork, though colored, is of similar quality, Eyb's treatise improves on its predecessor by including detailed German descriptions of the devices in most of its sections. Whether this text was authored by Eyb or present in the sources upon which he based his work cannot currently be determined.
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                  FOOTER
 
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The final manuscript, [[Bũech von fechter Vnnd Ringstückhen zũ Ross vnnd Fuoß (Cod.10799)|Cod. 10799]], is dated 1623 and is again textless. Unlike its fellows, though, it is illustrated with watercolors of high quality; it is also the most extensive of the three by far, encompassing nearly every device from both works as well as a number of unique devices that suggest that it was either not derived directly from the other two known manuscripts or that it used additional sources currently lost to us. The two older manuscripts include [[war book]]s derived from [[Konrad Kyeser]]'s famous treatise on siege warfare ''Bellifortis'', and the artist of the 10799 also included the few ''Bellifortis'' illustrations that seem to portray knights and soldiers, perhaps indicating that he did not understand what he was copying. Aside from the ''Blume des Kampfes'' material, the 10799 also has a good deal of extra content including portrayals of laying down and taking up the sword, Germanic sash wrestling, armored dagger and buckler, and the [[sword dance]].
 
 
 
There is a fourth Germanic manuscript potentially connected to this tradition, the [[Gladiatoria (Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º)|Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º]]. This manuscript, dating to between 1465 and 1480, includes a version of [[Johannes Liechtenauer]]'s [[record]], a complete set of illustrations from [[Gladiatoria]], and a heavily-abridged version of ''Bellifortis''. Tucked away amidst these works are illustrations of fencing with sword, spear, axe, and dagger that parallel the teachings of the ''Blume des Kampfes'' but only occasionally replicate the artwork exactly. While this may simply be a case of an overambitious artist reinterpreting the illustrations he was copying, the differences are too many to include the manuscript in the concordance below.
 
 
 
([[Die Blume des Kampfes|Read more]]...)
 
|-
 
| style="color:#000;" | <div style="margin:3px; border:1px solid #e1bd64; background:#faecc8; text-align:left; padding:0.2em 0.4em;">'''Recently Featured: ''[[Verzeichnis etlicher Stücke des Fechtens im Rapier (MS Germ.Fol.1476)|Verzeichnis etlicher Stücke des Fechtens im Rapier]]'' – [[Anonymous&nbsp;15th&nbsp;Century&nbsp;Poem]] – [[Johann&nbsp;Georg&nbsp;Pascha]] – ''[[Das Ander Theil Des Newen Kůnstreichen Fechtbůches (Cod.Guelf.83.4 Aug.8º)|Das&nbsp;Ander&nbsp;Theil&nbsp;Des&nbsp;Newen&nbsp;Kůnstreichen&nbsp;Fechtbůches]]'''''</div>
 
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<h2 style="padding:0.2em 0.5em; font-size:150%; font-family:sans-serif;">Wiktenauer parent organizations</h2>
 
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Latest revision as of 16:00, 11 May 2018

Welcome to the Wiktenauer!

The free library of Historical European Martial Arts books and manuscripts

Without books no one can be a good teacher nor even a good student of this art.
~ Master Fiore Furlano de’i Liberi, ca. 1405

Dedicated to the memory of Dr. Patri Pugliese

Wiktenauer is an ongoing collaboration among researchers and practitioners from across the Western martial arts (WMA) community, seeking to collect all of the primary and secondary source literature that makes up the text of historical European martial arts (HEMA) research and to organize and present it in a scholarly but accessible format. The Wiktenauer project started in 2009, later receiving sponsorship from the HEMA Alliance, and is named for Johannes Liechtenauer, grand master of the oldest known longsword fencing style; his tradition was also the best-documented of the early Modern era, the subject of many dozens of manuscripts and books over a period of more than three centuries.

Wiktenauer's data model is built on separating the contents of each master's teachings from the books and manuscripts that contain them. For this reason, there are three main types of pages:

Treatise Pages host all relevant data on an individual book or manuscript, including codicological description, provenance, table of contents (with links to the appropriate master pages), gallery of page scans, and bibliography of print resources. The exemplar for manuscripts is the Goliath Fechtbuch, while the exemplar for printed books is Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey. Ultimately, every text in the corpus of Historical European Martial Arts literature will have a dedicated page.

Master Pages host the actual transcription and translation of a given master's complete works, as well as bibliographical information when available. In cases of multiple copies of a master's work, the transcriptions are laid out side-by-side to facilitate the most accurate translation possible. To aid in interpretation, the writings are also illustrated with pictures from the masters' work (if available). A bibliography at the end of each page lists additional transcriptions, translations, and scans that are available in print. The exemplar for this category of pages is Fiore de'i Liberi. Ultimately, every master in all of the traditions of Western Martial Arts will have a dedicated page.

(Anonymous texts are displayed on orphan treatise pages, which are structured like master pages but without the biography.)

If you'd like to pitch in, simply request an account and consult How can I help?

Announcements

11th May 2020 would mark the 70th birthday of Dr. Patri Pugliese, the most important person in the history of modern HEMA that you've never heard of. I will go so far as to say that there is no one in this world who contributed more to the spread and development of the HEMA movement, and especially of HEMA in America, than did Patri.

For himself, he was a passionate student of both historical combat (not just fencing, but also drill with pike and musket) and historical dance, and founded or participated in groups dedicated to those activities around New England. Most recognizably to readers today, he co-founded the Higgins Armory Sword Guild, which not only provided online resources and public classes and demonstrations for over a decade, but also supported his friend and fellow instructor Dr. Jeffrey Forgeng in his translation and interpretation efforts (leading to his publication of I.33, Meyer, and others).

But Patri's more profound legacy is fencing manuals. Throughout the '90s and continuing until his death, he distributed a staggering catalog of fencing treatises. This was before (and while) the consumer computing revolution changed everything—he was physically mailing sheaves of paper, loose or stapled together. Some were fencing manuals that he photocopied at local research libraries, others were printed from microfilm ordered from museums. He was the first person in the community to do this, and he charged only the cost of printing and postage, or in some cases a slight premium to recoup the initial purchase.

Of this, he simply wrote "I regard myself as a student of the sword rather than a publisher, and am making these manuals available to support research in this area. It would, of course, be selfish and inconsistent with the honorable traditions associated with fencing to do otherwise."

I will include a partial list of Patri's catalog below. As the internet became more established, most of these were scanned and placed online (with his blessing—he was happy to increase their accessibility). If you ever accessed black and white scans of any of these texts from sites like Bill Wilson's homepage, the ARMA site, the Raymond J. Lord Collection, or the Higgins Sword Guild, then you have likely benefited from Patri's work. Wiktenauer itself could not have grown so quickly or easily without these scans, some of which we still use.

I often joke that Wiktenauer's patron saint is Paulus Hector Mair, the shady 16th century Augsburg patrician who embezzled public funds to cover the cost of collecting fencing manuals and throwing lavish parties.

It is Patri, however, who embodied our highest aspirations of disseminating knowledge and resources as widely and freely as possible, and thereby pushing the bounds of our understanding of historical fencing traditions.

Patri Pugliese died in 2007, thirteen years ago. One of my greatest HEMA regrets is that even though I spent considerable time in Massachusetts during the years between 2001, when I started, and his death, I never crossed paths with him.

Thirteen years is an eternity in the world of HEMA. It is enough time that his name is no longer familiar to most teachers and students of historical fencing, but if anyone of us deserves to be remembered, he does.

So raise a glass to Patri, my friends. He was a pioneer, not just of the study of fencing, but of the sharing of it. The edifice of knowledge that we have constructed in HEMA today was built on the materials he offered us, freely.

And then tell your students about this man to whom we all owe a great debt.

(Read more)

Michael Chidester (Contact)
Wiktenauer Director
11 May 2020

Featured article
Ridolfo Capo Ferro da Cagli
Born 16th century
Died 17th century
Occupation Fencing master
Patron Federico Ubaldo della Roevere
Influences Camillo Aggrippa
Influenced Sebastian Heußler
Genres Fencing manual
Language Italian
Notable work(s) Gran Simulacro dell'Arte e dell'Uso della
Scherma
(1610)
Concordance by Michael Chidester

Ridolfo Capo Ferro da Cagli (Ridolfo Capoferro, Rodulphus Capoferrus) was a 17th century Italian fencing master.

He seems to have been born in the town of Cagli in the Province of Pesaro e Urbino, and was a resident of Siena, Tuscany. Little is known about the life of this master, though the dedication to Federico Ubaldo della Roevere, the young son of Duke Francesco Maria Feltrio della Roevere, may indicate that he was associated with the court at Urbino in some capacity. The statement at the beginning of Capo Ferro's treatise describing him as a "master of the great German nation" likely signifies that he was faculty at the University of Siena, either holding a position analogous to dean of all German students, or perhaps merely the fencing master who taught the German students.

At the age of 52, Capo Ferro authored a treatise on the rapier entitled Gran Simulacro dell'Arte e dell'Uso della Scherma ("Great Representation of the Art and Use of Fencing"); it was published in Siena in 1610, but refers to Federico by the ducal title. Though this treatise is highly praised by modern fencing historians, it is neither comprehensive nor particularly innovative and does not seem to have been influential in its own time.

Treatise

This concordance uses the watercolor illustrations from the 1629 edition where they are available, except for a few in which the paint obscures the actual fencing actions. You can view all of the painted illustrations on the treatise page.

(Read more…)


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Wiktenauer parent organizations

HEMAA logo.png
Historical European Martial Arts (HEMA) Alliance

A US educational non-profit which provides a range of programs and services for its members and affiliate schools and clubs, as well as serving the wider HEMA community.

WMAC logo.png
Western Martial Arts Coalition (WMAC)

A pan-American network of researchers and instructors dedicated to the study of traditional European, American, and related fighting arts and martial traditions.