Wiktenauer logo.png

Difference between revisions of "Francesco Fernando Alfieri"

From Wiktenauer
Jump to navigation Jump to search
 
(13 intermediate revisions by the same user not shown)
Line 66: Line 66:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 01.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 01.png|400x400px|center]]
| [https://sword.school/articles/la-bandiera/ Text to copy over]
+
| <p>'''The Flag by Francesco Ferdinando Alfieri''', Master of Arms at the Illustrious Academy Delia of Padua</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''In which it is demonstrated by way of figures an easy and new method, its handling, and its use with the defence of the sword.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Dedicated to the Most Illustrious Sir, Sir '''Lodovico di Vidman'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>'''Free Baron of San Paterniano, and Sommeregg, etc.'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>'''In Padua,''' printed by Sebastiano Sardi. MDCXXXIIX.</p>
 +
----
 +
<p>''With Permission from the Authorities''</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|5|lbl=i}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|5|lbl=i}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 02.png|2250x250px|center]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 02.png|2250x250px|center]]
 +
| <p>'''To the Most Illustrious Sir''' Most Excellent and Honourable Sir and Patron '''Lodovico Conte di Vidman'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>The benevolences I receive from Your Excellency daily are so frequent, and so generous, that considering what gratitude could be expected from my feeble, but above all devoted, service, I conceived to illustrate my obligations succinctly in these sheets of paper.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Here, Your Excellency, is the fruit of my labours, dedicated in every respect to your generous name; such that under your protection it might acquire the esteem, that the little acumen of the author would be unable to grant it.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>You will see, Your Most Illustrious Excellency, the art that you deigned to learn, honouring my discipline. I have effortlessly persuaded myself that it would not displease you, to see printed this pastime which you occasionally enjoyed to practice. Nonetheless I am aware of the scarce value of my gift, but your magnanimous brilliance has emboldened me.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>My soul is overflowing with obeisant reverence, and Your Most Illustrious Excellency of benignity, to you I most humbly bow.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 +
{{pagetb|Page:La Picca (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1641.pdf|49|lbl=iii|p=1}} {{section|Page:La Picca (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1641.pdf/50|1|lbl=iv|p=1}}
 +
 +
|-
 +
| <p>In Padua the 6 th  day of September M.DC.XXXIIX.</p>
 +
 +
<p>Your Most Illustrious Excellency</p>
 +
 +
<p>Your Most Humble and Most Obliged Servant,</p>
 +
 +
<p>Francesco Ferdinando Alfieri.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:La Picca (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1641.pdf/50|2|lbl=-}}
 +
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| <p>'''To the reader'''
 +
 +
<p>Reader I present to you my flag. If it is not handled according to your spirit, blame the fact that the task was beyond my abilities.</p>
 +
 +
<p>The condition of this century brings such liberty, that everybody burdens the printing presses, and I too have allowed myself to be taken by this custom.</p>
 +
 +
<p>I am sure you will tell me I have not dusted off many bookshelves, and I will reply that my books have been experience and practice, which I leave you the image thereof. That which I have in my mind to show you, if it does not seem completely new to you, neither is it trivial.</p>
 +
 +
<p>Every master of arms professes some knowledge of it, few have written treatises and nobody up until now has condensed this art into the form that you see.</p>
 +
 +
<p>I desire nothing more than to please you, and to benefit you. If I achieve this goal, and you also learn that which you seek, I nonetheless seek your pardon; and perhaps in short I will bring out a new treatise on all aspects of fencing, which will please you even more.</p>
 +
 +
<p>Finally it is just to admit that he who labours for others is always worthy of being commended.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|9|lbl=v|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|10|lbl=vi|p=1}}
 
{{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|9|lbl=v|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|10|lbl=vi|p=1}}
Line 84: Line 130:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>'''The Flag by Francesco Ferdinando Alfieri'''</p>
|
+
 
{{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|13|lbl=1|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|14|lbl=2|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|15|lbl=3|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|16|lbl=4|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|17|lbl=5|p=1}}
+
<p>From what I have been able to learn, from those few books that have come to my hands, from the discourses of great men, and from a long and uncommon experience, there is nothing in my judgement either more honourable or more necessary to a person of noble birth, than keeping their youth engaged in the practices that are useful to, and which help and adorn, the virtues of the soul.</p>
  
|-  
+
<p>The antique and famous republics which will always serve as examples, and as stimuli to set on the path towards civic happiness, also prized virtue, skill, and agility, reputing as blessed those who were solemnly considered stronger and faster than others.<ref>This passage is later self-plagiarised by Alfieri in the introduction to his treatise on the spadone of 1653.</ref></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>They were seen in the piazzas competing, some at wrestling, some launching the pole, they challenged themselves in races, they battered one another with the cestus, and at times by hurling discs or balls of wood, they put on show the gifts they had received from nature, enhanced through their art.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>These exercises were common into the early centuries of the Italic nation, and if they are never expressed with the pomp in which the inhabitants of the Peloponnese and Phrygia excelled, they have nonetheless been largely conserved up to the present age, as you can see every day principally in Tuscany, while other arts that were not practised in antiquity have been discovered.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>The practice of the flag will always be among the most commended, since it readies the foot, it renders the waist pliable; the hand becomes strong, the arm flexible. If we look to its origins, and to who was the first to unfurl it in an army we find in the holy scriptures that it was the great captain Moses,<ref>Although taken somewhat out of context, Alfieri appears to be referring to Numbers 21:8: “And the LORD said unto Moses, Make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole” (King James Bible).</ref> he was followed first of all by the Assyrians, then the Egyptians followed the same example both with representations of bulls and other animals they held in veneration, and with numerous hieroglyphics alluding to victory, the pretexts and reasons for war, and to the strength and valour of their soldiers. Finally there is no people so barbaric, that it does not see its armies ordered and distinct under a particular standard.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>If we then turn to consider how useful and of what consequence it is in the management of war, although such a treatise would belong to a captain rather than to me, even I am clearly aware that the fortune and glory of war depends in large part on the flag, and that in truth via this instrument military discipline forms troops and centuriae, permits them to understand and execute commands, maintains them in order, and allows the parts of the army needed for victory to be deployed quickly and without confusion.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Efforts should not be directed elsewhere, other than to seize flag. If it is lost it seems you must no longer fear resistance, there remains a confused and armed multitude without a guide, oppressed more by disorder than by iron. Thus we see that standards are the real trophies which render a warrior's valour immortal, and they are suspended in perpetual remembrance not only in private homes but also in public buildings and churches. Therefore the subject of the art I have chosen to demonstrate is itself a worthy one and perhaps inferior to no other.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Some might wish to object, stating that the flag is employed in war, but not its art, to these I would reply with a question: is the ensign needed to defend the flag? One who would deny this hints at having a rare talent, and of being a few eggs short of a dozen.<ref>Here Alfieri employs a practically untranslatable idiom “''tenero di sale''”, which refers to a dish lacking in salt but also ironically to a foolish, naïve or credulous person. The translator has replaced this with an approximately equivalent English idiom.</ref></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>If this is undeniable then, who is better able to defend the flag than one who knows how to handle it perfectly? Why is the pole armed if not intended to injure? To know how to wound it is necessary to practice the art, otherwise the flag serves only to entangle and envelop the hands, while it is horribly lost, holding it up being in vain. This does not occur in the hands of someone experienced, who when reduced to such extremes will have a ready solution appropriate to the situation. Emboldened by virtue one such as this will either rescue the flag from the enemy or will pursue it through vendetta.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Therefore for those who understand this virtue, without need for further exposition, it will be a simple task to arrive at the mastery desired, observing the following figures which make clear the particulars that are difficult to express with words alone.</p>
 +
|
 +
{{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|13|lbl=1|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|14|lbl=2|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|15|lbl=3|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|16|lbl=4|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|17|lbl=5|p=1}}
 +
 
 +
|-  
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 03.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 03.png|400x400px|center]]
|  
+
| <p>'''How the ensign or other person should present themselves with the standard'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Chapter I</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Wishing to proceed in an appropriate order, to arrive at a perfect understanding of this art, we must begin with its principles, since all of its perfections derive from these.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>In truth I confess that skill, strength and gracefulness are gifts dispensed by nature. Nonetheless with exercise and good discipline they can be acquired and developed. Therefore the movement of the ensign, or other person who wishes to handle the standard for pleasure, should be free, smooth, but also ordered and martial. You should take it with your right hand, as more noble, and passing it to your left you should gather the edges, and grasp them together with the haft, which resting on the arm, situates the flag at the breast as the figure shows. In this manner, without having to change hands and take two tempi, you can quickly unsheath the sword, and employ it as the occasion demands.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|18|lbl=6}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|18|lbl=6}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 04.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 04.png|400x400px|center]]
|  
+
| <p>'''On hoisting the standard'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Chapter II</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>To hoist the standard you take it with your right, lifting it so it unfolds, and assuming that the wind and location allow it, you find yourself in the posture seen in the picture. With your right foot, pole hand, and your waist gracefully in unison, you may salute the spectators before commencing your play, noting that for an army passing before a prince, general or other great personage it is an act of reverence to lower it to the ground waving it with a ''riverso''.<ref>Note the use of fencing terminology to describe actions with the flag, which continues throughout the treatise.</ref></p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|20|lbl=8}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|20|lbl=8}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 05.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 05.png|400x400px|center]]
|  
+
| <p>'''On the first method of beginning to handle the standard'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Chapter III</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is the first lesson, in which we begin to walk. To attain the honour that is desired, the body should be somewhat bent and braced to take its force. The arm should be extended, strong and raised above the head. Passing with an ample but natural step, at the same time you will judiciously catch the wind with a ''mandritto'', which unfurls and does not entangle the standard.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is followed by a ''riverso'' on the second pass, continuing in this manner as desired. You can also change hands, and the greatest skill is to throw the flag and take it in the air, which by its nature changes hands.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|22|lbl=10}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|22|lbl=10}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 06.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 06.png|400x400px|center]]
|  
+
| <p>'''On thrusting with the standard'''</p>
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|24|lbl=12}}
+
 
 +
<p>Chapter IV</p>
  
|-  
+
<p>All the lessons are arranged so that one is linked to the next. Here we learn how to deliver a thrust with the standard. This serves not only to demonstrate the skill and ability of the player, but could also be necessary to employ in war.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>The arm should be stretched out, and having flourished a circular ''mandritto'' with your right hand over your head, you should quickly push the flag forwards without wasting time, thrusting in ''quarta''. After you should turn your arm and hand into ''seconda'', and in unison with your left foot extend the blow, always taking into account the wind, and correct footing, to avoid misadventures, which detract from the merit of what you wish to accomplish.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>The same exercise can be done with the left hand which is all the more commendable, as by nature this member is usually weaker and less practised.</p>
 +
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|24|lbl=12}}
 +
 
 +
|-  
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 07.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 07.png|400x400px|center]]
|  
+
| <p>'''How to handle the flag with the hand reversed'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Chapter V</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This lesson is difficult but beautiful, and truly novel. You grip the shaft with the hand reversed, as it appears in the figure opposite, the arm must be somewhat gathered to help the wrist, which is encumbered by the weight. By taking smaller steps, with the movement of the hand rising from one flank to the other, the undulating volume of the flag is made to wave from one side to the other without confusion, while you interpose two or three passes under the leg or circle it behind the lower back, changing hands, however you prefer.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|26|lbl=14}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|26|lbl=14}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 08.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 08.png|400x400px|center]]
|  
+
| <p>'''On passing the flag under the legs'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Chapter VI</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>With the standard in motion, and wishing to perform the current lesson, the flag is launched into the air and caught with the hand reversed. Then with the arm turned and the body bent it is passed under the left leg towards the right. In the same motion it is then passed behind the lower back and taken with the left hand, and passed again under the right leg to the left. This can be repeated with either hand as your skill and vigour dictates.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|28|lbl=16}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|28|lbl=16}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 09.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 09.png|400x400px|center]]
|  
+
| <p>'''On launching the standard'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Chapter VII</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I know very well that the unusual always delights, and for this reason I have applied myself to collect and create the lessons you now see. To narrate this figure, you wave a circular flourish with a mandritto, then throw the flag in the air, retrieving it with your other hand. This same play is continued, always keeping your arm in time with your foot, skilfully catching the wind. Other passes can be interposed, under the leg or other variations, serving to embellish the lessons and demonstrate the bravura of the practitioner.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|30|lbl=18}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|30|lbl=18}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 10.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 10.png|400x400px|center]]
|  
+
| <p>'''How to perform a ''molinello'''''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Chapter VIII</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>The ''molinello'' is delightful. To perform it comfortably, you should have the standard in your right hand. You complete a full turn above the head, then throw it up in the air, catching it around the middle of the standard as the figure shows. The ''molinello'' is then turned towards the rear foot. After several rotations, as your the hand becomes fatigued, you should grip the butt of the flag with your other hand and repeat the same lesson, again throwing it in the air as described above.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|32|lbl=20}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|32|lbl=20}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 11.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 11.png|400x400px|center]]
|  
+
| <p>'''How to manage the standard behind your lower back'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Chapter IX</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This figure presents a wonderful innovation in this art. In order that everybody may understand it, I will briefly describe it. The flag should start in your right hand. Having performed a full flourish above your head, it is pulled backwards and with a reverse turn it is carried behind your back on the left side, where it can be fluttered several times, as desired, with your left hand.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This can be performed while walking, or standing without walking. However it is always necessary to watch the length of your stride, and the wind, since it is dangerous to err while both hands are occupied, and you cannot view the motion of the flag, because in order to display your mastery we advise not to stare at it. Everyone can perform this same lesson with the left hand, loosening the arm and bringing it into presence, observing the order prescribed above.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|34|lbl=22}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|34|lbl=22}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 12.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 12.png|400x400px|center]]
|  
+
| <p>'''On waving the flag behind your back'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Chapter X</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>In this figure the arm is kept extended, and very prominent, and after turning it behind your back, the standard is played from one side to the other, stepping proportionately so it does not get entangled. After a few waves you can repeat with your left hand, which I will omit to avoid being bothersome by lengthening my discourse.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|36|lbl=24}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|36|lbl=24}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 13.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 13.png|400x400px|center]]
|  
+
| <p>'''On how the standard is passed under the legs'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Chapter XI</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Having completed several steps, with both ''mandritti'' and ''riversi'', you should raise the flag as required, adjusting for the ripples which form in various places, and finally bend your waist in the manner depicted. Having circled it above your head, you should lower your arm, passing the standard under your right leg, and by taking it with your left hand, the lesson you have followed has been performed.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|38|lbl=26}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|38|lbl=26}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 14.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 14.png|400x400px|center]]
|  
+
| <p>'''On passing the standard around your neck'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Chapter XII</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I propose passing the flag around your neck. For this innovation your arm should tend to be high and extended. Having completed a few waves, you should judge the tempo so that the flag rests on your right shoulder. By pushing it, while catching a little wind from the left, you should let go of the shaft, turning your waist to retake the flag in the middle of the shaft, as the image indicates, entering into ''molinelli'', and after the usual waves this lesson can be repeated with your left hand.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|40|lbl=28}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|40|lbl=28}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 15.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 15.png|400x400px|center]]
|  
+
| <p>'''How to throw the standard while walking, changing hands'''<br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Chapter XIII</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I hope to avoid being tedious by repeating the same things, or to become unclear by neglecting them. The standard is always in motion once the lessons begin, and the principal motions are the ''mandritti'' and ''riversi'', which form the waves of the flag and are performed above your head. I am therefore forced to repeat this for the figure presented here, as we must connect them to what I wish to describe.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Having circled with a ''riverso'' you should throw the flag high, and taking it with your left hand you should perform the same towards your right side. This can be repeated many times from one side to the other before beginning a new play, the entertainment and delight that lovers of this exercise feel deriving from its novelty. This assumes as always that the timing, step, and wind are duly observed, without which every effort loses merit and earns nothing but reproach.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|42|lbl=30}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|42|lbl=30}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 16.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 16.png|400x400px|center]]
|  
+
| <p>'''On handling the standard under your legs'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Chapter XIV</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Having performed the rotations above, and with the standard in your left hand, it should be lowered, and by circling a ''mandritto'' it should be carried and helped along under your leg, forming waves as shown by the figure. Having retrieved it either on the side it was put in on, or from under your left leg, you should change hands, with equal mastery executing again what has been described.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|44|lbl=32}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|44|lbl=32}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 17.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 17.png|400x400px|center]]
|  
+
| <p>'''On thrusts with the standard in the form of a cross'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Chapter XV</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>The flag should be kept hoisted, and having circled a ''riverso'' in the usual way above your head, you should perform a thrust to your left side accompanied by your foot. Turning the flag towards your right side, you should then perform a thrust with the same mastery. The cross is completed by another two attacks. Your front foot should always be followed by your rear foot, and although everything is in itself quite straightforward, it is nonetheless difficult to put into practice without a maestro.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|46|lbl=34}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|46|lbl=34}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 18.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 18.png|400x400px|center]]
|  
+
| <p>'''On throwing the flag high behind your back'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Chapter XVI</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This lesson is difficult and requires the usual waves as a prelude. After these, it is performed with a ''riverso'', passing the flag behind your back and raising it, although it rests on your lower back, throwing it high in the air with the force of your hand and in particular with your index finger. It is made to pass over your left shoulder, where it is grabbed by your left hand, before the play is repeated. Once completed the flag returns to your the right hand, although it is also possible to recover the pole without passing it from one hand into the other.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|48|lbl=36}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|48|lbl=36}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 19.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 19.png|400x400px|center]]
|  
+
| <p>'''On passing the standard under the legs starting from the right'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Chapter XVII</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>To perform the lesson shown here, having finished to circle a riverso, you should turn a ''mandritto'' while bending your body and lowering the standard, bringing it under both your legs starting from the right. All of this is performed in just one tempo, and what can be performed with one hand can always be performed with the other.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|50|lbl=38}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|50|lbl=38}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 20.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 20.png|400x400px|center]]
|  
+
| <p>'''On ''montanti''<ref>''Montanti'' (singular ''montante'') in fencing terminology refers to rising blows.</ref> with the right hand'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Chapter XVIII</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>We have arrived at the manner of forming ''montanti''. There is no guard or blow in fencing that cannot be adapted to the art of the flag.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>To perform what I wish to teach with this figure, the flag starts in your right hand, in motion above your head. Having finished to circle, the ''montanti'' begin first from your left side, and then from your right, redoubling them as you desire. You can also swap hands and repeat the same lesson, as we have described many many times in the other chapters.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|52|lbl=40}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|52|lbl=40}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 21.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 21.png|400x400px|center]]
|  
+
| <p>'''On throwing and recovering the standard with the same hand'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Chapter XIX</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>In the handling of the flag it seems that dexterity and agility matter more than strength, but at times these attributes must be equal to one another and are of utmost importance. The truth of this is manifestly demonstrated by this figure. After several steps and flourishes of the flag you should firmly plant your feet, then turn a ''mandritto'' over your head and extend a half-thrust, launching the standard into the air with all the force of your lower back and your hand so that it rotates a turn and a half and drops as illustrated by the figure, retrieving it with the same hand. You then return to normal play, which is the usual prelude to a new lesson.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|54|lbl=42}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|54|lbl=42}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 22.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 22.png|400x400px|center]]
|  
+
| <p>'''On the standard with the hand reversed'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Chapter XX</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Having performed the last flourish to enter into this lesson, the standard is thrown into the air and gathered with the hand reversed. Your arm should be extended, and the tip of the staff must be pointed towards the ground. With judicious use of timing, and the wind, you will be able to perform waves, flourishes, passes under the leg, turns of the flag behind your lower back, and all that you have been able to learn from the faithfulness and merit of your maestro.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|56|lbl=44}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|56|lbl=44}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 23.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 23.png|400x400px|center]]
|  
+
| <p>'''On gathering the standard'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Chapter XXI</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>All the things that bring us delight, if they pass beyond a certain point, become bothersome. The end is the completion of the work undertaken. Having therefore to gather the standard, you should hold it with your right hand over your shoulder, and catching a bit of wind, the edge should be grasped with your left hand. Thereby holding it in the posture shown you may end your labours with high praise.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|58|lbl=46}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|58|lbl=46}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 24.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 24.png|400x400px|center]]
|  
+
| <p>'''On putting your hand to the sword'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Chapter XXII</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>The sword is a weapon that is used in various ways, the effeminate use it to ornament their perfumed finery, and to strong men it is minister of wrath, in defence of duty. But refraining from speaking too long on the subject, I will continue with as much as I propose to say on this topic for now.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Wishing therefore to unsheath your sword, if the flag is in your right hand, you can throw it in the air and catch it with your left, or without this action you can pass it naturally into the other hand.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Raising the flag so that you have more room at your flank, the sword can be drawn as clearly demonstrated by the figure. Putting yourself in a firm stance, all that remains is to show yourself as experienced in this noble practice. If you wish to change hands, the sword should be placed under your arm, and having grasped the standard, your left will be armed, and you can perform whichever passages or lessons of the art you have learned.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|60|lbl=48}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|60|lbl=48}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 25.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 25.png|400x400px|center]]
 +
| <p>'''On walking with sword and flag'''</p>
 +
 +
<p>Chapter XXIII</p>
 +
 +
<p>The first admonishment we must give to explain this figure, is that the sword and the flag must be held firmly and solidly. You are free to play according to your inclination, and the hand can be changed in one tempo by throwing the standard forwards into the air, grabbing the sword as it falls. This can be performed several times, because it is a beautiful lesson, and truly worthy of being observed.</p>
 +
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|62|lbl=50}}
 +
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 26.png|400x400px|center]]
 +
| <p>'''On managing the standard with your right, while your left is armed'''</p>
 +
 +
<p>Chapter XXIV</p>
 +
 +
<p>It is a fixed rule that the standard should never be idle. While your left hand holds the sword your right nevertheless remains free, but when it is somehow hindered, as I have said elsewhere, it is all the more praiseworthy. Performing this lesson with your hand behind your back, your left hand should be raised as per the figure, and with the usual waves of the flag, you can loosen your arm and enter into another lesson, changing hands, catching the wind and taking the tempo as required.</p>
 +
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|64|lbl=52}}
 +
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 27.png|400x400px|center]]
 +
| <p>'''On sheathing your sword'''</p>
 +
 +
<p>Chapter XXV</p>
 +
 +
<p>The present figure speaks for itself. To return your sword you should gather up the standard, holding it very firmly with your left so it does not touch the ground. This is performed after the lesson we proposed above. You can also raise the flag with the same hand while leaving it unfurled.</p>
 +
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|66|lbl=54}}
 +
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 28.png|400x400px|center]]
 +
| <p>'''On unsheathing the sword for defence'''</p>
 +
 +
<p>Chapter XXVI</p>
 +
 +
<p>Dangers arise when you least expect them, bravery allows us to fight, but victory depends on skill, to defend yourself in incidents both in war and peace. First your should quickly gather the standard, drawing your sword over your left arm, and turning the shaft towards your enemy, you should set yourself into a strong guard to resist against any offensive.</p>
 +
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|68|lbl=56}}
 +
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 29.png|400x400px|center]]
 +
| <p>'''On the guard of sword and flag'''</p>
 +
 +
<p>Chapter XXVII</p>
 +
 +
<p>Defending yourself is so natural that the law still allows it against those who attack us in vendetta. If the ensign or other person is placed in this situation he should quickly gather and set the standard so that it does not block his view, but rather protects with its sheer volume.<p>
 +
 +
<p>The arm should be somewhat bent, with the hand held in ''terza'', keeping his body in profile so it is better covered and presents a smaller target. The body should be balanced over his left leg, the nearby right foot remaining free and unencumbered, thereby able to press his enemy. He should set his stride, not too forced, and move to gain ground, the sword denying tempo and measure by anticipating his enemy's actions. The response should be faster than the call. Cuts should be parried from ''tutta coperta''<ref>Literally “totally covered”, this describes a guard or posture in which your opponent has no direct line of attack, as demonstrated for example in chapters XXV and XXXIV of Alfieri's 1640 treatise on rapier fencing.</ref> or defended with voids of the body, while wounding with the point. If the enemy waits then he should be pressured, put into obedience and deceived; teaching the enemy, the threatener of life, that he is not worthy of the pleasure of living.</p>
 +
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|70|lbl=58}}
 +
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 03.png|400x400px|center]]
 +
| <p>'''On gathering the flag'''</p>
 +
 +
<p>Chapter XXVIII</p>
 +
 +
<p>Having finished the lessons the flag is gathered and carried in your left hand, keeping the edges wrapped over, with your arm supporting the shaft.</p>
 +
 +
<p>These plates, made by a good engraver, if they are followed by whomever delights in such exercises, will credit my work, and have often relieved me of toil.<ref>Note that this final plate is simply reused from chapter I.</ref></p>
 +
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|72|lbl=60}}
 +
 +
|-
 
|  
 
|  
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|62|lbl=50}}
+
| <p>'''Conclusion'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I have arrived at the end of what I proposed. I confess my shortcomings, but nonetheless I will serve as a stimulus to others who understand more, to discover what I have not known, and demonstrate it in a style beyond the capacity of my intellect.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>In this apathetic century it is difficult to please. Those who look at my soul will see what it yearns for. Meanwhile I console myself that a wise man is always understated.<ref>Again this passage is later self-plagiarised in the conclusion to Alfieri's 1653 treatise on the spadone.</ref></p>
 +
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|74|lbl=62}}
  
|-  
+
|-  
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 26.png|400x400px|center]]
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p>'''For Printing in Padua.'''</p>
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|64|lbl=52}}
 
  
|-
+
<p>Brother Antonius Lendenaria, Inquisitor General of Padua, seen and approved.</p>
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 27.png|400x400px|center]]
 
|
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|66|lbl=54}}
 
  
|-
+
<p>On the 6th September 1638.<br/>Commissioner General of the Holy Office of Venice, seen and approved.<br/>''Brother Fulgentio de Servi.''</p>
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 28.png|400x400px|center]]
 
|
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|68|lbl=56}}
 
  
|-
+
<p>On the 21st day of October 1638.<br/>Registered with the Most Excellent Magistrature against Blasphemy on page 125.<br/>''Angelo Battisti.''</p>
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 29.png|400x400px|center]]
 
|
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|70|lbl=58}}
 
  
|-
+
<p>{ Battisti Nani, Magistrate.<br/>{ Gierolimo Trivisan, Magistrate.<br/>{ Pietro Foscarini, Magistrate.</p>
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 03.png|400x400px|center]]
 
|
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|72|lbl=60}}
 
  
|-
+
<p>''Alvise Querini Secretary.''</p>
| class="noline" |
+
| class="noline" | {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|75|lbl=63}}
| class="noline" |
 
| class="noline" | {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|74|lbl=62}}
 
  
 
|}
 
|}
Line 1,394: Line 1,613:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>'''Of the Spadone, by Francesco Fernando Alfieri'''</p>
'''Of the Spadone, by Francesco Fernando Alfieri'''
 
  
'''Chapter 1'''
+
<p>'''Chapter 1'''</p>
  
It is certain, that between all these exercises and humanly arts, no practice is any more excellent nor illustrious, nor utilitarian than the martial arts. That with this, one will defend the region, expand the religion, vindicate the injustices, stabilize the peace, and facilitate the people. The ancient and famous republic, which we serve by example, and stimulates us to set out to the road that we conduct to civil happiness, they have in the meantime esteemed the art and agility that deems those which were in their solemnity judged with more force, and more velocity, than the others. We do display those gifts that we have received from nature and aggrandized with the art; these exercises were common place yet from the first centuries to the Italian nation, the exercise of the spadone is commended in as much in that the foot knows to be ready, one makes the body flexible, the hand acquires force, and one loosens the arm; we remember your origin, and who was the first, that placed it in use and aggrandized said salute, which was in the reign of Ninus, then in the Asian Cyrus, in Greece and Sparta and the Athenians, and themselves passed to Rome. Understood of possessing public academies, in which venues professors trained the youth so that not being of doubt of the ancient and marvelous effects of the Spadone, and who perfectly expect good handling and the necessary exercises in the art that otherwise has no use than to tangle and envelope the hands, which does not happen to one tested, that coming against the enemy, having readied the terms that will be appropriate to the case, making vigorous the virtue and accompanied with the vendetta. To this therefore, that without other speeches I know this virtue will easily venture to arrive at perfection that he desires, observing however the lessons of the following figures, which make clear this particularity: that hardly one can declare with words & both end this discourse of this weapon.
+
<p>It is certain, that between all these exercises and humanly arts, no practice is any more excellent nor illustrious, nor utilitarian than the martial arts. That with this, one will defend the region, expand the religion, vindicate the injustices, stabilize the peace, and facilitate the people. The ancient and famous republic, which we serve by example, and stimulates us to set out to the road that we conduct to civil happiness, they have in the meantime esteemed the art and agility that deems those which were in their solemnity judged with more force, and more velocity, than the others. We do display those gifts that we have received from nature and aggrandized with the art; these exercises were common place yet from the first centuries to the Italian nation, the exercise of the spadone is commended in as much in that the foot knows to be ready, one makes the body flexible, the hand acquires force, and one loosens the arm; we remember your origin, and who was the first, that placed it in use and aggrandized said salute, which was in the reign of Ninus, then in the Asian Cyrus, in Greece and Sparta and the Athenians, and themselves passed to Rome. Understood of possessing public academies, in which venues professors trained the youth so that not being of doubt of the ancient and marvelous effects of the Spadone, and who perfectly expect good handling and the necessary exercises in the art that otherwise has no use than to tangle and envelope the hands, which does not happen to one tested, that coming against the enemy, having readied the terms that will be appropriate to the case, making vigorous the virtue and accompanied with the vendetta. To this therefore, that without other speeches I know this virtue will easily venture to arrive at perfection that he desires, observing however the lessons of the following figures, which make clear this particularity: that hardly one can declare with words & both end this discourse of this weapon.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|189|lbl=xxi|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|190|lbl=xxii|p=1}}
 
{{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|189|lbl=xxi|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|190|lbl=xxii|p=1}}
Line 1,405: Line 1,623:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>'''Of the art Around the Operations with the Spadone'''</p>
'''Of the art Around the Operations with the Spadone'''
 
  
''Chapter 2''
+
<p>''Chapter 2''</p>
  
In this art one will consider the theory, and the practice; The theory is the method, how we must work with the weapon in hand against the enemy, an how one must walk with the feet, and bring the arm, and yet know to pull the body, which we learn in various and diverse manners, which serves to offend, and to defend, as one does with forehand and backhand horizontal cuts, and scalpers, montanti, strammazone, diagonals, make beats, and wheels, molinelli, bending the body and pulling the point and cuts in various and diverse guise. And as one brings, hurling, circling from one part, and hurling through the other, going forth, and you will return, in many methods that the art demonstrates, and with this exercise and study you will increase the ardor, by stretching from the people brimming with sanguine humor, brought to make injury, and who well know themselves worth this artificious weapon of the spadone, are able to go against all opposing weapons, by having it very advantageously, and in all places the man himself is able to defend, as in a large and narrow street, as in the plaza, and in the field, that he will assail the enemies before him and behind him. This noble exercise is much frequented in my school by Italian, Polish, French, and German men, and other regarded subjects of diverse nations and whom do acquire the speed and fortification with the body, and make the agility, and rouse the intelligence adorned by nature. But all studious armigers in the need can themselves be worthy of the excellence of the art, by defense of the life, and of the honor, as demonstration and discourse, and with the figure, clearly demonstrate.
+
<p>In this art one will consider the theory, and the practice; The theory is the method, how we must work with the weapon in hand against the enemy, an how one must walk with the feet, and bring the arm, and yet know to pull the body, which we learn in various and diverse manners, which serves to offend, and to defend, as one does with forehand and backhand horizontal cuts, and scalpers, montanti, strammazone, diagonals, make beats, and wheels, molinelli, bending the body and pulling the point and cuts in various and diverse guise. And as one brings, hurling, circling from one part, and hurling through the other, going forth, and you will return, in many methods that the art demonstrates, and with this exercise and study you will increase the ardor, by stretching from the people brimming with sanguine humor, brought to make injury, and who well know themselves worth this artificious weapon of the spadone, are able to go against all opposing weapons, by having it very advantageously, and in all places the man himself is able to defend, as in a large and narrow street, as in the plaza, and in the field, that he will assail the enemies before him and behind him. This noble exercise is much frequented in my school by Italian, Polish, French, and German men, and other regarded subjects of diverse nations and whom do acquire the speed and fortification with the body, and make the agility, and rouse the intelligence adorned by nature. But all studious armigers in the need can themselves be worthy of the excellence of the art, by defense of the life, and of the honor, as demonstration and discourse, and with the figure, clearly demonstrate.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|191|lbl=xxiii|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|192|lbl=xxiv|p=1}}
 
{{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|191|lbl=xxiii|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|192|lbl=xxiv|p=1}}
Line 1,416: Line 1,633:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>'''Of the Use, Length, and of the Strong and Weak of the Spadone'''</p>
'''Of the Use, Length, and of the Strong and Weak of the Spadone'''
 
  
''Chapter 3''
+
<p>''Chapter 3''</p>
  
With all my power I strive, that in this little volume you do not find those things that are not appropriate for experience nor experimentation, that neither accompany from reason, for many the studious gentleman will see the following figure the variety of sites and positions of the body, feet, and spadone, and to his whole will discourse about the nature of each, and the effect that from each they are able to bare, & one will discuss these happenings that easily brings one to understand where both tempo is used and has one and other reasons, and with that advantage, and method one should go against the enemy, even that man that has science can go as he pleases; because he finds in any method the creation of good results through the understanding of the art, which is the mistress of many offenses and defenses, bringing however the spadone in due method, and later the changes and occasions given by the adversary, one has from differently performing, because this, what is good in one place is not worthy in another. It’s blade is divided in two parts, the first near the hand is of much strength, and with which you are more to defend and resist any grand blow; the second that follows somewhat more weakly, but in the offense is the principle over many, not only the point, but the cut, such that the spadone comes to be sectioned half in defense, and half in offense, and its length must be very long, as long as a proportionate man, neither tall nor short, it must have two edges and must be very light to observe of this art, pulling the blows with cuts and point with great velocity and little fatigue; yet must have great hilt-fittings to ensure the hand orchestrates the principles of operation following the nature and rules of the art.
+
<p>With all my power I strive, that in this little volume you do not find those things that are not appropriate for experience nor experimentation, that neither accompany from reason, for many the studious gentleman will see the following figure the variety of sites and positions of the body, feet, and spadone, and to his whole will discourse about the nature of each, and the effect that from each they are able to bare, & one will discuss these happenings that easily brings one to understand where both tempo is used and has one and other reasons, and with that advantage, and method one should go against the enemy, even that man that has science can go as he pleases; because he finds in any method the creation of good results through the understanding of the art, which is the mistress of many offenses and defenses, bringing however the spadone in due method, and later the changes and occasions given by the adversary, one has from differently performing, because this, what is good in one place is not worthy in another. It’s blade is divided in two parts, the first near the hand is of much strength, and with which you are more to defend and resist any grand blow; the second that follows somewhat more weakly, but in the offense is the principle over many, not only the point, but the cut, such that the spadone comes to be sectioned half in defense, and half in offense, and its length must be very long, as long as a proportionate man, neither tall nor short, it must have two edges and must be very light to observe of this art, pulling the blows with cuts and point with great velocity and little fatigue; yet must have great hilt-fittings to ensure the hand orchestrates the principles of operation following the nature and rules of the art.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|193|lbl=01|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|194|lbl=02|p=1}}
 
{{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|193|lbl=01|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|194|lbl=02|p=1}}
Line 1,427: Line 1,643:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>'''How you will Carry the Body and Feet to Meet Against the Enemy with the Spadone'''</p>
'''How you will Carry the Body and Feet to Meet Against the Enemy with the Spadone'''
 
  
''Chapter 4''
+
<p>''Chapter 4''</p>
  
The body must bring good disposition, and simple without forcing, and upright with a cheerful expression, the method that after taking the hand to the spadone is able to go against the enemy, by taking any advantage, and free himself without any danger of the enemy injuring him.
+
<p>The body must bring good disposition, and simple without forcing, and upright with a cheerful expression, the method that after taking the hand to the spadone is able to go against the enemy, by taking any advantage, and free himself without any danger of the enemy injuring him.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/195|1|lbl=03}}
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/195|1|lbl=03}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Wanting to move himself, the gentleman, to go against the adversary, must commence and carry the feet with ordinary steps, as appropriately brought forth in the stride, if well with somewhat more alacrity of motion, & the steps more brief, one will not ever enlarge their step, if not while the person is to make resistance against the enemy, than when he comes to offend, so alone as accompanied, and immediately with alacrity that is often the mother of fortune, closes the way that they are not able to come first to wound; Many have the opinion that when fighting one should look for the eyes, which I don’t understand on what it is based, seeing that never I have seen, nor understood, nor read that men are basilisks; I say that we should look at the length of the person that we intend to offend, and not just the eyes; the observation of this art can go against all sorts of honest weapons, and to resist against all kinds of adversaries, do from mastery of assisting the body and the spadone in such a way that one has more strength than the opposing weapons; however it is necessary to be abounding in starting out, to go to wound the enemy without stopping, as we shall say in their places in the following figures.
+
| <p>Wanting to move himself, the gentleman, to go against the adversary, must commence and carry the feet with ordinary steps, as appropriately brought forth in the stride, if well with somewhat more alacrity of motion, & the steps more brief, one will not ever enlarge their step, if not while the person is to make resistance against the enemy, than when he comes to offend, so alone as accompanied, and immediately with alacrity that is often the mother of fortune, closes the way that they are not able to come first to wound; Many have the opinion that when fighting one should look for the eyes, which I don’t understand on what it is based, seeing that never I have seen, nor understood, nor read that men are basilisks; I say that we should look at the length of the person that we intend to offend, and not just the eyes; the observation of this art can go against all sorts of honest weapons, and to resist against all kinds of adversaries, do from mastery of assisting the body and the spadone in such a way that one has more strength than the opposing weapons; however it is necessary to be abounding in starting out, to go to wound the enemy without stopping, as we shall say in their places in the following figures.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/195|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|196|lbl=04|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/195|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|196|lbl=04|p=1}}
Line 1,443: Line 1,658:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 2.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 2.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''The Method the Spadone must be Held Walking'''</p>
'''The Method the Spadone must be Held Walking'''
 
  
''Chapter 5''
+
<p>''Chapter 5''</p>
  
It has come time to deal with the way of carrying the spadone, which is a weapon of much utility, holds the enemy back, is not subject to any prohibition, and common in every province and of every Prince and authority. Many carry it as they like, and without rule: but because there are different ways, among which we’ll show only one is best; in which one considers the walking of the feet, the motion of the stride, and disposition of the body. The time wanting it carried without tedium, without any hindrance, so at night as by day, as alone as accompanied by friends.
+
<p>It has come time to deal with the way of carrying the spadone, which is a weapon of much utility, holds the enemy back, is not subject to any prohibition, and common in every province and of every Prince and authority. Many carry it as they like, and without rule: but because there are different ways, among which we’ll show only one is best; in which one considers the walking of the feet, the motion of the stride, and disposition of the body. The time wanting it carried without tedium, without any hindrance, so at night as by day, as alone as accompanied by friends.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/197|1|lbl=05}}
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/197|1|lbl=05}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>You must seize it with the right hand, as it is nobler, and with that you will place it in the left hand, and with it you will hold it resting on the same arm, as taught by the present figure, the gentleman remaining in this posture can travel, and being assaulted one to one, or by many men, can expediently without more time grasp with the right hand, unsheathe the spadone, and rely thereon to use it as the occasion requires.</p>
You must seize it with the right hand, as it is nobler, and with that you will place it in the left hand, and with it you will hold it resting on the same arm, as taught by the present figure, the gentleman remaining in this posture can travel, and being assaulted one to one, or by many men, can expediently without more time grasp with the right hand, unsheathe the spadone, and rely thereon to use it as the occasion requires.
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/197|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|198|lbl=06|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/197|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|198|lbl=06|p=1}}
Line 1,460: Line 1,673:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 3.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 3.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''Of Gripping the Spadone: and Forming Yourself in Posture to Assail the Enemy.'''</p>
'''Of Gripping the Spadone: and Forming Yourself in Posture to Assail the Enemy.'''
 
  
''Chapter 6''
+
<p>''Chapter 6''</p>
  
In this discourse one will show that it is much more effective to teach the figure: they don’t make speeches, because seeing the drawn posture and manner that one must observe by imitating them, raising all doubts that could be born from the weakness of the oppressive. The following figure represents how you must in one indivisible time stop in the posture, keeping yourself free to be able to wait or assault according to his good pleasure.
+
<p>In this discourse one will show that it is much more effective to teach the figure: they don’t make speeches, because seeing the drawn posture and manner that one must observe by imitating them, raising all doubts that could be born from the weakness of the oppressive. The following figure represents how you must in one indivisible time stop in the posture, keeping yourself free to be able to wait or assault according to his good pleasure.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/200|1|lbl=08}}
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/200|1|lbl=08}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>Wanting the gentleman to do the first lesson, it must begin with the two principle cuts, that is a forehand and backhand, and they are brought and at the same time accompanied from the right and left hand, lengthening the step, and the body, pulling the blow either down, or up, according to the place, and the time, these two cuts are pulled indifferently, and replicated more times. The forehand are pulled from the right part, and the backhand are pulled from the left hand, and whoever will well go examining and arguing with intellect will easily find the reasons for going against every one, as we reason in a place of one, and time in another, of the other following lesson.</p>
Wanting the gentleman to do the first lesson, it must begin with the two principle cuts, that is a forehand and backhand, and they are brought and at the same time accompanied from the right and left hand, lengthening the step, and the body, pulling the blow either down, or up, according to the place, and the time, these two cuts are pulled indifferently, and replicated more times. The forehand are pulled from the right part, and the backhand are pulled from the left hand, and whoever will well go examining and arguing with intellect will easily find the reasons for going against every one, as we reason in a place of one, and time in another, of the other following lesson.
 
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/200|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/200|2|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 4.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 4.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''The First Method to Commence Handling the Spadone'''<br/><br/></p>
'''The First Method to Commence Handling the Spadone'''<br/><br/>
 
  
''Chapter 7''
+
<p>''Chapter 7''</p>
  
This lesson one will make three cuts that are worthy of being observed. One will by the subtlety and mastery of the blow seek to consider the impression of the present figure, with which he will commence the passage. And to attain the honor that one will desire, must the body be somewhat bent and disposed to the force; the arm has to be united, and take strength with both hands in gripping the spadone, and moving the natural yet generous step you will form from one time the first forehand strike, and the backhand second, and one will replicate many times such cuts, turning the body and the spadone with the hands turning over the head, and so one will go in this continuous way, both in going forward as in the return backwards, as is more effectively shown by the posture.
+
<p>This lesson one will make three cuts that are worthy of being observed. One will by the subtlety and mastery of the blow seek to consider the impression of the present figure, with which he will commence the passage. And to attain the honor that one will desire, must the body be somewhat bent and disposed to the force; the arm has to be united, and take strength with both hands in gripping the spadone, and moving the natural yet generous step you will form from one time the first forehand strike, and the backhand second, and one will replicate many times such cuts, turning the body and the spadone with the hands turning over the head, and so one will go in this continuous way, both in going forward as in the return backwards, as is more effectively shown by the posture.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|202|lbl=10}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|202|lbl=10}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 5.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 5.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''The Head Guard of the Spadone: For Defending Yourself in an Ordinary Street.'''</p>
'''The Head Guard of the Spadone: For Defending Yourself in an Ordinary Street.'''
 
  
''Chapter 8''
+
<p>''Chapter 8''</p>
  
The present figure serves to awaken the chance memory, which by the length of time and little use of my recollection given to living voice became out of mind. Now you are shown that all lessons are so ordered that one is linked with the other. Here we learn how you will pull the three cuts, making the head guard with the spadone. This not only serves to show the disposition and skill of those who exercise, but may be given the case that paragons of mastery practice it in combat. Therefore hold the arm outstretched, and give a round of three forehand cuts over the head, and the same is done with backhand cuts. You must at once spring forward without losing time. You will turn the hands together afterward, as seen in the demonstrated drawing. With the union of the right and left foot you will extend the strike, so forward as backward, having always regard for the exactness of the step so avoiding the disgrace which removes merit.
+
<p>The present figure serves to awaken the chance memory, which by the length of time and little use of my recollection given to living voice became out of mind. Now you are shown that all lessons are so ordered that one is linked with the other. Here we learn how you will pull the three cuts, making the head guard with the spadone. This not only serves to show the disposition and skill of those who exercise, but may be given the case that paragons of mastery practice it in combat. Therefore hold the arm outstretched, and give a round of three forehand cuts over the head, and the same is done with backhand cuts. You must at once spring forward without losing time. You will turn the hands together afterward, as seen in the demonstrated drawing. With the union of the right and left foot you will extend the strike, so forward as backward, having always regard for the exactness of the step so avoiding the disgrace which removes merit.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|204|lbl=12}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|204|lbl=12}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 4.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 4.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''How You Must in a Wide Space do the Three Crosses of the Spadone'''</p>
'''How You Must in a Wide Space do the Three Crosses of the Spadone'''
 
  
''Chapter 9''
+
<p>''Chapter 9''</p>
  
The present lessons are all taken from the real occasions of the matter, which for most happen hot-blooded, we have come to the method of doing the three crosses. By using it in the time that you are assaulted in a plaza or a large street by several people, and to do this you all know requires much judgement, but accompanied with resolution and skill as shown in the prefixed figure.
+
<p>The present lessons are all taken from the real occasions of the matter, which for most happen hot-blooded, we have come to the method of doing the three crosses. By using it in the time that you are assaulted in a plaza or a large street by several people, and to do this you all know requires much judgement, but accompanied with resolution and skill as shown in the prefixed figure.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/206|1|lbl=14}}
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/206|1|lbl=14}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>The first cross will be split with two cuts from the forehand, accompanying it with the right foot, rotating the body and spadone around, and every single strike causes its motion, having the left foot firmly grounded, and the other which walks with the cuts two times. And then stopping the right foot, and commence with the left foot the same with two backhand cuts, and finish the two blows you will start as before with the right foot, and if it will from here pass to the right side, pull the same two forehand cuts, and stop the right foot when finished. And the left you will put to the left side and pull its two backhand cuts, and you will return then into the same place where you had started.</p>
The first cross will be split with two cuts from the forehand, accompanying it with the right foot, rotating the body and spadone around, and every single strike causes its motion, having the left foot firmly grounded, and the other which walks with the cuts two times. And then stopping the right foot, and commence with the left foot the same with two backhand cuts, and finish the two blows you will start as before with the right foot, and if it will from here pass to the right side, pull the same two forehand cuts, and stop the right foot when finished. And the left you will put to the left side and pull its two backhand cuts, and you will return then into the same place where you had started.
 
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/206|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/206|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>The second cross you will do with three cuts of the forehand, and with three backhand cuts. The forehand cuts will be accompanied with the right foot, and the backhand with the left foot, turning the body three times with the spadone. You will however keep the said order.</p>
The second cross you will do with three cuts of the forehand, and with three backhand cuts. The forehand cuts will be accompanied with the right foot, and the backhand with the left foot, turning the body three times with the spadone. You will however keep the said order.
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/206|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/208|1|lbl=16|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/206|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/208|1|lbl=16|p=1}}
Line 1,520: Line 1,725:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>The third cross you will do four cuts, likewise of backhand cuts, replicating four turns per part, one forward, the other to behind, and the same will be done to the right flank, and left. Observing the rule which we have established with aforesaid discourse.</p>
The third cross you will do four cuts, likewise of backhand cuts, replicating four turns per part, one forward, the other to behind, and the same will be done to the right flank, and left. Observing the rule which we have established with aforesaid discourse.
 
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/208|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/208|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 3.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 3.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''Of the Handling of the Point and Cut with the Spadone'''</p>
'''Of the Handling of the Point and Cut with the Spadone'''
 
  
''Chapter 10''
+
<p>''Chapter 10''</p>
  
There are many ways in which you can go resolutely against the enemy without stopping, and wanting to do this does by trade has great amusement. In this place we’ll show the lesson of point and cut, the principle motions are the forehand and backhand cuts, with these formed over the head, and you understand its turns with the union of the body, and of the feet, as the proposed figure shows. It begins first with the forehand cut and in the passage of the cut you will accompany the blow of the thrust, and extend it forward with the step, and the same is done from backhand cuts, so from one and the other side, replicating more times the passing with the cut and point together, and according to the occasion you will commence a new play, he could from the novelty take to this celebration, and that delight which feels the love of the virtue.
+
<p>There are many ways in which you can go resolutely against the enemy without stopping, and wanting to do this does by trade has great amusement. In this place we’ll show the lesson of point and cut, the principle motions are the forehand and backhand cuts, with these formed over the head, and you understand its turns with the union of the body, and of the feet, as the proposed figure shows. It begins first with the forehand cut and in the passage of the cut you will accompany the blow of the thrust, and extend it forward with the step, and the same is done from backhand cuts, so from one and the other side, replicating more times the passing with the cut and point together, and according to the occasion you will commence a new play, he could from the novelty take to this celebration, and that delight which feels the love of the virtue.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/208|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/208|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 4.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 4.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''Of the Three Crosses from the Spadone’s Point and Cut'''</p>
'''Of the Three Crosses from the Spadone’s Point and Cut'''
 
  
''Chapter 11''
+
<p>''Chapter 11''</p>
  
I fear not being tedious in repeating the same things, than becoming obscured in leaving something out. Now come consider the figure to the practice of what you reason. But take however great marvel that in the drawing one will resemble another, this doesn’t make the art be however different to the display of its actions, although they are similar in posture. The present figure demonstrates a wonderful invention for doing the three crosses with the point and cut, and for everyone I can briefly interweave the declaration.
+
<p>I fear not being tedious in repeating the same things, than becoming obscured in leaving something out. Now come consider the figure to the practice of what you reason. But take however great marvel that in the drawing one will resemble another, this doesn’t make the art be however different to the display of its actions, although they are similar in posture. The present figure demonstrates a wonderful invention for doing the three crosses with the point and cut, and for everyone I can briefly interweave the declaration.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/210|1|lbl=18}}
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/210|1|lbl=18}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>The first cross you will do with two cuts, and a thrust together. You will start, such that the left foot is placed grounded. You will begin with the right foot pulling forehand cuts, and with this you will go around to return, and you will run until you have finished the two cuts, and immediately you will chain the thrust rounding the spadone behind the back, and you will put forward the strike united with the quickness of the step. So you must do with the two backhand cuts, and with the thrust together accompanied with the left foot. The same will be done from the right band, and left.</p>
The first cross you will do with two cuts, and a thrust together. You will start, such that the left foot is placed grounded. You will begin with the right foot pulling forehand cuts, and with this you will go around to return, and you will run until you have finished the two cuts, and immediately you will chain the thrust rounding the spadone behind the back, and you will put forward the strike united with the quickness of the step. So you must do with the two backhand cuts, and with the thrust together accompanied with the left foot. The same will be done from the right band, and left.
 
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/210|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/210|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>The second cross is of three cuts, and a thrust around, and you will observe the same circumstances of foot, body, and celerity as above. First you will pull three cuts with the right foot, and a thrust, and finishing with that one you will start with the left foot, and you will do the same. This will be done forward, and back, and the right side, and left, divided into three tempos, which you will do with the right foot, and with the left.</p>
The second cross is of three cuts, and a thrust around, and you will observe the same circumstances of foot, body, and celerity as above. First you will pull three cuts with the right foot, and a thrust, and finishing with that one you will start with the left foot, and you will do the same. This will be done forward, and back, and the right side, and left, divided into three tempos, which you will do with the right foot, and with the left.
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/210|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/212|1|lbl=20|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/210|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/212|1|lbl=20|p=1}}
Line 1,559: Line 1,759:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>The third cross you will do four cuts and a thrust likewise around, which you will do forward, and behind, and to the right flank, and left. There with one foot firm, and the other turning, finishing with the right that will stop, and you will move the left, and continue until the end of the four changes, supposing always that the tempo, the step, both proportionate, without which all effort and merit is lost, and nothing more is acquired than blame.</p>
The third cross you will do four cuts and a thrust likewise around, which you will do forward, and behind, and to the right flank, and left. There with one foot firm, and the other turning, finishing with the right that will stop, and you will move the left, and continue until the end of the four changes, supposing always that the tempo, the step, both proportionate, without which all effort and merit is lost, and nothing more is acquired than blame.
 
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/212|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/212|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 6.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 6.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''Of the Molinello You will do with the Spadone in the Crosses'''</p>
'''Of the Molinello You will do with the Spadone in the Crosses'''
 
  
''Chapter 12''
+
<p>''Chapter 12''</p>
  
All lessons are ordered, here we must learn to do the molinello in the cross. This is not only to show the disposition, but skill of whoever plays, so you must keep your arm relaxed, as shown in the following figure shown. With three montanti one knows to pass forward, and with the molinello the spadone and body will turn together, and you will return to the same position. And similar are the montanti to the right part, continue from the left side, and then the right side, doubling at your pleasure. And although the whole thing appears very clear, nonetheless, hardly anything can be put into practice without an instructor.
+
<p>All lessons are ordered, here we must learn to do the molinello in the cross. This is not only to show the disposition, but skill of whoever plays, so you must keep your arm relaxed, as shown in the following figure shown. With three montanti one knows to pass forward, and with the molinello the spadone and body will turn together, and you will return to the same position. And similar are the montanti to the right part, continue from the left side, and then the right side, doubling at your pleasure. And although the whole thing appears very clear, nonetheless, hardly anything can be put into practice without an instructor.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/212|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/214|1|lbl=22|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/212|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/214|1|lbl=22|p=1}}
Line 1,576: Line 1,774:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 4.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 4.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''How You Will Handle the Spadone to Sweep the Land'''</p>
'''How You Will Handle the Spadone to Sweep the Land'''
 
  
''Chapter 13''
+
<p>''Chapter 13''</p>
  
To do the lesson of Sweeping the Land, after you have done more steps of the forehand and backhand cuts, beginning from the right side you will make the turns of three steps with forehand arcs, and with equal skill you will return to produce the backhand cuts to the left part, and more times you will redouble according to the crowd of people, needing continually to remain in motion turning the body and the spadone there in one space, and there in another as the figure shows. And in encountering the enemy we must govern ourselves with form wanted by the occasion and the space, because in many manners you will pass to drive on, and pass from one to the other side, placing in one step good moderation, and you will not keep from becoming distinguished, experimenting in this noble exercise.
+
<p>To do the lesson of Sweeping the Land, after you have done more steps of the forehand and backhand cuts, beginning from the right side you will make the turns of three steps with forehand arcs, and with equal skill you will return to produce the backhand cuts to the left part, and more times you will redouble according to the crowd of people, needing continually to remain in motion turning the body and the spadone there in one space, and there in another as the figure shows. And in encountering the enemy we must govern ourselves with form wanted by the occasion and the space, because in many manners you will pass to drive on, and pass from one to the other side, placing in one step good moderation, and you will not keep from becoming distinguished, experimenting in this noble exercise.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/214|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/214|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 5.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 5.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''How You Will Feint Cuts from the Spadone to Deceive the Enemy'''</p>
'''How You Will Feint Cuts from the Spadone to Deceive the Enemy'''
 
  
''Chapter 14''
+
<p>''Chapter 14''</p>
  
And of great advantage this device is added, as is the rule of the art, to feint and to wound from cuts. The figure does not need many words, demonstrating giving a backhand cut and injuring with a forehand cut. Completing wounding with a forehand cut and striking the backhand cut, you will be able to do those steps in this lesson which you will learn from the mastery, the person can go forward, and in pulling back the blow you will stretch the crux of the hands and the force of the arms, with the step well adjusted. The feint is no different than a deception, which by itself is odious. This deception of which I speak offends neither justice nor faith, but is a rule of the art simply to beat the enemy, and is named “Feint”.
+
<p>And of great advantage this device is added, as is the rule of the art, to feint and to wound from cuts. The figure does not need many words, demonstrating giving a backhand cut and injuring with a forehand cut. Completing wounding with a forehand cut and striking the backhand cut, you will be able to do those steps in this lesson which you will learn from the mastery, the person can go forward, and in pulling back the blow you will stretch the crux of the hands and the force of the arms, with the step well adjusted. The feint is no different than a deception, which by itself is odious. This deception of which I speak offends neither justice nor faith, but is a rule of the art simply to beat the enemy, and is named “Feint”.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|216|lbl=24}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|216|lbl=24}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 3.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 3.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''Of the Step and Sidestep With the Spadone'''</p>
'''Of the Step and Sidestep With the Spadone'''
 
  
''Chapter 15''
+
<p>''Chapter 15''</p>
  
In this Figure you will have the arm collected with the spadone to do the step and sidestep. You will make to play the body from one and the other sides, making three forehand cuts and three backhand cuts, walking the feet in the tempo which you will make the cuts, bringing them around, and extending the blow forward, obtaining with all guidance you will utilize from the speed, without confusion, and so remain forestalling the adversary.
+
<p>In this Figure you will have the arm collected with the spadone to do the step and sidestep. You will make to play the body from one and the other sides, making three forehand cuts and three backhand cuts, walking the feet in the tempo which you will make the cuts, bringing them around, and extending the blow forward, obtaining with all guidance you will utilize from the speed, without confusion, and so remain forestalling the adversary.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/218|1|lbl=26}}
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/218|1|lbl=26}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| <p>The fundamental principle in this lesson is to know your advantage. Traversing there from one side, and now from the other, pulling forehand and backhand cuts. Many are the enemies of truth, and they love most the new things, even such extravagance. This they make to be of great spirit, and almost reforming of this art, and don’t know that these findings have all of the ridicule, and are pernicious. And those who do not know to escape, easily remain deceived. This which I’ve taught you is always approved by those that know.</p>
The fundamental principle in this lesson is to know your advantage. Traversing there from one side, and now from the other, pulling forehand and backhand cuts. Many are the enemies of truth, and they love most the new things, even such extravagance. This they make to be of great spirit, and almost reforming of this art, and don’t know that these findings have all of the ridicule, and are pernicious. And those who do not know to escape, easily remain deceived. This which I’ve taught you is always approved by those that know.
 
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/218|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/218|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 4.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 4.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''How You Must Handle the Spadone in a Large Street'''<br/><br/></p>
'''How You Must Handle the Spadone in a Large Street'''<br/><br/>
 
  
''Chapter 16''
+
<p>''Chapter 16''</p>
  
Danger arises from what you least believe; Boldness ends combat, but the victory is his own from virtù by protecting himself from accidents both in war and peace; turning the spadone towards the enemy, himself arranged in good guard to resist every offense. Through clarity of this lesson I show that you will begin with the natural step, and you will move three steps to the right side to assail the adversary, and with three forehand cuts you will walk forth, and three other times you will go to the left with three backhand cuts, harassing the enemy around to gain some advantage over him, and then make doing more steps, and from forehand and backhand cuts, according to the need, and in addition to this you are able to do many whims; turns, half-turns, and other artifices that are proper ornaments of the art.
+
<p>Danger arises from what you least believe; Boldness ends combat, but the victory is his own from virtù by protecting himself from accidents both in war and peace; turning the spadone towards the enemy, himself arranged in good guard to resist every offense. Through clarity of this lesson I show that you will begin with the natural step, and you will move three steps to the right side to assail the adversary, and with three forehand cuts you will walk forth, and three other times you will go to the left with three backhand cuts, harassing the enemy around to gain some advantage over him, and then make doing more steps, and from forehand and backhand cuts, according to the need, and in addition to this you are able to do many whims; turns, half-turns, and other artifices that are proper ornaments of the art.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|220|lbl=28}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|220|lbl=28}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 5.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 5.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''Of the Method of Doing the Snake, of Forehand and Backhand Cuts with the Spadone'''</p>
'''Of the Method of Doing the Snake, of Forehand and Backhand Cuts with the Spadone'''
 
  
''Chapter 17''
+
<p>''Chapter 17''</p>
  
This following figure shows the passage of the lesson, the Snake, beginning with forehand cut, and concluding the forehand cut with five steps. The same will be followed for backhand cuts, and finishing the backhand cuts, the forehand will be done with the right foot, and backhand cut with the left foot. This you will replicate more times according to the occasion, and the man will be able to defend from the many people he’s found himself against, or in a narrow street, or else in a wide street, and only with extending the arm, and bending from the body you may reach the adversary:  Never wanting movements to be very fast, of body, spadone, and feet, that without any doubt this is the most secure and certain rule that in tests of such esteem, in which you will draw for life, a person can defend themselves in all places.
+
<p>This following figure shows the passage of the lesson, the Snake, beginning with forehand cut, and concluding the forehand cut with five steps. The same will be followed for backhand cuts, and finishing the backhand cuts, the forehand will be done with the right foot, and backhand cut with the left foot. This you will replicate more times according to the occasion, and the man will be able to defend from the many people he’s found himself against, or in a narrow street, or else in a wide street, and only with extending the arm, and bending from the body you may reach the adversary:  Never wanting movements to be very fast, of body, spadone, and feet, that without any doubt this is the most secure and certain rule that in tests of such esteem, in which you will draw for life, a person can defend themselves in all places.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|222|lbl=30}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|222|lbl=30}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 6.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 6.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''The Manner you must Keep with the Spadone to Make the Simple and Double Molinelli in a Narrow Street'''</p>
'''The Manner you must Keep with the Spadone to Make the Simple and Double Molinelli in a Narrow Street'''
 
  
''Chapter 18''
+
<p>''Chapter 18''</p>
  
We have come to the method of how one should form the molinello with the montanti, and the non-guarding sottomani. There is no blow in fencing that cannot also be adapted to the art of the spadone, wanting to do this, which I have thought to show in the present figure, the pupil will find himself in the passage of the right flank, or left, and with montanti or sottomani turn the spadone, and make the simple molinello, walking always forward following the adversary, and pulling back if you have yourself a throng of enemies. In the double molinello you will walk with the same rule, but more times the body turns around accompanied with the same montanti and sottomani, thus in going forewards as in backwards; and I hold fast that it is a great advantage in the assault. We release the long discourse to the learned persons, because our profession constitutes more in the work than in the words; in this method, with the spadone you can advance against a shafted weapon, pike, or halberd, and win it, as I myself have done, beholding the effect in actual practice more times at different occasions to the presence of gentlemen and grand princes.
+
<p>We have come to the method of how one should form the molinello with the montanti, and the non-guarding sottomani. There is no blow in fencing that cannot also be adapted to the art of the spadone, wanting to do this, which I have thought to show in the present figure, the pupil will find himself in the passage of the right flank, or left, and with montanti or sottomani turn the spadone, and make the simple molinello, walking always forward following the adversary, and pulling back if you have yourself a throng of enemies. In the double molinello you will walk with the same rule, but more times the body turns around accompanied with the same montanti and sottomani, thus in going forewards as in backwards; and I hold fast that it is a great advantage in the assault. We release the long discourse to the learned persons, because our profession constitutes more in the work than in the words; in this method, with the spadone you can advance against a shafted weapon, pike, or halberd, and win it, as I myself have done, beholding the effect in actual practice more times at different occasions to the presence of gentlemen and grand princes.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|224|lbl=32}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|224|lbl=32}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 3.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 3.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''How You Must Operate the Spadone with Forehand and Backhand Cuts to Defend Yourself from Enemies on a Bridge.'''</p>
'''How You Must Operate the Spadone with Forehand and Backhand Cuts to Defend Yourself from Enemies on a Bridge.'''
 
  
''Chapter 19''
+
<p>''Chapter 19''</p>
  
In handling the spadone, it seems that skill and agility prevail over force, which is manifestly understood through our figure of defending yourself on a bridge; with forehand and backhand cuts, starting with your right foot, and following with your left, turning your body and your step three times in rotation, walking forward, returning back, often depending on the situation created by the enemy, from either one side or another of the bridge, always accompanying the blows with your arm and foot, with artifice. You can also intersperse some feints or other variations, which serve to ornament the lessons, and demonstrate the spirit of the practitioner.
+
<p>In handling the spadone, it seems that skill and agility prevail over force, which is manifestly understood through our figure of defending yourself on a bridge; with forehand and backhand cuts, starting with your right foot, and following with your left, turning your body and your step three times in rotation, walking forward, returning back, often depending on the situation created by the enemy, from either one side or another of the bridge, always accompanying the blows with your arm and foot, with artifice. You can also intersperse some feints or other variations, which serve to ornament the lessons, and demonstrate the spirit of the practitioner.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|226|lbl=34}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|226|lbl=34}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 7.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 7.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''Of the Method that you must Keep Body to Body to Defend Yourself with the Spadone'''</p>
'''Of the Method that you must Keep Body to Body to Defend Yourself with the Spadone'''
 
  
''Chapter 20''
+
<p>''Chapter 20''</p>
  
The art consists to own everything which researches the mastery of the student for using the spadone well against another that has the same weapon; against the other one must use the observations of the measure and the tempo, and yet investigate the nature and quality of the enemy’s play, and of this observation more than any depends loss and victory. Wanting the man to commence combat against the other, first he must form himself in presence of the enemy, and secondly there he moves with hostile movement, as backwards as forwards, or to the right or left flank, and like one like the other little by little, he will advance. If one pulls a forehand cut, do a forehand cut and wound with a backhand cut; and if one pulls a backhand cut, crack a backhand cut and strike a forehand cut. And observe the same for the montanto and sottomano, and as such one continues until one or the other sides leave satisfied. I do not extend to repeat this that I have more times said in advance; the principle method is taught in the present figure, leaving out nothing that has been known more for ostentation than to teach the youth.
+
<p>The art consists to own everything which researches the mastery of the student for using the spadone well against another that has the same weapon; against the other one must use the observations of the measure and the tempo, and yet investigate the nature and quality of the enemy’s play, and of this observation more than any depends loss and victory. Wanting the man to commence combat against the other, first he must form himself in presence of the enemy, and secondly there he moves with hostile movement, as backwards as forwards, or to the right or left flank, and like one like the other little by little, he will advance. If one pulls a forehand cut, do a forehand cut and wound with a backhand cut; and if one pulls a backhand cut, crack a backhand cut and strike a forehand cut. And observe the same for the montanto and sottomano, and as such one continues until one or the other sides leave satisfied. I do not extend to repeat this that I have more times said in advance; the principle method is taught in the present figure, leaving out nothing that has been known more for ostentation than to teach the youth.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|228|lbl=36}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|228|lbl=36}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" | [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 2.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| class="noline" | [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 2.png|400x400px|center|border]]
| class="noline" |  
+
| class="noline" | <p>'''The End of the Present Work'''</p>
'''The End of the Present Work'''
 
  
''Chapter 21''
+
<p>''Chapter 21''</p>
  
One collects the spadone, bringing it in the left hand, as the following figure demonstrates; the drawing done by a good carver. If one were accompanied by anyone delighting of such exercise, my works would have more credit, and I would quite often be without trouble. Here is a short lesson of my promise, the summary, that to me it was in the approved principle; I am not spread out in the declarations, by not having to repeat many times the same thing, (I admit, my failing) I serve nothing less stimulating to another so intendent on discovering that which I have not known and demonstrated with this style. Whom is incapable of my genius is difficult to please in this listless century; some will regard my discovered nature that others yearn, and I am well aware that a wise man is always fair.
+
<p>One collects the spadone, bringing it in the left hand, as the following figure demonstrates; the drawing done by a good carver. If one were accompanied by anyone delighting of such exercise, my works would have more credit, and I would quite often be without trouble. Here is a short lesson of my promise, the summary, that to me it was in the approved principle; I am not spread out in the declarations, by not having to repeat many times the same thing, (I admit, my failing) I serve nothing less stimulating to another so intendent on discovering that which I have not known and demonstrated with this style. Whom is incapable of my genius is difficult to please in this listless century; some will regard my discovered nature that others yearn, and I am well aware that a wise man is always fair.</p>
 
| class="noline" | {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|230|lbl=38}}
 
| class="noline" | {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|230|lbl=38}}
  
Line 1,732: Line 1,920:
 
== References ==
 
== References ==
  
{{reflist}}
+
{{reflist|2}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Alfieri, Francesco Fernando}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Alfieri, Francesco Fernando}}
 
{{Early Italian masters}}
 
{{Early Italian masters}}
Line 1,741: Line 1,929:
 
[[Category:Italian]]
 
[[Category:Italian]]
  
[[Category:Copy/Pasting]]
 
 
[[Category:Translation]]
 
[[Category:Translation]]
  

Latest revision as of 21:44, 30 July 2020

Francesco Fernando Alfieri

Portrait from 1640
Born 16th century (?)
Died 17th century
Occupation Fencing master
Nationality Italian
Genres Fencing manual
Language Italian
Notable work(s)

Francesco Fernando Alfieri was a 17th century Italian fencing master. Little is known about his life, but Alfieri means "Ensign" which might be a military title rather than a family name. In his fencing treatise of 1640, he identifies himself as a master-at-arms to the Accademia Delia in Padua, and indicates that he had long experience at that time

In 1638, Alfieri published a treatise on flag drill entitled La Bandiera ("The Banner"). This was followed in 1640 by La Scherma ("On Fencing"), in which he treats the use of the rapier. Not content with these works, in 1641 he released La Picca ("The Pike"), which not only covers pike drill, but also includes a complete reprint of La Bandiera (complete with title page dated 1638). His treatise on rapier seems to have been especially popular, as it was reprinted in 1646 and then received a new edition in 1653 titled L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada ("The Art of Handling the Sword Well"), which not only includes the entirety of the 1640 edition, but also adds a concluding section on the spadone.

Treatise

Additional Resources

References

  1. This passage is later self-plagiarised by Alfieri in the introduction to his treatise on the spadone of 1653.
  2. Although taken somewhat out of context, Alfieri appears to be referring to Numbers 21:8: “And the LORD said unto Moses, Make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole” (King James Bible).
  3. Here Alfieri employs a practically untranslatable idiom “tenero di sale”, which refers to a dish lacking in salt but also ironically to a foolish, naïve or credulous person. The translator has replaced this with an approximately equivalent English idiom.
  4. Note the use of fencing terminology to describe actions with the flag, which continues throughout the treatise.
  5. Montanti (singular montante) in fencing terminology refers to rising blows.
  6. Literally “totally covered”, this describes a guard or posture in which your opponent has no direct line of attack, as demonstrated for example in chapters XXV and XXXIV of Alfieri's 1640 treatise on rapier fencing.
  7. Note that this final plate is simply reused from chapter I.
  8. Again this passage is later self-plagiarised in the conclusion to Alfieri's 1653 treatise on the spadone.