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Difference between revisions of "Fiore de'i Liberi/Spear"

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{| class="wikitable floated master"
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{| class="master"
 
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! <poem><includeonly><span style="font-weight:normal; font-size:85%;">&#91;{{edit|Fiore de'i Liberi/Spear|edit}}&#93;</span> &nbsp; </includeonly>Images</poem>
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! <p><includeonly><span style="font-weight:normal; font-size:85%;">&#91;{{edit|Fiore de'i Liberi/Spear|edit}}&#93;</span> &nbsp; </includeonly>Illustrations</p>
! <poem>Images</poem>
+
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <poem>''{{rating|B|PD}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty}} by [[Matt Easton]] and [[Eleonora Durban]]</poem>
+
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
! <poem>''{{rating|none|Paris (Open for translation)}}''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</poem>
+
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <poem>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]]&nbsp;<span style="font-weight:normal; font-size:85%;">&#91;[[Index:Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|edit]]&#93;</span><br/>Open for editing</poem>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <poem>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]]&nbsp;<span style="font-weight:normal; font-size:85%;">&#91;[[Index:Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|edit]]&#93;</span><br/>Open for editing</poem>
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! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
! <poem>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]]&nbsp;<span style="font-weight:normal; font-size:85%;">&#91;[[Index:Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|edit]]&#93;</span><br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</poem>
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! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
! <poem>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]]&nbsp;<span style="font-weight:normal; font-size:85%;">&#91;[[Index:Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|edit]]&#93;</span><br/>by [[user:Charlélie Berthaut|Charlélie Berthaut]]</poem>
+
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| style="text-align:center; vertical-align:middle;" | [No Image]
 
| style="text-align:center; vertical-align:middle;" | [No Image]
| <poem>'''[1]''' <em>The extended lance which is used in hand;  
+
| <p>[1] <em>The extended lance which is used in hand;<br/>The more it is extended, the less it deceives.<br/>Six Masters stand in guard with it,<br/>And with a step and a beat, they suddenly strike,<br/>Both from the right side and from the left (for certain):<br/>The beat is made to the side and not up;<br/>And the beat wants to be one arm's length on the lance,<br/>And whoever goes against it will make such a failure.</em></p>
The more it is extended, the less it deceives.  
+
 
Six Masters stand in guard with it,  
+
<p><em>I am a noble weapon, Lance by name:<br/>In the beginning of battle I am always used.<br/>And whoever watches me with my dashing pennant<br/>Should be frightened with great dread.<br/>And if in the beginning I make my due,<br/>Axe, sword, and dagger will I upset.</em></p>
And with a step and a beat, they suddenly strike,
+
| <p><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
Both from the right side and from the left (for certain):
+
 
The beat is made to the side and not up;  
+
<p>Here begins the art of the noble weapon called Lance; in the beginning of battle, on horse and on foot, is its use. And whoever watches it with its dashing pennant should be frightened with great dread. And it makes great thrusts which are dangerously strong, and with a single one it can give death. And if in the first blow it makes its due, then axe, sword, and dagger will all be upset.</p>
And the beat wants to be one arm's length on the lance,  
+
| <p><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
And whoever goes against it will make such a failure.</em></poem>
+
 
<poem><em>I am a noble weapon, Lance by name:
+
{{section|Page:MS M.383 9r.jpg|9r-t|lbl=9r}}
In the beginning of battle I am always used.
 
And whoever watches me with my dashing pennant
 
Should be frightened with great dread.
 
And if in the beginning I make my due,
 
Axe, sword, and dagger will I upset.</em></poem>
 
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/>
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 15b.jpg|15b-t|lbl=15b}}
  
Here begins the art of the noble weapon called Lance; in the beginning of battle, on horse and on foot, is its use. And whoever watches it with its dashing pennant should be frightened with great dread. And it makes great thrusts which are dangerously strong, and with a single one it can give death. And if in the first blow it makes its due, then axe, sword, and dagger will all be upset.
 
|
 
<br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS M.383 9r.jpg|9r-t}}
 
|
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 15b.jpg|15b-t}}
 
 
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 29a.jpg|29a-a}}
 
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 29a.jpg|29a-a}}
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 39r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 14v-a.jpg|300px|center]]
+
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 39r-b.jpg|400px|center]]
| <poem>'''[2]''' <em>I wait in this guard with my lance shortened:
+
| <p>[2] <em>I wait in this guard with my lance shortened:<br/>My method is to beat and to exchange thrusts.</em></p>
My method is to beat and to exchange thrusts.</em></poem>
+
 
 +
We are three masters using spear guards that are closely related to the sword guards. I am the first, which is the Full Iron Gate. I am positioned to quickly beat aside my opponent’s spear, and to do that I step crosswise off the line with my right foot, crossing his spear and beating it to the left. When you step and beat aside together, that combination is hard to beat.
 +
| <p>''This is commonly employed: changing, and withdrawing<br/>The spear which has been extended in opposition; now I delay all with a short javelin.''</p>
  
We are three masters in guards with our spears, conforming to the grips of the sword. And I am the first, which is ''Tutta Porta di Ferro'' (Full Iron Door). I am positioned to quickly beat (''rebatter'') the spear of the player, that is I pass (''passarò'') with the right foot traversing out of the way, and traversing/crossing his spear beat it to the left side. If I pass and I beat in doing that pass I injure [the opponent], this is a thing that is not possible to fail in.
+
We are three Masters in guard with our lances, and we conform to the grips of the sword. And I am the first, and I am set in the Full Iron Gate to beat the lance of the player quickly—that is, that I will step with my right foot out of the way to the side, and crossing his lance I will beat it to the left side such that the step and the beat are made in a single pass with the strike. This is a thing that cannot fail.
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
  
We are three Masters in guard with our lances, and we conform to the grips of the sword. And I am the first, and I am set in the Full Iron Gate (''Tuta Porta di Ferro'') to beat the lance of the player quickly, that is, that I will step with my right foot out of the way to the side, and crossing his lance I will beat it to the left side such that the step and the beat are made in a single pass with the strike. This is a thing that cannot fail.
 
|
 
<br/><br/>
 
 
{{section|Page:MS M.383 9r.jpg|9r-a}}
 
{{section|Page:MS M.383 9r.jpg|9r-a}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
 +
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 39r.jpg|39r-a}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 39r.jpg|39r-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 15b.jpg|15b-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 15b.jpg|15b-a}}
Line 61: Line 50:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 39r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 14v-b.jpg|300px|center]]
+
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 39r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
| <poem>'''[3]''' <em>Your lance is extended and mine is shortened:
+
| <p>[3] <em>Your lance is extended and mine is shortened:<br/>Attack and do not flee, so I may do you villainy.<br/>&nbsp;</em></p>
Attack and do not flee, so I may do you villainy.
 
&nbsp;</em></poem>
 
  
In ''Mezza Porta di Ferro'' (Middle Iron Door) I am positioned with the spear. The beat and the injuring is always my custom. And he wants to come with the mid/half-spear or staff, I will not fail to injure him with my beat and pass, that all the guards which move out of the way, with short spear and short sword I am sufficient at waiting for all long hand weapons. And those from the right side cover, and with covering they pass and place a thrust. And the guards of the left side cover and beat (''rebatteno'') and with a strike they injure, and can not place thrusts well.
+
I am positioned in the Middle Iron Gate. My method is to beat aside then counter-strike. Come against me as you will with short spear or staff, when I beat your weapon aside as I step I will never fail to strike you. When you are using a short spear or sword, all guards that are made with the point offline are sufficient for you to wait in when facing any long hand-held weapon. Guards that cover from the right are followed with a step and a thrust. Guards from the left side can also cover and beat aside, but these will wound with a strike, because they cannot effectively place a thrust.
 +
| <p>''Although my very own spear is shortened, nevertheless you will <br/>Go away pierced. And you would throw only if it pleased you before. Do not<br/>Flee from that place. Tearful rewards would flow to gloomy you.''</p>
  
 +
I have set myself in the Middle Iron Gate with shortened lance, and to beat and to strike is always my method. Come whoever wishes with extended lance or staff and I will beat with a step and I won't botch the strike. And all the guards that stay off to the side with shortened lance or shortened sword are sufficient to await any extended hand-held weapon; those of the right side cover, and with the cover step and thrust the point, while the guards of the left side cover or beat and then strike with blows, but cannot thrust very well with the point.
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/><br/>
  
I have set myself in the Middle Iron Gate (''Meza Porta di Ferro'') with shortened lance, and to beat and to strike is always my method. Come whoever wishes with extended lance or staff and I will beat with a step and I won't botch the strike. And all the guards that stay off to the side with shortened lance or shortened sword are sufficient to await any extended hand-held weapon; those of the right side cover, and with the cover step and thrust the point, while the guards of the left side cover or beat and then strike with blows, but cannot thrust very well with the point.
 
|
 
<br/><br/><br/>
 
 
{{section|Page:MS M.383 9r.jpg|9r-b}}
 
{{section|Page:MS M.383 9r.jpg|9r-b}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/><br/>
 +
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 39r.jpg|39r-c}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 39r.jpg|39r-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 15b.jpg|15b-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 15b.jpg|15b-b}}
Line 83: Line 70:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
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| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 39v-a.jpg|400px|center]]
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 14v-c.jpg|300px|center]]
+
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 39v-b.jpg|400px|center]]
| <poem>'''[4]''' <em>I will beat your [lance] with my lance as I step
+
| <p>[4] <em>I will beat your [lance] with my lance as I step<br/>And then I will quickly encase it in your chest.</em></p>
And then I will quickly encase it in your chest.</em></poem>
 
  
I am the noble ''Posta di Fenestra Destra'' (Position of the Window on the Right), which in beating-back (''rebatter'') and injuring I am always ready, and a long spear bothers me little. Also with the sword I could wait for the long spear, standing in this guard which beats-back all thrusts, and retards them. And I can exchange thrusts, and beat them to the ground with no possibility to fail. In the play which is next I want to finish.
+
I am the noble Right Side Window, always ready to beat aside and counter-strike, and a long spear hardly bothers me. Also if I was using a sword I would wait for the long spear in this same guard, which beats aside and obstructs all thrusts. I can also exchange thrusts, or beat them to the ground without difficulty. I would finish this play with the play shown next.
|  
+
| <p>''Now penetrating, my spear refutes your javelin,<br/>And in your chest I will rush forth a great wound.''</p>
<br/><br/>
 
  
I am the noble Stance of the Casement Window (''Posta de Fenestra'') on the right; I am always quick to beat and to strike, and of extended lances I care little. I would also await an extended lance with a sword by standing in this guard, which beats and retards every thrust. I could also make the exchange of thrusts, or beat them to the ground (which cannot fail). In the play hereafter I want to finish.
+
I am the noble Stance of the Casement Window on the right; I am always quick to beat and to strike, and of extended lances I care little. I would also await an extended lance with a sword by standing in this guard, which beats and retards every thrust. I could also make the exchange of thrusts, or beat them to the ground (which cannot fail). In the play hereafter I want to finish.
  
 
''[In the Paris, the Master's spear leaves his face uncovered, appearing to go behind his head.]''
 
''[In the Paris, the Master's spear leaves his face uncovered, appearing to go behind his head.]''
Line 106: Line 91:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 14v-d.jpg|300px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 15b-d.png|400px|center]]
| <poem>'''[5]''' <em>This is the strike of these three previous Masters,
+
| <p>[5] <em>This is the strike of these three previous Masters,<br/>And in this way their lance should end in your face or chest.<br/>&nbsp;</em></p>
And in this way their lance should end in your face or chest.
 
&nbsp;</em></poem>
 
  
In this play I will finish, from the three guards which were before; that is, ''Tutta Porta di Ferro'' (Full Iron Door), and ''Porta di Ferro la Mezana'' (Middle Iron Door), and ''Posta de Fenestra la Soprana Destra'' (Position of the Window, High on the Right).  In this play finishes their plays and that is their art. As I will do for their part.
+
The three guards shown above (Full iron Gate, Middle Iron Gate and the overhead Right Side Window) should all finish with this strike, which is used to end the play and demonstrate their skill. Here I show the finishing strike for each of them.
  
 
''[In the Getty, the Master is missing his crown.]''
 
''[In the Getty, the Master is missing his crown.]''
|  
+
| <p>''This particular thing lies in ruins by means of the three preceding masters; it concerns striking back,<br/>And the method is to cross the man through the chest with the javelin,<br/>Or sooner the face and the visage with sad blood.''</p>
<br/><br/><br/>
 
  
The three guards which came before should finish in this play, that is, the Full Iron Gate and the Middle Iron Gate and the Stance of the Window, high on the right. In this play they finish the plays of their art. And I strike this man in the face on their behalf…
+
The three guards which came before should finish in this play—that is, the Full Iron Gate and the Middle Iron Gate and the Stance of the Casement Window, high on the right. In this play they finish the plays of their art. And I strike this man in the face on their behalf…
  
 
''[In the Morgan, the Master is missing his crown.]''
 
''[In the Morgan, the Master is missing his crown.]''
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:MS Latin 11269 7v-c.jpg|300px|center|link=http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8514426f/f18.item]]
+
| [[File:MS Latin 11269 07v-c.png|400px|center]]
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 39v-d.jpg|300px|center]]
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| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 39v-d.jpg|400px|center]]
|  
+
| <p>[6] <br/><br/></p>
'''[6]''' <br/><br/>
 
  
This is the ''contrario'' (counter) to the three masters of the spear which finished in the play which was before me. And their way I want to explain. When these masters believe that my spear is fallen/useless (''caçare''), I do a turn (''volta'') of my spear and injure with the butt, and because of the good iron [head/tip] at the butt which can thrust.  These plays of these masters block me little.
+
This is the counter to the three spear masters shown above, who all finish their play with the strike shown above. Let me explain how to do it: When the Master believes he has driven my spear off-line, I rotate my spear and will strike him with the butt end, which is steel-capped, like the point. Thus, the plays of these masters pose little threat to me.
|  
+
| <p>''So that you would not harm me more, I stir up counters in opposition,<br/>And I wedge into you, resisting, with beaten spikes.''<ref>Possibly “pulsating/throbbing teeth”.</ref></p>
<br/><br/>
 
  
 
…This is the counter to the three Masters of the lance that would finish in this play and in the way that was said. When the Masters believe my lance to be away from harming their persons, I give a turn to my lance and strike with its butt, since it has as good iron in the butt as in the point. The plays of these Masters bother me little.
 
…This is the counter to the three Masters of the lance that would finish in this play and in the way that was said. When the Masters believe my lance to be away from harming their persons, I give a turn to my lance and strike with its butt, since it has as good iron in the butt as in the point. The plays of these Masters bother me little.
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 15r-a.jpg|300px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 16a-a.png|400px|center]]
| <poem>'''[7]''' <em>We are three Masters who play on the left side:
+
| <p>[7] <em>We are three Masters who play on the left side:<br/>Come one by one whoever wishes and we will waste him.<br/>And for the fourth Master that finishes our plays in the art,<br/>We have given him his fair share of the Crown.<br/>This guard can suffice for me against any lance,<br/>I cover myself both above and below by beating and stepping;<br/>I do it with the butt low and with the other end high,<br/>And I could make a cover and a strike without trouble.</em></p>
Come one by one whoever wishes and we will waste him.
 
And for the fourth Master that finishes our plays in the art,
 
We have given him his fair share of the Crown.
 
This guard can suffice for me against any lance,
 
I cover myself both above and below by beating and stepping;
 
I do it with the butt low and with the other end high,
 
And I could make a cover and a strike without trouble.</em></poem>
 
  
We are three guards of the reverse side, and I am the first in ''Dente di Zengiaro'' (Boar's Tooth). Those that are on the right side do the same on the reverse. We pass (''passamo'') forward out of the way, advancing (''acressando'') the foot which is in front as said, out of the way. And we make our thrusts on the reverse side easily (''derada''). And all the right side and reverse converge in beating thrusts to finish, because other offences with the spear should not follow.
+
We are three left side guards, and I am the first, in the Boar’s Tusk. The left side guards do the same as the right side guards. We step offline advancing our lead foot, and then we strike with our thrusts on the left side. Both right side and left side guards beat aside then thrust, because other attacks with the spear are not as effective.
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/>
  
We are three guards of the left side and I am the first, in the Boar's Tusk (''Dente di Zenhiar''). Those guards that are on the right side do the same as we do on the left side: we step out of the way, first advancing the foot that is behind (as was said, out of the way), and with our thrusts on the right side we make a bargain. And to finish the beat, both the right side and the left converge in a thrust so that other offenses with the lance cannot follow.
+
We are three guards of the left side and I am the first, in the Boar's Tusk. Those guards that are on the right side do the same as we do on the left side: we step out of the way, first advancing the foot which is behind (as was said, out of the way), and with our thrusts on the right side we make a bargain. And to finish the beat, both the right side and the left converge in a thrust so that other offenses with the lance cannot follow.
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 15r-b.jpg|300px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 16a-b.png|400px|center]]
| <poem>'''[8]''' <em>I know how to ward any lance with this guard:
+
| <p>[8] <em>I know how to ward any lance with this guard:<br/>Strike, for I want to harm you with mine in your chest.</em></p>
Strike, for I want to harm you with mine in your chest.</em></poem>
 
  
In ''Posta di Vera Croce'' (Position of the True Cross) I wait. You are too close, play fair! The right foot which is in front I will turn behind, and beat your spear out of the way, towards the right-hand side. My thrust will not fail, yours will fail.
+
I am waiting for you in the Guard of the True Cross. You have clearly approached too close to me. I will pass backwards with my leading right foot, beating your spear offline to my right. My thrust will not fail me. Yours however will fail you.
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
  
I wait in the Stance of the True Cross (''Posta de Vera Crose''), for you are too close for my play. I return backward the right foot that is in front, and I will beat your lance out of the way toward the right-hand side. My thrust will not fail: yours will be the failure.
+
I wait in the Stance of the True Cross, for you are too close for my play. I return backward the right foot which is in front, and I will beat your lance out of the way toward the right-hand side. My thrust will not fail: yours will be the failure.
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 15r-c.jpg|300px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 16a-c.png|400px|center]]
| <poem>'''[9]''' <em>I will finish you without fail in my turn,
+
| <p>[9] <em>I will finish you without fail in my turn,<br/>Because I am the Master of all exchanges.</em></p>
Because I am the Master of all exchanges.</em></poem>
 
  
In ''Posta di Fenestra Sinistra'' (Position of the Window on the Left) I am positioned. If I do not injure you with a thrust, you will be lucky. The point pulled high and the arms carried low, and with the foot which is behind I will pass out of the way to the left-hand side.  The thrust I will put to you in the face, you not having any defence. The play which is after we three masters is what we can do. If once you try it, you will never more want to try it.  
+
I am positioned in the Left Side Window Guard. If I do not strike you with a thrust you will be lucky. I will step offline to the left with my left foot, with my point held high and my arms low. Then I will thrust into your face and you will have no defense. The play that follows is the finish used by all three Masters. If you try it once, you won’t wish to try it again.
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
  
I appear in the Stance of the Window on the Left (''Posta Fenestra Sinistra''); if I don't strike you with the point, you will have a good deal. I will hold the point high and I will carry my arms low, and I will step out of the way to the left-hand side with the foot that is behind. Then I will thrust the point in your face without any possible defense. We three Masters can all make the play that is after me; once you try it, you will not want to taste any more.
+
I appear in the Stance of the Casement Window on the Left; if I don't strike you with the point, you will have a good deal. I will hold the point high and I will carry my arms low, and I will step out of the way to the left-hand side with the foot that is behind. Then I will thrust the point in your face without any possible defense. We three Masters can all make the play which is after me; once you try it, you will not want to taste any more.
 
|  
 
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<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
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+
| class="noline" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 15r-d.jpg|300px|center]]
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| class="noline" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 16a-d.png|400px|center]]
| <poem>'''[10]''' <em>The art of the lance makes its end here.
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| class="noline" | <p>[10] <em>The art of the lance makes its end here.<br/> armor and without, this is its greatest defense.</em></p>
In armor and without, this is its greatest defense.</em></poem>
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Here we end the plays of the spear that are made from the left side against threats and attacks. These three guards shown above are carefully chosen to easily defeat the long or the short spear, since they are effective in offense or defense.
  
The play of the spear finishes here, I do it on the reverse side, of their plays I free myself. These three guards which are before think of long spear or short not to fail, because they are offence and defence. And the counter (''contrario'') of these thrusts can be done well; when the thrust gets broken you can turn the butt (''pedale'') and with that injure their play of spear well, that this can be enough.
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<br/>The counter to this thrust is easily done: when your thrust is beaten offline, you turn the butt of your spear and strike with that. And with that I have now shown you enough of the plays of the spear.
  
 
''[In the Getty, the Master is missing his crown.]''
 
''[In the Getty, the Master is missing his crown.]''
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And the counter to this thrust can be done well. When the thrust is broken with that strike, the butt should be turned [forward]. This may be enough of the play of the lance.
 
And the counter to this thrust can be done well. When the thrust is broken with that strike, the butt should be turned [forward]. This may be enough of the play of the lance.
  
''[In the Morgan, the Master is missing his crown.]''
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''<br/>[In the Morgan, the Master is missing his crown.]''
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Revision as of 03:49, 1 April 2021

Illustrations

Illustrations

Novati Translation Complete translation by Michael Chidester
Getty Translation Complete translation by Colin Hatcher

Paris Translation Draft translation by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber
Morgan Translation Complete translation by Michael Chidester

Morgan Transcription (1400s) [edit]
by Michael Chidester

Getty Transcription (1400s) [edit]
Open for editing

Pisani Dossi Transcription (1409) [edit]
by Francesco Novati

Paris Transcription (1420s) [edit]
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

[No Image]

[1] The extended lance which is used in hand;
The more it is extended, the less it deceives.
Six Masters stand in guard with it,
And with a step and a beat, they suddenly strike,
Both from the right side and from the left (for certain):
The beat is made to the side and not up;
And the beat wants to be one arm's length on the lance,
And whoever goes against it will make such a failure.

I am a noble weapon, Lance by name:
In the beginning of battle I am always used.
And whoever watches me with my dashing pennant
Should be frightened with great dread.
And if in the beginning I make my due,
Axe, sword, and dagger will I upset.









Here begins the art of the noble weapon called Lance; in the beginning of battle, on horse and on foot, is its use. And whoever watches it with its dashing pennant should be frightened with great dread. And it makes great thrusts which are dangerously strong, and with a single one it can give death. And if in the first blow it makes its due, then axe, sword, and dagger will all be upset.









MS Ludwig XV 13 39r-a.jpg
MS Ludwig XV 13 39r-b.jpg

[2] I wait in this guard with my lance shortened:
My method is to beat and to exchange thrusts.

We are three masters using spear guards that are closely related to the sword guards. I am the first, which is the Full Iron Gate. I am positioned to quickly beat aside my opponent’s spear, and to do that I step crosswise off the line with my right foot, crossing his spear and beating it to the left. When you step and beat aside together, that combination is hard to beat.

This is commonly employed: changing, and withdrawing
The spear which has been extended in opposition; now I delay all with a short javelin.

We are three Masters in guard with our lances, and we conform to the grips of the sword. And I am the first, and I am set in the Full Iron Gate to beat the lance of the player quickly—that is, that I will step with my right foot out of the way to the side, and crossing his lance I will beat it to the left side such that the step and the beat are made in a single pass with the strike. This is a thing that cannot fail.





MS Ludwig XV 13 39r-c.jpg
MS Ludwig XV 13 39r-d.jpg

[3] Your lance is extended and mine is shortened:
Attack and do not flee, so I may do you villainy.
 

I am positioned in the Middle Iron Gate. My method is to beat aside then counter-strike. Come against me as you will with short spear or staff, when I beat your weapon aside as I step I will never fail to strike you. When you are using a short spear or sword, all guards that are made with the point offline are sufficient for you to wait in when facing any long hand-held weapon. Guards that cover from the right are followed with a step and a thrust. Guards from the left side can also cover and beat aside, but these will wound with a strike, because they cannot effectively place a thrust.

Although my very own spear is shortened, nevertheless you will
Go away pierced. And you would throw only if it pleased you before. Do not
Flee from that place. Tearful rewards would flow to gloomy you.

I have set myself in the Middle Iron Gate with shortened lance, and to beat and to strike is always my method. Come whoever wishes with extended lance or staff and I will beat with a step and I won't botch the strike. And all the guards that stay off to the side with shortened lance or shortened sword are sufficient to await any extended hand-held weapon; those of the right side cover, and with the cover step and thrust the point, while the guards of the left side cover or beat and then strike with blows, but cannot thrust very well with the point.







MS Ludwig XV 13 39v-a.jpg
MS Ludwig XV 13 39v-b.jpg

[4] I will beat your [lance] with my lance as I step
And then I will quickly encase it in your chest.

I am the noble Right Side Window, always ready to beat aside and counter-strike, and a long spear hardly bothers me. Also if I was using a sword I would wait for the long spear in this same guard, which beats aside and obstructs all thrusts. I can also exchange thrusts, or beat them to the ground without difficulty. I would finish this play with the play shown next.

Now penetrating, my spear refutes your javelin,
And in your chest I will rush forth a great wound.

I am the noble Stance of the Casement Window on the right; I am always quick to beat and to strike, and of extended lances I care little. I would also await an extended lance with a sword by standing in this guard, which beats and retards every thrust. I could also make the exchange of thrusts, or beat them to the ground (which cannot fail). In the play hereafter I want to finish.

[In the Paris, the Master's spear leaves his face uncovered, appearing to go behind his head.]





Pisani-Dossi MS 15b-d.png

[5] This is the strike of these three previous Masters,
And in this way their lance should end in your face or chest.
 

The three guards shown above (Full iron Gate, Middle Iron Gate and the overhead Right Side Window) should all finish with this strike, which is used to end the play and demonstrate their skill. Here I show the finishing strike for each of them.

[In the Getty, the Master is missing his crown.]

This particular thing lies in ruins by means of the three preceding masters; it concerns striking back,
And the method is to cross the man through the chest with the javelin,
Or sooner the face and the visage with sad blood.

The three guards which came before should finish in this play—that is, the Full Iron Gate and the Middle Iron Gate and the Stance of the Casement Window, high on the right. In this play they finish the plays of their art. And I strike this man in the face on their behalf…

[In the Morgan, the Master is missing his crown.]







MS Latin 11269 07v-c.png
MS Ludwig XV 13 39v-d.jpg

[6]

This is the counter to the three spear masters shown above, who all finish their play with the strike shown above. Let me explain how to do it: When the Master believes he has driven my spear off-line, I rotate my spear and will strike him with the butt end, which is steel-capped, like the point. Thus, the plays of these masters pose little threat to me.

So that you would not harm me more, I stir up counters in opposition,
And I wedge into you, resisting, with beaten spikes.
[4]

…This is the counter to the three Masters of the lance that would finish in this play and in the way that was said. When the Masters believe my lance to be away from harming their persons, I give a turn to my lance and strike with its butt, since it has as good iron in the butt as in the point. The plays of these Masters bother me little.



Pisani-Dossi MS 16a-a.png

[7] We are three Masters who play on the left side:
Come one by one whoever wishes and we will waste him.
And for the fourth Master that finishes our plays in the art,
We have given him his fair share of the Crown.
This guard can suffice for me against any lance,
I cover myself both above and below by beating and stepping;
I do it with the butt low and with the other end high,
And I could make a cover and a strike without trouble.

We are three left side guards, and I am the first, in the Boar’s Tusk. The left side guards do the same as the right side guards. We step offline advancing our lead foot, and then we strike with our thrusts on the left side. Both right side and left side guards beat aside then thrust, because other attacks with the spear are not as effective.










We are three guards of the left side and I am the first, in the Boar's Tusk. Those guards that are on the right side do the same as we do on the left side: we step out of the way, first advancing the foot which is behind (as was said, out of the way), and with our thrusts on the right side we make a bargain. And to finish the beat, both the right side and the left converge in a thrust so that other offenses with the lance cannot follow.



















Pisani-Dossi MS 16a-b.png

[8] I know how to ward any lance with this guard:
Strike, for I want to harm you with mine in your chest.

I am waiting for you in the Guard of the True Cross. You have clearly approached too close to me. I will pass backwards with my leading right foot, beating your spear offline to my right. My thrust will not fail me. Yours however will fail you.



I wait in the Stance of the True Cross, for you are too close for my play. I return backward the right foot which is in front, and I will beat your lance out of the way toward the right-hand side. My thrust will not fail: yours will be the failure.





Pisani-Dossi MS 16a-c.png

[9] I will finish you without fail in my turn,
Because I am the Master of all exchanges.

I am positioned in the Left Side Window Guard. If I do not strike you with a thrust you will be lucky. I will step offline to the left with my left foot, with my point held high and my arms low. Then I will thrust into your face and you will have no defense. The play that follows is the finish used by all three Masters. If you try it once, you won’t wish to try it again.



I appear in the Stance of the Casement Window on the Left; if I don't strike you with the point, you will have a good deal. I will hold the point high and I will carry my arms low, and I will step out of the way to the left-hand side with the foot that is behind. Then I will thrust the point in your face without any possible defense. We three Masters can all make the play which is after me; once you try it, you will not want to taste any more.





Pisani-Dossi MS 16a-d.png

[10] The art of the lance makes its end here.
armor and without, this is its greatest defense.

Here we end the plays of the spear that are made from the left side against threats and attacks. These three guards shown above are carefully chosen to easily defeat the long or the short spear, since they are effective in offense or defense.


The counter to this thrust is easily done: when your thrust is beaten offline, you turn the butt of your spear and strike with that. And with that I have now shown you enough of the plays of the spear.

[In the Getty, the Master is missing his crown.]



The play of the lance finishes here and I make it from the left side; I am besotted with their plays. These three guards which were previously make me think that they will not fail against lance extended or shortened, for they are guards of great protection (in that in one jaunt they make both defense and offense).

And the counter to this thrust can be done well. When the thrust is broken with that strike, the butt should be turned [forward]. This may be enough of the play of the lance.


[In the Morgan, the Master is missing his crown.]





  1. Telum refers specifically to a distance weapon, which can include any of the following: missile weapon, dart, shaft, spear, javelin, sword, axe, sunbeam, lightning (the last two are the specific province of Jove)
  2. Word partially effaced.
  3. Added later: "…trare".
  4. Possibly “pulsating/throbbing teeth”.
  5. This is not the first time “contraria” has had the '+'—is it marking where the word is a technical term (ie, counter rather than contrary)?