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Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)
|Il Fior di Battaglia|
|MS Ludwig XV 13, J. Paul Getty Museum|
Los Angeles, California
Title page, fol. 1r
|Date||ca. 1404 (?)|
|Place of origin||Milan, Italy|
|Author(s)||Fiore de'i Liberi|
|Illustrated by||Unknown (at least two artists)|
|Dedicated to||Niccolò III, Marquis d'Este|
|Material||Parchment, in a pasteboard leather |
|Size||47 folia (290 mm x 219 mm)|
|Format||Double-sided; four illustrations per side, |
with text above each
|External data||Museum catalog entry|
Fior di Battaglia ("The Flower of Battle", MS Ludwig XV 13) is a contemporary copy of an Italian fencing manual authored by Fiore de'i Liberi and dedicated to Niccolò III, Marquis d'Este. The original currently rests in the holdings of the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles, California. MS Ludwig XV 13 is written on parchment in a pasteboard leather binding in a neat humanist script; the illustrations are inked sketches with gold leafing on the crowns and garters. This manuscript is often referred to as the Getty Version.
MS Ludwig XV 13 contains the most content of any of the four known manuscripts of Fior di Battaglia. The text takes the form of descriptive paragraphs set in poor Italian verse, which are nevertheless fairly clear and informative; its preface, format, illustrations, and text are all very similar to the MS M.383. Despite their shared characteristics, however, there are important differences, not the least of which is the vastly different order of the information. This difference in sequence is often attributed to the fact that the preface indicates that it was laid out according to the wishes of Niccolò, whereas the MS M.383 claims to have been laid out according to Fiore's own intellect.
The known provenance of the MS Ludwig XV 13 is:
- Probably written in ca. 1404 for the Milanese diplomatic mission to Ferrara.
- before 1474 – owned by Niccolò Marcello di Santa Marina of Venice.
- ca. 1699 – gifted to Apostolo Zeno (1668-1750), who created a copy of the preface.
- before 1825 – owned by Luigi Celotti (sold London, Sotheby's, 1825).
- 1886-1966 – the MS 4202 in the collection of Thomas Phillipps (sold London, Sotheby's, 1966).
- 1966-1983 – the MS Ludwig XV 13 in the collection of Peter and Irene Ludwig.
- 1983-present – the MS Ludwig XV 13 in the J. Paul Getty Museum.
|1r - 2r||Preface by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|6r - 8r||Grappling by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|8v||Baton by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|9r - 18v,
38r - 38v
|Dagger by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|19r - 20r||Sword vs. dagger by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|20r - 21v||Sword in one hand by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|22r - 32r||Sword in two hands by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|32v - 35r||Sword in armor by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|35v - 37v||Axe in armor by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|39r - 40r||Spear by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|41r - 45v, 46v||Mounted fencing by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|46r||Spear vs. cavalry by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|46v - 47r||Closing|
Digital images courtesy of the Getty's Open Content Program
- dei Liberi, Fiore; Leoni, Tommaso. Fiore de’ Liberi’s Fior di Battaglia. 1st ed. Lulu.com, 2009. 2nd ed. Wheaton, IL: Freelance Academy Press, 2012.
- dei Liberi, Fiore; Rubboli, Marco; Cesari, Luca (in Italian). Flos Duellatorum. Manuale di Arte del Combattimento del XV secolo. Rome: Il Cerchio Iniziative Editoriali, 2002. ISBN 88-8474-023-1
- Malipiero, Massimo (in Italian). Il Fior di battaglia di Fiore dei Liberi da Cividale: Il Codice Ludwing XV 13 del J. Paul Getty Museum. Udine: Ribis, 2006. ISBN 88-7445-035-4.
- Mondschein, Ken. The Knightly Art of Battle. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum. ISBN 978-160-60607-6-6
- Zanutto, D. Luigi (in Italian). Fiore di Premariacco ed I Ludi e Le Feste Marziali e Civili in Friuli. Udine: D. Del Bianco, 1907.
- It does not match the descriptions of any of the fencing manuscripts in the d'Este library in the 15th century.
- Easton, Matt. "Fiore dei Liberi - Fior di Battaglia - Flos Duellatorum". Schola Gladiatoria. Retrieved 30 October 2010.
Copyright and License Summary
For further information, including transcription and translation notes, see the discussion page.
|Images||J. Paul Getty Museum||Digital images courtesy of the Getty's Open Content Program|
|Transcription||Open for editing||Index:Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|