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Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)
|Il Fior di Battaglia|
|MS Ludwig ⅩⅤ 13, J. Paul Getty Museum|
Los Angeles, California
Title page, fol. 1r
|Date||ca. 1404 (?)|
|Place of origin||Milan, Italy|
|Author(s)||Fiore de'i Liberi|
|Illustrated by||Michelino Molinari da Besozzo (or follower)|
|Dedicated to||Niccolò III, Marquis d'Este|
|Material||Parchment, in a pasteboard leather |
|Size||47 folia (205 mm × 280 mm)|
|Format||Double-sided; four illustrations per side, |
with text above each
|External data||Museum catalog entry|
Fior di Battaglia ("The Flower of Battle", MS Ludwig ⅩⅤ 13) is an Italian fencing manual authored by Fiore de'i Liberi and dedicated to Niccolò III, Marquis d'Este. The original currently rests in the holdings of the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles, California. MS Ludwig ⅩⅤ 13 is written on parchment in a tidy humanist script; the illustrations are inked sketches with gold leafing on the crowns and garters. This manuscript is often referred to as the Getty Version.
MS Ludwig ⅩⅤ 13 contains the most content of any of the four known manuscripts of Fior di Battaglia. The text takes the form of descriptive paragraphs set in poor Italian verse, which are nevertheless fairly clear and informative; its preface, format, illustrations, and text are all very similar to the MS M.383. Despite their shared characteristics, however, there are important differences, not the least of which is the vastly different order of the information. This difference in sequence is often attributed to the fact that the preface indicates that it was laid out according to the wishes of Niccolò, whereas the MS M.383 claims to have been laid out according to Fiore's own intellect.
The known provenance of the MS Ludwig ⅩⅤ 13 is:
- Possibly written in ca. 1404 for the Milanese diplomatic mission to Ferrara.
- Possibly manuscript 253 in the 1436 catalog of the Estense Library, which had a red leather cover.
- before 1825 – owned by Luigi Celotti (sold London, Sotheby's, 1825).
- 1886-1966 – the MS 4202 in the collection of Thomas Phillipps (sold London, Sotheby's, 1966).
- 1966-1983 – the MS Ludwig ⅩⅤ 13 in the collection of Peter and Irene Ludwig.
- 1983-present – the MS Ludwig ⅩⅤ 13 in the J. Paul Getty Museum.
|1r - 2r||Preface by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|6r - 8r||Grappling by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|8v||Baton by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|9r - 18v, 38rv||Dagger by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|19r - 20r||Sword vs. dagger by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|20r - 21v||Sword in one hand by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|22r - 32r||Sword in two hands by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|32v - 35r||Sword in armor by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|35v - 37v||Axe in armor by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|39r - 40r||Spear by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|41r - 45v, 46v||Mounted fencing by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|46r||Spear vs. cavalry by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|46v - 47r||Closing|
Digital images courtesy of the Getty's Open Content Program
- dei Liberi, Fiore; Leoni, Tommaso. Fiore de’ Liberi’s Fior di Battaglia. 1st ed. Lulu.com, 2009. 2nd ed. Wheaton, IL: Freelance Academy Press, 2012.
- dei Liberi, Fiore; Rubboli, Marco; Cesari, Luca (in Italian). Flos Duellatorum. Manuale di Arte del Combattimento del ⅩⅤ secolo. Rome: Il Cerchio Iniziative Editoriali, 2002. ISBN 88-8474-023-1
- Malipiero, Massimo (in Italian). Il Fior di battaglia di Fiore dei Liberi da Cividale: Il Codice Ludwing ⅩⅤ 13 del J. Paul Getty Museum. Udine: Ribis, 2006. ISBN 88-7445-035-4.
- Mondschein, Ken. The Knightly Art of Battle. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum. ISBN 978-160-60607-6-6
- Windsor, Guy. From Medieval Manuscript to Modern Practice: The Longsword Techniques of Fiore dei Liberi. Spada Press, 2020.
- Based in part on Easton, Matt. "Fiore dei Liberi - Fior di Battaglia - Flos Duellatorum". Schola Gladiatoria. Retrieved 30 October 2010.
- 253. Libro uno da insignare de scremia afigurado et cum lettereper vulgare in membrana compilado per M° Fiore Furlano, coperto de chore roso. ("One book on teaching fencing, illustrated and in the vernacular, compiled by Master Fiore Furlano, covered in red leather.")
Copyright and License Summary
For further information, including transcription and translation notes, see the discussion page.
|Images||J. Paul Getty Museum||Digital images courtesy of the Getty's Open Content Program|
|Transcription||Open for editing||Index:Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|