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'''Fabian von Auerswald''' (1462 - after 1537) was a 15th-[[century::16th century]] [[nationality::German]] wrestling master. He served as wrestling master to John Frederick, Duke of Saxony, and mentions in his introduction that he instructed the children of the Elector and of members of the court in wrestling.
 
'''Fabian von Auerswald''' (1462 - after 1537) was a 15th-[[century::16th century]] [[nationality::German]] wrestling master. He served as wrestling master to John Frederick, Duke of Saxony, and mentions in his introduction that he instructed the children of the Elector and of members of the court in wrestling.
  
In 1537, Auerswald completed an extensive treatise on [[grappling]], which was later illustrated by [[Lucas Cranach the Elder]] and published posthumously in 1539 by [[Hans Lufft]] under the title ''[[Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald)|Ringer kunst: funf und Achtzig Stücke]]'' ("The Art of Wrestling: Eighty-Five Devices"). One of the earliest printed treatises on wrestling, the book includes lucid descriptions and detailed illustrations of all of its 85 devices, including one of only two known descriptions of the game called "wrestling in the pit". This treatise saw relatively wide circulation, and at least one wrestling master went as far as to commission a careful manuscript copy ([[Ringer Kunst (2º Col.MS.Philos.62)|2º Col.MS.Philos.62]])), to which he added his own annotations on many of the techniques. Auerswald's work also formed the foundation for [[Paulus Hector Mair]]'s treatment of the subject in his own compilation fencing manuscripts of the 1540s.
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In 1537, Auerswald completed an extensive treatise on [[grappling]], which was later illustrated by [[Lucas Cranach the Elder]] and published posthumously in 1539 by [[Hans Lufft]] under the title ''[[Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald)|Ringer kunst: funf und Achtzig Stücke]]'' ("The Art of Wrestling: Eighty-Five Devices"). One of the earliest printed treatises on wrestling, the book includes lucid descriptions and detailed illustrations of all of its 85 devices, including one of only two known descriptions of the game called "wrestling in the pit". This treatise saw relatively wide circulation, and at least one wrestling master went as far as to commission a careful manuscript copy ([[Ringer Kunst (2º Col.MS.Philos.62)|2º Col.MS.Philos.62]]), to which he added his own annotations on many of the techniques. Auerswald's work also formed the foundation for [[Paulus Hector Mair]]'s treatment of the subject in his own compilation fencing manuscripts of the 1540s.
  
 
== Treatise  ==
 
== Treatise  ==
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! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (Archetype)}}<br/>by [[James Klock]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (Archetype)}}<br/>by [[James Klock]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald)|Archetype Transcription]] (1539){{edit index|Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf}}<br/>by [[Keith P. Myers]] and [[Ingulf Kohlweiss]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald)|Archetype Transcription]] (1539){{edit index|Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf}}<br/>by [[Keith P. Myers]] and [[Ingulf Kohlweiss]]</p>
! <p>[[Ringer Kunst (2º Col.MS.Philos.62)|Göttingen Transcription]] (after 1539){{edit index|Ringer Kunst (2º Col.MS.Philos.62)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
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! <p>[[Ringer Kunst (2º Col.MS.Philos.62)|Göttingen Transcription]] (after 1539){{edit index|Ringer Kunst (2º Col.MS.Philos.62)}}<br/>by [[Thore Wilkens]]</p>
  
 
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| <p>[7] '''Running through under the arm.'''</p>
 
| <p>[7] '''Running through under the arm.'''</p>
  
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| <p>[8] '''Winding over the arm with one hand'''</p>
 
| <p>[8] '''Winding over the arm with one hand'''</p>
  
 
<p>This is only a figure or note about winding over the arm from which in the next device comes.</p>
 
<p>This is only a figure or note about winding over the arm from which in the next device comes.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|20|lbl=14}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|20|lbl=14}}
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| <p>[9] I put my left hand on his right arm and with my right hand I grab him.</p>
 
| <p>[9] I put my left hand on his right arm and with my right hand I grab him.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|21|lbl=15}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|21|lbl=15}}
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| <p>[10] '''Wheeling the opponent'''</p>
 
| <p>[10] '''Wheeling the opponent'''</p>
  
 
<p>Here I step with my right leg as wide as I can toward his right leg.</p>
 
<p>Here I step with my right leg as wide as I can toward his right leg.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|22|lbl=16}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|22|lbl=16}}
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| <p>[11] '''The Ladder'''</p>
 
| <p>[11] '''The Ladder'''</p>
  
 
<p>Thereafter I run with my left leg behind towards him. this is called the bustard, and if I step out of the balance, this is called the wheel before the opponent.</p>
 
<p>Thereafter I run with my left leg behind towards him. this is called the bustard, and if I step out of the balance, this is called the wheel before the opponent.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|23|lbl=17}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|23|lbl=17}}
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| <p>[12] '''Lock-wrestling'''</p>
 
| <p>[12] '''Lock-wrestling'''</p>
  
 
<p>Then I come over his left arm with my left arm, and step with my left leg behind his right heel and pull him over my right knee. This can be done left or right.</p>
 
<p>Then I come over his left arm with my left arm, and step with my left leg behind his right heel and pull him over my right knee. This can be done left or right.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|24|lbl=18}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|24|lbl=18}}
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|16r|jpg}}
  
 
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| <p>[13] '''This is the winning step.'''</p>
 
| <p>[13] '''This is the winning step.'''</p>
  
 
<p>Then I step with my right leg close into his right. Thereafter compose yourself as shown in the following figure.</p>
 
<p>Then I step with my right leg close into his right. Thereafter compose yourself as shown in the following figure.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|25|lbl=19}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|25|lbl=19}}
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|16v|jpg}}
  
 
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| [[File:Auerswald 19.jpg|400px|center|border]]
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| <p>[14] Step with the left leg behind his right leg and put your left hand under his chin and stretch it out, thereby you turn him onto his back and the winning step is completed.</p>
 
| <p>[14] Step with the left leg behind his right leg and put your left hand under his chin and stretch it out, thereby you turn him onto his back and the winning step is completed.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|26|lbl=20}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|26|lbl=20}}
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| <p>[15] While winding in, I step with my right leg onto the inside his left leg and do the half-hip.</p>
 
| <p>[15] While winding in, I step with my right leg onto the inside his left leg and do the half-hip.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|27|lbl=21}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|27|lbl=21}}
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| [[File:Auerswald 22.jpg|400px|center|border]]
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| <p>[17] Here you come to the little wheel by the opponent where one arm is over and the other underneath. My right arm must be underneath and my left above, and I press my left hand onto his upper right leg.</p>
 
| <p>[17] Here you come to the little wheel by the opponent where one arm is over and the other underneath. My right arm must be underneath and my left above, and I press my left hand onto his upper right leg.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|29|lbl=23}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|29|lbl=23}}
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| <p>[18] Thereafter I must step with my left leg inside his right foot and let my left hand glide down onto his buttock and turn him round to the right side. That is the little wheel by the opponent.</p>
 
| <p>[18] Thereafter I must step with my left leg inside his right foot and let my left hand glide down onto his buttock and turn him round to the right side. That is the little wheel by the opponent.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|30|lbl=24}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|30|lbl=24}}
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| <p>[19] When I place my push hand on his right leg, then he should respond by placing his right hand on my left thigh. Then I must use my left hand / to pull away his right hand. And as I do so, / I step forward, so that I come to the previous devices that serve the little wheel and the sweep out.</p>
 
| <p>[19] When I place my push hand on his right leg, then he should respond by placing his right hand on my left thigh. Then I must use my left hand / to pull away his right hand. And as I do so, / I step forward, so that I come to the previous devices that serve the little wheel and the sweep out.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|31|lbl=25}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|31|lbl=25}}
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| <p>[20] This is the winning step by the opponent. Here must also one arm be underneath, and the the other above, and my right arm underneath, then I step the winning step with my right leg between his legs, and with the left behind his right.</p>
 
| <p>[20] This is the winning step by the opponent. Here must also one arm be underneath, and the the other above, and my right arm underneath, then I step the winning step with my right leg between his legs, and with the left behind his right.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|32|lbl=26}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|32|lbl=26}}
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| <p>[21] When I have stepped the winning step and have come behind his right with my left leg, then he bends down, and I put my left hand onto his throat, and then he is powerless against me.</p>
 
| <p>[21] When I have stepped the winning step and have come behind his right with my left leg, then he bends down, and I put my left hand onto his throat, and then he is powerless against me.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|33|lbl=27}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|33|lbl=27}}
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| <p>[22] '''What I lift up I lay down.'''</p>
 
| <p>[22] '''What I lift up I lay down.'''</p>
  
 
<p>This device I do thus: There must be one arm on top, and the other must be underheath, and when he wants press me onto himself, then I step out with my right leg behind his left, and lift up high with my left arm from the inside to his right leg, and bend a little backwards, then I have full power over him.</p>
 
<p>This device I do thus: There must be one arm on top, and the other must be underheath, and when he wants press me onto himself, then I step out with my right leg behind his left, and lift up high with my left arm from the inside to his right leg, and bend a little backwards, then I have full power over him.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|34|lbl=28}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|34|lbl=28}}
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| <p>[23] '''Benedict's technique'''</p>
 
| <p>[23] '''Benedict's technique'''</p>
  
 
<p>Here again must one arm be above, and the other underneath, and I press hard forward with my chin beside his neck. And when I notice that he bends down, then I put my left arm / between his legs and pull him to me / I push him away with my chin above, and then I have him however I want him.</p>
 
<p>Here again must one arm be above, and the other underneath, and I press hard forward with my chin beside his neck. And when I notice that he bends down, then I put my left arm / between his legs and pull him to me / I push him away with my chin above, and then I have him however I want him.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|35|lbl=29}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|35|lbl=29}}
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| <p>[24] '''The two hips'''</p>
 
| <p>[24] '''The two hips'''</p>
  
 
<p>These are the two hips, where again one arm is above, and the other underneath. Then I step out with my right leg over his right leg and use the hip and pull him over it. (If I) Do not let him fall, then his right leg comes before my right, and I then step with back with my left leg, then he throws me over also. It is gentlemanly of him.</p>
 
<p>These are the two hips, where again one arm is above, and the other underneath. Then I step out with my right leg over his right leg and use the hip and pull him over it. (If I) Do not let him fall, then his right leg comes before my right, and I then step with back with my left leg, then he throws me over also. It is gentlemanly of him.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|36|lbl=30}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|36|lbl=30}}
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| <p>[25] The following figure applies to the next.</p>
 
| <p>[25] The following figure applies to the next.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|37|lbl=31}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|37|lbl=31}}
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| <p>[26] '''The elbow hip.'''</p>
 
| <p>[26] '''The elbow hip.'''</p>
  
 
<p>When someone grabs the front of my doublet, then I sweep him hard with my elbow on his fist and I stoop down low in the balance / so that my elbow pulls his fist away, the I straighten myself up, follow after with my right hand, step out with my right leg and use the right hip, which goes forcefully.</p>
 
<p>When someone grabs the front of my doublet, then I sweep him hard with my elbow on his fist and I stoop down low in the balance / so that my elbow pulls his fist away, the I straighten myself up, follow after with my right hand, step out with my right leg and use the right hip, which goes forcefully.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|38|lbl=32}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|38|lbl=32}}
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| <p>[27] When someone wants to grab hold of me, I put both arms over his arms and gather them underneath, and heave him up by the arms, and with my right right foot I sweep his left, and he falls over.</p>
 
| <p>[27] When someone wants to grab hold of me, I put both arms over his arms and gather them underneath, and heave him up by the arms, and with my right right foot I sweep his left, and he falls over.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|39|lbl=33}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|39|lbl=33}}
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|30v|jpg}}
  
 
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| rowspan="2" | [[File:Auerswald 33.jpg|400px|center|border]]
 
| <p>[28] When someone grabs me the front of my doublet with both hands, I reach with both of my elbows between his arms and I sink down low in the balance. That way I pull both his arms away.</p>
 
| <p>[28] When someone grabs me the front of my doublet with both hands, I reach with both of my elbows between his arms and I sink down low in the balance. That way I pull both his arms away.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|40|lbl=34}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|40|lbl=34}}
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| <p>[29] '''This piece is called breaking in with both elbows'''<br/><br/></p>
 
| <p>[29] '''This piece is called breaking in with both elbows'''<br/><br/></p>
  
 
<p>When I have pulled away both his arms, then I have both of my arms undereath. I then grab hold of both of his legs with my arms and lift him onto me and push my knees apart, I bring both his legs over my knee.</p>
 
<p>When I have pulled away both his arms, then I have both of my arms undereath. I then grab hold of both of his legs with my arms and lift him onto me and push my knees apart, I bring both his legs over my knee.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|41|lbl=35}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|41|lbl=35}}
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| <p>[30] '''The Dung hoe'''</p>
 
| <p>[30] '''The Dung hoe'''</p>
  
 
<p>When someone has both arms under and presses me to himself with power then I place my right hand under his chin and push him away from me. And in pushing through I step with my right leg into the back of his left knee. This piece also goes left and right.</p>
 
<p>When someone has both arms under and presses me to himself with power then I place my right hand under his chin and push him away from me. And in pushing through I step with my right leg into the back of his left knee. This piece also goes left and right.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|42|lbl=36}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|42|lbl=36}}
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| <p>[31] I place my left hand on this right as close as I can. From here comes the following piece.</p>
 
| <p>[31] I place my left hand on this right as close as I can. From here comes the following piece.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|43|lbl=37}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|43|lbl=37}}
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| [[File:Auerswald 39.jpg|400px|center|border]]
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| <p>[34] '''Run-through under the arm'''</p>
 
| <p>[34] '''Run-through under the arm'''</p>
  
 
<p>Here I grab hold of his left hand which push upwards and slip my head under his left arm and through, and step with my left leg between both his legs. Then my left hand comes between his legs  and I straighten myself up and lift him up in the air.</p>
 
<p>Here I grab hold of his left hand which push upwards and slip my head under his left arm and through, and step with my left leg between both his legs. Then my left hand comes between his legs  and I straighten myself up and lift him up in the air.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|46|lbl=40}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|46|lbl=40}}
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| <p>[35] With my left hand I pull his left hand to me and reach in with my left hand under his right elbow. Thus he gives me his entire back.</p>
 
| <p>[35] With my left hand I pull his left hand to me and reach in with my left hand under his right elbow. Thus he gives me his entire back.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|47|lbl=41}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|47|lbl=41}}
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| <p>[36] I let my right hand reach through between his legs and stri him over his throat with my left hand and press him down low with the left hand heaving him with the right hand ut in the air.</p>
 
| <p>[36] I let my right hand reach through between his legs and stri him over his throat with my left hand and press him down low with the left hand heaving him with the right hand ut in the air.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|48|lbl=42}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|48|lbl=42}}
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| <p>[37] Here I must put my right hand on his right thumb, with the left hand behind his shoulder. Thus I bring him into the wheel.</p>
 
| <p>[37] Here I must put my right hand on his right thumb, with the left hand behind his shoulder. Thus I bring him into the wheel.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|49|lbl=43}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|49|lbl=43}}
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| <p>[38] </p>
 
| <p>[38] </p>
  
 
<p>When he steps with the right leg then I step with the left behind his right and reach through with my left hand under his right breast, and thus I get his right leg with my right hand.</p>
 
<p>When he steps with the right leg then I step with the left behind his right and reach through with my left hand under his right breast, and thus I get his right leg with my right hand.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|50|lbl=44}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|50|lbl=44}}
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| <p>[39] '''A break of the lock-wrestling'''</p>
 
| <p>[39] '''A break of the lock-wrestling'''</p>
  
 
<p>When he grabs hold of me with his right hand then I use the left hip. This can be done left or right.</p>
 
<p>When he grabs hold of me with his right hand then I use the left hip. This can be done left or right.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|51|lbl=45}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|51|lbl=45}}
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|42v|jpg}}
  
 
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|-  
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| <p>[40] '''Another break against lockwrestling'''</p>
 
| <p>[40] '''Another break against lockwrestling'''</p>
  
 
<p>When he grabs hold of me with his right arm over his left, then I reach over on his neck with my left arm and step forward with my left leg and use the left hip which goes completely freely.</p>
 
<p>When he grabs hold of me with his right arm over his left, then I reach over on his neck with my left arm and step forward with my left leg and use the left hip which goes completely freely.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|52|lbl=46}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|52|lbl=46}}
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|  
 
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|44r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Auerswald 46.jpg|400px|center|border]]
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| <p>[41] '''Break against the short hip'''</p>
 
| <p>[41] '''Break against the short hip'''</p>
  
 
<p>When he steps in with his right leg and does the half hip then his foot comes outside my right foot. Then I fall with my right knee onto the back of his right knee and press down into the balance, and thus he is brought to his knees.</p>
 
<p>When he steps in with his right leg and does the half hip then his foot comes outside my right foot. Then I fall with my right knee onto the back of his right knee and press down into the balance, and thus he is brought to his knees.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|53|lbl=47}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|53|lbl=47}}
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|44v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Auerswald 47.jpg|400px|center|border]]
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| <p>[42] '''Break against the high hip'''</p>
 
| <p>[42] '''Break against the high hip'''</p>
  
 
<p>Just when he runs in then I put my left hand on his left shoulder. With it, I pull him over backwards and grab him by his right leg, and heave him up high into the air.</p>
 
<p>Just when he runs in then I put my left hand on his left shoulder. With it, I pull him over backwards and grab him by his right leg, and heave him up high into the air.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|54|lbl=48}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|54|lbl=48}}
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|46r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Auerswald 48.jpg|400px|center|border]]
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| <p>[43] '''Break of the struck out hip'''</p>
 
| <p>[43] '''Break of the struck out hip'''</p>
  
 
<p>When he steps out with the hip then I put my left arm over his right shoulder and onto his neck and press him onto me with my left hand. Thereafter I reach with my right hand and grab him on the outside of his right leg and heave him up to the left side. Then I have subdued him.</p>
 
<p>When he steps out with the hip then I put my left arm over his right shoulder and onto his neck and press him onto me with my left hand. Thereafter I reach with my right hand and grab him on the outside of his right leg and heave him up to the left side. Then I have subdued him.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|55|lbl=49}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|55|lbl=49}}
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|47r|jpg}}
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|  
 
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|46v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Auerswald 49.jpg|400px|center|border]]
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| <p>[44] '''The counter to the tug in front of the opponent'''</p>
 
| <p>[44] '''The counter to the tug in front of the opponent'''</p>
  
 
<p>When he tugs at me with the left arm outwards, then I step out with my left leg behind his right and with my left elbow I force him over backwards and catch him between his legs with my right arm. This piece goes left and right.<ref>Note: the woodcut shows the technique with the sides reversed.</ref></p>
 
<p>When he tugs at me with the left arm outwards, then I step out with my left leg behind his right and with my left elbow I force him over backwards and catch him between his legs with my right arm. This piece goes left and right.<ref>Note: the woodcut shows the technique with the sides reversed.</ref></p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|56|lbl=50}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|56|lbl=50}}
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|47v|jpg}}
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|  
 
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|48r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Auerswald 50.jpg|400px|center|border]]
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| <p>[45] '''Break of the leg hook that is called "the head first topple"'''</p>
 
| <p>[45] '''Break of the leg hook that is called "the head first topple"'''</p>
  
 
<p>When someone has me in a leg hook then I strike out his right leg with my left leg and grab him by it with my right arm, Lift him up, and then I have all power over him.</p>
 
<p>When someone has me in a leg hook then I strike out his right leg with my left leg and grab him by it with my right arm, Lift him up, and then I have all power over him.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|57|lbl=51}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|57|lbl=51}}
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|49r|jpg}}
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|48v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Auerswald 51.jpg|400px|center|border]]
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| <p>[46] '''This is a break against the break of the head first topple'''</p>
 
| <p>[46] '''This is a break against the break of the head first topple'''</p>
  
 
<p>That when he would use the head first topple on me then I use the bar. That is a good aid at least.</p>
 
<p>That when he would use the head first topple on me then I use the bar. That is a good aid at least.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|58|lbl=52}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|58|lbl=52}}
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|49v|jpg}}
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|50r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Auerswald 52.jpg|400px|center|border]]
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| <p>[47] '''Another break of the leg hook'''</p>
 
| <p>[47] '''Another break of the leg hook'''</p>
  
 
<p>While entering, I sweep with my left leg on his left heel and pull him back with my left hand. Many do not see this technique coming.</p>
 
<p>While entering, I sweep with my left leg on his left heel and pull him back with my left hand. Many do not see this technique coming.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|59|lbl=53}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|59|lbl=53}}
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|51r|jpg}}
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|  
 
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|50v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Auerswald 53.jpg|400px|center|border]]
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| <p>[48] '''Another break of the leg hook'''</p>
 
| <p>[48] '''Another break of the leg hook'''</p>
  
 
<p>I put with both hands on his throat and press him in before me, that way he must give way.</p>
 
<p>I put with both hands on his throat and press him in before me, that way he must give way.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|60|lbl=54}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|60|lbl=54}}
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|51v|jpg}}
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|  
 
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|52r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Auerswald 54.jpg|400px|center|border]]
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| <p>[49] When I press him before me with both hands then I let my right hand lie on his neck and press him down with it. Thereafter, grab between his buttocks with my left hand and turn him around right over just as one would do the little wheel of the opponent.</p>
 
| <p>[49] When I press him before me with both hands then I let my right hand lie on his neck and press him down with it. Thereafter, grab between his buttocks with my left hand and turn him around right over just as one would do the little wheel of the opponent.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|61|lbl=55}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|61|lbl=55}}
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|53r|jpg}}
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|52v|jpg}}
  
 
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| [[File:Auerswald 55.jpg|400px|center|border]]
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| <p>[50] '''Break against the break of the entering hook'''</p>
 
| <p>[50] '''Break against the break of the entering hook'''</p>
  
 
<p>I stay under him in the balance, and with my right arm I strike his left arm out and pretend to run for a leg hook, but I stay standing with my legs. Thereby I learn if he knows how to break the entering leg hook. If he does, then he will do it, and then I place my right hand over his chest and force him backwards over my right knee, but if he does not know then I do the leg hook with his help.</p>
 
<p>I stay under him in the balance, and with my right arm I strike his left arm out and pretend to run for a leg hook, but I stay standing with my legs. Thereby I learn if he knows how to break the entering leg hook. If he does, then he will do it, and then I place my right hand over his chest and force him backwards over my right knee, but if he does not know then I do the leg hook with his help.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|62|lbl=56}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|62|lbl=56}}
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|53v|jpg}}
  
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|54r|jpg}}
  
 
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| [[File:Auerswald 56.jpg|400px|center|border]]
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| <p>[51] '''A Break against the leg hook and bar'''</p>
 
| <p>[51] '''A Break against the leg hook and bar'''</p>
  
 
<p>When he has run into a leg hook on me, then I stretch my left leg so that he must take the bar. Whether he stays in the bar or steps into a leg hook, I then step well with my left leg out behind him, and stoop down completely in the balance and grab his left leg with my right hand above his ankle, then he has no more power.</p>
 
<p>When he has run into a leg hook on me, then I stretch my left leg so that he must take the bar. Whether he stays in the bar or steps into a leg hook, I then step well with my left leg out behind him, and stoop down completely in the balance and grab his left leg with my right hand above his ankle, then he has no more power.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|63|lbl=57}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|63|lbl=57}}
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|55r|jpg}}
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|54v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
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| [[File:Auerswald 57.jpg|400px|center|border]]
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| <p>[52] '''Break against the bar in the leg hook'''</p>
 
| <p>[52] '''Break against the bar in the leg hook'''</p>
  
 
<p>When he stands in a leg hook on me and I have stretched my left leg so that he grabs me by the bar and as he grabs me, then immediately I step out with my left leg, out and behind him, and quickly stoop down low into the balance. That way his bar is countered.</p>
 
<p>When he stands in a leg hook on me and I have stretched my left leg so that he grabs me by the bar and as he grabs me, then immediately I step out with my left leg, out and behind him, and quickly stoop down low into the balance. That way his bar is countered.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|64|lbl=58}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|64|lbl=58}}
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| <p>[53] The left hip serves as a counter to the entry into the leg hook.</p>
 
| <p>[53] The left hip serves as a counter to the entry into the leg hook.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|65|lbl=59}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|65|lbl=59}}
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| <p>[54] '''This is winding into the wheel'''</p>
 
| <p>[54] '''This is winding into the wheel'''</p>
  
 
<p>Here I must wind off my right hand over his left arm, and onto his body.</p>
 
<p>Here I must wind off my right hand over his left arm, and onto his body.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|66|lbl=60}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|66|lbl=60}}
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|58r|jpg}}
  
 
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| [[File:Auerswald 60.jpg|400px|center|border]]
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| <p>[55] '''This is the break before the run in hip'''</p>
 
| <p>[55] '''This is the break before the run in hip'''</p>
  
 
<p>That is what this piece is called. Have good caution with it and it is called "the left arm bar". If he would make an entry of the hip, see to it, that you do the bar with the left arm under and through his left arm and get down quickly in the balance on the left side.</p>
 
<p>That is what this piece is called. Have good caution with it and it is called "the left arm bar". If he would make an entry of the hip, see to it, that you do the bar with the left arm under and through his left arm and get down quickly in the balance on the left side.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|67|lbl=61}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|67|lbl=61}}
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|58v|jpg}}
  
 
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| <p>[56] And if he has already come to the leg hook / then beware and turn your right foot with the toes outward so that he cannot do to the short hip. After that he must do the high or struck out hip. Close your left hand/ and set it hard on his side under and through his left arm and stoop down into the balance on the left side and grab his right leg with your right arm, etc.</p>
 
| <p>[56] And if he has already come to the leg hook / then beware and turn your right foot with the toes outward so that he cannot do to the short hip. After that he must do the high or struck out hip. Close your left hand/ and set it hard on his side under and through his left arm and stoop down into the balance on the left side and grab his right leg with your right arm, etc.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|68|lbl=62}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|68|lbl=62}}
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|59v|jpg}}
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| <p>[57] And step with your left leg on the outside of on his left heel, then heave his right leg up with your right hand, and with your left hand push him over backwards, so that he cannot get away with his left leg, and that way he falls over backwards etc.</p>
 
| <p>[57] And step with your left leg on the outside of on his left heel, then heave his right leg up with your right hand, and with your left hand push him over backwards, so that he cannot get away with his left leg, and that way he falls over backwards etc.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|69|lbl=63}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|69|lbl=63}}
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|61r|jpg}}
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|60v|jpg}}
  
 
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| [[File:Auerswald 63.jpg|400px|center|border]]
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| <p>[58] '''The entering of the leg hook'''</p>
 
| <p>[58] '''The entering of the leg hook'''</p>
  
 
<p>I strike his left hand out with my right hand in and grab him over the shoulder and run in with my right leg on his right leg then I am right in the leg hook.</p>
 
<p>I strike his left hand out with my right hand in and grab him over the shoulder and run in with my right leg on his right leg then I am right in the leg hook.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|70|lbl=64}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|70|lbl=64}}
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|61v|jpg}}
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|62r|jpg}}
  
 
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| [[File:Auerswald 64.jpg|400px|center|border]]
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| <p>[59] '''Lockwrestling from which comes an armbreak'''</p>
 
| <p>[59] '''Lockwrestling from which comes an armbreak'''</p>
  
 
<p>When I put my left arm over his left arm then I must place my arm high between his legs, when I push up his left arm, it must break or he will fall.</p>
 
<p>When I put my left arm over his left arm then I must place my arm high between his legs, when I push up his left arm, it must break or he will fall.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|71|lbl=65}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|71|lbl=65}}
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|63r|jpg}}
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| {{section|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62 62v.jpg|1|lbl=62v}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Auerswald 65.jpg|400px|center|border]]
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| {{section|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62 62v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
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| <p>[60] '''A legbreak'''</p>
 
| <p>[60] '''A legbreak'''</p>
  
 
<p>When he stands with straight legs then I thrust my right leg onto his left kneecap(?). But if he stands with a correct balance then I cannot do this.</p>
 
<p>When he stands with straight legs then I thrust my right leg onto his left kneecap(?). But if he stands with a correct balance then I cannot do this.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|72|lbl=66}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|72|lbl=66}}
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|64r|jpg}}
  
 
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Line 600: Line 889:
 
<p>From it goes the backward throw: when I take hold of someone by the arms, then I go with my right arm over and turn in my right hip quickly, and step into the leg hook and stay with my left foot against him, that way the backwards throw will go fast and well.</p>
 
<p>From it goes the backward throw: when I take hold of someone by the arms, then I go with my right arm over and turn in my right hip quickly, and step into the leg hook and stay with my left foot against him, that way the backwards throw will go fast and well.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|73|lbl=67}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|73|lbl=67}}
|  
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|65r|jpg}}
  
 
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Line 606: Line 895:
 
| <p>[62] If he comes at you with his hands open, then you will use the hand breaking technique. If he gives you the right hand then you give him the left. If he gives you the left then give him the right. And always with your thumb in the middle of his hand as you see here.</p>
 
| <p>[62] If he comes at you with his hands open, then you will use the hand breaking technique. If he gives you the right hand then you give him the left. If he gives you the left then give him the right. And always with your thumb in the middle of his hand as you see here.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|74|lbl=68}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|74|lbl=68}}
|  
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|65v|jpg}}
  
 
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Line 614: Line 903:
 
<p>Here I come with my right arm over his left arm, from a wind outside in behind his left elbow. And if the arm does not break. Then I sweep out his left with my right leg.</p>
 
<p>Here I come with my right arm over his left arm, from a wind outside in behind his left elbow. And if the arm does not break. Then I sweep out his left with my right leg.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|75|lbl=69}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|75|lbl=69}}
|  
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|67r|jpg}}
  
 
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Line 622: Line 911:
 
<p>When I am in the hook then I turn my left foot in towards him. Here the leg hook and the hips must be firm into him. Then I lean backwards, and do a powerful backward throw.</p>
 
<p>When I am in the hook then I turn my left foot in towards him. Here the leg hook and the hips must be firm into him. Then I lean backwards, and do a powerful backward throw.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|76|lbl=70}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|76|lbl=70}}
|  
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|67v|jpg}}
  
 
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Line 630: Line 919:
 
<p>From the outside leg hook goes the slant thusly. If he is to heavy for me in the leg hook, then I grab his right leg with my left arm and heave it up. Thereafter I step with my right leg behind his left. Then I have full power over him.</p>
 
<p>From the outside leg hook goes the slant thusly. If he is to heavy for me in the leg hook, then I grab his right leg with my left arm and heave it up. Thereafter I step with my right leg behind his left. Then I have full power over him.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|77|lbl=71}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|77|lbl=71}}
|  
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|69r|jpg}}
  
 
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Line 636: Line 925:
 
| <p>[66] When he has stretched me out of the hook then I come over both of his arms with my left arm and do the same as I would to take the slant and thereby I take the left hip.</p>
 
| <p>[66] When he has stretched me out of the hook then I come over both of his arms with my left arm and do the same as I would to take the slant and thereby I take the left hip.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|78|lbl=72}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|78|lbl=72}}
|  
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|69v|jpg}}
  
 
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Line 644: Line 933:
 
<p>With my right thigh, I go high, as high as I can and turn around to the left with my body stay up with my leg high in the air then I fall over on top of him.</p>
 
<p>With my right thigh, I go high, as high as I can and turn around to the left with my body stay up with my leg high in the air then I fall over on top of him.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|79|lbl=73}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|79|lbl=73}}
|  
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|71r|jpg}}
  
 
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Line 650: Line 939:
 
| <p>[68] When someone falls upon me with both hands at my throat. Then I grab his neck and arm together rise up and take the fork as well.</p>
 
| <p>[68] When someone falls upon me with both hands at my throat. Then I grab his neck and arm together rise up and take the fork as well.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|80|lbl=74}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|80|lbl=74}}
|  
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|71v|jpg}}
  
 
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Line 658: Line 947:
 
<p>When he stretches his foot out of the hook towards me, then I step with my right leg outside by his right foot, and stretch my thigh.</p>
 
<p>When he stretches his foot out of the hook towards me, then I step with my right leg outside by his right foot, and stretch my thigh.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|81|lbl=75}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|81|lbl=75}}
|  
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|73r|jpg}}
  
 
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Line 666: Line 955:
 
<p>When I am in the hook and my opponent stands with his feet too wide apart. Then I step in front of him with both of my legs and as I step, step down low in the balance and straighten myself up behind, thereafter I to pull him up and over forcefully.</p>
 
<p>When I am in the hook and my opponent stands with his feet too wide apart. Then I step in front of him with both of my legs and as I step, step down low in the balance and straighten myself up behind, thereafter I to pull him up and over forcefully.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|82|lbl=76}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|82|lbl=76}}
|  
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|73v|jpg}}
  
 
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Line 674: Line 963:
 
<p>When I am in a hook with someone and he stands too wide against me so that I cannot take the other hip. Then I step out of the hook with my right leg and turn out entirely with my hip grab his left leg with my left arm and run with him to the left, as far as I wish.</p>
 
<p>When I am in a hook with someone and he stands too wide against me so that I cannot take the other hip. Then I step out of the hook with my right leg and turn out entirely with my hip grab his left leg with my left arm and run with him to the left, as far as I wish.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|83|lbl=77}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|83|lbl=77}}
|  
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|75r|jpg}}
  
 
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Line 680: Line 969:
 
| <p>[72] Thereafter I let my right hand go off his head and with it I grab his left leg up from below. Thus I make him into a sackpipe.</p>
 
| <p>[72] Thereafter I let my right hand go off his head and with it I grab his left leg up from below. Thus I make him into a sackpipe.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|84|lbl=78}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|84|lbl=78}}
|  
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|75v|jpg}}
  
 
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Line 688: Line 977:
 
<p>When someone would press me onto him and I cannot take the hip then I step out of the hook with my right leg as wide as I can and press into the middle of his back with my right elbow so that he must fall under me. This is friendly.</p>
 
<p>When someone would press me onto him and I cannot take the hip then I step out of the hook with my right leg as wide as I can and press into the middle of his back with my right elbow so that he must fall under me. This is friendly.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|85|lbl=79}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|85|lbl=79}}
|  
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|77r|jpg}}
  
 
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Line 696: Line 985:
 
<p>When we sweeps under my right arm with his head. Then I take the backward throw as I also would in the right hook.</p>
 
<p>When we sweeps under my right arm with his head. Then I take the backward throw as I also would in the right hook.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|86|lbl=80}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|86|lbl=80}}
|  
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|77v|jpg}}
  
 
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Line 702: Line 991:
 
| <p>[75] This is the underhook that my right arm comes around his left. After this comes the backward throw.</p>
 
| <p>[75] This is the underhook that my right arm comes around his left. After this comes the backward throw.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|87|lbl=81}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|87|lbl=81}}
|  
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|79r|jpg}}
  
 
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Line 708: Line 997:
 
| <p>[76] Whoever has this done to him so that the backward throw is of no use, then I step with my right leg outside of his left and take the technique called the slant. That can be done as the backward throw.</p>
 
| <p>[76] Whoever has this done to him so that the backward throw is of no use, then I step with my right leg outside of his left and take the technique called the slant. That can be done as the backward throw.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|88|lbl=82}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|88|lbl=82}}
|  
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Line 714: Line 1,003:
 
| class="noline" | <p>[77] This is also a technique from the underhook that is called the half hip.</p>
 
| class="noline" | <p>[77] This is also a technique from the underhook that is called the half hip.</p>
 
| class="noline" | {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|89|lbl=83}}
 
| class="noline" | {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|89|lbl=83}}
| class="noline" |  
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| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|81r|jpg}}
  
 
|}
 
|}
Line 735: Line 1,024:
 
<p>One stands in the hole and may not remove his leg from it and his opponent must hop on one leg. Much art comes of this and it is funny to watch.</p>
 
<p>One stands in the hole and may not remove his leg from it and his opponent must hop on one leg. Much art comes of this and it is funny to watch.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|91|lbl=85}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|91|lbl=85}}
|  
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|83r|jpg}}
  
 
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Line 741: Line 1,030:
 
| <p>[79] This is the backwards throw from the hook to throw him out from the hole. It goes quickly and is very funny.</p>
 
| <p>[79] This is the backwards throw from the hook to throw him out from the hole. It goes quickly and is very funny.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|92|lbl=86}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|92|lbl=86}}
|  
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|83v|jpg}}
  
 
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Line 747: Line 1,036:
 
| <p>[80] This is the hip and the back of the knee which is also good to throw someone out of the pit. Then I come with my right leg into the back of his knee and turn to my right side.</p>
 
| <p>[80] This is the hip and the back of the knee which is also good to throw someone out of the pit. Then I come with my right leg into the back of his knee and turn to my right side.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|93|lbl=87}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|93|lbl=87}}
|  
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|85r|jpg}}
  
 
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Line 753: Line 1,042:
 
| <p>[81] This is a technique to throw someone from the hole it is called the dung hoe. Here I come with my left leg into the back of his right knee and force him over backwards.</p>
 
| <p>[81] This is a technique to throw someone from the hole it is called the dung hoe. Here I come with my left leg into the back of his right knee and force him over backwards.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|94|lbl=88}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|94|lbl=88}}
|  
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| {{paget|Page:2º Cod.MS.Philos.62|85v|jpg}}
  
 
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Line 761: Line 1,050:
 
<p>When he lets go of my leg hook, then I stoop through under his right arm with my head and my right arm above comes his neck and my left arm comes between his legs and then I run to the right with him and I stay the whole time with my left leg in the hole.</p>
 
<p>When he lets go of my leg hook, then I stoop through under his right arm with my head and my right arm above comes his neck and my left arm comes between his legs and then I run to the right with him and I stay the whole time with my left leg in the hole.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|95|lbl=89}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald) 1539.pdf|95|lbl=89}}
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<p>When your opponent is about to take the hip. So I stand with my right leg high in the air against him. And I stay with my left leg in the hole in the balance, that is the counter.</p>
 
<p>When your opponent is about to take the hip. So I stand with my right leg high in the air against him. And I stay with my left leg in the hole in the balance, that is the counter.</p>
 
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| <p>[84] When he takes the dung hoe against me taking me on the inside with his left leg then I sweep with my right leg on the inside of his left, which is the break of the dung hoe.</p>
 
| <p>[84] When he takes the dung hoe against me taking me on the inside with his left leg then I sweep with my right leg on the inside of his left, which is the break of the dung hoe.</p>
 
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| class="noline" | <p>[85] Then I take the technique that pulls with my right leg. I sweep his left leg then he must go out of the dung hoe to the side, so that he must fall.</p>
 
| class="noline" | <p>[85] Then I take the technique that pulls with my right leg. I sweep his left leg then he must go out of the dung hoe to the side, so that he must fall.</p>
 
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Revision as of 23:51, 8 July 2020

Fabian von Auerswald
Born 1462
Died ca. 1537
Occupation Wrestling master
Patron John Frederick zu Saxony
Genres Wrestling manual
Language Early New High German
Notable work(s) Ringer Kunst (1539)
Manuscript(s) 2° Col. MS Philos. 62 (ca. 1539)
Concordance by Michael Chidester

Fabian von Auerswald (1462 - after 1537) was a 15th-16th century German wrestling master. He served as wrestling master to John Frederick, Duke of Saxony, and mentions in his introduction that he instructed the children of the Elector and of members of the court in wrestling.

In 1537, Auerswald completed an extensive treatise on grappling, which was later illustrated by Lucas Cranach the Elder and published posthumously in 1539 by Hans Lufft under the title Ringer kunst: funf und Achtzig Stücke ("The Art of Wrestling: Eighty-Five Devices"). One of the earliest printed treatises on wrestling, the book includes lucid descriptions and detailed illustrations of all of its 85 devices, including one of only two known descriptions of the game called "wrestling in the pit". This treatise saw relatively wide circulation, and at least one wrestling master went as far as to commission a careful manuscript copy (2º Col.MS.Philos.62), to which he added his own annotations on many of the techniques. Auerswald's work also formed the foundation for Paulus Hector Mair's treatment of the subject in his own compilation fencing manuscripts of the 1540s.

Treatise

Additional Resources

References

  1. Misnumbered—should be 27. From this point on, all numbers are offset by one.
  2. Note: the woodcut shows the technique with the sides reversed.