Treatises

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Modern historical European martial arts reconstruction is founded on the study of so-called fencing manuals. While most regions of the world have produced a few martial arts treatises over the centuries, the European treatise tradition far exceeded any other in both its complexity and its sheer volume: well over a hundred distinct manuscripts and a comparable number of printed works survive from the Medieval and Early Modern time periods. In some sense, the practice of writing fencing treatises continues to this day in the form of books on the use of firearms and other small sidearms, as well as texts on Olympic fencing and other forms of sport combat.

These texts are generally not manuals as the modern audience understands the genre; rather than offering step-by-step instructions on fighting, they are more often general treatises on a variety of martial subjects, and even those treatises that include details and illustrations of specific techniques generally fail to present a set of instructions that a reader can easily follow. Reconstructing the historical European martial arts thus involves consulting a variety of different types of literature in order to arrive at a well-rounded understanding of their content, including fencing treatises, wrestling treatises, and books of military strategy.

Predecessors

Detail of the wrestling scenes at Beni Hasan.

The earliest recordings of martial arts teachings consisted only of images. One example is a fresco in tomb 15 at Beni Hasan, Egypt, showing illustrations of wrestling techniques dating to ca. 2,000 BC. Similar depictions of wrestling techniques are found on Attic vases dating to Classical Greece. The only known text that could be classified a martial arts treatises from Western antiquity is P.Oxy. III 466 (2nd century), detailing Greek wrestling techniques. In addition to these depictions of martial techniques, treatises on other martial subjects also survive, the most famous of which is Flavius Vegetius Renatus' book on Roman military tactics De Re Militari.

Types of texts

For ease of reference, Wiktenauer divides the corpus of Western martial arts literature into six basic genres. A few texts defy categorization under this system, such as Paulus Hector Mair's Geschlechterbuch, but these distinctions are generally quite useful.

Commonplace book

A commonplace book (or Hausbuch) is essentially a scrapbook, usually made by a wealthy individual. In the late Middle Ages, they were created as repositories of miscellaneous items and information that the owner considered significant, including medical recipes, quotations, letters, poems, tables of weights and measures, proverbs, prayers, and legal formulas. Each commonplace book was a unique work reflecting its creator's hobbies and interests. Some of these books, such as the so-called Codex Döbringer, therefore included copies of martial arts treatises that passed through their owner's hands.

Fencing book

Fencing book (or Fechtbuch) is a catch-all term for treatises on armed combat. Medieval fencing treatises tended to be compilation works, manuscripts that included a variety of distinct treatises by different authors. Treatises by a single author, such as Fiore delli Liberi's treatise Fiore di Battaglia, or on a single weapon, such as Le Jeu de la Hache, were less common in this period. Many manuscripts of the 1500s draw on the same small pool of common treatises, which they combine in various ways. This tradition reached its pinnacle in the mammoth 1,200-page compilations that Paulus Hector Mair commissioned in the 1540s. In the Renaissance period, and especially as printing became more common, this emphasis changed and fencing masters began preparing and personally publishing more extensive treatises on a variety of different weapons. Some, such as Salvator Fabris, devoted massive volumes to the use of a single weapon.

Sketchbook

A number of sketchbooks created by talented artists survive from the Medieval and Renaissance time periods. These artists, including such masters as Albrecht Dürer and Maarten van Heemskerck, generally sketched fencers and wrestlers as studies in human anatomy. Because of this, they offer unique insight into the physical positions and movements of the art, providing a useful counterpoint to the large number of text-only fencing treatises. Some of these works were created as draftbooks for later complete fencing treatises.

Tournament book

A tourmanent book (or Turnierbuch) is generally a record of a specific tournament that occurred. Aside from being interesting glimpses into the sportive side of historical European martial arts in period, tournament books are also useful for their depictions of authentic arms and armor.

War book

War book (or Kriegsbücher) are useful texts for understanding the methods and theory behind warfare in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Many compilation fencing treatises from the 15th and 16th centuries also include excerpts from war books such as Konrad Kyeser's famous work Bellifortis or Flavius Vegetius Renatus' De Re Militari. Siege warfare was an especially popular subject in this genre.

Wrestling book

The wrestling book (or Ringbuch) can be seen as a subset of the fencing treatise genre. Most 15th century martial arts manuscripts include at least one wrestling treatise, but wrestling was often seen as an aspect of armed combat and not a separate discipline. It isn't until later in the Renaissance that books devoted exclusively to wrestling and other unarmed techniques appeared in increasing numbers.

Treatise Index

Manuscript treatises

Year Name Inventory Article
0200s Oxyrhynchus Papyrus 466 MS P.Oxy.III.466 Oxyrhynchus Papyrus (MS P.Oxy.III.466)
1320s Walpurgis Fechtbuch MS I.33 Walpurgis Fechtbuch (MS I.33)
1389 Codex Döbringer MS 3227a Codex Döbringer (MS 3227a)
1400/1470s Codex Wallerstein Cod.I.6.4º.2 Codex Wallerstein (Cod.I.6.4º.2)
1400s Le Jeu de la Hache MS Français 1996 Le Jeu de la Hache (MS Français 1996)
1404 Il Fior di Battaglia MS Ludwig XV 13 Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)
1404 Il Fior di Battaglia B1.370.A MS M.0383 Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)
1409 Flos Duellatorum Pisani Dossi MS Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)
1416-1444 Modus Dimicandi MS G.B.f.18.a Modus Dimicandi (MS G.B.f.18.a)
1420s Florius de Arte Luctandi MS Latin 11269 Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)
1424 Hec Sunt Guardiae in Dimicatione Videlicet MS 01020 Hec Sunt Guardiae in Dimicatione Videlicet (MS 01020)
1428 Die Blume des Kampfes Cod.5278 Die Blume des Kampfes (Cod.5278)
1430s Gladiatoria MS KK5013 Gladiatoria (MS KK5013)
1435-1440 Gladiatoria MS Germ.Quart.16 Gladiatoria (MS Germ.Quart.16)
1438 Livro da enssynança de bem cavalgar toda sela MS Portugais 5 Bem cavalgar (MS Portugais 5)
1440 Man yt Wol MS Harley 3542 Man yt Wol (MS Harley 3542)
1440s Codex 11093 Cod.11093 Cod.11093
1440s Gladiatoria MS U860.F46 1450 Gladiatoria (MS U860.F46 1450)
1443 Talhoffer Fechtbuch MS Chart.A.558 Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Chart.A.558)
1446-1459 Talhoffer Fechtbuch MS XIX.17-3 Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS XIX.17-3)
1450-1465 Cotton MS Titus A xxv Cotton MS Titus A XXV
1450s Codex Lew Cod.I.6.4º.3 Codex Lew (Cod.I.6.4º.3)
1450s Talhoffer Fechtbuch MS 78.A.15 Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS 78.A.15)
1452 Codex Danzig Cod.44.A.8 Codex Danzig (Cod.44.A.8)
1458-1467 Paulus Kal Fechtbuch MS 1825 Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS 1825)
1459 Talhoffer Fechtbuch MS Thott.290.2º Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)
1460 The Poem of the Pel MS 243 Knyghthode and Bataile (MS.243)
1462/1493 Schwabenspiegel Codex Cgm 558 Schwabenspiegel Codex (Cgm 558)
1465-1480 Gladiatoria Cod.Guelf.78.2.Aug.2º Wolfenbüttel Sketchbook (Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º)
1467 Talhoffer Fechtbuch Cod.icon. 394a Talhoffer Fechtbuch (Cod.icon. 394a)
1470 Paulus Kal Fechtbuch Cgm 1507 Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (Cgm 1507)
1470-1500 Paulus Kal Fechtbuch Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (Gotti MS)
1478 Kunst des Messerfechtens Cod.Pal.germ.430 Kunst des Messerfechtens (Cod.Pal.Germ.430)
1479 Die Meisterlieder des Hans Folz MS Q.566 Die Meisterlieder des Hans Folz (MS Q.566)
1480-1500 Ambraser Codex MS KK5342 Ambraser Codex (MS KK5342)
1480s Paulus Kal Fechtbuch MS KK5126 Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS KK5126)
1482 Kunst des Messerfechtens Cgm 582 Kunst des Messerfechtens (Cgm 582)
1482-1487 De Arte Gladiatoria Dimicandi Vitt.Em.1324 De Arte Gladiatoria Dimicandi (Vitt.Em.1324)
1491 Codex Speyer MS M.I.29 Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29)
1492 De la Palestra alfa.T.7.25 De la Palestra (alfa.T.7.25)
1495 Gladiatoria MS Cl. 23842 Gladiatoria (Cl. 23842)
1495 Meister peter falkners kunste Zu Ritterlicher Were MS KK5012 Kunste Zu Ritterlicher Were (MS KK5012)
1500 Ludwig von Eyb Kriegsbuch MS B.26 Eyb Kriegsbuch (MS B.26)
1500 The Poem of the Pel Ashmole MS 45 II Knyghthode and Bataile (Ashmole MS 45 II)
1500 Fechtregeln MS Best.7020 (W*)150 Fechtregeln (MS Best.7020 (W*)150)
1500 The Poem of the Pel Cotton MS Titus A xxiii Knyghthode and Bataile (Cotton MS Titus A XXIII)
1500s Codex Ringeck MS Dresd.C.487 Codex Ringeck (MS Dresd.C.487)
1500s Anonimo Riccardiano MS Ricc.2541 Anonimo Riccardiano (MS Ricc.2541)
1500s Talhoffer Fechtbuch MS 26.236 Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS 26.236)
1500s Talhoffer Fechtbuch Codex Series Nova 2978 Talhoffer Fechtbuch (Cod.Ser.Nov.2978)
1500s Fechtbuchleinn Cod.Guelf.1074.Novi Fechtbuchleinn (Cod.Guelf.1074.Novi)
1506-1514 Das Solothurner Fechtbuch Cod.S.554 Solothurner Fechtbuch (Cod.S.554)
1508 Glasgow Fechtbuch MS E.1939.65.341 Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)
1509 Libro del exercicio de las armas MS a.IV.23 Libro del exercicio de las armas (MS a.IV.23)
1510-1520 Goliath MS Germ.Quart.2020 Goliath (MS Germ.Quart.2020)
1510s Anonimo Bolognese MSS Ravenna M-345/346 Anonimo Bolognese (MSS Ravenna M-345/M-346)
1512 Berlin Sketchbook Libr.Pict.A83 Berlin Sketchbook (Libr.Pict.A.83)
1512 Oplodidaskalia sive Armorvm Tractandorvm Meditatio Alberti Dvreri MS 26-232 Oplodidaskalia sive Armorvm Tractandorvm Meditatio Alberti Dvreri (MS 26-232)
1512 Albrecht Dürers Fechtbuch Sloane MS No.5229 Albrecht Dürers Fechtbuch (Sloane MS No.5229)
1520s Vechtboek MS BPL.3281 Vechtboek (MS BPL.3281)
1522 Jörg Wilhalm Hutters kunst zu Augspurg Cod.I.6.2º.3 Jörg Wilhalm Hutters kunst zu Augspurg (Cod.I.6.2º.3)
1522 Jörg Wilhalm Hutters kunst zu Augspurg Cod.I.6.4º.5 Jörg Wilhalm Hutters kunst zu Augspurg (Cod.I.6.4º.5)
1523 Jörg Wilhalm Hutters kunst zu Augspurg Cgm 3711 Jörg Wilhalm Hutters kunst zu Augspurg (Cgm 3711)
1523/1564 Hutter/Sollinger Fechtbuch Cod.I.6.2º.2 Hutter/Sollinger Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.2)
1530-1545 Jörg Breu's Sketchbook Cod.I.6.2º.4 Jörg Breu Sketchbook (Cod.I.6.2º.4)
1533 Gregor Erhart Fechtbuch MS E.1939.65.354 Gregor Erhart Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.354)
1535-1550 Ledall Roll Additional MS 39564 Ledall Roll (Additional MS 39564)
1538 Über die Fechtkunst und den Ringkampf MS 963 Über die Fechtkunst und den Ringkampf (MS 963)
1539 Ringer Kunst 2º Cod.MS.Philos.62 Ringer Kunst (2º Cod.MS.Philos.62)
1539-1569 Monomachia ovvero Arte di Scherma MS II.iii.315 Monomachia ovvero Arte di Scherma (MS II.iii.315)
1539-1569 Monomachia ovvero Arte di Scherma MS L.V.23 Monomachia ovvero Arte di Scherma (MS L.V.23)
1539/1552/1566 Hans Medel Fechtbuch Cod.I.6.2º.5 Hans Medel Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.5)
1542 Paulus Kal Fechtbuch MS Chart.B.1021 Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS Chart.B.1021)
1542 Opus Amplissimum de Arte Athletica MSS Dresd.C.93/C.94 Opus Amplissimum de Arte Athletica (MSS Dresd.C.93/C.94)
1548 Opus Amplissimum de Arte Athletica Cod.icon. 393 Opus Amplissimum de Arte Athletica (Cod.icon. 393)
1550s Opus Amplissimum de Arte Athletica Cod.10825/10826 Opus Amplissimum de Arte Athletica (Cod.10825/10826)
1550s Codex Amberger Codex Amberger
1553 (1540s) Rast Fechtbuch Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82 Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82)
1556 Maister Liechtenawers Kunstbuech Cgm 3712 Maister Liechtenawers Kunstbuech (Cgm 3712)
1560s Joachim Meyers Fäktbok MS A.4º.2 Joachim Meyers Fäktbok (MS A.4º.2)
1561 Talhoffer Fechtbuch Cod.I.6.2º.1 Talhoffer Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.1)
1562 Hans Endter Fechtbuch Location unknown Hans Endter Fechtbuch
1563 Las reglas del montante CCPB000152417-8 Las reglas del montante (CCPB000152417-8)
1567 Trattato d'uno Schermo Cod.10723 Trattato d'uno Schermo (Cod.10723)
1569 Lectiones auf das Einfachen rappier 4º MS Math.038 Hans Wilhelm Schöffer Fechtbuch (4º MS Math.038)
1570-1571 Fechtbuch zu Ross und zu Fuss MS Var.82 Fechtbuch zu Ross und zu Fuss (MS Var.82)
1573 Hugold Behr's Fechtbuch MS Var.83 Hugold Behr's Fechtbuch (MS Var.83)
1579 Sciomachia et hoplomachia MS Dresd.C.15 Sciomachia et hoplomachia (MS Dresd.C.15)
1580 Modo di cacciare mano all spada MS Italien 959 Modo di cacciare mano all spada (MS Italien 959)
1580s Nobilissimo discorso intorno il schermo MS Italien 1527 Nobilissimo discorso intorno il schermo (MS Italien 1527)
1588 Künnst zu fechten vonn dem Lienhartt Sollinger Cod.Guelf.38.21.Aug.2º Künnst zu fechten vonn dem Lienhartt Sollinger (Cod.Guelf.38.21 Aug.2º)
1591 Das Ander Theil Des Newen Kůnstreichen Fechtbůches Cod.Guelf.83.4.Aug.8º Das Ander Theil Des Newen Kůnstreichen Fechtbůches (Cod.Guelf.83.4 Aug.8º)
1593 Verzeichnis etlicher Stücke des Fechtens im Rapier so ich zu Frankfurt an der Oder gelernt habe MS Germ.Fol.1476 Verzeichnis etlicher Stücke des Fechtens im Rapier (MS Germ.Fol.1476)
1595 Schermkunst VAULT Case MS Fol.U.423.792 Schermkunst (VAULT Case MS Fol.U.423.792)
1599 Paradoxes of Defence Additional MS 34192 Paradoxes of Defence (Additional MS 34192)
1599 Do Arte de Esgrima MS PBA 58 Do Arte de Esgrima (MS PBA 58)
1600 Discorso sopra l'arte della scherma MS 14/10 Discorso sopra l'arte della scherma (MS 14.10)
1600-1609 La Scientia della Spada MS KB.73.J.38 La Scientia della Spada (MS KB.73.J.38)
1600-1620 Oplodidaskalia sive Armorvm Tractandorvm Meditatio Alberti Dvreri Location unknown Oplodidaskalia sive Armorvm Tractandorvm Meditatio Alberti Dvreri (Cod.1246)
1600s Cabinet d'escrime de l'espee et poingnardt MS KB.73.J.39 Cabinet d'escrime de l'espee et poingnardt (MS KB.73.J.39)
1600s Talhoffer Fechtbuch 2º Cod.MS.Philos.61 Talhoffer Fechtbuch (2º Cod.MS.Philos.61)
1600s Italiänische Fechtkunst MS Dresd.C.91 Italiänische Fechtkunst (MS Dresd.C.91)
1600s Talhoffer Fechtbuch Cod.Guelf.125.16.Extrav. Talhoffer Fechtbuch (Cod.Guelf.125.16.Extrav.)
1600s Talhoffer Sammelhandschrift 2° MS iurid. 29 Talhoffer Sammelhandschrift (2º MS iurid. 29)
1601 Scientia e Prattica dell'Arme GKS 1868 kvart Scientia e Prattica dell'Arme (GI.kgl.Saml.1868.4040)
1602-1608 Cort Bevvijs' Van t'Rapier alleen MS KB.72.F.37 Cort Bevvijs' Van t'Rapier alleen (MS KB.72.F.37)
1605 Bref Instructions vpõ My Pradoxes of Defence Sloane MS No.376 Bref Instructions vpõ My Pradoxes of Defence (Sloane MS No.376)
1610 Discours de la théorie de la pratique et de l’excellence des armes MS E.1939.65.435 Discours de la théorie de la pratique et de l’excellence des armes (MS E.1939.65.435)
1610s Traite des armes MS X.911 Traite des armes (MS X.911)
1610s Traite des armes MS E.1939.65.359 Traite des armes (MS E.1939.65.359)
1610s Traite des armes MS E.1939.65.360 Traite des armes (MS E.1939.65.360)
1619 Eigentliche Beschreibung des Fechtens ihm einfachen Rappir MS Var.7 Eigentliche Beschreibung des Fechtens ihm einfachen Rappir (MS Var.7)
1620 Grůndtliche vñ eigentlichte Beschreibung der Fechtkunst 4º MS Math.2 Grůndtliche vñ eigentlichte Beschreibung der Fechtkunst (4º MS Math.2)
1620 Schöffer Fechtbuch 8 ARS MIL 1090/61 Schöffer Fechtbuch (8 ARS MIL 1090/61)
1620s Las cien conclusiones de la destreza de las armas MS Phill.1941 Las cien conclusiones de la destreza de las armas (MS Phill.1941)
1623 Die Blume des Kampfes Cod.10799 Bũech von fechter Vnnd Ringstückhen zũ Ross vnnd Fuoß (Cod.10799)
1623 Discours des armes MS 66S230 Discours des armes (MS 66S230)
1625 Compendio y Philosophia y destreza de las Armas MS R4-B274 Compendio y Philosophia y Dztreza de las Armas (MS R4-B274)
1628 Oplosophia e Verdadeira Destreza das Armas MS Vermelho.nº.91 Oplosophia e Verdadeira Destreza das Armas (MS Vermelho.nº.91)
1629 Compendio e discorso di tutto quello, in che consiste la virtù delle spada Cod.10784 Compendio e discorso di tutto quello (Cod.10784)
1635 Fechtkunst aus dem Italienischen MS Dresd.C.94a Fechtkunst aus dem Italienischen (MS Dresd.C.94a)
1640 Sobre la Destreza de las Armas MS E.1939.65.398 Sobre la Destreza de las Armas (MS E.1939.65.398)
1651 Memorial Da Prattica do Montante MS 49.III.20.nº.21 Memorial Da Prattica do Montante (MS 49.III.20.nº.21)
1657 Fechtbuch eines ungenannten Studenten Cod.Guelf.264.23.Extrav. Fechtbuch eines ungenannten Studenten (Cod.Guelf.264.23.Extrav.)
1662 Phrases ex variis autoribus quam studiosissimi collectae MS Chart.B.2117 Phrases ex variis autoribus quam studiosissimi collectae (MS Chart.B.2117)
1670 Traité d'escrime à pied et à cheval MS Français 1236 Traité d'escrime à pied et à cheval (MS Français 1236)
1671 Eigentliche Beschreibung des Stoßfechtens MS Dresd.C.13 Eigentliche Beschreibung des Stoßfechtens (MS Dresd.C.13)
1676 Truthe of the Sworde MS Harley 4206 Truthe of the Sworde (MS Harley 4206)
1676 Mathematical Demonstration of the Sorde MS Harley 5219 Mathematical Demonstration of the Sorde (MS Harley 5219)
1679-1681 Compendio di Scherma Cod.256 Compendio di Scherma (Cod.256)
1699 Il Fior di Battaglia MS XXIV Fior di Battaglia (MS XXIV)
1727 Reglas para La Destreza de Las Armas MS E.1939.65.597 Reglas para La Destreza de Las Armas (MS E.1939.65.597)
1731 Anweisung zum Fechten Fol 351 [c] Anweisung zum Fechten (Fol 351 (c))
1731-1755 Die Adeliche und Ritterliche Fechtkunst MS Best.7010 (W*)289 Die Adeliche und Ritterliche Fechtkunst (MS Best.7010 W*289)
1733 Die Adeliche und Ritterliche Fechtkunst MS Germ.Oct.227 Die Adeliche und Ritterliche Fechtkunst (MS Germ. Oct. 227)
1749 L'exercice des armes MS E.1939.65.488 L'exercice des armes (MS E.1939.65.488)
1820 Talhoffer Fechtbuch Cod.icon. 394 Talhoffer Fechtbuch (Cod.icon. 394)
1820 Talhoffer Fechtbuch Cod.icon. 395 Talhoffer Fechtbuch (Cod.icon. 395)

Other relevant manuscripts

Year Name Inventory Article
1506-1511 Marx Turnierbuch Cgm 1930 Marx Turnierbuch (Cgm 1930)
1511 Turnierbuch Ritterspiele Cod.icon. 398 Turnierbuch Ritterspiele (Cod.icon. 398)
1519 Ludwig von Eyb Turnierbuch Cgm 961 Eyb Turnierbuch (Cgm 961)
1540 Burgkmair Turnierbuch Cod.icon. 403 Burgkmair Turnierbuch (Cod.icon. 403)
1544 Lamberger Turnierbuch Cod.A.2290 Lamberger Turnierbuch (Cod.A.2290)
1548 Geschlechterbuch der Stadt Augsburg Cod.icon. 312b Geschlechterbuch der Stadt Augsburg (Cod.icon. 312b)
1686 Mathern Fechtbuch 2º MS Math.7 Mathern Fechtbuch (2º MS Math.7)

Incunabula and post-incunabula

Year Title Author Article
1490s The Landshut Wrestling Manual Das Landshuter Ringerbuch (Hans Wurm)
1492 On the Dignity of Man Pedro Monte De Dignoscendis Hominibus (Pedro Monte)
1509 Collected Martial Arts and Exercises Pedro Monte Exercitiorum Atque Artis Militaris Collectanea (Pedro Monte)
1516 Foundation of the Chivalric Art of Swordplay Johannes Liechtenauer
Andre Liegniczer
Andre Paurñfeyndt
Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey (Andre Paurñfeyndt)
1530s, 1545, 1558 The Ancient Fencer's Beginning Art Johannes Lecküchner
Johannes Liechtenauer
Andre Liegniczer
Andre Paurñfeyndt
Der Altenn Fechter anfengliche kunst (Christian Egenolff)
1531 A New Work Antonio Manciolino Opera Nova (Antonio Manciolino)
1536, 1546, 1550,
1568, 1615
A New Work Achille Marozzo Opera Nova (Achille Marozzo)
1538 The Noble Science of Swordplay Andre Liegniczer
Andre Paurñfeyndt
La noble science des ioueurs d'espee (Andre Paurñfeyndt)
1539, 1669 The Art of Wrestling: Eighty-Five Devices Fabian von Auerswald Ringer Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald)

Books and other printed matter

Year Title Author Article
1552 Fencers and Wrestlers Fechter & Ringer (Maarten van Heemskerck)
1553 Treatise on the Science of Arms, with a Dialogue on
Philosophy
Camillo Agrippa Trattato di Scientia d'Arme, con vn Dialogo di Filosofia (Camillo Agrippa)
1569, 1582, 1612,
1616
On the Philosophy of Arms and its Skill, and
ChristianOffense and Defense
Jerónimo Sánchez de Carranza De la Filosofia de las Armas y de su Destreza y la Aggression y Defensa Cristiana (Jerónimo Sánchez de Carranza)
1570 His True Arte of Defence Giacomo di Grassi Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi)
1570, 1590, 1600,
1610, 1660
A Foundational Description of the Art of Fencing Johannes Liechtenauer
Joachim Meÿer
Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer)
1572 Three Books on the Art of Defense Giovanni dall'Agocchie Dell'Arte di Scrima Libri Tre (Giovanni dall'Agocchie)
1573 Secrets of the Premier Book on the Single Sword Henry de Sainct Didier Les secrets du premier livre sur l'espée seule (Henry de Sainct Didier)
1575, 1588 On Defense Angelo Viggiani dal Montone Lo Schermo (Angelo Viggiani)
1577 Chapter by Mr. Mercurio Spetioli of Fermo Mercurio Spezioli Capitolo di M. Mercvrio Spetioli da Fermo (Mercurio Spezioli)
1579 The True Principles of the Art of Fencing Heinrich von Gunterrodt De Veris Principiis Artis Dimicatoria (Heinrich von Gunterrodt)
1589 Honors and Praise to the Art of Fencing Christoff Rösener Ehrentitel und Lopspruch der Fechtkunst (Christoff Rösener)
1591 Discourses of War and Single Combat Bertrand de Loque Deux Traitéz: l'un de la guerre, l'autre du duel (Bertrand de Loque)
1594 His True Art of Defense Giacomo di Grassi DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi)
1595 His Practice, in Two Books Vincentio Saviolo His Practise, in Two Bookes (Vincentio Saviolo)
1595, 1597, 1609,
1610, 1617, 1628
Treatise or Instruction on Fighting with Weapons Girolamo Cavalcabo
Paternostraro
Traité ou instruction pour tirer des armes (Girolamo Cavalcabo)
1599 Paradoxes of Defense George Silver Paradoxes of Defence (George Silver)
1600, 1605 A Book on the Greatness of the Sword Luis Pacheco de Narváez Libro de las Grandezas de la Espada (Luis Pacheco de Narváez)
1600s, 1612, 1849 New Illustrated Fencing Manual Jakob Sutor von Baden New Kůnstliches Fechtbuch (Jakob Sutor von Baden)
1601 Treatise on Matters of Defense Marco Docciolini Trattato in Materia di Scherma (Marco Docciolini)
1606, 1610, 1619,
1622, 1628, 1644
School or Fencing Hall Nicoletto Giganti Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti)
1606, 1622, 1624,
1672, 1676, 1713
On Defense, or the Science of Arms Salvator Fabris Lo Schermo, overo Scienza d’Arme (Salvator Fabris)
1608 The Second Book of Niccoletto Giganti Nicoletto Giganti Libro secondo (Nicoletto Giganti)
1609 The Complete Cavalier Torquato d'Alessandri Il Cavalier Compito (Torquato d'Alessandri)
1610 Discourse on Theory, Practice, and Excellence at Arms André des Bordes Discours de la théorie de la pratique et de l’excellence des armes (André des Bordes)
1610, 1629, 1632,
1652
Great Representation of the Art and Use of Fencing Ridolfo Capo Ferro da Cagli Gran Simulacro dell'Arte e dell'Uso della Scherma (Ridolfo Capo Ferro da Cagli)
1611 A New Illustrated Fencing Manual on Rapier Michael Hundt Ein new Kůnstliches Fechtbuch im Rappier (Michael Hundt)
1611, 1612 New Illustrated Fencing Manual Girolamo Cavalcabo
Paternostraro
Neues Kunstliches Fechtbuch (Girolamo Cavalcabo)
1615, 1616, 1617,
1626, 1627, 1630,
1640, 1665
New Illustrated Fencing Manual Sebastian Heußler Neu Kunstlich Fechtbuch (Sebastian Heußler)
1617 The School of the Noble and Worthy Science of
Defense
Joseph Swetnam The Schoole of the Noble and Worthy Science of Defence (Joseph Swetnam)
1619, 1625, 1639,
1880
New Discourse on the Knightly and World Renowned Art of Fencing Joachim Köppen Newer Discůrs Von der Rittermeszigen und Weitberůmbten Kůnst des Fechtens (Joachim Köppen)
1619, 1650 The Art-Rich Italian Fencing Art Salvator Fabris Des Kunstreichen Italiänische Fechtkunst (Salvator Fabris)
1620 Thorough and Proper Description of the Art of Fencing Hans Wilhelm Schöffer von Dietz Grůndtliche vñ eigentlichte Beschreibung der Fechtkunst (Hans Wilhelm Schöffer von Dietz)
1630, 1668 Academy of the Sword Gérard Thibault d'Anvers Academie de l'Espée (Gérard Thibault d'Anvers)
1657, 1658, 1659 Brief Information About the Pike, the Flag, the
Half-Pike, the Vaulting Horse, the Grapple, the Fence
of Thrust and Blow, and Finally the Carving Knife
Johann Georg Pascha Kurze Unterrichtung belangend die pique die Fahne, den Jägerstock, ... (Johann Georg Pascha)
1659 Brief but Thorough Information About the Pike, Pike Drills,
the Flag, the Half-Pike, the Carving Knife, and Fencing
with the Thrust and the Blow
Johann Georg Pascha Kurtze doch Gründliche Unterrichtung den Pique, den Trillens in der Pique, ... (Johann Georg Pascha)
1660 Short but Clear Description of the Pike-Play, as well as
the Drills of the Pike
Johann Georg Pascha Kurtze jedoch deutliche Beschreibung Des Pique (Johann Georg Pascha)
1660 The True Handling of the Sword Alessandro Senese Il vero maneggio di spada (Alessandro Senese)
1660 Short Instructions for the Hunting Stick or Half-Pike Johann Georg Pascha Kurtze Anleitung des Jägerstocks oder Halbe Pique (Johann Georg Pascha)
1661, 1664, 1666,
1667, 1678
Short but Clear Description Treating Fencing with the Thrust and Blow Johann Georg Pascha Kurze jedoch deutliche Beschreibung handelnd vom Fechten auf den Stoss und Hieb (Johann Georg Pascha)
1663, 1665 Complete Wrestling Manual Johann Georg Pascha Vollständiges Ring-Buch (Johann Georg Pascha)
1664, 1708 Clear Explanation of the Art of Fencing Jean Daniel L'Ange Deutliche Erklårung der Fechtkunst (Jean Daniel L'Ange)
1666, 1667, 1673,
1683
Complete Book of Fencing, Wrestling, and Vaulting Johann Georg Pascha Vollständiges Fecht- Ring- ûnd Voltigier-Bũch (Johann Georg Pascha)
1671, 1676 Thorough Description of the Noble and Knightly Fencing-or Weapon-Art Johannes Georgius Bruchius Grondige Beschryvinge van de Edele ende Ridderlijcke Scherm- ofte Wapen-Konste (Johannes Georgius Bruchius)
1673 Clearly Described and Differentiated Flag-Lessons,
Divided into Eight Plays / In Addition the Play of the Pike,
the Partisan, and the Half-Pike or Jägerstock
Johann Georg Pascha Deutliche Beschreibung Unterschiedener Fahnen-Lectionen (Johann Georg Pascha)
1674, 1675, 1679,
1680, 1712, 1814
Clear Education in the Magnificent Art of Wrestling Nicolaes Petter Klare Onderrichtinge der Voortreffelijke Worstel-Konst (Nicolaes Petter)
1674, 1675, 1679
1814, 1887, 1969
The Artful Wrestler Nicolaes Petter Der künstliche Ringer (Nicolaes Petter)
1676, 1713 The Science and Practice of Arms Salvator Fabris Sienza e pratica d’arme (Salvator Fabris)
1679 The Artful Fencer Theodori Verolini Der Kůnstliche Fechter (Theodori Verolini)
1680, 1712 The Academy of the Admirable Art of Wrestling Nicolaes Petter L’Académie de l’admirable art de la Lutte (Nicolaes Petter)
1711 The Master Art Carlo Giuseppe Colombani L'Arte maestra (Carlo Giuseppe Colombani)

Other relevant books

Year Title Author Article
1512 Battle Force Konrad Kyeser Bellifortis (Konrad Kyeser)
1616 New Illustrated Flag-Waving Manual Sebastian Heußler
Johannes Renner
New Kůnstlich Fahnenbůchlein (Sebastian Heußler)