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Modern historical European martial arts reconstruction is founded on the study of so-called fencing manuals. While most regions of the world have produced a few martial arts treatises over the centuries, the European treatise tradition far exceeded any other in both its complexity and its sheer volume: well over a hundred and fifty distinct manuscripts and hundreds more printed works survive from the Medieval and Early Modern time periods. In some sense, the practice of writing fencing treatises continues to this day in the form of books on the use of firearms and other small sidearms, as well as texts on Olympic fencing and other forms of sport combat.

These texts are generally not manuals as the modern audience understands the genre; rather than offering step-by-step instructions on fighting, they are more often general treatises on a variety of martial subjects, and even those treatises that include details and illustrations of specific techniques generally fail to present a set of instructions that a reader can easily follow. Reconstructing the historical European martial arts thus involves consulting a variety of different types of literature in order to arrive at a well-rounded understanding of their content, including fencing treatises, wrestling treatises, and books of military strategy.


Detail of the wrestling scenes at Beni Hasan.

The earliest recordings of martial arts teachings consisted only of images. One example is a fresco in tomb 15 at Beni Hasan, Egypt, showing illustrations of wrestling techniques dating to ca. 2,000 BC. Similar depictions of wrestling techniques are found on Attic vases dating to Classical Greece. The only known text that could be classified a martial arts treatises from Western antiquity is P.Oxy. III 466 (2nd century), detailing Greek wrestling techniques. In addition to these depictions of martial techniques, treatises on other martial subjects also survive, the most famous of which is Flavius Vegetius Renatus' book on Roman military tactics De Re Militari.

Types of texts

For ease of reference, Wiktenauer divides the corpus of Western martial arts literature into six basic genres. A few texts defy categorization under this system, such as Paulus Hector Mair's Geschlechterbuch, but these distinctions are generally quite useful.

Commonplace book

A commonplace book (or Hausbuch) is essentially a scrapbook, usually made by a wealthy individual. In the late Middle Ages, they were created as repositories of miscellaneous items and information that the owner considered significant, including medical recipes, quotations, letters, poems, tables of weights and measures, proverbs, prayers, and legal formulas. Each commonplace book was a unique work reflecting its creator's hobbies and interests. Some of these books, such as the Pol Hausbuch (MS 3227a), therefore included copies of martial arts treatises that passed through their owner's hands.

Fencing book

Fencing book (or Fechtbuch) is a catch-all term for treatises on armed combat. Medieval fencing treatises tended to be compilation works, manuscripts that included a variety of distinct treatises by different authors. Treatises by a single author, such as Fiore delli Liberi's treatise Fiore di Battaglia, or on a single weapon, such as Le Jeu de la Hache, were less common in this period. Many manuscripts of the 1500s draw on the same small pool of common treatises, which they combine in various ways. This tradition reached its pinnacle in the mammoth 1,200-page compilations that Paulus Hector Mair commissioned in the 1540s. In the Renaissance period, and especially as printing became more common, this emphasis changed and fencing masters began preparing and personally publishing more extensive treatises on a variety of different weapons. Some, such as Salvator Fabris, devoted massive volumes to the use of a single weapon.


A number of sketchbooks created by talented artists survive from the Medieval and Renaissance time periods. These artists, including such masters as Albrecht Dürer and Maarten van Heemskerck, generally sketched fencers and wrestlers as studies in human anatomy. Because of this, they offer unique insight into the physical positions and movements of the art, providing a useful counterpoint to the large number of text-only fencing treatises. Some of these works were created as draftbooks for later complete fencing treatises.

Tournament book

A tourmanent book (or Turnierbuch) is generally a record of a specific tournament that occurred. Aside from being interesting glimpses into the sportive side of historical European martial arts in period, tournament books are also useful for their depictions of authentic arms and armor.

War book

War book (or Kriegsbücher) are useful texts for understanding the methods and theory behind warfare in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Many compilation fencing treatises from the 15th and 16th centuries also include excerpts from war books such as Konrad Kyeser's famous work Bellifortis or Flavius Vegetius Renatus' De Re Militari. Siege warfare was an especially popular subject in this genre.

Wrestling book

The wrestling book (or Ringbuch) can be seen as a subset of the fencing treatise genre. Most 15th century martial arts manuscripts include at least one wrestling treatise, but wrestling was often seen as an aspect of armed combat and not a separate discipline. It isn't until later in the Renaissance that books devoted exclusively to wrestling and other unarmed techniques appeared in increasing numbers.

Treatise index

Note that these dates are approximate in many cases. More specific information about the dates of treatises can be found on their respective pages.

Manuscript treatises

0100sOxyrhynchus Papyrus 466MS P.Oxy.III.466Oxyrhynchus Papyrus (MS P.Oxy.III.466)
1320sWalpurgis FechtbuchFECHT1Walpurgis Fechtbuch (MS I.33)
1400sLe Jeu de la HacheMS Français 1996Le Jeu de la Hache (MS Français 1996)
1400sPol HausbuchMS 3227aPol Hausbuch (MS 3227a)
1404Il Fior di BattagliaB1.370.A MS M.0383Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)
1404Il Fior di BattagliaMS Ludwig XV 13Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)
1409Flos DuellatorumPisani Dossi MSFlos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)
1410-30Florius de Arte LuctandiMS Latin 11269Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)
1418-1428Modus DimicandiMS G.B.f.18aModus Dimicandi (MS G.B.f.18a)
1420Die Blume des KampfesCod.5278Die Blume des Kampfes (Cod.5278)
1420s/1470sCodex WallersteinCod.I.6.4º.2Codex Wallerstein (Cod.I.6.4º.2)
1424Hec Sunt Guardiae in Dimicatione VidelicetMS 01020Hec Sunt Guardiae in Dimicatione Videlicet (MS 01020)
1430Kunst und WunderbuchCod.Pal.lat.1888Kunst und Wunderbuch (Cod.Pal.lat.1888)
1430sGladiatoriaMS KK5013Gladiatoria (MS KK5013)
1430sGladiatoriaMS U860.F46 1450Gladiatoria (MS U860.F46 1450)
1437Sammelhandschrift zur KriegskunstCod.3062Sammelhandschrift zur Kriegskunst (Cod.3062)
1438Livro da enssynança de bem cavalgar toda selaMS Portugais 5Bem cavalgar (MS Portugais 5)
1440Man yt WolMS Harley 3542Man yt Wol (MS Harley 3542)
1440sGladiatoriaMS Germ.Quart.16Gladiatoria (MS Germ.Quart.16)
1440sCodex 11093Cod.11093Cod.11093
1446-1459Talhoffer FechtbuchMS XIX.17-3Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS XIX.17-3)
1448Talhoffer FechtbuchMS Chart.A.558Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Chart.A.558)
1450-1465Cotton MS Titus A xxvCotton MS Titus A XXV
1450sTalhoffer FechtbuchMS 78.A.15Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS 78.A.15)
1452Starhemberg FechtbuchCod.44.A.8Starhemberg Fechtbuch (Cod.44.A.8)
1459Talhoffer FechtbuchMS Thott.290.2ºTalhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)
1460The Poem of the PelMS 243Knyghthode and Bataile (MS.243)
1460-1480Paulus Kal FechtbuchMS 1825Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS 1825)
1460sCodex LewCod.I.6.4º.3Codex Lew (Cod.I.6.4º.3)
1462/1493Schwabenspiegel CodexCgm 558Schwabenspiegel Codex (Cgm 558)
1465-1480Wolfenbüttel SketchbookCod.Guelf.78.2.Aug.2ºWolfenbüttel Sketchbook (Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º)
1467Talhoffer FechtbuchCod.icon. 394aTalhoffer Fechtbuch (Cod.icon. 394a)
1470Paulus Kal FechtbuchCgm 1507Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (Cgm 1507)
1470-1500Paulus Kal FechtbuchPaulus Kal Fechtbuch (Gotti MS)
1478Kunst des MesserfechtensCod.Pal.germ.430Kunst des Messerfechtens (Cod.Pal.Germ.430)
1479Die Meisterlieder des Hans FolzMS Q.566Die Meisterlieder des Hans Folz (MS Q.566)
1480-1500Ambraser CodexMS KK5342Ambraser Codex (MS KK5342)
1480sPaulus Kal FechtbuchMS KK5126Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS KK5126)
1480s-1500sCluny FechtbuchMS Cl. 23842Cluny Fechtbuch (Cl. 23842)
1482Kunst des MesserfechtensCgm 582Kunst des Messerfechtens (Cgm 582)
1482-1487De Arte Gladiatoria DimicandiMS Vitt.Em.1324De Arte Gladiatoria Dimicandi (MS Vitt.Em.1324)
1491Codex SpeyerMS M.I.29Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29)
1492De la Palestraalfa.T.7.25De la Palestra (alfa.T.7.25)
1495Meister peter falkners kunste Zu Ritterlicher WereMS KK5012Kunste Zu Ritterlicher Were (MS KK5012)
1500Ludwig von Eyb KriegsbuchMS B.26Eyb Kriegsbuch (MS B.26)
1500FechtregelnMS Best.7020 (W*)150Fechtregeln (MS Best.7020 (W*)150)
1500The Poem of the PelAshmole MS 45 IIKnyghthode and Bataile (Ashmole MS 45 II)
1500The Poem of the PelCotton MS Titus A xxiiiKnyghthode and Bataile (Cotton MS Titus A XXIII)
1500Falkner TurnierbuchFalkner Turnierbuch
1500sTalhoffer FechtbuchCod.Ser.Nov.2978Talhoffer Fechtbuch (Cod.Ser.Nov.2978)
1500sFechtbuchleinnCod.Guelf.1074.NoviFechtbuchleinn (Cod.Guelf.1074.Novi)
1500sAnonimo RiccardianoMS Ricc.2541Anonimo Riccardiano (MS Ricc.2541)
1500sTalhoffer FechtbuchMS 26.236Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS 26.236)
1504-1519Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebennMS Dresd.C.487Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)
1506-1514Das Solothurner FechtbuchCod.S.554Solothurner Fechtbuch (Cod.S.554)
1508Glasgow FechtbuchMS E.1939.65.341Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)
1509Libro del exercicio de las armasMS a.IV.23Libro del exercicio de las armas (MS a.IV.23)
1510sAnonimo BologneseMSS Ravenna M-345/346Anonimo Bolognese (MSS Ravenna M-345/M-346)
1512Oplodidaskalia sive Armorvm Tractandorvm Meditatio Alberti DvreriMS 26-232Oplodidaskalia sive Armorvm Tractandorvm Meditatio Alberti Dvreri (MS 26-232)
1512Albrecht Dürers FechtbuchSloane MS No.5229Albrecht Dürers Fechtbuch (Sloane MS No.5229)
1512Berlin SketchbookLibr.Pict.A83Berlin Sketchbook (Libr.Pict.A.83)
1520sVechtboekMS BPL.3281Vechtboek (MS BPL.3281)
1522Jörg Wilhalm Hutters kunst zu AugspurgCod.I.6.4º.5Jörg Wilhalm Hutters kunst zu Augspurg (Cod.I.6.4º.5)
1522Jörg Wilhalm Hutters kunst zu AugspurgCod.I.6.2º.3Jörg Wilhalm Hutters kunst zu Augspurg (Cod.I.6.2º.3)
1523Jörg Wilhalm Hutters kunst zu AugspurgCgm 3711Jörg Wilhalm Hutters kunst zu Augspurg (Cgm 3711)
1523/1564Hutter/Sollinger FechtbuchCod.I.6.2º.2Hutter/Sollinger Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.2)
1524Liber QuodlibetariusMS B.200Liber Quodlibetarius (MS B.200)
1530-1545Jörg Breu's DraftbookCod.I.6.2º.4Jörg Breu Draftbook (Cod.I.6.2º.4)
1533Gregor Erhart FechtbuchMS E.1939.65.354Gregor Erhart Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.354)
1535-1540Goliath FechtbuchMS germ. quart. 2020Goliath Fechtbuch (MS Germ.Quart.2020)
1535-1550Ledall RollAdditional MS 39564Ledall Roll (Additional MS 39564)
1538Über die Fechtkunst und den RingkampfMS 963Über die Fechtkunst und den Ringkampf (MS 963)
1539Wassmannsdorff's FechtbuchLocation unknownWassmannsdorff's Fechtbuch
1539Ringer Kunst2º Col.MS.Philos.62Ringer Kunst (2º Col.MS.Philos.62)
1539-1569Monomachia ovvero Arte di SchermaMS II.iii.315Monomachia ovvero Arte di Scherma (MS II.iii.315)
1539-1569Monomachia ovvero Arte di SchermaMS L.V.23Monomachia ovvero Arte di Scherma (MS L.V.23)
1539/1552/1566Hans Medel FechtbuchCod.I.6.2º.5Hans Medel Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.5)
1542Paulus Kal FechtbuchMS Chart.B.1021Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS Chart.B.1021)
1542Opus Amplissimum de Arte AthleticaMSS Dresd.C.93/C.94Opus Amplissimum de Arte Athletica (MSS Dresd.C.93/C.94)
1548Opus Amplissimum de Arte AthleticaCod.icon. 393Opus Amplissimum de Arte Athletica (Cod.icon. 393)
1550Hugold Behr's FechtbuchMS Var.83Hugold Behr's Fechtbuch (MS Var.83)
1550sCodex AmbergerCodex Amberger
1550sOpus Amplissimum de Arte AthleticaCod.10825/10826Opus Amplissimum de Arte Athletica (Cod.10825/10826)
1553 (1540s)Rast FechtbuchReichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82)
1556Maister Liechtenawers KunstbuechCgm 3712Maister Liechtenawers Kunstbuech (Cgm 3712)
1560sJoachim Meyers FäktbokMS A.4º.2Joachim Meyers Fäktbok (MS A.4º.2)
1561Talhoffer FechtbuchCod.I.6.2º.1Talhoffer Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.1)
1562Hans Endter FechtbuchLocation unknownHans Endter Fechtbuch
1563Las reglas del montanteCCPB000152417-8Las reglas del montante (CCPB000152417-8)
1567Trattato d'uno SchermoCod.10723Trattato d'uno Schermo (Cod.10723)
1570Fechtbuch zu Ross und zu FussMS Var.82Fechtbuch zu Ross und zu Fuss (MS Var.82)
1579Sciomachia et hoplomachiaMS Dresd.C.15Sciomachia et hoplomachia (MS Dresd.C.15)
1580Sobre el arte de la esgrimaMS II/1579(2)Sobre el arte de la esgrima (MS II/1579(2))
1580Modo di cacciare mano all spadaMS Italien 959Modo di cacciare mano all spada (MS Italien 959)
1580sNobilissimo discorso intorno il schermoMS Italien 1527Nobilissimo discorso intorno il schermo (MS Italien 1527)
1588Künnst zu fechten vonn dem Lienhartt SollingerCod.Guelf.38.21.Aug.2ºKünnst zu fechten vonn dem Lienhartt Sollinger (Cod.Guelf.38.21 Aug.2º)
1591Das Ander Theil Des Newen Kůnstreichen FechtbůchesCod.Guelf.83.4.Aug.8ºDas Ander Theil Des Newen Kůnstreichen Fechtbůches (Cod.Guelf.83.4 Aug.8º)
1593Verzeichnis etlicher Stücke des Fechtens im RapierMS Germ.Fol.1476Verzeichnis etlicher Stücke des Fechtens im Rapier (MS Germ.Fol.1476)
1595SchermkunstVAULT Case MS Fol.U.423.792Schermkunst (VAULT Case MS Fol.U.423.792)
1599Arte de EsgrimaMS PBA 58Arte de Esgrima (MS PBA 58)
1599Paradoxes of DefenceAdditional MS 34192Paradoxes of Defence (Additional MS 34192)
1600Discorso del Gioco di SpadaMS Urb.lat.1231Discorso del Gioco di Spada (MS Urb.lat.1231)
1600Discorso sopra l'arte della schermaMS 14/10Discorso sopra l'arte della scherma (MS 14.10)
1600Reit und TurnierbuchMS KK5247Reit und Turnierbuch (MS KK5247)
1600Confectbuch von Abrichtung vollständiges TurnierbuchCod.Guelf.1.6.3 Aug.2ºConfectbuch von Abrichtung vollständiges Turnierbuch (Cod.Guelf.1.6.3 Aug.2º)
1600Lectiones auf das Einfachen rappier4º MS Math.38Lectiones auf das Einfachen rappier (4º MS Math.38)
1600Additional MS 23223Additional MS 23223
1600-1609La Scientia della SpadaMS KB.73.J.38La Scientia della Spada (MS KB.73.J.38)
1600-1620Oplodidaskalia sive Armorvm Tractandorvm Meditatio Alberti DvreriLocation unknownOplodidaskalia sive Armorvm Tractandorvm Meditatio Alberti Dvreri (Cod.1246)
1600-20Figures nues, positions d'escrime à l'épéeMS 17Figures nues, positions d'escrime à l'épée (MS 17)
1600sTalhoffer FechtbuchCod.Guelf.125.16.Extrav.Talhoffer Fechtbuch (Cod.Guelf.125.16.Extrav.)
1600sItaliänische FechtkunstMS Dresd.C.91Italiänische Fechtkunst (MS Dresd.C.91)
1600sTalhoffer Sammelhandschrift2° MS iurid. 29Talhoffer Sammelhandschrift (2º MS iurid. 29)
1600sTalhoffer Fechtbuch2º Col. MS. philos. 61Talhoffer Fechtbuch (2º Col.MS.Philos.61)
1601Scientia e Prattica dell'ArmeGKS 1868 kvartScientia e Prattica dell'Arme (GI.kgl.Saml.1868.4040)
1602-1608Cort Bevvijs' Van t'Rapier alleenMS KB.72.F.37Cort Bevvijs' Van t'Rapier alleen (MS KB.72.F.37)
1605Bref Instructions vpõ My Pradoxes of DefenceSloane MS No.376Bref Instructions vpõ My Pradoxes of Defence (Sloane MS No.376)
1609Cabinet d'escrime de l'espee et poingnardtMS KB.73.J.39Cabinet d'escrime de l'espee et poingnardt (MS KB.73.J.39)
1610Discours de la théorie de la pratique et de l’excellence des armesMS E.1939.65.435Discours de la théorie de la pratique et de l’excellence des armes (MS E.1939.65.435)
1610sTraite des armesMS E.1939.65.359Traite des armes (MS E.1939.65.359)
1610sTraite des armesMS E.1939.65.360Traite des armes (MS E.1939.65.360)
1610sTraite des armesMS X.911Traite des armes (MS X.911)
1611Fechtbuch des einfachen RapiersMS germ.qu.1190/1191Fechtbuch des einfachen Rapiers (MS germ.qu.1190/1191)
1611-19Eigentliche Beschreibung des Fechtens ihm einfachen RappirMS Var.7Eigentliche Beschreibung des Fechtens ihm einfachen Rappir (MS Var.7)
1614Della SchermaMS 381Della Scherma (MS 381)
1619Eigentliche beschreibung des fechtens ihm Einfachen RappirMS E.ö.V.36Eigentliche beschreibung des fechtens ihm Einfachen Rappir (MS E.ö.V.36)
1620Schöffer Addenda8 ARS MIL 1090/61Schöffer Addenda (8 ARS MIL 1090/61)
1620Anweisung zur Fechtkunst4º MS Math.2Anweisung zur Fechtkunst (4º MS Math.2)
1620sLas cien conclusiones de la destreza de las armasMS Phill.1941Las cien conclusiones de la destreza de las armas (MS Phill.1941)
1623Discours des armesMS 66S230Discours des armes (MS 66S230)
1623Die Blume des KampfesCod.10799Bũech von fechter Vnnd Ringstückhen zũ Ross vnnd Fuoß (Cod.10799)
1625Compendio y Philosophia y destreza de las ArmasMS R4-B274Compendio y Philosophia y Dztreza de las Armas (MS R4-B274)
1628Oplosophia e Verdadeira Destreza das ArmasMS Vermelho.nº.91Oplosophia e Verdadeira Destreza das Armas (MS Vermelho.nº.91)
1629Compendio e discorso di tutto quello, in che consiste la virtù delle spadaCod.10784Compendio e discorso di tutto quello (Cod.10784)
1635Fechtkunst aus dem ItalienischenMS Dresd.C.94aFechtkunst aus dem Italienischen (MS Dresd.C.94a)
1640Sobre la Destreza de las ArmasMS E.1939.65.398Sobre la destreza de las armas (MS E.1939.65.398)
1651Memorial Da Prattica do MontanteMS 49.III.20.nº.21Memorial Da Prattica do Montante (MS 49.III.20.nº.21)
1657Fechtbuch eines ungenannten StudentenCod.Guelf.264.23.Extrav.Fechtbuch eines ungenannten Studenten (Cod.Guelf.264.23.Extrav.)
1662Phrases ex variis autoribus quam studiosissimi collectaeMS Chart.B.2117Phrases ex variis autoribus quam studiosissimi collectae (MS Chart.B.2117)
1670Traité d'escrime à pied et à chevalMS Français 1236Traité d'escrime à pied et à cheval (MS Français 1236)
1671Eigentliche Beschreibung des StoßfechtensMS Dresd.C.13Eigentliche Beschreibung des Stoßfechtens (MS Dresd.C.13)
1676Mathematical Demonstration of the SordeMS Harley 5219Mathematical Demonstration of the Sorde (MS Harley 5219)
1676Truthe of the SwordeMS Harley 4206Truthe of the Sworde (MS Harley 4206)
1679-1681Compendio di SchermaCod.256Compendio di Scherma (Cod.256)
1699Il Fior di BattagliaMS XXIVFior di Battaglia (MS XXIV)
1700sTalhoffer FechtbuchMS 014Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS 014)
1727Reglas para La Destreza de Las ArmasMS E.1939.65.597Reglas para La Destreza de Las Armas (MS E.1939.65.597)
1731Anweisung zum FechtenFol 351 [c]Anweisung zum Fechten (Fol 351 (c))
1731-1755Die Adeliche und Ritterliche FechtkunstMS Best.7010 (W*)289Die Adeliche und Ritterliche Fechtkunst (MS Best.7010 W*289)
1733Die Adeliche und Ritterliche FechtkunstMS Germ.Oct.227Die Adeliche und Ritterliche Fechtkunst (MS Germ. Oct. 227)
1749L'exercice des armesMS E.1939.65.488L'exercice des armes (MS E.1939.65.488)
1750Anfangsgründe der FechtkunstMS B.215Anfangsgründe der Fechtkunst (MS B.215)
1763Tableau de l'académie d'armesCod.I.6.2º.6Tableau de l'académie d'armes (Cod.I.6.2º.6)
1801-1940Bref instructions upon my Paradoxes of defenceMS 1086Bref instructions upon my Paradoxes of defence (MS 1086)
1820Talhoffer FechtbuchCod.icon. 394Talhoffer Fechtbuch (Cod.icon. 394)
1820Talhoffer FechtbuchCod.icon. 395Talhoffer Fechtbuch (Cod.icon. 395)
1838Reit und TurnierbuchMS 23.279Reit und Turnierbuch (MS 23.279)

Other relevant manuscripts

1506-1511Marx TurnierbuchCgm 1930Marx Turnierbuch (Cgm 1930)
1511Turnierbuch RitterspieleCod.icon. 398Turnierbuch Ritterspiele (Cod.icon. 398)
1519Ludwig von Eyb TurnierbuchCgm 961Eyb Turnierbuch (Cgm 961)
1529Burgkmair TurnierbuchLocation unknownBurgkmair Turnierbuch (Wittelsbach MS)
1537Thůrnẙer und ScharpfrennenCod.I.6.4º.1Thůrnẙer und Scharpfrennen (Cod.I.6.4º.1)
1540Burgkmair TurnierbuchCod.icon. 403Burgkmair Turnierbuch (Cod.icon. 403)
1544Lamberger TurnierbuchCod.A.2290Lamberger Turnierbuch (Cod.A.2290)
1548Geschlechterbuch der Stadt AugsburgCod.icon. 312bGeschlechterbuch der Stadt Augsburg (Cod.icon. 312b)
1550-1650Nuremberg TurnierbuchMS 22.229Nuremberg Turnierbuch (MS 22.229)
1553Burgkmair TurnierbuchLocation unknownBurgkmair Turnierbuch (Hohenzollern Sigmaringen MS)
1560Tournament BookMS Ludwig XV 14Tournament Book (MS Ludwig XV 14)
1570Kriegsbuch u.a. Über Schützen- und TurnierwesenMS B.213Kriegsbuch u.a. Über Schützen- und Turnierwesen (MS B.213)
1630Einige Figuren von Fus-Thurnieren2º MS Math.7Einige Figuren von Fus-Thurnieren (2º MS Math.7)

Incunabula and post-incunabula

1471, 1476, 1501,
1509, 1515, 1518,
1521, 1523, 1525,
1530, 1536, 1540,
1543, 1544, 1560,
Questions of Honor and ArmsParide del PozzoDe duello, vel De re militari in singulari certamine (Paride del Pozzo)
1490sThe Landshut Wrestling ManualDas Landshuter Ringerbuch (Hans Wurm)
1492On the Discernments of ManPedro MonteDe Dignoscendis Hominibus (Pedro Monte)
1509Collected Martial Arts and ExercisesPedro MonteExercitiorum Atque Artis Militaris Collectanea (Pedro Monte)
1516Foundation of the Chivalric Art of SwordplayJohannes Liechtenauer
Andre Paurñfeyndt
Andre Lignitzer
Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey (Andre Paurñfeyndt)
1530s, 1545, 1558The Ancient Fencer's Beginning ArtJohannes Liechtenauer
Johannes Lecküchner
Andre Paurñfeyndt
Andre Lignitzer
Der Altenn Fechter anfengliche kunst (Christian Egenolff)
1531A New WorkAntonio ManciolinoOpera Nova (Antonio Manciolino)
1536, 1546, 1550,
1567, 1568, 1615
A New WorkAchille MarozzoOpera Nova (Achille Marozzo)
1538The Noble Science of SwordplayAndre Paurñfeyndt
Andre Lignitzer
La noble science des ioueurs d'espee (Andre Paurñfeyndt)
1539, 1669The Art of Wrestling: Eighty-Five DevicesFabian von AuerswaldRinger Kunst (Fabian von Auerswald)

Books and other printed matter

1552Fencers and WrestlersFechter & Ringer (Maarten van Heemskerck)
1553The Three DaysMarc'Antonio PaganoLe tre giornate (Marc'Antonio Pagano)
1553Treatise on the Science of Arms, with a Dialogue
on Philosophy
Camillo AgrippaTrattato di Scientia d'Arme, con vn Dialogo di Filosofia (Camillo Agrippa)
1570Discourse on Wielding Arms with SafetyGiacomo di GrassiRagione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi)
1570, 1573, 1580,
1599, 1608
As the War HorseJohann FayserWie die Streitbarn Pferdt (Johann Fayser)
1570, 1600A Thorough Description of the Art of FencingJoachim MeyerGründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)
1572Three Books on the Art of DefenseGiovanni dall'AgocchieDell'Arte di Scrima Libri Tre (Giovanni dall'Agocchie)
1573Secrets of the Premier Book on the Single SwordHenry de Sainct DidierLes secrets du premier livre sur l'espée seule (Henry de Sainct Didier)
1575, 1588On DefenseAngelo Viggiani dal MontoneLo Schermo (Angelo Viggiani)
1577Chapter by Mr. Mercurio Spetioli of FermoMercurio SpezioliCapitolo di M. Mercvrio Spetioli da Fermo (Mercurio Spezioli)
1579The True Principles of the Art of FencingHeinrich von GunterrodtDe Veris Principiis Artis Dimicatoria (Heinrich von Gunterrodt)
1582, 1612, 1616On the Philosophy of Arms and its Skill, and
Christian Offense and Defense
Jerónimo Sánchez de CarranzaDe la Filosofia de las Armas y de su Destreza y la Aggression y Defensa Cristiana (Jerónimo Sánchez de Carranza)
1584New and Brief Method of FencingAlfonso FalloppiaNuovo et brieve modo di schermire (Alfonso Falloppia)
1587Rules of Many Knightly ExercisesFederico GhislieroRegole di molti cavagliereschi essercitii (Federico Ghisliero)
1589Dialogue on the Use of the SwordGirolamo LucinoDialogo del uso della spada (Girolamo Lucino)
1591Discourses of War and Single CombatBertrand de LoqueDeux Traitéz: l'un de la guerre, l'autre du duel (Bertrand de Loque)
1594His True Art of DefenseGiacomo di GrassiDiGrassi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi)
1595His Practice, in Two BooksVincentio SavioloHis Practise, in Two Bookes (Vincentio Saviolo)
1595, 1597, 1609,
1610, 1617, 1628
Treatise or Instruction on Fighting with WeaponsGirolamo Cavalcabo
Traité ou instruction pour tirer des armes (Girolamo Cavalcabo)
1599Paradoxes of DefenseGeorge SilverParadoxes of Defence (George Silver)
1600, 1605A Book on the Greatness of the SwordLuis Pacheco de NarváezLibro de las Grandezas de la Espada (Luis Pacheco de Narváez)
1601Treatise on Matters of DefenseMarco DoccioliniTrattato in Materia di Scherma (Marco Docciolini)
1606, 1610, 1619,
1622, 1628, 1644
School, or TheaterNicoletto GigantiScola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti)
1606, 1619, 1622,
1624, 1672, 1676,
The Science of ArmsSalvator FabrisScienza d’Arme (Salvator Fabris)
1607, 1608, 1609,
1610, 1619
The Exercise of Armes For Calivres, Muskettes, and PikesWapenhandelinghe van Roers Musquetten ende Spiessen (Jacob de Gheyn II)
1608The Second Book of Niccoletto GigantiNicoletto GigantiLibro secondo (Nicoletto Giganti)
1609The Complete CavalierTorquato d'AlessandriIl Cavalier Compito (Torquato d'Alessandri)
1610Discourse on Theory, Practice, and Excellence at ArmsAndré des BordesDiscours de la théorie de la pratique et de l’excellence des armes (André des Bordes)
1610, 1629, 1632,
Great Representation of the Art and Use of FencingRidolfo Capo Ferro da CagliGran Simulacro dell'Arte e dell'Uso della Scherma (Ridolfo Capo Ferro da Cagli)
1611A New Illustrated Fencing Manual on RapierMichael HundtEin new Kůnstliches Fechtbuch im Rappier (Michael Hundt)
1611, 1612New Illustrated Fencing ManualGirolamo Cavalcabo
Neues Kunstliches Fechtbuch (Girolamo Cavalcabo)
1612, 1849New Illustrated Fencing ManualJakob Sutor von BadenNew Kůnstliches Fechtbuch (Jakob Sutor von Baden)
1615, 1616, 1617,
1626, 1627, 1630,
1640, 1665
New Illustrated Fencing ManualSebastian HeußlerNeu Kunstlich Fechtbuch (Sebastian Heußler)
1617The School of the Noble and Worthy Science of
Joseph SwetnamThe Schoole of the Noble and Worthy Science of Defence (Joseph Swetnam)
1618, 1625On the Weapon-Handling of Nassau with Shield, Spear, Rapier, and TargetAdam van BreenDe Nassavsche Wapen-Handelinge (Adam van Breen)
1619, 1625, 1639,
New Discourse on the Knightly and World-
Renowned Art of Fencing
Joachim KöppeNewer Discůrs Von der Rittermeszigen und Weitberůmbten Kůnst des Fechtens (Joachim Köppe)
1619, 1650The Art-Rich Italian Fencing ArtSalvator FabrisDes Kunstreichen Italiänische Fechtkunst (Salvator Fabris)
1620Thorough and Proper Description of the Art of FencingHans Wilhelm Schöffer von DietzGrůndtliche vñ eigentlichte Beschreibung der Fechtkunst (Hans Wilhelm Schöffer von Dietz)
1630, 1668Academy of the SwordGérard Thibault d'AnversAcademie de l'Espée (Gérard Thibault d'Anvers)
1638, 1641The Banner of Francesco Fernando AlfieriFrancesco Fernando AlfieriLa Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri)
1639Pallas Armata, the Gentlemans ArmorieG. A.Pallas Armata, the Gentlemans Armorie (G.A.)
1640Objections and Admonishments on the Subject of FencingJacopo MonesiOpposizioni et Avvertimenti sopra la Scherma (Jacopo Monesi)
1640, 1646The Fencing of Francesco Fernando AlfieriFrancesco Fernando AlfieriLa Scherma (Francesco Fernando Alfieri)
1641The Pike of Francesco Fernando AlfieriFrancesco Fernando AlfieriLa Picca (Francesco Fernando Alfieri)
1641The Practice of the Sword Governed by the Perfect Conception of FencingTerenziano CeresaL'Esercizio della spada regolato con la perfetta idea della scherma (Terenziano Ceresa)
1646The Chivalric and Noble Art of FencingG. A.Den Ridderlige og Adelige Fecht-Konstis (G.A)
1653The Art of Handling the Sword WellFrancesco Fernando AlfieriL’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri)
1657, 1658, 1659Brief Information About the Pike, the Flag,
the Half-Pike, the Vaulting Horse, the Grapple,
the Fence of Thrust and Blow, and Finally the
Carving Knife
Johann Georg PaschaKurze Unterrichtung belangend die pique die Fahne, den Jägerstock, ... (Johann Georg Pascha)
1659Brief but Thorough Information About the Pike,
Pike Drills, the Flag, the Half-Pike, the Carving
Knife, and Fencing with the Thrust and the Blow
Johann Georg PaschaKurtze doch Gründliche Unterrichtung den Pique, den Trillens in der Pique, ... (Johann Georg Pascha)
1660The True Handling of the SwordAlessandro SeneseIl vero maneggio di spada (Alessandro Senese)
1660A Short but Thorough Description of VaultingJohann Georg PaschaKurtze iedoch gründliche Beschreibung des Voltiger (Johann Georg Pascha)
1660Short Instructions for the Hunting Stick or Half-PikeJohann Georg PaschaKurtze Anleitung des Jägerstocks oder Halbe Pique (Johann Georg Pascha)
1660, 1661Short but Clear Description of the Pike-Play,
as well as the Drills of the Pike
Johann Georg PaschaKurtze jedoch deutliche Beschreibung Des Pique (Johann Georg Pascha)
1661, 1664, 1666,
1667, 1678
Short but Clear Description Treating Fencing
with the Thrust and Blow
Johann Georg PaschaKurze jedoch deutliche Beschreibung handelnd vom Fechten auf den Stoss und Hieb (Johann Georg Pascha)
1663, 1665Complete Wrestling ManualJohann Georg PaschaVollständiges Ring-Buch (Johann Georg Pascha)
1664, 1708Clear Explanation of the Art of FencingJohann Daniel LangeDeutliche Erklårung der Fechtkunst (Johann Daniel Lange)
1666, 1667, 1673,
Complete Book of Fencing, Wrestling, and VaultingJohann Georg PaschaVollständiges Fecht- Ring- ûnd Voltigier-Bũch (Johann Georg Pascha)
1671, 1676Thorough Description of the Noble and Knightly
Fencing- or Weapon-Art
Johannes Georgius BruchiusGrondige Beschryvinge van de Edele ende Ridderlijcke Scherm- ofte Wapen-Konste (Johannes Georgius Bruchius)
1673Clearly Described and Differentiated Flag-Lessons,
Divided into Eight Plays / In Addition the Play of the
Pike, the Partisan, and the Half-Pike or Jägerstock
Johann Georg PaschaDeutliche Beschreibung Unterschiedener Fahnen-Lectionen (Johann Georg Pascha)
1674, 1675, 1679,
1680, 1712, 1814
Clear Education in the Magnificent Art of WrestlingNicolaes PetterKlare Onderrichtinge der Voortreffelijke Worstel-Konst (Nicolaes Petter)
1674, 1675, 1679
1814, 1887, 1969
The Artful WrestlerNicolaes PetterDer künstliche Ringer (Nicolaes Petter)
1676, 1713The Science and Practice of ArmsSalvator FabrisSienza e pratica d’arme (Salvator Fabris)
1679The Artful FencerTheodori VeroliniDer Kůnstliche Fechter (Theodori Verolini)
1680, 1712The Academy of the Admirable Art of WrestlingNicolaes PetterL’Académie de l’admirable art de la Lutte (Nicolaes Petter)
1711The Master ArtCarlo Giuseppe ColombaniL'Arte maestra (Carlo Giuseppe Colombani)

Other relevant books

1512Battle ForceKonrad KyeserBellifortis (Konrad Kyeser)
1585Dialogue on a Method for Entering Battle Quickly and EasilyCamillo AgrippaDialogo del Modo di Mettere in battaglia presto & con facilità (Camillo Agrippa)
1589Honors and Praise to the Art of FencingChristoff RösenerEhrentitel und Lopspruch der Fechtkunst (Christoff Rösener)
1616New Illustrated Flag-Waving ManualSebastian Heußler
Johannes Renner
New Kůnstlich Fahnenbůchlein (Sebastian Heußler)