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Pedro de Heredia

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Pedro de Heredia
Spouse(s) unknown
  • Governor
  • Captain
Nationality Spanish
Influences Girolamo Cavalcabo
Genres Fencing manual
Language Middle French
Notable work(s) Book of Lessons

Pedro de Heredia was a 17th century Spanish governor of a region in Belgium and a cavalry captain from 1615-1645. He wrote three manuscripts.

De Heredia's Le Livre des Leçons ("The Book of Lessons") is influenced by Girolamo Cavalcabo's Nobilissimo discorso intorno il schermo ("Most Noble Discourse on Defense").



Additional Resources


  1. According to Lauvernay, fourniment is the powder case of arquebusiers and musketeers (sometimes extended to all the equipment carried). The word is only used once to indicate a place on the body, probably a bit below the shoulder.
  2. Droit can mean "right" or "correct" (as in not incorrect) or "true".
  3. Volter is an Italian loanword of voltare which means "to turn".
  4. Estocade is the French loanword for the Italian stoccata and is used in this treatise as "supination".
  5. Brocade is the French loanword for the Italian imbroccata and is used in this treatise as "pronation".
  6. Caver is the French loanword for the Italian cavare, which means "to dig or to excavate".
  7. Lit. translated as "right-hands".
  8. Estramaçon is a loanword for the Italian stramazzare which means "to fall heavily". It is also French for greatsword.
  9. Credits to Alan Bloniarz for providing context to the word "garatusa" which is a Spanish card game where one discards their cards to win.
  10. Écarté is the French loanword for the Italian technique "inquartata" and means "discarded"
  11. Gannance is a loanword derived from the Spanish word "ganancia", which means "gain". It is used to describe a situation where your blade is used to restrict the opponent's blade movement. Credit to Tim Riviera for the explanation.
  12. The Spanish word "cortar" simply means "to cut".
  13. Chassement means "chasing". In this case, it is the back foot chasing the front. In modern fencing, this is known as advancing.
  14. Crèvement means "to burst or to puncture." In the treatise, it is used to describe breaking guards.