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| birthdate            = 1550-1560
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| birthdate            = 1550s-60s
 
| birthplace          = Fossombrone, Italy
 
| birthplace          = Fossombrone, Italy
| deathdate            = after 1622
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| deathdate            = unknown
| deathplace          = Venice, Italy (?)
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| patron              = Cosimo II de Medici
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| Cosimo II de' Medici
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| Christofano Chigi
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| first printed edition= Leoni, 2010
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'''Nicoletto Giganti''' (Niccoletto, Nicolat; 1550s-after 1622<ref>Leoni, p xii.</ref>) was a 16th – [[century::17th century]] [[nationality::Italian]] soldier and [[fencing master]]. He was likely born to a noble family in Fossombrone in central Italy,<ref>Lancellotti, Francesco Maria. ''Quadro letterario degli uomini illustri della città di Fossombrone''. In Colucci, Giuseppe. ''Antichità picene, XXVIII''. Fermo, 1796. p 33.</ref> and only later became a citizen of Venice as he stated on the title page of his 1606 treatise. Little is known of Giganti’s life, but in the dedication to his 1606 treatise he counts twenty seven years of professional experience (possibly referring to service in the Venetian military, a long tradition of the Giganti family).<ref>Calcaterra, Francesco. ''Corti e cortigiani nella Roma barocca''. Rome, 2012. p 76.</ref> The preface to his 1608 treatise describes him as a Mastro d'Arme of the Order of St. Stephen in Pisa, giving some further clues to his career.
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'''Nicoletto Giganti''' (Niccoletto, Nicolat) was an [[nationality::Italian]] soldier and [[fencing master]] around the turn of the [[century::17th century]]. He was likely born to a noble family in Fossombrone in central Italy,<ref name="Terminiello 9">Terminiello et al. 2013, p 9.</ref> and only later became a citizen of Venice.<ref>That he eventually became a Venetian citizen is indicated on the [[Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/5|title page]] of his 1606 treatise.</ref> Little is known of Giganti’s life, but in the dedication to his 1606 treatise he claims 27 years of professional experience, meaning that his career began in 1579 (possibly referring to service in the Venetian military, a long tradition of the Giganti family).<ref name="Terminiello 9"/> Additionally, the preface to his 1608 treatise describes him as a Master of Arms to the Order of Santo Stefano in Pisa, a powerful military order founded by Cosimo I de' Medici, giving some further clues to his career.
  
In 1606, Giganti published a popular treatise on the use of the rapier (both single and with the dagger) titled ''[[Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti)|Scola, overo teatro]]'' ("School or Fencing Hall"). This treatise is structured as a series of progressively more complex lessons, and Tom Leoni opines that this treatise is the best pedagogical work on rapier fencing of the early 17th century.<ref>Leoni, p xi.</ref> It is also the first treatise to fully articulate the principle of the lunge.
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In 1606, Giganti published a treatise on the use of the rapier (both single and with the dagger) titled ''[[Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti)|Scola, overo teatro]]'' ("School or Theater"). It is dedicated to Cosimo II de' Medici. This treatise is structured as a series of progressively more complex lessons, and Tom Leoni opines that this treatise is the best pedagogical work on rapier fencing of the early 17th century.<ref>Leoni, p xi.</ref> It is also the first treatise to fully articulate the principle of the lunge.
  
In 1608, Giganti made good the promise in his first book that he would publish a second volume.<ref>This treatise was considered lost for centuries, and as early as 1673 the Sicilian master [[Giuseppe Morsicato Pallavicini]] stated that this second book was never published at all. See ''[[La seconda parte della scherma illustrata (Giuseppe Morsicato Pallavicini)|La seconda parte della scherma illustrata]]''. Palermo, 1673. p v.</ref> Titled ''[[Libro secondo (Nicoletto Giganti)|Libro secondo di Niccoletto Giganti Venetiano]]'', it covers the same weapons as the first as well as rapier and buckler, rapier and cloak, rapier and shield, single dagger, and mixed weapon encounters. This text in turn promises two additional works, on the dagger and on cutting with the rapier, but there is no record of these books ever being published.
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In 1608, Giganti made good on the promise in his first book that he would publish a second volume.<ref>This treatise was considered lost for centuries, and as early as 1673 the Sicilian master [[Giuseppe Morsicato Pallavicini]] stated that this second book was never published at all. See ''[[La seconda parte della scherma illustrata (Giuseppe Morsicato Pallavicini)|La seconda parte della scherma illustrata]]''. Palermo, 1673. p V.</ref> Titled ''[[Libro secondo (Nicoletto Giganti)|Libro secondo di Niccoletto Giganti]]'' ("Second Book of Niccoletto Giganti"), it is dedicated to Christofano Chigi, a Knight of Malta, and covers the same weapons as the first as well as rapier and buckler, rapier and cloak, rapier and shield, single dagger, and mixed weapon encounters. This text in turn promises additional writings on the dagger and on cutting with the rapier, but there is no record of further books by Giganti ever being published.
  
While Giganti's second book quickly disappeared from history, his first seems to have been quite popular: reprints, mostly unauthorized, sprang up many times over the subsequent decades, both in the original Italian and, beginning in 1619, in French and German translations. This unauthorized dual-language edition also included book 2 of [[Salvator Fabris]]' 1606 treatise ''[[Lo Schermo, overo Scienza d’Arme (Salvator Fabris)|Lo Schermo, overo Scienza d’Arme]]'' which, coupled with the loss of Giganti's true second book, is probably what has lead many later bibliographers to accuse Giganti himself of plagiarism.
+
While Giganti's second book quickly disappeared from history, his first seems to have been quite popular: reprints, mostly unauthorized, sprang up many times over the subsequent decades, both in the original Italian and, beginning in 1619, in French and German translations. This unauthorized dual-language edition also included book 2 of [[Salvator Fabris]]' 1606 treatise ''[[Scienza d’Arme (Salvator Fabris)|Lo Schermo, overo Scienza d’Arme]]'' which, coupled with the loss of Giganti's true second book, is probably what has lead many later bibliographers to accuse Giganti himself of plagiarism.<ref>This accusation was first made by [[Johann Joachim Hynitzsch]], who attributed the edition to Giganti rather than Zeter and was incensed that he gave no credit to Fabris.</ref>
  
 
== Treatise ==
 
== Treatise ==
  
Research on Giganti's newly-rediscovered [[Libro secondo (Nicoletto Giganti)|second book]] is still ongoing, and it is not currently included in the tables below.
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Giganti, like many 17th century authors, had a tendency to write incredibly long, multi-page paragraphs which quickly become hard to follow. Jacob de Zeter's 1619 dual-language edition often breaks these up into more manageable chunks, and so his version is used as the template for these concordances. Neither scans nor transcription of Giganti's [[Libro secondo (Nicoletto Giganti)|second book]] are yet available, so it cannot yet be included in the tables below.
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A [http://data.onb.ac.at/rep/109AF678 copy of the 1628 printing] that was extensively annotated by a contemporary reader now resides in the [[Österreichische Nationalbibliothek]]. Its annotations are beyond the scope of this concordance, but they have been [http://www.rapier.at/2018/07/20/a-transcription-of-annotations-in-the-onb-copy-211216-c-of-scola-overo-teatro-by-nicoletto-giganti/ transcribed] by [[Julian Schrattenecker]] and [[Florian Fortner]], and incorporated into [[Jeff Vansteenkiste]]'s translation in a [https://labirinto.ca/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/Giganti-Nicoletto-Scola-overo-teatro-1606-and-Marginalia-rev-2020-07-17.pdf separate document].
  
 
{{master begin
 
{{master begin
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{| class="master"
 
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Images<br/></p>
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! <p>Images<br/>from the 1606</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Jeff Vansteenkiste]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Jeff Vansteenkiste]]</p>
! <p>Italian (1606)<br/>by [[Jeff Vansteenkiste]]</p>
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! <p>Italian (1606){{edit index|Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf}}<br/>by [[Jeff Vansteenkiste]]</p>
! <p>German (1619)<br/>by [[Jan Schäfer]]</p>
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! <p>German (1619){{edit index|Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf}}<br/>by [[Jan Schäfer]]</p></p>
! <p>French (1644)<br/>Open for editting</p>
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! <p>French (1619){{edit index|Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Giganti Title 1606.png|400x400px|center|Title Page]]
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| rowspan="4" | [[File:Giganti Title 1606.png|400x400px|center|Title Page]]
| class="noline" | <p>'''SCHOOL, OR THEATRE''' In which different manners and methods of parrying and wounding with the single sword and sword and dagger are represented; ''Where every scholar will be able to exercise and become practised in the profession of arms''
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| class="noline" | <p>'''School, or Theatre''' In which different manners and methods of parrying and wounding with the single sword and sword and dagger are represented; ''Where every scholar will be able to exercise and become practised in the profession of arms''
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/5|1|lbl=i}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/5|1|lbl=i}}
| class="noline" | [http://fechtgeschichte.blogspot.de/2014/08/das-fechtbuch-des-nicolai-giganti-in.html Text to copy over]
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| class="noline" | {{section|Nicoletto Giganti/1644 German|1|lbl=-}}
| class="noline" |  
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| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/3|1|lbl=ii}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| class="noline" | <p>BY NICOLETTO GIGANTI, VENETIAN, TO THE MOST SERENE DON COSMO DE' MEDICI GREAT PRINCE OF TUSCANY</p>
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| class="noline" | <p>'''By Nicoletto Giganti, Venetian, To The Most Serene Don Cosimo de’ Medici Great Prince Of Tuscany'</p>
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/5|2|lbl=-}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/5|2|lbl=-}}
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| class="noline" | {{section|Nicoletto Giganti/1644 German|2|lbl=-}}
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| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/3|2|lbl=-}}
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|-
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
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| class="noline" | {{section|Nicoletto Giganti/1644 German|3|lbl=-}}
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| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/3|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>''With license and privilege of the Superiors''</p>
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| <p>With license and privilege of the Superiors</p>
  
<p>IN VENICE<br/>Printed by Giovanni Antonio and Giacomo de Frenchesi. MDCVI</p>
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<p>'''In Venice'''<br/>Printed by Giovanni Antonio and Giacomo de Frenchesi. MDCVI</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/5|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/5|3|lbl=-}}
|  
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| <p><br/></p>
|  
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{{section|Nicoletto Giganti/1644 German|3.1|lbl=-}}
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| <p><br/></p>
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{{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/3|4|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Giganti Medici Heraldry.png|400x400px|center|Arms of the Medici Family]]
 
| [[File:Giganti Medici Heraldry.png|400x400px|center|Arms of the Medici Family]]
| <p>'''TO THE MOST SERENE DON COSMO DE MEDICI''' GREAT PRINCE OF TUSCANY my only Lord</p>
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| <p>'''To the Most Serene Don Cosimo de Medici Great Prince of Tuscany''' my only Lord</p>
  
 
<p>Just as iron extracted from the rough mines would be useless if it had not received shape suited to human armies from industrious art, thus the same in the hands of the strong soldier can be of little profit if, accompanied by studious and wise valour, the way is not made clear for every difficult and triumphant success. In this way to a point since the Good Shepherd welcomes the operation, because almost all the noblest things proceeding from our actions receive appropriate material from His hands, which, refined and dignified by the industry of the spirit, achieve miraculous and powerful effects. Now I say that this temperament is wonderfully demonstrated in the excellent and illustrious greatness of Your Most Serene Highness, who holds the natural greatnesses brought back to their peak from the invincible glorious works of your Ancestors, not only in the ancient and royal histories, but reflecting in yourself all the light of the present and past splendour, adorning them with your own virtues so that everyone admires the most divine tempers, and with wonderment says such a Most Serene Lord is no less fitting to that Most Serene State, than such a Most Serene State to that Most Serene Lord. But I will only say that this proposition, just as is demonstrated clearly in all the arts; so it is evidently perceived in exercising arms. Discussing the strength of iron, although it is exercised by a strong arm and agile body, if it is not tuned with observed rules and exercised study it is shown to be perilous and of little valour: Whereas if the art can be known by a wise captain, and he obeys it as a bold minister, they make marvelous prowess of it. You serve us as a clear example, who Heaven had to grant all height of perfect quality as in the most complete illumination of the present age. You who have in the noblest proportion stature, puissance, vigour joined to agility, promptness, and strength, in order to draw with your highest ingenuity the finesse of industry, advice, time, and art that can make you most a complete and Most Illustrious Captain, a Most Serene and most singular Prince.</p>
 
<p>Just as iron extracted from the rough mines would be useless if it had not received shape suited to human armies from industrious art, thus the same in the hands of the strong soldier can be of little profit if, accompanied by studious and wise valour, the way is not made clear for every difficult and triumphant success. In this way to a point since the Good Shepherd welcomes the operation, because almost all the noblest things proceeding from our actions receive appropriate material from His hands, which, refined and dignified by the industry of the spirit, achieve miraculous and powerful effects. Now I say that this temperament is wonderfully demonstrated in the excellent and illustrious greatness of Your Most Serene Highness, who holds the natural greatnesses brought back to their peak from the invincible glorious works of your Ancestors, not only in the ancient and royal histories, but reflecting in yourself all the light of the present and past splendour, adorning them with your own virtues so that everyone admires the most divine tempers, and with wonderment says such a Most Serene Lord is no less fitting to that Most Serene State, than such a Most Serene State to that Most Serene Lord. But I will only say that this proposition, just as is demonstrated clearly in all the arts; so it is evidently perceived in exercising arms. Discussing the strength of iron, although it is exercised by a strong arm and agile body, if it is not tuned with observed rules and exercised study it is shown to be perilous and of little valour: Whereas if the art can be known by a wise captain, and he obeys it as a bold minister, they make marvelous prowess of it. You serve us as a clear example, who Heaven had to grant all height of perfect quality as in the most complete illumination of the present age. You who have in the noblest proportion stature, puissance, vigour joined to agility, promptness, and strength, in order to draw with your highest ingenuity the finesse of industry, advice, time, and art that can make you most a complete and Most Illustrious Captain, a Most Serene and most singular Prince.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Nicoletto Giganti portrait.png|400x400px|center|Nicoletto Giganti]]
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| <p>'''TO THE LORD READERS, ALMORO LOMBARDO''', Son of the Most Renowned Lord Marco.</p>
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| <p>'''To the Lord Readers, Almoro Lombardo,''' Son of the Most Renowned Lord Marco.</p>
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<p>Desiring to write on the matter of arms, although the author does not mention that it is a science, to me it appears a necessary thing, Lord Readers, to treat with what share it has, and of which name it would adorn itself so that everyone knows its greatness, dignity, and privilege.</p>
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<p>Whereupon first some students of this this most noble science read and discuss the most learned and easy observations of this valorous and knowledgeable professor Nicoletto Giganti, I, by observing the rule and general precept of a person who wants to address anything, will come to the definition, and then to the general division of this word Science, from which it will be possible for two things to finally be recognized by everyone, showing us that this beautiful profession is science.</p>
  
<p>''Wanting to write on the matter of arms, although the author does not mention that it is a science, to me it appears a necessary thing, Lord Readers, to treat with what share it has, and of which name it would adorn itself so that everyone knows its greatness, dignity, and privilege.''</p>
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<p>Science, therefore, is a certain and manifest knowledge of things that the intellect acquires. It is of two sorts, that is, Speculative and Practical. Speculative is a simple operation of the intellect around its own object. Practical only consists in the actual workings of the intellect.</p>
  
<p>''Whereupon first some students of this this most noble science read and discuss the most learned and easy observations of this valorous and knowledgeable professor Nicoletto Giganti, I, by observing the rule and general precept of a person who wants to address anything, will come to the definition, and then to the general division of this word Science, from which it will be possible for two things to finally be recognized by everyone, showing us that this beautiful profession is science.''</p>
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<p>Speculative is divided in two parts, that is, in Real Speculation and Rational Speculation. The Real aims at the reality of its object, which demonstrates its essence on its exterior. The Rational consists of those things that only the intellect administers and does not extend itself to other goals.</p>
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{{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|11|lbl=vii|p=1}} {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/12|1|lbl=viii|p=1}}
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| {{section|Nicoletto Giganti/1644 German|4|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/4|1|lbl=iii}}
  
<p>''Science, therefore, is a certain and manifest knowledge of things that the intellect acquires. It is of two sorts, that is, Speculative and Practical. Speculative is a simple operation of the intellect around its own object. Practical only consists in the actual workings of the intellect.''</p>
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|-
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|
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| <p>Physics is a Real Speculative Science that only aims at moving and natural things, like the elements. Mathematics is a Real Speculative Science that only extends itself to continuous and discrete quantity. Continuous like lines, circles, surfaces, the measures of which deal with Arithmetic.</p>
  
<p>''Speculative is divided in two parts, that is, in Real Speculation and Rational Speculation. The Real aims at the reality of its object, which demonstrates its essence on its exterior. The Rational consists of those things that only the intellect administers and does not extend itself to other goals.''</p>
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<p>Grammar, Rhetoric, Poetry, and Logic are Rational Speculative Sciences.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/12|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Nicoletto Giganti/1644 German|5|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/4|2|lbl=-}}
  
<p>''Physics is a Real Speculative Science that only aims at moving and natural things, like the elements. Mathematics is a Real Speculative Science that only extends itself to continuous and discrete quantity. Continuous like lines, circles, surfaces, the measures of which deal with Arithmetic.''</p>
+
|-
 +
|
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| <p>Practical Science is divided in two: Active and Workable. Active is Ethics, Politics, and Economics. Workable can be divided in seven others, called mechanical, which are these: Woolcraft, Agriculture, Soldiery, Navigation, Medicine, Hunting, and Metalworking.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/12|3|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Nicoletto Giganti/1644 German|6|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/4|3|lbl=-}}
  
<p>''Grammar, Rhetoric, Poetry, and Logic are Rational Speculative Sciences.''</p>
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|-
 +
|
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| <p>Now, coming to what I promised above about this noble science, I will go over its qualities and nature, discussing whether it is Speculative or Practical science. In my opinion I say that it is Speculative, and prove it with diverse reasons. That it is science there is no doubt, because it is not acquired if it is not mediated by the operation of the intellect, from which it is born. That it is Speculative is certain since it does not consist in anything other than simple knowledge of its object, as I will be discussing below.</p>
  
<p>''Practical Science is divided in two: Active and Workable. Active is Ethics, Politics, and Economics. Workable can be divided in seven others, called mechanical, which are these: Woolcraft, Agriculture, Soldiery, Navigation, Medicine, Hunting, and Metalworking.''</p>
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<p>The object of this science is nothing more than parrying and wounding. The knowledge of those two things is a work of the intellect, and moreover with intelligence professors of this science do not extend it further than the knowledge of them, which cannot be understood at all unless one first has knowledge of tempi and measures, or rather, knowledge of Feint, Disengage, or resolution without knowledge of tempi and measures. These are all operations of the intellect, and moreover outside of this knowledge the intellect does not extend, because as I have said the aim of these professions is understanding parrying. We will see if it is Real Speculative or Rational Speculative.</p>
  
<p>''Now, coming to what I promised above about this noble science, I will go over its qualities and nature, discussing whether it is Speculative or Practical science. In my opinion I say that it is Speculative, and prove it with diverse reasons. That it is science there is no doubt, because it is not acquired if it is not mediated by the operation of the intellect, from which it is born. That it is Speculative is certain since it does not consist in anything other than simple knowledge of its object, as I will be discussing below.''</p>
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<p>Considering this, it cannot be Rational, and the reason is this: because if it is indeed an operation of the intellect, nevertheless it spreads further, wherefore I find it to be Real Speculative. Real, because the knowledge of its aim is shown to us outwardly by the intellect. As the understanding of wounding and parrying, with tempi, measures, feints, disengages, and resolutions, even though they are operations of the intellect, they cannot be understood if not outwardly, and this exterior consists in the bearing of the body and of the Sword in the guards and counterguards, which all consist of circles, angles, lines, surfaces, measures, and of numbers.</p>
  
<p>''The object of this science is nothing more than parrying and wounding. The knowledge of those two things is a work of the intellect, and moreover with intelligence professors of this science do not extend it further than the knowledge of them, which cannot be understood at all unless one first has knowledge of tempi and measures, or rather, knowledge of Feint, Disengage, or resolution without knowledge of tempi and measures. These are all operations of the intellect, and moreover outside of this knowledge the intellect does not extend, because as I have said the aim of these professions is understanding parrying. We will see if it is Real Speculative or Rational Speculative.''</p>
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<p>These things, which must be observed, can be read about in Camillo Agrippa and in many other professors of this science. Note that just as those operations of the intellect without an exterior operation cannot be shown, so these exterior operations cannot be understood without the operations of the intellect first, in a manner that this science, which derives from the intellect, cannot be understood if not outwardly. Neither can one understand outwardly without operations of the intellect. These operations seek to understand the greatness, excellence, and perfection of this profession, and always come united. As there can never be Sun without day, nor day without Sun, never will there be those without these, nor these without those. In the end we see that it is Real Speculative Science.</p>
  
<p>''Considering this, it cannot be Rational, and the reason is this: because if it is indeed an operation of the intellect, nevertheless it spreads further, wherefore I find it to be Real Speculative. Real, because the knowledge of its aim is shown to us outwardly by the intellect. As the understanding of wounding and parrying, with tempi, measures, feints, disengages, and resolutions, even though they are operations of the intellect, they cannot be understood if not outwardly, and this exterior consists in the bearing of the body and of the Sword in the guards and counterguards, which all consist of circles, angles, lines, surfaces, measures, and of numbers. These things, which must be observed, can be read about in Camillo Agrippa and in many other professors of this science. Note that just as those operations of the intellect without an exterior operation cannot be shown, so these exterior operations cannot be understood without the operations of the intellect first, in a manner that this science, which derives from the intellect, cannot be understood if not outwardly. Neither can one understand outwardly without operations of the intellect. These operations seek to understand the greatness, excellence, and perfection of this profession, and always come united. As there can never be Sun without day, nor day without Sun, never will there be those without these, nor these without those. In the end we see that it is Real Speculative Science.''</p>
+
<p>This science of the Sword, or of arms, is a Real Speculative Mathematic Science, and Geometric, and Arithmetic. Geometric because it consists in lines, circles, angles, surfaces, and measures. Arithmetic because it consists of numbers. There is no motion of the body that does not make an angle or constraint. There is no motion of the Sword that does not travel in a line. There is neither guard nor counterguard that does not go by the number. The observations of these things all depend on knowledge of tempi and measures, whence I conclude that this most noble science is Real, Mathematic, Geometric, and Arithmetic, as I said a little above.</p>
 +
|
 +
{{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/12|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/13|1|lbl=ix|p=1}}
 +
| {{section|Nicoletto Giganti/1644 German|7|lbl=-}}
 +
|
 +
{{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/4|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/5|1|lbl=iv|p=1}}
  
<p>''This science of the Sword, or of arms, is a Real Speculative Mathematic Science, and Geometric, and Arithmetic. Geometric because it consists in lines, circles, angles, surfaces, and measures. Arithmetic because it consists of numbers. There is no motion of the body that does not make an angle or constraint. There is no motion of the Sword that does not travel in a line. There is neither guard nor counterguard that does not go by the number. The observations of these things all depend on knowledge of tempi and measures, whence I conclude that this most noble science is Real, Mathematic, Geometric, and Arithmetic, as I said a little above.''</p>
+
|-
 
|  
 
|  
{{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|11|lbl=vii|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|12|lbl=viii|p=1}} {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/13|1|lbl=ix|p=1}}
+
| <p>Perhaps some inquisitive person arguing over this could say that the science of arms is a Practical Science with this reason: that being a Practical Science, a science which not only extends to the knowledge of its own object but to the operation of it, this science is therefore Practical, and not Speculative. To this objection I respond: all things have from nature their operation. Three are the sorts of their operations; some are internal, and these have their being in pure and simple intellect, and result from a Rational Speculative. Some are internal and external, and these have a commonality inside the intellect and outside, and are born from a Real Speculative. Some are completely external, and these have their being outside the intellect entirely and depend on a Practical Science, and are either Active or Workable. The Speculative Workable Real Science is no different from the Practical Science other than in this: the Real Speculative operates outwardly on its object and through the knowledge of that serves the intellect. The Practical Science not only cannot operate on its object if not outwardly, it cannot even come to the knowledge of it if not outwardly. The science of arms has the knowledge of its object in the intellect, and even though it operates outwardly, it cannot be said that it is Practical, but instead Speculative Real Science.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 +
{{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/13|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/14|1|lbl=x|p=1}}
 +
| {{section|Nicoletto Giganti/1644 German|8|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
 +
{{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/5|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/6|1|lbl=v|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>''Perhaps some inquisitive person arguing over this could say that the science of arms is a Practical Science with this reason: that being a Practical Science, a science which not only extends to the knowledge of its own object but to the operation of it, this science is therefore Practical, and not Speculative. To this objection I respond: all things have from nature their operation. Three are the sorts of their operations; some are internal, and these have their being in pure and simple intellect, and result from a Rational Speculative. Some are internal and external, and these have a commonality inside the intellect and outside, and are born from a Real Speculative. Some are completely external, and these have their being outside the intellect entirely and depend on a Practical Science, and are either Active or Workable. The Speculative Workable Real Science is no different from the Practical Science other than in this: the Real Speculative operates outwardly on its object and through the knowledge of that serves the intellect. The Practical Science not only cannot operate on its object if not outwardly, it cannot even come to the knowledge of it if not outwardly. The science of arms has the knowledge of its object in the intellect, and even though it operates outwardly, it cannot be said that it is Practical, but instead Speculative Real Science.''</p>
+
| <p>We have therefore seen that it is a science and it is Mathematics, of Geometry and Arithmetic, since it consists of numbers, lines, and measures. The author does not make mention of this in his observations, so that from him learned persons and those with no study may acquire some profit. Therefore, from his present figures and noted lessons, without learning to understand the multiplicity of lines, circles, angles, surfaces which would rather confuse the minds of readers that do not have understanding of these studies, nor give them any instruction, without a doubt everyone will learn to understand without difficulty the tempi, measures, resolutions, feints, disengages, and the way of parrying and wounding.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/14|2|lbl=-}}
 +
| {{section|Nicoletto Giganti/1644 German|9|lbl=-}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/6|2|lbl=-}}
  
<p>''We have therefore seen that it is a science and it is Mathematics, of Geometry and Arithmetic, since it consists of numbers, lines, and measures. The author does not make mention of this in his observations, so that from him learned persons and those with no study may acquire some profit. Therefore, from his present figures and noted lessons, without learning to understand the multiplicity of lines, circles, angles, surfaces which would rather confuse the minds of readers that do not have understanding of these studies, nor give them any instruction, without a doubt everyone will learn to understand without difficulty the tempi, measures, resolutions, feints, disengages, and the way of parrying and wounding.''</p>
+
|-
 +
|
 +
| <p>As for knowing how to understand the circles, lines, and other things mentioned above, every studious person will come to understand them with exercise. I will always advise everyone to apply themselves to the study of letters before this profession, because one that has studied in order to have understanding of the necessary things around this science will better profit and will make themselves more excellent and more perfect, with much more quickness of time for the acquisition, so that he can understand the aforesaid things of the guards, counterguards, covered just as uncovered. He that has not studied will not obtain it so easily, which, if he can learn it well, he will not therefore acquire understanding of this science without length of time and continuous exercise.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/15|1|lbl=xi}}
 +
| {{section|Nicoletto Giganti/1644 German|10|lbl=-}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/6|3|lbl=-}}
  
<p>''As for knowing how to understand the circles, lines, and other things mentioned above, every studious person will come to understand them with exercise. I will always advise everyone to apply themselves to the study of letters before this profession, because one that has studied in order to have understanding of the necessary things around this science will better profit and will make themselves more excellent and more perfect, with much more quickness of time for the acquisition, so that he can understand the aforesaid things of the guards, counterguards, covered just as uncovered. He that has not studied will not obtain it so easily, which, if he can learn it well, he will not therefore acquire understanding of this science without length of time and continuous exercise.''</p>
+
|-
 +
|
 +
| <p>This profession is of so much dignity and consideration. What decorum does it seek? What reputation and how much honour must one give it? Under what obligation is one that carries the sword and makes a profession of it? I say its dignity and consideration derive totally from its qualities, and with the division of the same one can come to understand.</p>
  
<p>''This profession is of so much dignity and consideration. What decorum does it seek? What reputation and how much honour must one give it? Under what obligation is one that carries the sword and makes a profession of it? I say its dignity and consideration derive totally from its qualities, and with the division of the same one can come to understand.''</p>
+
<p>This science of the sword is divided into three parts. The first is divided in two: Natural and Artificial.</p>
  
<p>''This science of the sword is divided into three parts. The first is divided in two: Natural and Artificial. Natural is a demonstrative discourse man makes use of naturally in parrying and wounding, since with his own ingenuity he proceeds with those goals extracting what mother nature administers to him for his needs. Here is what many men of courage and spirit have shown great measure of in their contentions with men of great art and knowledge. The Artificial is that which with ingenuity and long use and exercise found under short rules and impossible methods different manners of parrying and wounding with the above noted things. Accordingly, coming to some occasion the man extracts from this the real ends of his safety. In his lessons the author shows great understanding of those two qualities, and the reader will be fully satisfied with them.''</p>
+
<p>Natural is a demonstrative discourse man makes use of naturally in parrying and wounding, since with his own ingenuity he proceeds with those goals extracting what mother nature administers to him for his needs. Here is what many men of courage and spirit have shown great measure of in their contentions with men of great art and knowledge.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/15|2|lbl=-}}
 +
| {{section|Nicoletto Giganti/1644 German|11|lbl=-}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/7|1|lbl=vi}}
  
<p>''The second part is this: the Artificial science of the sword is divided in two, Demonstrative and Exercised. The Demonstrative is that which demonstrates the proper method, and aims at knowledge of parrying and of wounding, by firm foot just as with the pass, when one must bind the enemy and when one must draw back by way of those lines, circles, or circumstances you remember from above, for which the intellect governs and imparts the many and multiple postures and counterpostures of the body. The Exercise is the same as the Demonstrative which, since we have acquired it, we apply to the understanding of a thousand warnings. There is no difference between them, except that the Demonstrative is self-contained, and the Exercised extends to serve the understanding of different things.''</p>
+
|-
 +
|
 +
| <p>The Artificial is that which finds with ingenuity and long use and exercise under short rules and impossible methods different manners of parrying and wounding with the above noted things. Accordingly, coming to some occasion the man extracts from this the real ends of his safety. In his lessons the author shows great understanding of those two qualities, and the reader will be fully satisfied with them.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/15|3|lbl=-}}
 +
| {{section|Nicoletto Giganti/1644 German|12|lbl=-}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/7|2|lbl=-}}
  
<p>''The third part is this: the Demonstrative science of the sword is divided in two: the first Demonstrative consists of uncomplicated ends, that is, in simple ends, or composite, that unite in themselves more ends for the same Demonstratives of various occurrences, such as being outside of measure with the arms open, the weapons high or low. These ends require incomplete ends, that is, ends not understood by the enemy. They are called simple because they are natural. They are called composite because they have in themselves many considerations, and these are divided into the first and the second concepts.''</p>
+
|-
 +
|
 +
| <p>The second part is this: the Artificial science of the sword is divided in two, Demonstrative and Exercised. The Demonstrative is that which demonstrates the proper method, and aims at knowledge of parrying and of wounding, by firm foot just as with the pass, when one must bind the enemy and when one must draw back by way of those lines, circles, or circumstances you remember from above, for which the intellect governs and imparts the many and multiple postures and counterpostures of the body. The Exercise is the same as the Demonstrative which, since we have acquired it, we apply to the understanding of a thousand warnings. There is no difference between them, except that the Demonstrative is self-contained, and the Exercised extends to serve the understanding of different things.</p>
 +
|
 +
{{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/15|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/16|1|lbl=xii|p=1}}
 +
| {{section|Nicoletto Giganti/1644 German|13|lbl=-}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/7|3|lbl=-}}
  
<p>''The first concepts are real things that are first learned from the intellect, like parrying and wounding, and these come in the first intention. The second concepts are formed from the intellect, and these make the second of our intentions, the knowledge in order to be able to wound and parry, and are made through the first, for the reason that immediately when our intellect has learned this aim of wounding and parrying, it soon discusses how this can be done in a different manner and with different methods.''</p>
+
|-
 
+
|
<p>''The second Demonstrative consists of the complex ends, that is, of ends that unite in themselves more ends for the same demonstratives, and these aims either united in measure or separate in distance demonstrate their ends, like being in guard with the weapons closed demonstrates, or the posture or counterposture of the body in measure or at distance which is the aim of that, and how many things can be done with that working. For this reason one sees of how much consideration this beautiful science is for its qualities, and for the aims it contains.''</p>
+
| <p>The third part is this: the Demonstrative science of the sword is divided in two: the first Demonstrative consists of uncomplicated ends, that is, in simple ends, or composite, that unite in themselves more ends for the same Demonstratives of various occurrences, such as being outside of measure with the arms open, the weapons high or low. These ends require incomplete ends, that is, ends not understood by the enemy. They are called simple because they are natural. They are called composite because they have in themselves many considerations, and these are divided into the first and the second concepts.</p>
  
<p>''Therefore, just as it is of great dignity, because it is real Speculative Mathematics of Geometry and Arithmetic, and for many parts found under itself, such decorum and reputation I say it requires. No other will be the decorum and reputation if not this. And also considering, o Readers, that this science for the most part is found in royal courts, and of every Prince, in the most famous Cities, studied by Barons, Counts, Knights, and persons of great quality, and for no other reason if not because just as it is noble, it excites and inflames our spirits to great things, to learn, and to heroic actions, to match of the virtue of the spirit, the valour of the body, the vigour of the strength, and the skill of the person. This always seeks parity, and does not allow any blemish to it. It wants to be understood and learned, but not to be professed for every folly one takes up. It flees the disputes of villainous persons. It does not do all that it can. It shows itself at the time and place. It avoids the practices of excess. It is of few words. It desires a serious comportment, a lively eye, an honoured dress, and a noble practice. This is enough about its decorum and reputation. In regard to the honour that it requires, advising that the observance of all the said things is honour to this profession, it remains only to be said what obligation one who carries the sword is under.''</p>
+
<p>The first concepts are real things that are first learned from the intellect, like parrying and wounding, and these come in the first intention. The second concepts are formed from the intellect, and these make the second of our intentions, the knowledge in order to be able to wound and parry, and are made through the first, for the reason that immediately when our intellect has learned this aim of wounding and parrying, it soon discusses how this can be done in a different manner and with different methods.</p>
  
<p>''We will pass by the aims of these Duellists who, just as they have badly learned the said profession, so I say with many of their propositions they degrade it and have reduced it to such an unhappy state that it not only casts aside the virtuous life which demands such a science, and human discourse, and every reason, but forgetting the great God, and themselves as a consequence, their unjust aims can only possess it for the damnation of their spirits, postponing the divine church for their diabolical thoughts.''</p>
+
<p>The second Demonstrative consists of the complex ends, that is, of ends that unite in themselves more ends for the same demonstratives, and these aims either united at measure or separate at a distance demonstrate their ends, like being in guard with the weapons closed demonstrates, either at a distance, or at measure with the posture of the body, or counterposture which is the aim of that, and how many things can be done with that working. For this reason, one sees of how much consideration this beautiful science is for its qualities, and for the aims it contains.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
{{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/13|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|14|lbl=x|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|15|lbl=xi|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|16|lbl=xii|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|17|lbl=xiii|p=1}}
+
{{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/16|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/17|1|lbl=xiii|p=1}}
 +
| {{section|Nicoletto Giganti/1644 German|14|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
 +
{{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/7|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/8|1|lbl=vii|p=1}}
 +
 +
|-
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>Therefore, just as it is of great dignity because it is real Speculative Mathematics of Geometry and Arithmetic, and for many parts found under itself, such decorum and reputation I say it requires. No other will be the decorum and reputation if not this. And also considering, o Readers, that this science for the most part is found in royal courts, and of every Prince, in the most famous Cities, studied by Barons, Counts, Knights, and persons of great quality, and for no other reason if not because just as it is noble, it excites and inflames our spirits to great things, to learn, and to heroic actions, to match of the virtue of the spirit, the valour of the body, the vigour of the strength, and the skill of the person. This always seeks parity, and does not allow any blemish to it. It wants to be understood and learned, but not to be professed for every folly one takes up. It flees the disputes of villainous persons. It does not do all that it can. It shows itself at the time and place. It avoids the practices of excess. It is of few words. It desires a serious comportment, an alert eye, an honoured dress, and a noble practice. This is enough about its decorum and reputation.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/17|2|lbl=-}}
 +
| {{section|Nicoletto Giganti/1644 German|15|lbl=-}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/8|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>''This profession, o Readers, puts one who practices it under obligation to learn, and considering this wants to be used in four occasions: the first for Faith, then for Country, for defence of one’s own life, and finally for honour. It always wants to be a defender of reason, never taken hold of in order to do wrong, and one who does so makes an injury to this profession. Neither will a man of honour have held onto a wrong in order to fight, but will only do so for the said things. It is necessary to have occasion because fighting without one is a thing of the foolish and drunk. Some as soon as they have acquired some beginning of this mock, putting the Sword at their side, and using a thousand insolences, either stop or wound someone, and at such time kill some miserable person, believing themselves to have acquired honour and fame. They do evil, because other than making an outrage to the nobility of this which must not be put in use without reason, they offend the just God and themselves.''</p>
+
| <p>In regard to the honour that it requires, advising that the observance of all the said things is honour to this profession, it remains only to be said what obligation one who carries the sword is under.</p>
  
<p>''In order to not come to tedium I will not continue, but only exhort each to study such a noble and real science, begging him to keep in mind the underwritten observations of our noble professor, and practice in it, because with brevity of time one can acquire no small profit, observing how much it suits honour, glory, and greatness themselves.''</p>
+
<p>We will pass by the aims of these Duellists who, just as they have badly learned the said profession, so I say with many of their propositions they degrade it and have reduced it to such an unhappy state that it not only casts aside the virtuous life which demands such a science, and human discourse, and every reason, but forgetting the great God, and themselves as a consequence, their unjust aims can only possess it for the damnation of their spirits, postponing the divine church for their diabolical thoughts.</p>
| {{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|18|lbl=xiv}}
+
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/17|3|lbl=-}}
 +
| {{section|Nicoletto Giganti/1644 German|16|lbl=-}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/8|3|lbl=-}}  
 +
 
 +
|-
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>This profession, o Readers, puts one who practises it under obligation to learn, and considering this wants to be used in four occasions: the first for Faith, then for Country, for defence of one’s own life, and finally for honour. It always wants to be a defender of reason, never taken hold of in order to do wrong, and one who does so makes an injury to this profession. Neither will a man of honour have held onto a wrong in order to fight, but will only do so for the said things. It is necessary to have occasion because fighting without one is a thing of the foolish and drunk.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/18|1|lbl=xiv}}
 +
| {{section|Nicoletto Giganti/1644 German|17|lbl=-}}
 +
|
 +
{{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/8|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/9|1|lbl=viii|p=1}}
 +
 +
|-
 
|  
 
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 +
| <p>Some as soon as they have acquired some beginning of this mock, putting the Sword at their side, and using a thousand insolences, either stop or wound someone, and at such time kill some miserable person, believing themselves to have acquired honour and fame. They do evil, because other than making an outrage to the nobility of this which must not be put in use without reason, they offend the just God and themselves.</p>
 +
 +
<p>In order to not come to tedium I will not continue, but only exhort each to study such a noble and real science, begging him to keep in mind the underwritten observations of our noble professor, and practise in it, because with brevity of time one can acquire no small profit, observing how much it suits honour, glory, and greatness themselves.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/18|2|lbl=-}}
 +
| {{section|Nicoletto Giganti/1644 German|18|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/9|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
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Line 192: Line 283:
 
:Dated the 31st of October, 1605.
 
:Dated the 31st of October, 1605.
  
::Captains of the Most Illustrious Council of X,
+
::Captains of the Most Illustrious Council of X.
  
 
::D. Santo Balbi<br/>D. Gio. Giacomo Zane<br/>D. Piero Barbarigo
 
::D. Santo Balbi<br/>D. Gio. Giacomo Zane<br/>D. Piero Barbarigo
Line 211: Line 302:
 
| class="noline" | <p>December 23, 1605 in Senate</p>
 
| class="noline" | <p>December 23, 1605 in Senate</p>
  
<p>''The power is granted to our faithful Nicoletto Giganti, Venetian, that other than him or one at his behest, it is not permitted for the space of the next thirty years to venture to print in this City, nor any other City, Land, or place of our Domain, nor printed elsewhere to conduct or sell in Our Domain the book composed by him, titled School, or Theatre, under pain of losing printed work, or conducted, which is by the aforesaid Nicoletto Giganti, and being obliged to observe what is required by our law in matters of Printing, of paying three hundred ducats: a third to our Arsenal, a third to the Magistrate that makes the execution, and the other third to the complainant.''</p>
+
<p>The power is granted to our faithful Nicoletto Giganti, Venetian, that other than him or one at his behest, it is not permitted for the space of the next thirty years to venture to print in this City, nor any other City, Land, or place of our Domain, nor printed elsewhere to conduct or sell in Our Domain the book composed by him, titled School, or Theatre, under pain of losing the printed or conducted works, which are by the aforesaid Nicoletto Giganti, and being obliged to observe what is required by our law in matters of Printing, of paying three hundred ducats: a third to our Arsenal, a third to the Magistrate that makes the execution, and the other third to the complainant.</p>
 
| class="noline" | {{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|20|lbl=xvi}}
 
| class="noline" | {{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|20|lbl=xvi}}
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
Line 225: Line 316:
 
{| class="master"
 
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Images<br/></p>
+
! <p>Images<br/>from the 1606</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Jeff Vansteenkiste]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Jeff Vansteenkiste]]</p>
! <p>Italian (1606)<br/>by [[Jeff Vansteenkiste]]</p>
+
! <p>Italian (1606){{edit index|Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf}}<br/>by [[Jeff Vansteenkiste]]</p>
! <p>German (1619)<br/>by [[Jan Schäfer]]</p>
+
! <p>German (1619){{edit index|Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf}}<br/>by [[Jan Schäfer]]</p>
! <p>French (1644)<br/>Open for editting</p>
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! <p>French (1619){{edit index|Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf}}<br/>by [[Olivier Delannoy]]</p>
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| [[File:Nicoletto Giganti portrait.png|400x400px|center|Nicoletto Giganti]]
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/10|1|lbl=01}}
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| <p>[1] '''GUARDS AND COUNTERGUARDS'''</p>
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| <p>[1] '''Guards and Counterguards'''</p>
  
<p>It is necessary for someone wanting to become a professor of the science of arms to understand many things. To give my lessons a beginning, I will first begin to discuss the guards and counterguards, or postures and counterpostures, of the sword. This, because coming to some incident of contention it is first necessary to understand this to be able to secure oneself against the enemy. To place oneself in guard then, many things must be observed, as can be seen in my figures: standing firm over the feet, that are low and the foundation of the entire body, in a just pace, restrained rather than long in order to be able to increase it, holding the sword and dagger strongly in the hands, the dagger now high, now low, now extended, the sword now high, now low, now on the right side, ready to parry and wound so that the enemy throwing either a thrust or cut can be parried and wounded in the same tempo, with the vita disposed and ready because lacking the disposition and readiness of that it will be an easy thing for the enemy to put it into disorder with a dritto, a riverso, a thrust, or in another manner, and even if such a person parried they would remain in danger. It is advised to let the dagger watch the enemy’s sword, because if the enemy throws it will parry that. Always aim the sword at the uncovered part of the enemy so that the enemy is wounded when throwing. This is all the artifice of this profession. Moreover, one must note that all the motions of the sword are guards to one who knows them, and all guards are good to one who practices, as on the contrary no motion is a guard to one who does not understand, and they are not good for one who does not know how to use them. This profession does not require more than science and exercise, and this exercise presents the science. Placing oneself uncovered in guard is artifice and done because the enemy disorders themselves when throwing and ends up in danger. Placing oneself covered is also artifice because in binding the enemy can be wounded. In this way it is understood that every guard aids one who has skill and understands, and no guard is valuable to he who does not have skill or understanding. This is enough about the guards. As for the counterguards, be advised that one who has knowledge of this profession will never place themselves in guard, but will seek to place themselves against the guards. Wanting to do so, be warned of this: one must place oneself outside of measure, that is, at a distance, with the sword and dagger high, strong with the vita, and with a firm and balanced pace, then consider the guard of the enemy. Afterwards approach him little by little with your sword binding his for safety, that is, almost resting your sword on his so that it covers it because he will not be able to wound if he does not disengage the sword. The reason for this is that in disengaging he performs two actions. First he disengages, which is the first tempo, then wounding, which is the second. While he disengages, in that same tempo he can come to be wounded in many ways before he has time to wound, as one will see in the figures of my book. If he changes guard for the counterguard it is necessary to follow him along with the sword forward and the dagger, always securing his sword, because in the first tempo he will always have to disengage the sword and end up wounded. It will never be possible for him to wound if not with two tempi, and from those parrying will always be a very easy thing. This is enough about guards and counterguards.</p>
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<p>It is necessary for someone wanting to become a professor of the science of arms to understand many things. To give my lessons a beginning, I will first begin to discuss the guards and counterguards, or postures and counterpostures, of the sword. This, because coming to some incident of contention it is first necessary to understand this to be able to secure oneself against the enemy. To place oneself in guard then, many things must be observed, as can be seen in my figures: standing firm over the feet, that are low and the foundation of the entire body, in a just pace, restrained rather than long in order to be able to increase it, holding the sword and dagger strongly in the hands, the dagger now high, now low, now extended, the sword now high, now low, now on the right side, ready to parry and wound so that the enemy throwing either a thrust or cut can be parried and wounded in the same tempo, with the vita disposed and ready because lacking the disposition and readiness of that it will be an easy thing for the enemy to put it into disorder with a dritto, a riverso, a thrust, or in another manner, and even if such a person parried they would remain in danger. It is advised to let the dagger watch the enemy’s sword, because if the enemy throws it will parry that. Always aim the sword at the uncovered part of the enemy so that the enemy is wounded when throwing. This is all the artifice of this profession. Moreover, one must note that all the motions of the sword are guards to one who knows them, and all guards are good to one who practises, as on the contrary no motion is a guard to one who does not understand, and they are not good for one who does not know how to use them.</p>
 
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{{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|22|lbl=02|p=1}} {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/23|1|lbl=03|p=1}}
| [http://fechtgeschichte.blogspot.de/2014/08/das-fechtbuch-des-nicolai-giganti-in.html Text to copy over]
 
 
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{{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/10|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/11|1|lbl=02|p=1}}
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{{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/10|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/11|4|lbl=02|p=1}}
  
 
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| <p>[2] '''TEMPO AND MEASURE'''</p>
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| <p>[2] This profession does not require more than science and exercise, and this exercise presents the science. Placing oneself uncovered in guard is artifice and done because the enemy disorders themselves when throwing and ends up in danger. Placing oneself covered is also artifice because in binding the enemy can be wounded. In this way it is understood that every guard aids one who has skill and understands, and no guard is valuable to he who does not have skill or understanding. This is enough about the guards.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/23|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/11|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/11|5|lbl=-}}
  
<p>''One cannot know how to place oneself in guard, or against the guard, nor how to throw a thrust, an imbroccata, a mandritto, or a riverso, nor how to turn the wrist, nor how to carry the body well, or to best control the sword, or say one understands parrying and wounding, but by understanding tempo and measure which, of one who does not understand, even though they parry and wound, it could not be said that they understand parrying and wounding, because such a person in parrying as in wounding can err and incur a thousand dangers. Therefore, having discussed the guards and counterguards it remains to discuss tempo and measure in order to know how to, then to accommodate an understanding of when one must parry and wound. Therefore, measure means when the sword can reach the enemy. When it cannot it is called being out of measure. Tempo is understood in this way: if the enemy is in guard, one needs to place oneself outside of measure and advance with one’s guard, securing oneself from the enemy’s sword with one’s own, and put one’s mind on what he wants to do. If he disengages, in the disengagement one can wound him, and this is a tempo. If he changes guard, while he changes is a tempo. If he turns, it is a tempo. If he binds to come to measure, while he walks before arriving in measure is a tempo to wound him. If he throws, parrying and wounding in a tempo also is a tempo. If the enemy stays still in guard and waits and you advance to bind him and throw where he is uncovered when you are in measure, it is a tempo, because in every motion of the dagger, sword, foot, and vita such as changing guard, is a tempo in such a way that all these things are tempi: because they contain different intervals, and while the enemy makes one of these motions, he will certainly be wounded because while a person moves they cannot wound. It is necessary to understand this in order to be able to wound and parry. I will be demonstrating more clearly how one must do so in my figures.''</p>
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{{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|24|lbl=04|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|25|lbl=05|p=1}}
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| <p>[3] As for the counterguards, be advised that one who has knowledge of this profession will never place themselves in guard, but will seek to place themselves against the guards. <ref name="counterguard">In a counterguard.</ref> Wanting to do so, be warned of this: one must place oneself outside of measure, that is, at a distance, with the sword and dagger high, strong with the vita, and with a firm and balanced pace, then consider the guard of the enemy. Afterwards approach him little by little with your sword binding his for safety, that is, almost resting your sword on his so that it covers it because he will not be able to wound if he does not disengage the sword. The reason for this is that in disengaging he performs two actions. First he disengages, which is the first tempo, then wounding, which is the second. While he disengages, in that same tempo he can come to be wounded in many ways before he has time to wound, as one will see in the figures of my book. If he changes guard for the counterguard it is necessary to follow him along with the sword forward and the dagger, always securing his sword, because in the first tempo he will always have to disengage the sword and end up wounded. It will never be possible for him to wound if not with two tempi, and from those parrying will always be a very easy thing. This is enough about guards and counterguards.</p>
| [http://fechtgeschichte.blogspot.de/2014/08/das-fechtbuch-des-nicolai-giganti-in.html Text to copy over]
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| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/23|3|lbl=-}}
 
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{{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/11|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/12|1|lbl=03|p=1}}
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{{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/11|6|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/12|5|lbl=03|p=1}}
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| <p>[4] '''Tempo and Measure'''</p>
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<p>One cannot know how to place oneself in guard, or against the guard, <ref name="counterguard"/> nor how to throw a thrust, an imbroccata, a mandritto, or a riverso, nor how to turn the wrist, nor how to carry the body well, or to best control the sword, or say one understands parrying and wounding, but by understanding tempo and measure which, of one who does not understand, even though they parry and wound, it could not be said that they understand parrying and wounding, because such a person in parrying as in wounding can err and incur a thousand dangers.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/24|1|lbl=04}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/12|2|lbl=-}}
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| <p>[5] Therefore, having discussed the guards and counterguards it remains to discuss tempo and measure in order to know how to, then to accommodate an understanding of when one must parry and wound.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/24|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/12|3|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/12|7|lbl=-}}
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| <p>[6] Therefore, measure means when the sword can reach the enemy. When it cannot it is called being out of measure.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/24|3|lbl=-}}
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{{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/12|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/13|1|lbl=04|p=1}}
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{{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/12|8|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/13|4|lbl=04|p=1}}
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| <p>[7] Tempo is understood in this way: if the enemy is in guard, one needs to place oneself outside of measure and advance with one’s guard, securing oneself from the enemy’s sword with one’s own, and put one’s mind on what he<ref name="the enemy">The enemy.</ref> wants to do.</p>
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{{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/24|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/25|1|lbl=05|p=1}}
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| <p>[8] If he disengages, in the disengagement one can wound him, and this is a tempo. If he changes guard, while he changes is a tempo. If he turns, it is a tempo. If he binds to come to measure, while he walks before arriving at measure is a tempo to wound him. If he throws, parrying and wounding in a tempo also is a tempo. If the enemy stays still in guard and waits and you advance to bind him and throw where he is uncovered when you are at measure, it is a tempo, because in every motion of the dagger, sword, foot, and vita such as changing guard, is a tempo in such a way that all these things are tempi: because they contain different intervals, and while the enemy makes one of these motions, he will certainly be wounded because while a person moves they cannot wound. It is necessary to understand this in order to be able to wound and parry. I will be demonstrating more clearly how one must do so in my figures.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/25|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/13|3|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/13|6|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| [[File:Giganti 01.png|400x400px|center|Figure 1]]
 
| [[File:Giganti 01.png|400x400px|center|Figure 1]]
| <p>[3] ''The method of throwing the stoccata''</p>
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| <p>[9] '''The method of throwing the stoccata'''</p>
  
<p>Now that we have discussed the guards, counterguards, measures, and tempi, it is a necessary thing to demonstrate and give knowledge of how to hold the vita in order to throw a stoccata and escape since wanting to learn this art it is first necessary to understand how to carry the vita and throw stoccate that are long, as seen in this figure, and all is in throwing brief, strong, and immediate stoccate, withdrawing backward outside of measure. To throw the long stoccata, one must place themselves in a just and strong pace, short rather than long in order to be able to extend, and in throwing the stoccata stretch the sword arm, bending the knee as much as possible. The proper method of throwing the stoccata is after placing oneself in guard, it is necessary to throw the arm first, then extend forward with the vita in one tempo so that the stoccata arrives and the enemy does not perceive it. If the vita were brought forward first the enemy could notice it and, availing himself of the tempo, parry and wound in one tempo. In withdrawing backward one must first carry back the head because behind the head will follow the vita, and afterwards the foot. Carrying the foot back first and leaving the head and vita forward keeps them in great danger. Therefore, to learn this art well one must first practice throwing this stoccata. Knowing it one will learn the rest easily, and not knowing it the contrary. Be advised, Lord readers, that I will place this method of throwing the stoccata many times in my lessons at appropriate times. This I know makes the lessons better understood. It is not said of me that I say one thing many times.</p>
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<p>Now that we have discussed the guards, counterguards, measures, and tempi, it is a necessary thing to demonstrate and give knowledge of how to hold the vita in order to throw a stoccata and escape since wanting to learn this art it is first necessary to understand how to carry the vita and throw stoccate that are long, as seen in this figure, and all is in throwing brief, strong, and immediate stoccate, withdrawing backward outside of measure. To throw the long stoccata, one must place themselves in a just and strong pace, short rather than long in order to be able to extend, and in throwing the stoccata stretch the sword arm, bending the knee as much as possible. The proper method of throwing the stoccata is after placing oneself in guard, it is necessary to throw the arm first, then extend forward with the vita in one tempo so that the stoccata arrives and the enemy does not perceive it. If the vita were brought forward first the enemy could notice it and, availing himself of the tempo, parry and wound in one tempo.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/27|1|lbl=07}}
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/27|1|lbl=07}}
| [http://fechtgeschichte.blogspot.de/2014/08/das-fechtbuch-des-nicolai-giganti-in.html Text to copy over]
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/14|1|lbl=05}}
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| <p>[10] In withdrawing backward one must first carry back the head because behind the head will follow the vita, and afterwards the foot. Carrying the foot back first and leaving the head and vita forward keeps them in great danger.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/27|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/14|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/14|5|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| <p>[4] ''Why begin with the single sword''</p>
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| <p>[11] Therefore, to learn this art well one must first practise throwing this stoccata. Knowing it one will learn the rest easily, and not knowing it the contrary. Be advised, Lord Readers, that I will place this method of throwing the stoccata many times in my lessons at appropriate times. This I know makes the lessons better understood. It is not said of me that I say one thing many times.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/27|3|lbl=-}}
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{{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/14|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/16|1|lbl=06|p=1}}
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{{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/14|6|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/16|3|lbl=06|p=1}}
  
<p>In my first book of arms I proposed to discuss only two kinds of weapons, that is, the single sword and sword and dagger, setting aside discussion of certain others. If it pleases my Lord, I will illuminate all sorts of weapons as soon as possible. Because the sword is the most common and most used weapon of all I wanted to begin with it, since one who understands playing with the sword well will also understand the handling of almost every other kind of weapon. Since it is not usual in every part of the world to carry the dagger, targa, or rotella, and as fighting with single sword occurs many times, I urge everyone to first learn to play with the single sword, despite everything one might have in frays, such as the dagger, the targa, or the rotella, since occurring as it many times does that the dagger, targa, or rotella falls from his hand, a man would have to defend himself and wound the enemy with the single sword, and because one who practices playing with the single sword will understand just as well how to parry and wound as one who has sword and dagger.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/27|2|lbl=-}}
 
| [http://fechtgeschichte.blogspot.de/2014/08/das-fechtbuch-des-nicolai-giganti-in.html Text to copy over]
 
 
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| <p>[12] '''Why begin with the single sword'''</p>
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<p>In my first book of arms I proposed to discuss only two kinds of weapons, that is, the single sword and sword and dagger, setting aside discussion of certain others. If it pleases my Lord, I will illuminate all sorts of weapons as soon as possible. Because the sword is the most common and most used weapon of all I wanted to begin with it, since one who understands playing with the sword well will also understand the handling of almost every other kind of weapon. Since it is not usual in every part of the world to carry the dagger, targa, or rotella, and as fighting with single sword occurs many times, I urge everyone to first learn to play with the single sword, despite everything one might have in frays, such as the dagger, the targa, or the rotella, since occurring as it many times does that the dagger, targa, or rotella falls from his hand, a man would have to defend himself and wound the enemy with the single sword, and because one who practises playing with the single sword will understand just as well how to parry and wound as one who has sword and dagger.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/27|4|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/16|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/16|4|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| [[File:Giganti 02.png|400x400px|center|Figure 2]]
 
| [[File:Giganti 02.png|400x400px|center|Figure 2]]
| rowspan="2" | <p>[5] '''GUARDS, OR POSTURES'''</p>
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[[File:Giganti 03.png|400x400px|center|Figure 3]]
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| <p>[13] '''Guards, or Postures'''</p>
  
<p>Many are the guards of the single sword, and many still the counterguards. In my first book I will not teach any other than two sorts of guards and counterguards, of which you will be able to avail yourself for all lessons of the figures of this book. Therefore, before coming to do what you desire, you must go to bind the enemy outside of measure, securing yourself from his sword by placing your sword over his in a way that he cannot wound you if not with two tempi: one will be the disengage of the sword, and the other the wounding of you. In this way you will accommodate yourself against all the guards, either high or low, according to how you see your enemy accommodated, always taking care to not give opportunity and occasion to the enemy to be able to wound you in a single tempo. You will do this if you take care that the point of his sword is not toward the middle of your vita, so that pushing his sword forward quickly and strongly it will not be possible for him to wound you. Therefore, cover the enemy’s sword with yours as you see in this figure, so that the enemy’s sword is outside of your vita and he cannot wound you if he does not disengage his sword. You will settle yourself with your feet strong, stable with your vita, with your sword arm extended and strong in order to parry and wound, as the figure shows you. If you were to see the enemy in a high or low guard and did not place yourself in a counterguard and secure yourself from his sword you would be in danger even if your enemy had lesser science and lacked practice compared to you, since you could produce an incontro and both wound each other, or he could place you on the defensive, or rather, in obedience, with feints or disengages of the sword or other things that are possible. If you secure yourself from the enemy’s sword as I have said above he will not be able to move nor do any action that you will not see and have opportunity to parry. These figures here are two guards with the swords forward, and two counterguards covering the sword. One is made going to bind the enemy on the inside and the other going outside, as these figures show you, and as I will go about showing you in the subsequent lessons.</p>
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<p>Many are the guards of the single sword, and many still the counterguards. In my first book I will not teach any other than two sorts of guards and counterguards, of which you will be able to avail yourself for all lessons of the figures of this book. Therefore, before coming to do what you desire, you must go to bind the enemy outside of measure, securing yourself from his sword by placing your sword over his in a way that he cannot wound you if not with two tempi: one will be the disengage of the sword, and the other the wounding of you. In this way you will accommodate yourself against all the guards, either high or low, according to how you see your enemy accommodated, always taking care to not give opportunity and occasion to the enemy to be able to wound you in a single tempo. You will do this if you take care that the point of his sword is not toward the middle of your vita, so that pushing his sword forward quickly and strongly it will not be possible for him to wound you. Therefore, cover the enemy’s sword with yours as you see in this figure, so that the enemy’s sword is outside of your vita and he cannot wound you if he does not disengage his sword. You will settle yourself with your feet strong, stable with your vita, with your sword arm extended and strong in order to parry and wound, as the figure shows you. If you were to see the enemy in a high or low guard and did not place yourself in a counterguard and secure yourself from his sword you would be in danger even if your enemy had lesser science and lacked practice compared to you, since you could produce an incontro and both wound each other, or he could place you on the defensive, or rather, in obedience, with feints or disengages of the sword or other things that are possible. If you secure yourself from the enemy’s sword as I have said above he will not be able to move nor do any action that you will not see and have opportunity to parry.</p>
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| [[File:Giganti 03.png|400x400px|center|Figure 3]]
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| <p>[14] These figures here are two guards with the swords forward, and two counterguards covering the sword. One is made going to bind the enemy on the inside and the other going outside, as these figures show you, and as I will go about showing you in the subsequent lessons.</p>
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| rowspan="2" | [[File:Giganti 04.png|400x400px|center|Figure 4]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Giganti 04.png|400x400px|center|Figure 4]]
| <p>[6] '''EXPLANATION OF WOUNDING IN TEMPO'''</p>
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| <p>[15] '''Explanation of Wounding in Tempo'''</p>
  
<p>''This figure teaches you to wound your enemy in the tempo he disengages his sword. You do this by approaching to bind the enemy outside of measure, placing your sword over his to the inside as the figure of the first guard shows you so that he will not be able to wound you if he does not disengage the sword. Then, in the same tempo that he disengages to wound you, push forward your sword, turning your wrist in the same tempo so that you wound him in the face as is seen in the figure. In the case that you were to parry and then wound it would not be successful, since the enemy would have tempo to parry and you would be in danger, but if you enter immediately forward with your sword in the tempo he disengages his, turning your wrist and parrying, the enemy will have difficulty parrying. This done, the enemy wounded or not, to secure yourself return backward outside of measure with your sword over that of the enemy, never abandoning it.''</p>
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<p>This figure teaches you to wound your enemy in the tempo he disengages his sword. You do this by approaching to bind the enemy outside of measure, placing your sword over his to the inside as the figure of the first guard shows you<ref>Although the plates depicting the guards and counterguards are somewhat less than clear, we know from this chapter that Figure 2 depicts binding the enemy’s sword on the inside.</ref> so that he will not be able to wound you if he does not disengage the sword. Then, in the same tempo that he disengages to wound you, push forward your sword, turning your wrist in the same tempo so that you wound him in the face as is seen in the figure. In the case that you were to parry and then wound it would not be successful, since the enemy would have tempo to parry and you would be in danger, but if you enter immediately forward with your sword in the tempo he disengages his, turning your wrist and parrying, the enemy will have difficulty parrying.</p>
 
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| <p>[7] ''In the case that the enemy does not disengage his sword to wound you, I want you to advance to bind him outside of measure and immediately throw him a thrust where he is uncovered, returning backward outside of measure and resting your sword over his.''</p>
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| <p>[16] This done, the enemy wounded or not, to secure yourself return backward outside of measure with your sword over that of the enemy, never abandoning it.</p>
 
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| <p>[17] In the case that the enemy does not disengage his sword to wound you, I want you to advance to bind him outside of measure and immediately throw him a thrust where he is uncovered, returning backward outside of measure and resting your sword over his.</p>
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| [[File:Giganti 05.png|400x400px|center|Figure 5]]
 
| [[File:Giganti 05.png|400x400px|center|Figure 5]]
| <p>[8] '''THE PROPER METHOD OF GOING TO BIND''' THE ENEMY AND STRIKE HIM while he disengages the sword</p>
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| <p>[18] '''The Proper Method of Going to Bind''' the Enemy and Strike Him while he disengages the sword</p>
  
<p>''From this figure you learn that if your enemy is in a guard with the sword on the left side, high or low, you approach him to bind him outside of his sword outside of measure, with your sword over his so that it barely touches it, with a just and strong pace, with your sword ready to parry and wound, with lively eyes, as you see in the second figure of the guards and counterguards. You being accommodated in this way, your enemy will not be able to wound you with a thrust if he does not disengage the sword. While he disengages, turn your wrist and in the same tempo throw a stoccata at him as the fourth figure teaches you. Having thrown this stoccata, immediately in the same tempo return backward outside of measure, resting your sword over his so that if he wants to disengage anew, you will return to throw to him the same stoccata, turning your wrist as above, returning outside of measure. As many times as he disengages, that many times you will use the same method of turning your wrist and throwing the stoccata at him. To perform this game well much practice is necessary, since from this one learns to parry and wound with skill and great speed. Take care to always be balanced with your vita and to parry strongly with the forte of your sword because if your enemy throws strongly at you, parrying strongly will make him disconcerted and you will be able to wound him where he is uncovered. This must be the first lesson that one learns with the single sword, since all the others that I have placed in this book arise from it. Knowing how to do this in the tempo teaches you to parry all the cuts and resolute thrusts that can come for the head, which I will teach hand in hand in the subsequent lessons.''</p>
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<p>From this figure you learn that if your enemy is in a guard with the sword on the left side, high or low, you approach him to bind him outside of his sword outside of measure, with your sword over his so that it barely touches it, with a just and strong pace, with your sword ready to parry and wound, with an alert eye, as you see in the second figure of the guards and counterguards.<ref>Figure 3, which we know from the description of this chapter’s action depicts binding the enemy’s sword on the outside.</ref> You being accommodated in this way, your enemy will not be able to wound you with a thrust if he does not disengage the sword. While he disengages, turn your wrist and in the same tempo throw a stoccata at him as the fourth figure teaches you. Having thrown this stoccata, immediately in the same tempo return backward outside of measure, resting your sword over his so that if he wants to disengage anew, you will return to throw to him the same stoccata, turning your wrist as above, returning outside of measure. As many times as he disengages, that many times you will use the same method of turning your wrist and throwing the stoccata at him.</p>
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| <p>[19] To perform this game well much practice is necessary, since from this one learns to parry and wound with skill and great speed. Take care to always be balanced with your vita and to parry strongly with the forte of your sword because if your enemy throws strongly at you, parrying strongly will make him disconcerted and you will be able to wound him where he is uncovered. This must be the first lesson that one learns with the single sword, since all the others that I have placed in this book arise from it. Knowing how to do this in the tempo teaches you to parry all the cuts and resolute thrusts that can come for the head, which I will teach hand in hand in the subsequent lessons.</p>
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| <p>[9] '''THE PROPER METHOD''' OF DISENGAGING THE SWORD</p>
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| <p>[20] '''The Proper Method of Disengaging the Sword'''</p>
  
<p>''The two figures that were placed here above taught to wound the enemy while he disengages his sword. Because I would not leave a thing in my lessons that is not more than clear, I want to show you the method of disengaging the sword. But note that your enemy being settled in whichever sort of guard he wants, you having gone to bind him, throw a stoccata at him where he is uncovered and if he knows as much as you, you will always be with your swords equal. I want you then to disengage the sword under the hilt of that of the enemy, quickly turning your wrist and throwing a thrust in the same tempo where you find him uncovered. This is the proper and safe method to disengage the sword and wound in one tempo. If you were to disengage your sword without turning your wrist you would give a tempo and place to the enemy to wound you, as you will see quite well in exercising and trying it yourself. If the enemy were to parry return to disengage in the aforesaid way, always turning your wrist. As many times as he parries, disengage as many other times in the above way, which is safest, then throw the stoccata at him in the tempo that you disengage. This method of disengaging is no less necessary than what we taught in the explanation of the previous figure of the method of parrying, since this is the main thing that one seeks in knowing how to manage the single sword. Therefore I exhort everyone to practice well in these two things, since being in measure against the enemy, as soon as it is the tempo to disengage the sword, one would know how to disengage quickly and well, and as soon as it is the tempo of parrying, to understand parrying similarly well.''</p>
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<p>The two figures that were placed here above taught to wound the enemy while he disengages his sword. Because I would not leave a thing in my lessons that is not more than clear, I want to show you the method of disengaging the sword. But note that your enemy being settled in whichever sort of guard he wants, you having gone to bind him, throw a stoccata at him where he is uncovered and if he knows as much as you, you will always be with your swords equal. I want you then to disengage the sword under the hilt of that of the enemy, quickly turning your wrist and throwing a thrust in the same tempo where you find him uncovered. This is the proper and safe method to disengage the sword and wound in one tempo. If you were to disengage your sword without turning your wrist you would give a tempo and place to the enemy to wound you, as you will see quite well in exercising and trying it yourself. If the enemy were to parry return to disengage in the aforesaid way, always turning your wrist. As many times as he parries, disengage as many other times in the above way, which is safest, then throw the stoccata at him in the tempo that you disengage. This method of disengaging is no less necessary than what we taught in the explanation of the previous figure of the method of parrying, since this is the main thing that one seeks in knowing how to manage the single sword. Therefore I exhort everyone to practise well in these two things, since being at measure against the enemy, as soon as it is the tempo to disengage the sword one would know how to disengage quickly and well, and as soon as it is the tempo of parrying to understand parrying similarly well.</p>
 
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| [[File:Giganti 06.png|400x400px|center|Figure 6]]
 
| [[File:Giganti 06.png|400x400px|center|Figure 6]]
| <p>[10] '''THE INSIDE COUNTERDISENGAGE OF THE SWORD'''</p>
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| <p>[21] '''The Inside Counterdisengage of the Sword'''</p>
  
<p>''In this figure another method of parrying and wounding by way of counterdisengage is represented and shown to you, which is done in this way: having covered the sword of your enemy so that if he wants to wound you he must disengage, while he disengages I want you to also disengage so that your sword returns to its first position, covering that of the enemy. But in the disengaging that you do, availing yourself of the tempo, throw a stoccata at him where he is uncovered, turning your body a little toward the right side and holding your arm stretched forward so that if he comes to wound you he will wound himself of his own accord. Having thrown the stoccata, return backward outside of measure.''</p>
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<p>In this figure<ref>Reading the text, Figures 6 and 7 appear to be swapped, meaning this lesson’s text refers to Figure 7. Interestingly the plate order does not appear to be corrected in subsequent printings, even in Jakob de Zeter’s German/French version (1619), which uses entirely new plates created by a different artist.</ref> another method of parrying and wounding by way of counterdisengage is represented and shown to you, which is done in this way: having covered the sword of your enemy so that if he wants to wound you he must disengage, while he disengages I want you to also disengage so that your sword returns to its first position, covering that of the enemy. But in the disengaging that you do, availing yourself of the tempo, throw a stoccata at him where he is uncovered, turning your body a little toward the right side and holding your arm stretched forward so that if he comes to wound you he will wound himself of his own accord. Having thrown the stoccata, return backward outside of measure.</p>
 
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| [[File:Giganti 07.png|400x400px|center|Figure 7]]
 
| [[File:Giganti 07.png|400x400px|center|Figure 7]]
| <p>[11] '''THE COUNTERDISENGAGE''' OF THE SWORD ON THE OUTSIDE</p>
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| <p>[22] '''The Counterdisengage of the Sword on the Outside'''</p>
  
<p>This method of wounding by way of outside counterdisengage is similar to the inside counterdisengage, only there is a difference: that your enemy being in guard and you coming to bind, being outside of measure you must place yourself against his guard, securing yourself from his sword outside and making the enemy resolve himself to disengage. While he disengages, in the same tempo you will again disengage, turning the point of your sword under his together with your wrist, resting the forte of the edge of your sword and going along the edge of it, holding your arm long and extended, loosening the vita and lengthening the pace, as is seen in the figure, so you come to wound him without him sensing it. But be advised that if the enemy throws the sword strongly and you want to disengage yours so that the enemy does not reach and wound you, you need to hold your vita back in your disengage so that you stay safe. Supposing the enemy had thrown strongly, he would disconcert himself and come to wound himself on your sword. Then you will stay superior to him, being able to wound him where you parry, taking care to always hold your sword outside of your vita so that he cannot wound you.</p>
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<p>This method of wounding<ref>This lesson’s text refers to Figure 6.</ref> by way of outside counterdisengage is similar to the inside counterdisengage, only there is a difference: that your enemy being in guard and you coming to bind, being outside of measure you must place yourself against his guard,<ref name="counterguard"/> securing yourself from his sword outside and making the enemy resolve himself to disengage. While he disengages, in the same tempo you will again disengage, turning the point of your sword under his together with your wrist, resting the forte of the edge of your sword and going along the edge of it, holding your arm long and extended, loosening the vita and lengthening the pace, as is seen in the figure, so you come to wound him without him sensing it.</p>
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| <p>[23]  But be advised that if the enemy throws the sword strongly and you want to disengage yours so that the enemy does not reach and wound you, you need to hold your vita back in your disengage so that you stay safe. Supposing the enemy had thrown strongly, he would disconcert himself and come to wound himself on your sword. Then you will stay superior to him, being able to wound him where you parry, taking care to always hold your sword outside of your vita so that he cannot wound you.</p>
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| [[File:Giganti 08.png|400x400px|center|Figure 8]]
 
| [[File:Giganti 08.png|400x400px|center|Figure 8]]
| <p>[12] '''EXPLANATION OF THE FEINT''' ''Making a show of disengaging the sword with your wrist''</p>
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| <p>[24] '''Explanation of the Feint,''' ''Making a show of disengaging the sword with your wrist''</p>
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<p>The ways of wounding are various and consequently my lessons are also various. But do not expect at all that I will tell all the things that are possible to do in this profession because, those being infinite, my work would be too long and would bring tedium to the Readers. However, I will untangle those things that to me appear most beautiful, most artificial, and most useful, from which arise many others easier and less artificial. </p>
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| <p>[25] Therefore, among all the methods of wounding artificially the feint, in my opinion, exceeds all others. This is nothing more than hinting at doing one thing and doing another. It is done in different ways, and they are these: I want you to place yourself on your feet, on the right side with the sword forward, with the right arm extended in order to give your enemy occasion to come to bind you. As he comes to measure with you, watch if he wants to wound you from fixed feet or instead with a pass. You will know at the disengage you make with the sword. Disengage the sword with your wrist and feint a thrust at his face, but throw wide of the enemy’s sword so that it does not find yours. If the enemy does not parry throw it resolutely so that you wound him. If he parries, in his parrying redisengage the sword and wound as you see in this figure, where the enemy carelessly wounds himself. Take care that in redisengaging you do not let the sword be found because then your plan could be in vain, and in disengaging bring the head and vita back a little in order to see what the enemy does, because if he were to throw and you had not withdrawn backward, he could produce an incontro and you would wound each other. Moreover, you are advised to run with the right edge of your sword along the edge of the enemy’s sword, turning the inside of your wrist upwards in wounding with your sword over the debole of that of the enemy. As soon as the stoccata is given, either resolute or feinted, return backward outside of measure, securing yourself as shown to you above.</p>
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{{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/30|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/32|5|lbl=15|p=1}}
  
<p>The ways of wounding are various and as a consequence my lessons are also various. But don’t expect at all that I will tell all the things that are possible to do in this profession because, those being infinite, my work would be too long and would bring tedium to the Readers. However, I will untangle those things that to me appear most beautiful, most artificial, and most useful, from which arise many others easier and less artificial. Therefore, among all the methods of wounding artificially the feint, in my opinion, exceeds all others. This is nothing more than hinting at doing one thing and doing another. It is done in different ways, and they are these: I want you to place yourself on your feet, on the right side with the sword forward, with the right arm extended in order to give your enemy occasion to come to bind you. As he comes into measure with you, watch if he wants to wound you from fixed feet or instead with a pass. You will know at the disengage you make with the sword. Disengage the sword with your wrist and feint a thrust at his face, but throw wide of the enemy’s sword so that it does not find yours. If the enemy does not parry throw it resolutely so that you wound him. If he parries, in his parrying redisengage the sword and wound as you see in this figure, where the enemy carelessly wounds himself. Take care that in redisengaging you do not let the sword be found because then your plan could be in vain, and in disengaging bring the head and vita back a little in order to see what the enemy does, because if he were to throw and you had not withdrawn backward, he could produce an incontro and you would wound each other. Moreover, you are advised to run with the right edge of your sword along the edge of the enemy’s sword, turning the inside of your wrist upwards in wounding with your sword over the debole of that of the enemy. As soon as the stoccata is given, either resolute or feinted, return backward outside of measure, securing yourself as shown to you above. The feint is therefore performed in this way: first one displays the sword to either the face or chest of the enemy, and then one lengthens the arm without stepping. If the enemy parries, disengage the sword in the same tempo, accompanying it forward with the step so that you wound him unawares. If he does not parry, increase the step and strike him. This is the method of wounding by feint.</p>
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| <p>[26] The feint is therefore performed in this way: first one displays the sword to either the face or chest of the enemy, and then one lengthens the arm without stepping. If the enemy parries, disengage the sword in the same tempo, accompanying it forward with the step so that you wound him unawares.</p>
| [http://fechtgeschichte.blogspot.de/2014/08/das-fechtbuch-des-nicolai-giganti-in.html Text to copy over]
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| <p>[27] If he does not parry, increase the step and strike him. This is the method of wounding by feint.</p>
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| <p>[13] ''Although they appear similar, the following two figures are nevertheless different from each other since they contain different methods of feinting. Although they contain almost the same goal of wounding, and although it would have sufficed to give you a single figure to discuss and teach different methods of feinting in order to wound, to show clearly the different ways of feinting I wanted to put two of them here that differ widely from one other, which is shown to you in their explanations.''</p>
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| <p>[28] Although they appear similar, the following two figures are nevertheless different from each other since they contain different methods of feinting. Although they contain almost the same goal of wounding, and although it would have sufficed to give you a single figure to discuss and teach different methods of feinting in order to wound, to show clearly the different ways of feinting I wanted to put two of them here that differ widely from one other, which is shown to you in their explanations.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|45|lbl=25}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|45|lbl=25}}
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| [[File:Giganti 09.png|400x400px|center|Figure 9]]
 
| [[File:Giganti 09.png|400x400px|center|Figure 9]]
| <p>[14] '''METHOD OF WOUNDING IN THE CHEST''' WITH THE SINGLE SWORD WHEN THEY ARE IN measure with the swords equal</p>
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| <p>[29] '''Method of Wounding in the Chest with the Single Sword When They<ref>The two fencers.</ref> Are At''' measure with the swords equal</p>
  
<p>''The present figure is an artificial way of wounding the enemy in the chest and securing oneself from his sword so that he cannot offend while you pass to wound him. It is done in this way: one needs to place themselves in guard with the sword forward on the left side and if the enemy comes to bind you and cover your sword with his let him come until he finds himself in measure with you. When he is in measure with you disengage, putting your sword inside of his, straightening the point against the enemy’s face. If he does not go to parry, wound him resolutely, going as I have said above with the right edge of yours on the edge of his, turning your wrist and carrying the body across a bit. But if the enemy comes to parry and wound you while you disengage do not throw the thrust but hold it a little outside, and in the same tempo that he wants to parry and wound, redisengage your sword under the hilt of his, done aiming at the chest of the enemy so that you strike him in the chest safely, increasing a little with the sword, as you see in the present figure, taking care to disengage and redisengage it in the same tempo, never holding it still so that the enemy does not find it. In the movement he makes to parry, pass to him with your vita on the outside, taking care to place your hand on the hilt of the sword. This pass makes this effect: he takes the chance to wound you and you can wound him how and where you like and please.''</p>
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<p>The present figure is an artificial way of wounding the enemy in the chest and securing oneself from his sword so that he cannot offend while you pass to wound him. It is done in this way: one needs to place themselves in guard with the sword forward on the left side and if the enemy comes to bind you and cover your sword with his let him come until he finds himself at measure with you. When he is at measure with you disengage, putting your sword inside of his, straightening the point against the enemy’s face. If he does not go to parry, wound him resolutely, going as I have said above with the right edge of yours on the edge of his, turning your wrist and carrying the body across a bit. But if the enemy comes to parry and wound you while you disengage do not throw the thrust but hold it a little outside, and in the same tempo that he wants to parry and wound, redisengage your sword under the hilt of his, done aiming at the chest of the enemy so that you strike him in the chest safely, increasing a little with the sword, as you see in the present figure,</p>
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| <p>[30] taking care to disengage and redisengage it in the same tempo, never holding it still so that the enemy does not find it. In the movement he makes to parry, pass to him with your vita on the outside, taking care to place your hand on the hilt of the sword. This pass makes this effect: he takes the chance to wound you and you can wound him how and where you like and please.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/33|4|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| [[File:Giganti 10.png|400x400px|center|Figure 10]]
 
| [[File:Giganti 10.png|400x400px|center|Figure 10]]
| <p>[15] ''THE PASS WITH FEINT AT A DISTANCE''</p>
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| <p>[31] '''The Pass With Feint at a Distance'''</p>
  
<p>This is an artificial way of passing at the enemy so that he does not perceive it, and it is of great consideration for the effect it shows, as is seen in the present figure, where one passes with a feint and wounds the enemy. It is done in this way: you need to see in what guard your enemy places himself and how he is accommodated. Go to bind him in guard, directing the point of your sword at his face, and when you find yourself almost in measure, if you see that he stays waiting and doesn’t move, throw a thrust at his face strongly as figure number . shows and if he does not parry strongly you make the effect of figure number . not having to make other feints, but if he parries you will both be with the swords equal. Immediately return backward outside of measure and put yourself in the same first guard, and when you are almost in measure feint throwing the same thrust at his face. While he goes to parry it, disengage the point of your sword underneath the hilt of the enemy’s sword with your wrist, making sure you keep the enemy sword outside your vita. Then in the same tempo pass, going with your sword over the furnishings of his, accompanying it with the left hand, and immediately put it over the hilt of the enemy sword so that he cannot give you a riverso in the face, so that without doubt you wound him if he does not see your goal. This done, leap outside of measure and replace the sword within that of the enemy, securing yourself in the above way, and beating his sword, return to wound him with two or three resolute and irreparable thrusts.</p>
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<p>This is an artificial way of passing at the enemy so that he does not perceive it, and it is of great consideration for the effect it shows, as is seen in the present figure, where one passes with a feint and wounds the enemy. It is done in this way: you need to see in what guard your enemy places himself and how he is accommodated. Go to bind him in guard, directing the point of your sword at his face, and when you find yourself almost at measure, if you see that he stays waiting and doesn’t move, throw a thrust at his face strongly as figure number [7].<ref>The placeholder was never replaced with the proper figure number reference when the book went to print, and it remains missing in Paolo Frambotto’s 1628 reprint. Jakob de Zeter’s 1619 German/French version refers to Figure 7.</ref> shows and if he does not parry strongly you make the effect of figure number [8].<ref>The figure number is missing in both the 1606 and 1628 printings. Jakob de Zeter’s 1619 German/French version refers to Figure 8.</ref> not having to make other feints, but if he parries you will both be with the swords equal. Immediately return backward outside of measure and put yourself in the same first guard, and when you are almost at measure feint throwing the same thrust at his face. While he goes to parry it, disengage the point of your sword underneath the hilt of the enemy’s sword with your wrist, making sure you keep the enemy sword outside your vita. Then in the same tempo pass, going with your sword over the furnishings of his, accompanying it with the left hand, and immediately put it<ref>Your hand.</ref> over the hilt of the enemy sword so that he cannot give you a riverso in the face, so that without doubt you wound him if he does not see your goal. This done, leap outside of measure and replace the sword within that of the enemy, securing yourself in the above way, and beating his sword, return to wound him with two or three resolute and irreparable thrusts.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/49|1|lbl=29}}
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/49|1|lbl=29}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/35|1|lbl=17|p=1}} {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/37|1|lbl=18|p=1}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/35|2|lbl=17|p=1}} {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/37|3|lbl=18|p=1}}
  
 
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| <p>[16] ''The pass with feint over the point of the sword''</p>
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| <p>[32] '''The pass with feint over the point of the sword'''</p>
  
<p>This is another kind of disengage and feint not commonly used, which produces the effect of the previous two figures. It is done so: one must put oneself in guard with the sword to the left side, with the arm extended and long. Letting the enemy come to bind you in the described way, when he is in measure disengage your sword over the point of his and if you see that he does not parry throw at him strongly and resolutely, as I have said to you, so that you will not make other feints. But if he parries, do not stop with the sword but avoid the guard of the enemy sword and pass in the above way and wound him in the chest, withdrawing yourself then as was said.</p>
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<p>This is another kind of disengage and feint not commonly used, which produces the effect of the previous two figures. It is done so: one must put oneself in guard with the sword to the left side, with the arm extended and long. Letting the enemy come to bind you in the described way, when he is at measure disengage your sword over the point of his and if you see that he does not parry throw at him strongly and resolutely, as I have said to you, so that you will not make other feints. But if he parries, do not stop with the sword but avoid the guard of the enemy sword and pass in the above way and wound him in the chest, withdrawing yourself then as was said.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/49|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/49|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/37|4|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| [[File:Giganti 11.png|400x400px|center|Figure 11]]
 
| [[File:Giganti 11.png|400x400px|center|Figure 11]]
| <p>[17] '''THE FEINT''' TO THE FACE AT A DISTANCE</p>
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| <p>[33] '''The Feint to the Face at a Distance'''</p>
  
<p>''This feint is no different from the other except that the first has its disengage under the hilt of the sword and this has it over in order to throw at the enemy’s face. This stoccata becomes a feint if he parries and is resolute if he does not parry. In the rest then, the same guards, distances, and measures are observed, and one carries the vita equally, as is seen in the figure, and immediately returns outside of measure as soon as the thrust is thrown. The most important thing is knowing how to make the feint natural so that it cannot be distinguished from the resolute, which is done in this way. One presents the point (for example) over the outside at his face, and in going with point underneath the hilt of the enemy sword in order to wound him inside, it must be done so that the thrust wounds his face or chest with the disengage. This is what is meant by “natural feint”. But be advised that you never perform a feint if the enemy does not parry resolutely, because you would be in danger of wounding each other and you would end up in danger.''</p>
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<p>This feint is no different from the other except that the first has its disengage under the hilt of the sword and this has it over in order to throw at the enemy’s face. This stoccata becomes a feint if he parries and is resolute if he does not parry. In the rest then, the same guards, distances, and measures are observed, and one carries the vita equally, as is seen in the figure, and immediately returns outside of measure as soon as the thrust is thrown. The most important thing is knowing how to make the feint natural so that it cannot be distinguished from the resolute, which is done in this way. One presents the point (for example) over the outside at his face, and in going with point underneath the hilt of the enemy sword in order to wound him inside, it must be done so that the thrust wounds his face or chest with the disengage. This is what is meant by “natural feint”. But be advised that you never perform a feint if the enemy does not parry resolutely, because you would be in danger of wounding each other and you would end up in danger.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|51|lbl=31}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|51|lbl=31}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/38|1|lbl=19}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/38|2|lbl=19}}
  
 
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| [[File:Giganti 12.png|400x400px|center|Figure 12]]
 
| [[File:Giganti 12.png|400x400px|center|Figure 12]]
| <p>[18] '''THE PROPER METHOD TO GIVE A THRUST WITH THE SINGLE SWORD''' WHILE THE ENEMY THROWS a cut</p>
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| <p>[34] '''The Proper Method to Give a Thrust with the Single Sword while the Enemy Throws''' a cut</p>
  
<p>This figure teaches you to avail yourself of the tempo in order to give your enemy a stoccata to the face while he raises the sword, if he can be given a stoccata while his sword is in the air, and before he reaches you. Note how this is done. After having placed yourself in whichever guard you like, go to bind your enemy and when you are in measure if the enemy throws a cut toward your head, in the raising of the sword you make use of the tempo, enter forward, and throw the sword at his face so that without doubt you wound him while the enemy sword is in the air, as you see in the figure. But, in throwing turn the inside of your wrist and the right edge of the sword upwards, holding your arm long and high, and make the guard of your sword cover your head so that if the enemy disengages his sword he would find you covered and it will not be possible to offend you. It is necessary, however, to throw this thrust quickly. When it is not made quickly the enemy could parry it and wound you. After you have thrown, quickly withdraw yourself backward outside of measure, securing yourself with your sword against that of the enemy.</p>
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<p>This figure teaches you to avail yourself of the tempo in order to give your enemy a stoccata to the face while he raises the sword, if he can be given a stoccata while his sword is in the air, and before he reaches you. Note how this is done. After having placed yourself in whichever guard you like, go to bind your enemy and when you are at measure if the enemy throws a cut toward your head, in the raising of the sword you make use of the tempo, enter forward, and throw the sword at his face so that without doubt you wound him while the enemy sword is in the air, as you see in the figure. But, in throwing turn the inside of your wrist and the right edge of the sword upwards, holding your arm long and high, and make the guard of your sword cover your head so that if the enemy disengages his sword he would find you covered and it will not be possible to offend you.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/53|1|lbl=33}}
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/53|1|lbl=33}}
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| <p>[19] I did not want to put all the ways of parrying the cuts, which are many, in my first book, but I have placed this alone for you, this appearing to me most useful and commodious for understanding the tempo and making use of it, which is necessary to understand in every occasion.</p>
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| <p>[35] It is necessary, however, to throw this thrust quickly. When it is not made quickly the enemy could parry it and wound you. After you have thrown, quickly withdraw yourself backward outside of measure, securing yourself with your sword against that of the enemy.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/53|2|lbl=-}}
 
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| <p>[36] I did not want to put all the ways of parrying the cuts, which are many, in my first book, but I have placed this alone for you, this appearing to me most useful and commodious for understanding the tempo and making use of it, which is necessary to understand in every occasion.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/53|3|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/40|6|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| [[File:Giganti 13.png|400x400px|center|Figure 13]]
 
| [[File:Giganti 13.png|400x400px|center|Figure 13]]
| <p>[20] ''THE PROPER WAY TO SAFELY WOUND with both hands and the single sword''</p>
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| <p>[37] '''The Proper Way to Safely Wound''' with the single sword using both hands</p>
  
<p>''This figure shows you a method of safely wounding the enemy which is impossible to parry. It is done in two manners. First one needs to find the occasion to have your sword equal with the enemy’s, having yours outside, then affront your sword toward the enemy’s face which, if not parried strongly, strikes him in the face as is seen in the fourth figure. If he parries well and strongly, increase with your left foot, putting your left hand over your sword, driving strongly with both hands, straightening the point against the enemy’s chest and lowering the hilt of your sword as is seen in the present figure, taking care to do all these things in one tempo.''</p>
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<p>This figure shows you a method of safely wounding the enemy which is impossible to parry. It is done in two manners. First one needs to find the occasion to have your sword equal with the enemy’s, having yours outside, then affront your sword toward the enemy’s face which, if not parried strongly, strikes him in the face as is seen in the fourth figure. If he parries well and strongly, increase with your left foot, putting your left hand over your sword, driving strongly with both hands, straightening the point against the enemy’s chest and lowering the hilt of your sword as is seen in the present figure, taking care to do all these things in one tempo.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/55|1|lbl=35}}
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/55|1|lbl=35}}
| [http://fechtgeschichte.blogspot.de/2014/08/das-fechtbuch-des-nicolai-giganti-in.html Text to copy over]
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/42|1|lbl=21}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/42|3|lbl=21}}
  
 
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| <p>[21] ''Next, accommodated in guard in the aforesaid way but with your sword inside, I want you to disengage the sword in place to wound outside, and in the same tempo that you disengage the sword, place your left hand over your sword and with the strength of both hands beat the enemy sword with yours. That beaten away, immediately pass with your left foot forward as seen in the figure. So that this succeeds well, it is necessary to take care to do all these things in one tempo. That is, disengaging the sword, placing your hand over and beating the enemy sword with yours, and passing forward with the left foot. Not doing these things in one tempo you would not succeed and be in danger, as you would be with some valiant men that know how to disengage the sword quickly and well. Therefore, so that you succeed at this you must do it quickly and suddenly.''</p>
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| <p>[38] Next,<ref>This is the second manner mentioned at the beginning of the lesson, rather than an action that follows from the first.</ref> accommodated in guard in the aforesaid way but with your sword inside, I want you to disengage the sword in place to wound outside, and in the same tempo that you disengage the sword, place your left hand over your sword and with the strength of both hands beat the enemy sword with yours. That beaten away, immediately pass with your left foot forward as seen in the figure. So that this succeeds well, it is necessary to take care to do all these things in one tempo. That is, disengaging the sword, placing your hand over and beating the enemy sword with yours, and passing forward with the left foot. Not doing these things in one tempo you would not succeed and be in danger, as you would be with some valiant men that know how to disengage the sword quickly and well. Therefore, so that you succeed at this you must do it quickly and suddenly.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/55|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/55|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/42|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/42|4|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| [[File:Giganti 14.png|400x400px|center|Figure 14]]
 
| [[File:Giganti 14.png|400x400px|center|Figure 14]]
| <p>[22] '''THE PROPER WAY TO PARRY THE CUT''' OR RIVERSO, THAT COMES AT THE LEG</p>
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| <p>[39] '''The Proper Way to Parry the Cut''' or Riverso, that Comes at the Leg</p>
  
<p>''In this lesson, in which we reflect on the mandritto or riverso cut to the leg, I cannot say anything further on parrying and wounding the enemy in one same tempo. Rather, I will say why the enemy ends up offending himself on the point of your sword, except to say that the enemy dropping a dritto or riverso to your leg, it is necessary that he lengthen his step, and his vita, and carry his face forward. While the enemy drops to wound you, you then carry the front leg, lifting it backward, and in the same tempo throw a thrust at his face that is impossible to parry. He wounds himself, neither can you then be wounded. You then (as I have said other times) return backward outside of measure.''</p>
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<p>In this lesson, in which we reflect on the mandritto or riverso cut to the leg, I cannot say anything further on parrying and wounding the enemy in one same tempo. Rather, I will say why the enemy ends up offending himself on the point of your sword, except to say that the enemy dropping a dritto or riverso to your leg, it is necessary that he lengthen his step, and his vita, and carry his face forward. While the enemy drops to wound you, you then carry the front leg, lifting it backward, and in the same tempo throw a thrust at his face that is impossible to parry. He wounds himself, neither can you then be wounded. You then (as I have said other times) return backward outside of measure.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/57|1|lbl=37}}
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/57|1|lbl=37}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/44|1|lbl=22}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/44|3|lbl=22}}
  
 
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| <p>[23] ''And since the present lesson is very artificial it is necessary to learn it in order to be able to make use of it in such occasions as the figure clearly demonstrates to you.''</p>
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| <p>[40] And since the present lesson is very artificial it is necessary to learn it in order to be able to make use of it in such occasions as the figure clearly demonstrates to you.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/57|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/57|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/44|2|lbl=-}}
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| rowspan="2" | [[File:Giganti 15.png|400x400px|center|Figure 15]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Giganti 15.png|400x400px|center|Figure 15]]
| <p>[24] '''THE INQUARTATA''' OR SLIP OF THE VITA</p>
+
| <p>[41] '''The Inquartata''' or Slip of the Vita</p>
  
<p>Knowing the inquartata, or slip, is necessary in order to master the body. But this not ordinarily used in the schools, except by the French in order to exercise the body. In truth many are these slips, or inquartate, but I judged in my first book to show only three of them, in my judgement the safest and most beautiful, as appears in the present figure.</p>
+
<p>Knowing the inquartata, or slip, is necessary in order to master the body. But this not ordinarily used in the schools, except by the French in order to exercise the body. In truth many are these slips, or inquartate, but I judged in my first book to show only three of them, in my judgement the safest and most beautiful, as appears in the present figure. </p>
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/59|1|lbl=39}}
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/59|1|lbl=39}}
| [http://fechtgeschichte.blogspot.de/2014/08/das-fechtbuch-des-nicolai-giganti-in.html Text to copy over]
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/46|1|lbl=23}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/46|3|lbl=23}}
  
 
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|-  
| <p>[25] The first of these is done putting yourself in guard outside of measure with the right foot forward, with the sword long and the arm extended, standing strongly on the right side, holding the point of the sword at the face of the enemy. Let the enemy come to bind you, and when he is almost in measure disengage the sword in a feint a little wide, and in the tempo the enemy parries, redisengage it, returning it to its first position, running along the edge of his sword with the disengage in a way that as soon as you have disengaged you have wounded the enemy, because if you were to disengage the sword and then wound you would be in danger, since there would be two tempi. Carry the left leg and equally the left shoulder across, turning, and make the effect, giving him (as is seen in the figure) a thrust either in the face or chest without him perceiving the aim, holding the arm stiff, and with the hilt of your sword covering you, far from the sword of the enemy. Keep your eye on his face, taking care not to turn your face with the vita as some do, because you would find yourself in danger and not see your action. After this return immediately back out of measure with your sword over his, securing yourself as above.</p>
+
| <p>[42] The first of these is done putting yourself in guard outside of measure with the right foot forward, with the sword long and the arm extended, standing strongly on the right side, holding the point of the sword at the face of the enemy. Let the enemy come to bind you, and when he is almost at measure disengage the sword in a feint a little wide, and in the tempo the enemy parries, redisengage it, returning it to its first position, running along the edge of his sword with the disengage in a way that as soon as you have disengaged you have wounded the enemy, because if you were to disengage the sword and then wound you would be in danger, since there would be two tempi. Carry the left leg and equally the left shoulder across, turning, and make the effect, giving him (as is seen in the figure) a thrust either in the face or chest without him perceiving the aim, holding the arm stiff, and with the hilt of your sword covering you, far from the sword of the enemy. Keep your eye on his face, taking care not to turn your face with the vita as some do,<ref>[[Camillo Agrippa]] (1553), for example, recommends turning the face away.</ref> because you would find yourself in danger and not see your action. After this immediately return back out of measure with your sword over his, securing yourself as above.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/59|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/59|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/46|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/46|4|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[26] ''The inquartata, or slip of the vita''</p>
+
| <p>[43] '''The inquartata, or slip of the vita'''</p>
  
<p>This is no different from the other inquartata from before, except in the way in which it wounds. That is, having regard in going to the edge of the enemy sword, approaching to wound him under the pommel of his sword, lifting the arm with the wrist, as seen in the figure, and after having turned your person, stopping yourself and not passing upon the enemy in order to not come to grips, because you would go into danger, compared to returning outside of measure and securing yourself from that. This inquartata is very difficult to parry, in fact I will say impossible, when it is done with judgement.</p>
+
<p>This is no different from the other inquartata from before, except in the way in which it wounds. That is, having regard in going to the edge of the enemy sword, approaching to wound him under the pommel of his sword, lifting the arm with the wrist, as seen in the figure, and after having turned your person, stopping yourself and not passing upon the enemy in order to not come to grips, because you would go into danger, compared to returning outside of measure and securing yourself from that. This inquartata is very difficult to parry, in fact I will say impossible, when it is done judiciously.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/59|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/59|3|lbl=-}}
| [http://fechtgeschichte.blogspot.de/2014/08/das-fechtbuch-des-nicolai-giganti-in.html Text to copy over]
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/48|1|lbl=24}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/48|3|lbl=24}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[27] ''THE THIRD INQUARTATA, or slip of the vita''</p>
+
| <p>[44] '''The Third Inquartata,''' or slip of the vita</p>
  
<p>''This third inquartata is the most beautiful and safest of all, which is done in this way. Placing yourself in guard, as in the other two, holding the sword to the right side with the arm extended and firm, as the enemy comes to bind you with his sword over yours and you are in measure, disengage the sword with the turn of your wrist. If he does not parry, strike him in the face and make the effect of the figure, nor should you do more. But if he parries, you find yourself with the swords equal. Affront his sword strongly with yours so that he affronts, and as he affronts disengage, going with the disengage under the hilt of his sword, turning your body as above, wound him in the chest, which he will not perceive, and do the effect of the present figure. Then return outside of measure, securing yourself as in the other lessons.''</p>
+
<p>This third inquartata is the most beautiful and safest of all, which is done in this way. Placing yourself in guard, as in the other two, holding the sword to the right side with the arm extended and firm, as the enemy comes to bind you with his sword over yours and you are at measure, disengage the sword with the turn of your wrist. If he does not parry, strike him in the face and make the effect of the figure, nor should you do more. But if he parries, you find yourself with the swords equal. Affront his sword strongly with yours so that he affronts, and as he affronts disengage, going with the disengage under the hilt of his sword, turning your body as above, wound him in the chest, which he will not perceive, and do the effect of the present figure. Then return outside of measure, securing yourself as in the other lessons.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/60|1|lbl=40}}
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/60|1|lbl=40}}
| [http://fechtgeschichte.blogspot.de/2014/08/das-fechtbuch-des-nicolai-giganti-in.html Text to copy over]
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/48|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/48|4|lbl=-}}
  
 
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|  
 
|  
| <p>[28] ''An artificial way to strike in the chest, affronting the swords''</p>
+
| <p>[45] '''An artificial way to strike in the chest, affronting the swords'''</p>
  
<p>''In the previous lessons I demonstrated the method of the inquartate, that is, how one would affront the swords outside in order to come to wound the enemy inside. Now I will briefly say how one would carry the swords inside and wound outside. As you meet with the enemy, affront strongly with the edge of your sword, holding the point at his face, with the forte over the enemy sword. If he is weaker than you, give him a stoccata, either in the face or chest that he cannot parry. If he is stronger than you, feeling how much your sword is affronted disengage the sword under the hilt of his so that his falls downward, and he equally takes a thrust from which there is no defense. In the same tempo pass without any danger and put your left hand on his hilt, wounding him with three or four thrusts that cannot be avoided. Then return outside of measure, securing yourself as above.''</p>
+
<p>In the previous lessons I demonstrated the method of the inquartate, that is, how one would affront the swords outside in order to come to wound the enemy inside. Now I will briefly say how one would carry the swords inside and wound outside. As you meet with the enemy, affront strongly with the edge of your sword, holding the point at his face, with the forte over the enemy sword. If he is weaker than you, give him a stoccata, either in the face or chest that he cannot parry. If he is stronger than you, feeling how much your sword is affronted disengage the sword under the hilt of his so that his falls downward, and he equally takes a thrust from which there is no defense. In the same tempo pass without any danger and put your left hand on his hilt, wounding him with three or four thrusts that cannot be avoided. Then return outside of measure, securing yourself as above.</p>
 
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{{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/60|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/61|1|lbl=41|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/60|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/61|1|lbl=41|p=1}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/49|1|lbl=25}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/49|3|lbl=25}}
  
 
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|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[29] ''The way of playing single sword against single sword with resolute thrusts''</p>
+
| <p>[46] '''The way of playing single sword against single sword with resolute thrusts'''</p>
  
<p>''Many are those in the schools that when they assail the enemy come resolutely throwing thrusts, imbroccate, and cuts, nor do they give any tempo, throwing always with fury and very great impetus. These things ordinarily mess up and disorder every beautiful player and fencer. Accordingly, in such occasions it is necessary to know how to defend oneself. It is necessary that you place yourself to the guard of the enemy sword with yours ready to defend, outside the measure, in a that is pace restrained rather than long, and in the tempo that he throws a thrust, imbroccata, stoccata, or other similar blow, beat the enemy sword with the forte of yours and immediately lengthen your pace, and throwing him a thrust wound him in the chest or face and quickly return backward with the lead foot to where you were before, resting your sword on his in order to secure yourself from it, in a way that he cannot wound if he does not disengage. Turning your wrist inside, return to beat the enemy sword with the forte of yours, lengthening your pace throw him a thrust and wound him and quickly return backward with the foot as above, likewise securing yourself from his sword with yours. If he returns anew to redisengage, always return and do the same.''</p>
+
<p>Many are those in the schools that when they assail the enemy come resolutely throwing thrusts, imbroccate, and cuts, nor do they give any tempo, throwing always with fury and very great impetus. These things ordinarily mess up and disorder every beautiful player and fencer. Accordingly, in such occasions it is necessary to know how to defend oneself.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/61|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/61|2|lbl=-}}
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{{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/49|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/50|1|lbl=26|p=1}}
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{{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/49|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/50|4|lbl=26|p=1}}
  
 
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|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[30] ''This lesson is more useful than beautiful and contains two tempi which you can make before the enemy has time to make one of them. The first of which is the parry, the other is the wound. Which, as has been observed, you have understood.''</p>
+
| <p>[47] It is necessary that you place yourself to the guard of the enemy sword with yours ready to defend, outside the measure, in a pace that is restrained rather than long, and in the tempo that he throws a thrust, imbroccata, stoccata, or other similar blow, beat the enemy sword with the forte of yours and immediately lengthen your pace, and throwing him a thrust wound him in the chest or face and quickly return backward with the lead foot to where you were before, resting your sword on his in order to secure yourself from it, in a way that he cannot wound if he does not disengage. Turning your wrist inside, return to beat the enemy sword with the forte of yours, lengthening your pace throw him a thrust and wound him and quickly return backward with the foot as above, likewise securing yourself from his sword with yours. If he returns anew to redisengage, always return and do the same.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/61|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/61|3|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/50|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/50|5|lbl=-}}
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| <p>[48] This lesson is more useful than beautiful and contains two tempi which you can make before the enemy has time to make one of them. The first of which is the parry, the other is the wound. Which, as has been observed, you have understood.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/61|4|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/50|3|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/50|6|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Giganti 16.png|400x400px|center|Figure 16]]
 
| [[File:Giganti 16.png|400x400px|center|Figure 16]]
| <p>[31] '''PARRYING STOCCATE''' THAT COME AT THE CHEST WITH THE SINGLE SWORD</p>
+
| <p>[49] '''Parrying Stoccate''' that Come at the Chest with the Single Sword</p>
  
<p>Seen in this figure is the safe method of parrying thrusts that come at your chest, wounding the chest. It is done in different ways because some may pass at a distance, others stay in measure, and others inside the measure, but one who has understanding of tempo and knows how to parry well as my figure demonstrates will parry all the methods. From which you note that, being with your enemy with the swords equal and he passes in order to wound you in the chest, by necessity in that same tempo follow his sword with yours, lowering, however, the point of yours and raising your wrist, parrying with the same and passing with your left foot toward his right side, taking yourself away from his sword wound him in the chest, holding your left hand over the hilt of his sword. Then, the stoccata given, disengage the sword in the way described above, returning backward outside of measure.</p>
+
<p>Seen in this figure is the safe method of parrying thrusts that come at your chest, wounding the chest. It is done in different ways because some may pass at a distance, others stay at measure, and others inside the measure, but one who has understanding of tempo and knows how to parry well as my figure demonstrates will parry all the methods. From which you note that, being with your enemy with the swords equal and he passes in order to wound you in the chest, by necessity in that same tempo follow his sword with yours, lowering, however, the point of yours and raising your wrist, parrying with the same and passing with your left foot toward his right side, taking yourself away from his sword wound him in the chest, holding your left hand over the hilt of his sword. Then, the stoccata given, disengage the sword in the way described above, returning backward outside of measure.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|63|lbl=43}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|63|lbl=43}}
| [http://fechtgeschichte.blogspot.de/2014/08/das-fechtbuch-des-nicolai-giganti-in.html Text to copy over]
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/51|1|lbl=27}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/51|2|lbl=27}}
  
 
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| [[File:Giganti 17.png|400x400px|center|Figure 17]]
 
| [[File:Giganti 17.png|400x400px|center|Figure 17]]
| <p>[32] '''THE THRUST IN THE FACE''' TURNING YOUR WRIST</p>
+
| <p>[50] '''The Thrust in the Face''' Turning Your Wrist<br/><br/></p>
  
 
<p>With this figure you are taught a very beautiful method of wounding your enemy’s face, and it consists entirely of seizing the occasion of being with the swords equal, causing your enemy to be in the motion of parrying by giving him suspicion that you want to disengage the sword. In the same tempo, turn your wrist, put your left hand on the guard of his sword, and increase with the foot in one tempo so that you strike him in the face, as you see. Doing it properly it cannot be parried. Having given that, increase with your left hand over the hilt of the enemy sword and redisengaging the sword you can give him two or three stoccate where you like. Then return backward outside of measure, always holding your sword over theirs, as above.</p>
 
<p>With this figure you are taught a very beautiful method of wounding your enemy’s face, and it consists entirely of seizing the occasion of being with the swords equal, causing your enemy to be in the motion of parrying by giving him suspicion that you want to disengage the sword. In the same tempo, turn your wrist, put your left hand on the guard of his sword, and increase with the foot in one tempo so that you strike him in the face, as you see. Doing it properly it cannot be parried. Having given that, increase with your left hand over the hilt of the enemy sword and redisengaging the sword you can give him two or three stoccate where you like. Then return backward outside of measure, always holding your sword over theirs, as above.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|65|lbl=45}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|65|lbl=45}}
| [http://fechtgeschichte.blogspot.de/2014/08/das-fechtbuch-des-nicolai-giganti-in.html Text to copy over]
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/53|1|lbl=28}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/53|2|lbl=28}}
  
 
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| [[File:Giganti 18.png|400x400px|center|Figure 18]]
 
| [[File:Giganti 18.png|400x400px|center|Figure 18]]
| rowspan="2" | <p>[33] '''THE COUNTERDISENGAGE AT A DISTANCE'''</p>
+
----
 +
[[File:Giganti 19.png|400x400px|center|Figure 19]]
 +
| <p>[51] '''The Counterdisengage at a Distance'''</p>
  
<p>This is one and the same counterdisengage at a distance against one who has their left foot forward and wants to pass by inquartata. I wanted to demonstrate to you with this figure the postures and wound so that it is possible to comprehend it well for the sake of necessity (when one is coming to bind you with their left foot forward). Stand in guard as you see in this figure, giving occasion to your enemy to throw at your chest. If he is a valiant man he will pass with his foot quickly and strongly turn his wrist in the manner of the inquartata in order to defend himself from your sword. In the same tempo that he passes, redisengage the sword under the hilt, lowering your vita as you see in the present figure so that you wound him in the face before he wounds you. In fact, while he carries his foot forward in order to pass it is not possible to parry. At times it is necessary to make the effect of this figure. Exercise well these two figures placed before.</p>
+
<p>This<ref>The two preceding figures.</ref> is one and the same counterdisengage at a distance against one who has their left foot forward and wants to pass by inquartata. I wanted to demonstrate to you with this figure the postures and wound so that it is possible to comprehend it well for the sake of necessity (when one is coming to bind you with their left foot forward). Stand in guard as you see in this figure, giving occasion to your enemy to throw at your chest. If he is a valiant man he will pass with his foot quickly and strongly turn his wrist in the manner of the inquartata in order to defend himself from your sword. In the same tempo that he passes, redisengage the sword under the hilt, lowering your vita as you see in the present figure so that you wound him in the face before he wounds you. In fact, while he carries his foot forward in order to pass it is not possible to parry. At times it is necessary to make the effect of this figure. Exercise well these two figures placed before.</p>
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{{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|68|lbl=48|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|69|lbl=49|p=1}}
 
{{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|68|lbl=48|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|69|lbl=49|p=1}}
| rowspan="2" | [http://fechtgeschichte.blogspot.de/2014/08/das-fechtbuch-des-nicolai-giganti-in.html Text to copy over]
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/55|1|lbl=29}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/55|2|lbl=29}}
  
 
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| [[File:Giganti 19.png|400x400px|center|Figure 19]]
+
| [[File:Giganti 20.png|400x400px|center|Figure 20]]
 +
| <p>[52] '''Method of Playing with the Single Sword,''' while the enemy has sword and dagger</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>With this figure I will demonstrate parrying and wounding to you, you with the single sword against an enemy who has sword and dagger. You will stand with your right foot forward with a just pace, with your vita back, holding the sword forward ready to parry and wound when there is a tempo. It is necessary you not be first to throw because you will be in danger, since in throwing your enemy could parry your stoccata with the dagger and if he were a valiant man you would not be able to parry his. If you stay in guard as I have said above, ready to parry, showing fear of him so that he throws disconcerted. While he throws parry strongly with the forte of your sword and throw the stoccata at his face, because he will throw at you strongly and long and while throwing his dagger will remove itself so you can strike him safely. That given, immediately return backward outside of measure, holding your sword in his in the way described above. As many times as he throws, you will wound the same, taking care however not to throw at his chest, which would not be safe, since the one that has sword and dagger will be much bolder than one who finds themselves with the single sword, and thus thinking to give you as many stoccate as he likes, he will come to be disconcerted at throwing forward at you, not thinking of anything else. If you stand in guard judiciously you can parry safely and strongly and wound your enemy, always in the face, returning safely outside of measure with your sword over his. If your enemy were to disengage the sword to the inside, turn your wrist and parry and throw strongly as I have said.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/71|1|lbl=51}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/58|1|lbl=30}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/58|2|lbl=30}}
  
 
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|-  
| class="noline" | [[File:Giganti 20.png|400x400px|center|Figure 20]]
+
|  
| class="noline" | <p>[34] METHOD OF PLAYING WITH THE SINGLE SWORD, while the enemy has sword and dagger</p>
+
| <p>[53] If you see that he wants to fly upon you, pull yourself backward and throw at him in the tempo that he moves to come forward. If you were to find yourself in guard with your sword in his and he would like<ref>The original text is “vorreste”, or “you would like”. As our fencer’s opponent is the one with the dagger, it is likely that this is a mistake in the text</ref> to first parry with the dagger and then wound, in the tempo you see that he lowers the dagger in order to parry, immediately disengage the sword above the dagger in the way described in figure number [21].<ref>The figure number is missing in both the 1606 and 1628 printings. Jakob de Zeter’s 1619 German/French version refers to Figure 21.</ref> Immediately after return outside of measure with your sword over his.</p>
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<p>With this figure I will demonstrate to you parrying and wounding, you with the single sword against an enemy who has sword and dagger. You will stand with your right foot forward with a just pace, with your vita back, holding the sword forward ready to parry and wound when there is a tempo. It is necessary that you not be first to throw, because you will be in danger, since in throwing your enemy could parry your stoccata with the dagger and if he were a valiant man you would not be able to parry his. If you stay in guard as I have said above, ready to parry, showing fear of him so that he throws disconcerted. While he throws parry strongly with the forte of your sword and throw the stoccata at his face, because he will throw at you strongly and long and while throwing his dagger will remove itself so you can strike him securely. That given, immediately return backwards outside of measure, holding your sword in his in the way described above. As many times as he throws, you will wound the same, taking care however not to throw at his chest, which would not be secure, since the one that has sword and dagger will be much bolder than one who finds themselves with the single sword, and thus thinking to give you as many stoccate as he likes, he will come to be disconcerted at throwing forward at you, not thinking of anything else. If you stay in guard with judgement you can parry securely and strongly and wound your enemy, always in the face, returning securely outside of measure with your sword over his. If your enemy were to disengage the sword to the inside, turn your wrist and parry and throw strongly as I have said. If you see that he wants to fly upon you, throw yourself back and throw at him in that tempo that he moves himself to come forward. If you were to find yourself in guard with your sword in his and you would like  to first parry with the dagger and then wound, in the tempo that you see that he lowers the dagger in order to parry, immediately disengage the sword above the dagger in the way described in figure number … Immediately after return outside of measure with your sword over his. Take care, however, not to throw if he stays in guard if by chance you do not see some tempo that when you throw he cannot wound you, as described above when tempo and measure were discussed. If he stays in guard waiting, or out of fear, or rather with art in order to deceive you, stay outside of measure with your sword over his and seek to parry and wound securely according to the occasion.</p>
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| class="noline" | <p>[54] Take care, however, not to throw if he stays in guard if by chance you do not see some tempo that when you throw he cannot wound you, as described above when tempo and measure were discussed. If he stands in guard waiting, either out of fear, or rather with art in order to deceive you, stay outside of measure with your sword over his and seek to parry and wound safely according to the occasion.</p>
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! <p>Images<br/></p>
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! <p>Images<br/>from the 1606</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Jeff Vansteenkiste]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Jeff Vansteenkiste]]</p>
! <p>Italian Version(1606)<br/>by [[Jeff Vansteenkiste]]</p>
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! <p>Italian (1606){{edit index|Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf}}<br/>by [[Jeff Vansteenkiste]]</p>
! <p>German Version (1619)<br/>by [[Jan Schäfer]]</p>
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! <p>German (1619){{edit index|Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf}}<br/>by [[Jan Schäfer]]</p>
! <p>French (1644)<br/>Open for editting</p>
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! <p>French (1619){{edit index|Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf}}<br/>by [[Olivier Delannoy]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Giganti 21.png|400x400px|center|Figure 21]]
 
| [[File:Giganti 21.png|400x400px|center|Figure 21]]
| <p>[35] METHOD OF PARRYING THE STOCCATA THAT COMES at the face from the right side with sword and dagger</p>
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| <p>[55] '''Method of Parrying the Stoccata that Comes''' at the face from the right side with sword and dagger</p>
  
<p>To achieve the effect of the present figure, it is necessary to stand in guard as you will learn. I say it is necessary to stand in a just pace, strong, holding the weapons ready to parry and wound, with the dagger toward the guard of the enemy sword and your sword ready to wound where it is most convenient. If you see that your enemy wants to wound you with a thrust to your face, parry with the edge of the dagger and wound the enemy in the right shoulder in the same tempo, so that doing it in one tempo it will be difficult to parry. To make the effect so that he cannot parry, it is not enough to only understand these things, but also necessary to know how to put them into effect. That is, in the same tempo to stand strongly in guard, with the right foot forward, with the left foot strong on the ground supporting all the body, holding the right foot back as in various other lessons in order to increase quickly forward and back according to the occasion, always holding the point of your sword at the face or chest of the enemy, the dagger high in proportion to the enemy sword, inclining the vita back rather than forward, standing with a lively and vigilant eye, with a bold heart, and without one bit of fear of the enemy. If (while you stand in this guard) your enemy comes to throw a thrust or imbroccata at your face, then parrying with the edge of the dagger throw him a stoccata in the same tempo so that you make the effect of the figure. Take heed that you parry strongly and safely, turn your head and vita a little, and while he throws at you, parrying strongly, throw your stoccata in the same tempo. If you were to parry first then throw it would not be possible, since your enemy could withdraw his arm and body and would be in tempo to parry, and your life would be in danger. But if you parry and wound in the same tempo, give him the stoccata under the flank of the sword while he comes forward so you do it justly and in tempo and it is difficult for him to parry. Taking heed that when you have thrown the stoccata you hold your left foot on the ground firmly and strongly and as soon as you have thrown carry your vita backward, returning outside of measure. Having thrown, to return backward safely it is necessary to first bring the head, then the vita backward, then the leg will come by itself. If you were to pull your leg first your head would go forward, your life would be in danger, and you would not be able to return outside of measure. Throwing a long and strong stoccata without knowing how to return backward with the vita is worthless. In order to make the effect of the figure it is necessary to practise, so that when you see that your enemy wants to throw, you throw in that tempo so that your stoccata will arrive before his, although he is first to throw.</p>
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<p>To achieve the effect of the present figure, it is necessary to stand in guard as you will learn. I say it is necessary to stand in a just pace, strong, holding the weapons ready to parry and wound, with the dagger toward the guard of the enemy sword and your sword ready to wound where it is most convenient. If you see that your enemy wants to wound you with a thrust to your face, parry with the edge of the dagger and wound the enemy in the right shoulder in the same tempo, so that doing it in one tempo it will be difficult to parry. To make the effect so that he cannot parry, it is not enough to only understand these things, but also necessary to know how to put them into effect. That is, in the same tempo to stand strongly in guard, with the right foot forward, with the left foot strong on the ground supporting all the body, holding the right foot back as in various other lessons in order to increase quickly forward and back according to the occasion, always holding the point of your sword at the face or chest of the enemy, the dagger high in proportion to the enemy sword, inclining the vita back rather than forward, standing with an alert and vigilant eye, with a bold heart, and without one bit of fear of the enemy. If (while you stand in this guard) your enemy comes to throw a thrust or imbroccata at your face, then parrying with the edge of the dagger throw him a stoccata in the same tempo so that you make the effect of the figure. Take heed that you parry strongly and safely, turn your head and vita a little, and while he throws at you, parrying strongly, throw your stoccata in the same tempo. If you were to parry first then throw it would not be possible, since your enemy could withdraw his arm and body and would be in tempo to parry, and your life would be in danger. But if you parry and wound in the same tempo, give him the stoccata under the flank of the sword while he comes forward so you do it justly and in tempo and it is difficult for him to parry. Taking heed that when you have thrown the stoccata you hold your left foot on the ground firmly and strongly and as soon as you have thrown carry your vita backward, returning outside of measure.</p>
| DEL MODO DI PARARE LA STOCCATA, CHE VENGA<br/>nel viso dalla banda dritta di Spade, e Pugnale.
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{{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/61|2|lbl=32|p=1}} {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/63|4|lbl=33|p=1}}
  
PER conseguire l’effetto della presente figura, Fa di mestieri stare in guardia, si come intenderete: bisogna dico stare in passo giusto, forte, tenendo l’armi pronte per parare, e ferire, con il pugnale alla guardia della spada nemica, e la vostra spada pronta à ferire, dove più tornarà commodo; e se vedrete, che’l vostro nemico voglia ferirvi di punta nella faccia, parete con il taglio del pugnale, e ferite in un istesso tempo l’inimico nella spalla destra, che facendolo in un tempo, difficilmente si può parare. Et à voler far l’effetto, ch’egli non si possa riparare, non basta solo conoscer’ queste cose; ma bisogna ancor’ saperle mettere in effetto, cioè in un’istesso tempo star forte in guardia, con il piè destro innanzi, con il piè manco forte in terra sostentandovi tutta la vita, tenendo il piè di dietro come in varia per poter crescere volecemente innanzi, e in dietro secondo l’occasione, tenendo sempre la punta della vostra spada al viso, ò al petto delll’inimico, & il pugnale alto, à proportione della spada nemica, pendendo più tosto la vita indietro, che innanzi, stando con l’occhio vivo, e desto, con il cuore ardito, senza punto temere l’inimico. Et se (mentre state in questa guardia) il vostro nemico venisse à tirarvi una punta, ò imbroccata alla faccia; voi allhora parando con il taglio del pugnale, tarategli in un medesimo tempo una stoccata, che farete l’effetto della figura. Ma avertite di parare forte, e sicuro, e voltare alquanto la testa, e la vita, e mentre ch’egli vi tira, voi all’hora parando gagliardo, tirarete in un istesso tempo la vostra stoccata. Perche se voi paraste prima, e poi voleste tirare, non poteste; poiche il vostro nemico porterebbe indietro il braccio, e la vita, e sarebbe à tempo à parare; e voi sareste in pericolo della vitta. Ma se voi parate, e ferite in un istesso tempo, gli darete la stoccata, mentre che egli viene innanzi, sotto’l fianco della spada, che come voi la fate giusta, e à tempo, difficilmente si può riparare; avertendo come havete tirato la stoccata, tener fermo, e forte il piè manco in terra, e subito tirata che l’habbiate, portarete la vita in dietro, tornando fuori di misura. A tornare in dietro sicuro, bisogna, tirato che havete, portar prima la testa in dietro, e la vita, che poi verrà la gamba da se stessa, perche se voi tiraste prima la gamba, la testa anderebbe innanzi, e voi sareste in pericolo della vita; e non potreste tornar fuora di misura; che’l tirare una stoccata lunga, e forte, e non saper tornar’ in dietro con la vita, non val niente. E per voler far l’effetto della figura, fa di mestieri pigliare la prattica, che mentre voi vedete, che il vostro nemico vuol tirare; tirate in quel tempo voi, che arriverà prima la vostra, che la sua stoccata, se bene egli è il primo à tirare.
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| <p>[56] Having thrown, to return backward safely it is necessary to first bring the head, then the vita backward, then the leg will come by itself. If you were to pull your leg first your head would go forward, your life would be in danger, and you would not be able to return outside of measure. Throwing a long and strong stoccata without knowing how to return backward with the vita is worthless.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/63|5|lbl=-}}
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| <p>[57] In order to make the effect of the figure it is necessary to practise, so that when you see that your enemy wants to throw, you throw in that tempo so that your stoccata will arrive before his, although he is first to throw.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/73|3|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/63|6|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Giganti 22.png|400x400px|center|Figure 22]]
 
| [[File:Giganti 22.png|400x400px|center|Figure 22]]
| <p>[36] THE PROPER METHOD OF PARRYING THE STOCCATA THAT COMES TOWARD YOUR LEFT FLANK</p>
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| <p>[58] '''The Proper Method of Parrying the Stoccata''' That Comes Toward Your Left Flank</p>
 
 
<p>In the present figure it is necessary to place yourself like in that above. If your enemy intends to throw at your left flank, stand with your dagger toward the guard of his sword and in the tempo that he throws parry with the edge of the dagger and wound the enemy in the sword shoulder in the same tempo. Nay, throw yours sooner than he throws his stoccata, staying alert with your eye and mind, collected in the vita, and in the tempo you see he wants to throw his throw yours at his shoulder and parry his in that tempo, so that he cannot parry yours because you wound in that tempo he comes forward, as is seen in the figure. The stoccata thrown, return backward outside of measure in the same way as the first figure of sword and dagger.</p>
 
| IL VERO MODO DI PARARE<br/>LA STOCCATA,<br/>CHE VENISSE NEL FIANCO MANCO.
 
  
NELLA presente figura, bisogna porsi come in quella di sopra, se’l vostro nemico designasse tirarvi nel fianco manco; starete con il vostro pugnale alla guardia della sua spada: & in quel tempo, che egli tira, parar con il taglio del pugnale, e ferir l’inimico nella spalla della spada in un tempo istesso, anzi tirate più presto la vostra, che egli tiri la sua stoccata, stando attento con l’occhio, e con la mente, raccolto nella vita, & in quel tempo, che vedete, che egli vuol tirare la sua, tirarete la vostra nella spalla, & pararete in quel tempo la sua, che egli non potrà parar la vostra: perche ferirete in quel tempo, che egli viene innanzi, come si vede nella figura. Tirata la stoccata, tornate in dietro fuori di misura, nel modo istesso della prima figura di Spada, e Pugnale.
+
<p>In the present figure it is necessary to place yourself like in that above. If your enemy intends to throw at your left flank, stand with your dagger toward the guard of his sword and in the tempo that he throws parry with the edge of the dagger and wound the enemy in the sword shoulder in the same tempo. Nay, throw yours sooner than he throws his stoccata, staying alert with your eye and mind, collected in the vita, and in the tempo you see he wants to throw his throw yours at his shoulder and parry his in that tempo, so that he cannot parry yours because you wound in that tempo he comes forward, as is seen in the figure. The stoccata thrown, return backward outside of measure in the same way as the first figure of sword and dagger.<ref name="f21">Figure 21.</ref></p>
| [http://fechtgeschichte.blogspot.de/2014/08/das-fechtbuch-des-nicolai-giganti-in.html Text to copy over]
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/64|2|lbl=34}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Giganti 23.png|400x400px|center|Figure 23]]
 
| [[File:Giganti 23.png|400x400px|center|Figure 23]]
| <p>[37] METHOD OF PARRYING A THRUST THAT COMES AT YOUR RIGHT FLANK WITH SWORD AND DAGGER</p>
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| <p>[59] '''Method of Parrying a Thrust that Comes''' at Your Right Flank with Sword and Dagger</p>
 
 
<p>As you see in this figure, if you are in this same guard described above and your enemy were to come to bind with the sword low in order to wound you in the right flank it would be necessary for you to raise your sword arm and stand in third guard for an imbroccata with the point of your sword toward his face or chest, with the dagger a little low and the arm to the guard of the enemy sword. As the enemy throws the thrust at your flank, parry and throw an imbroccata at the enemy sword shoulder in the same tempo so that you see the effect of the figure. In fact, it would be better when you see your enemy wants to throw the thrust to throw yours forward so that you will more easily wound him. The stoccata or imbroccata given, immediately return backward outside of measure.</p>
 
| DEL MODO DI PARARE<br/>UNA PUNTA, CHE VENISSE<br/>NEL FIANCO DESTRO DI SPADA,<br/>E PUGNALE
 
  
IN questa figura, come vedete, se voi foste in questa guardia medesim come sopra è descritta, e che’l vostro nemico vi venisse à stringer con la spada bassa, per ferirvi nel fianco dritto, bisogna che voi alciate il braccio della spada, e state in guardia terza per imbroccata con la punta della vostra spada, verso il suo viso, overo il petto, & con il pugnale alquanto basso, con il braccio alla guardia della spada nemica. E come il nemico tira la punta nel fianco, e voi parate, e tirate per imbroccata nella spalla della spada nemica in un istesso tempo, che parate, che vedrete l’effetto della figura. Anzi sarebbe meglio, come vedete il vostro nemico, che vuol tirare la punta, tirare innanzi la vostra, che più facilmente lo ferirete; e subito data la stoccata, overo imbroccata, tornare indietro fuor di misura.
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<p>As you see in this figure, if you are in this same guard described above and your enemy were to come to bind with the sword low in order to wound you in the right flank it would be necessary for you to raise your sword arm and stand in third guard<ref>The guard Giganti refers to here is unclear.</ref> for an imbroccata with the point of your sword toward his face or chest, with the dagger a little low and the arm to the guard of the enemy sword. As the enemy throws the thrust at your flank, parry and throw an imbroccata at the enemy sword shoulder in the same tempo so that you see the effect of the figure. In fact, it would be better when you see your enemy wants to throw the thrust to throw yours forward so that you will more easily wound him. The stoccata or imbroccata given, immediately return backward outside of measure.</p>
| [http://fechtgeschichte.blogspot.de/2014/08/das-fechtbuch-des-nicolai-giganti-in.html Text to copy over]
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| <p>[38] These are the four kinds of wounding and parrying stoccata and imbroccata, and they proceed in the same way, that is, parrying and wounding in the same tempo and in carrying the feet always taking care as you throw the stoccata to increase a little with your right foot, holding the left foot strongly on the ground. Be advised that holding the left foot on the ground will appear difficult to you at first, but with practice you will succeed easily.</p>
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| <p>[60] These are the four kinds of wounding and parrying stoccata and imbroccata, and they proceed in the same way, that is, parrying and wounding in the same tempo and in carrying the feet always taking care as you throw the stoccata to increase a little with your right foot, keeping the left foot strongly on the ground. Be advised that keeping the left foot on the ground will appear difficult to you at first, but with practice you will succeed easily.</p>
| Queste sono le quattro sorti di ferire, e parare di stoccata, & imbroccata, & tutto vanno in un medesimo modo, cioè parare, e ferire in un istesso tempo; e nel portar de’ piedi, avertire sempre, come tirate la stoccata, crescere alquanto con il piè destro, tenendo il piè manco forte in terra. Avertite, che à tener forte il piede manco in terra vi parrà difficile nel principio, ma con l’esercitio vi riuscirà facile.
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| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/77|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/66|4|lbl=-}}
  
 
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|-  
 
| [[File:Giganti 24.png|400x400px|center|Figure 24]]
 
| [[File:Giganti 24.png|400x400px|center|Figure 24]]
| <p>[39] METHOD OF PARRYING THE THRUST OF SWORD AND DAGGER AT YOUR FACE</p>
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| <p>[61] '''Method of Parrying the Thrust of Sword''' and Dagger at Your Face</p>
  
 
<p>In order to put into effect that which is shown to you by this figure it is necessary that you stand in the same guard, and seeing the enemy coming to throw a stoccata at your face, parrying with the edge of the dagger, to push forward the stoccata at his flank in one tempo so that you make this effect. Be advised, however, when you see the enemy’s thrust at your face, to hold the dagger a little wide from it, giving him occasion to throw at you, and when he throws at you parry with the dagger and turn your head a little in order to pull it away from his sword. In the tempo you parry, wound him with a thrust in the flank that is uncovered and closest to wound. As soon as you have wounded, return backward in the described way.</p>
 
<p>In order to put into effect that which is shown to you by this figure it is necessary that you stand in the same guard, and seeing the enemy coming to throw a stoccata at your face, parrying with the edge of the dagger, to push forward the stoccata at his flank in one tempo so that you make this effect. Be advised, however, when you see the enemy’s thrust at your face, to hold the dagger a little wide from it, giving him occasion to throw at you, and when he throws at you parry with the dagger and turn your head a little in order to pull it away from his sword. In the tempo you parry, wound him with a thrust in the flank that is uncovered and closest to wound. As soon as you have wounded, return backward in the described way.</p>
| DEL MODO DI PARARE<br/>LA PUNTA DI SPADA,<br/>E PUGNALE NEL VISO.
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PER voler mettere in effetto tutto quello che per questa figura vi si dimostra, fà di mestieri, che voi stiate in questa medesim guardia, e vedendo venire l’inimico à tirarvi una stoccata all faccia; parando con il tagli del Pugnale, gli spingerete innanzi la stoccata nel fianco in un tempo, che farete questo effetto. Avertendo però, quando vedrete la punta della spada nemica alla vostra faccia, di tenere il Pugnale alquanto largo da quella dandogli campo à tirarvi: & quando vi tirarà, pararete con il Pugnale, e voltarete alquanto la testa per tirarsi via dalla sua spada: & in quel tempo che voi pararete, lo ferirete di punta nel fianco, che sarà scoperto, e il più vicino à ferire. Subito che haverete ferito, tornarete in dietro al modo descritto.
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/68|2|lbl=36}}
| [http://fechtgeschichte.blogspot.de/2014/08/das-fechtbuch-des-nicolai-giganti-in.html Text to copy over]
 
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| [[File:Giganti 25.png|400x400px|center|Figure 25]]
 
| [[File:Giganti 25.png|400x400px|center|Figure 25]]
| <p>[40] METHOD OF PARRYING THE CUT ON THE HEAD WITH SWORD AND DAGGER</p>
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| <p>[62] '''Method of Parrying the Cut''' on the Head with Sword and Dagger</p>
  
<p>As you see, one learns from this figure to parry the cuts with the dagger that come at the top of your head. It is necessary to place oneself in the guard of the first lesson, and if your enemy comes throwing you a cut on the head meet it with your dagger edge, in that same tempo throwing the thrust to the enemy’s face and increasing forward a little with your right foot. Do these three things together so that you see the effect of the figure. For a great cut that comes it would be better to kill it so that it does not have half the strength. While your enemy lifts the sword to throw the cut, throw your stoccata at his face so that he will need to withdraw his head a little backward. He will clamp his eyes and you will take the strength of the cut. To make this effect, it is necessary to be bold, to not be afraid of the sword or of the enemy, to understand parrying with the dagger well, and to understand how to throw a straight and long stoccata well. Watch that you do not parry the cut with the flat of the dagger, as a strong cut would cast the dagger from your hand and wound you on the head. If you parry with the edge holding the arm extended there will be no danger. Having thrown the thrust return backward outside of measure, as above.</p>
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<p>As you see, one learns from this figure to parry the cuts with the dagger that come at the top of your head. It is necessary to place oneself in the guard of the first lesson,<ref>First lesson of sword and dagger – Figure 21.</ref>  and if your enemy comes throwing you a cut on the head meet it with your dagger edge, in that same tempo throwing the thrust to the enemy’s face and increasing forward a little with your right foot. Do these three things together so that you see the effect of the figure. For a great cut that comes it would be better to kill it so that it does not have half the strength. While your enemy lifts the sword to throw the cut, throw your stoccata at his face so that he will need to withdraw his head a little backward. He will clamp his eyes and you will take the strength of the cut. To make this effect, it is necessary to be bold, to not be afraid of the sword or of the enemy, to understand parrying with the dagger well, and to understand how to throw a straight and long stoccata well. Watch that you do not parry the cut with the flat of the dagger, as a strong cut would cast the dagger from your hand and wound you on the head. If you parry with the edge holding the arm extended there will be no danger. Having thrown the thrust return backward outside of measure, as above.</p>
| DEL MODO DI PARARE<br/>LA COLTELLATA<br/>SU LA TESTA DI SPADA E PUGNALE.
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| {{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|81|lbl=61}}
 
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/70|1|lbl=37}}
SI impara da questa figura, come vedete à parar le Coltellate con il Pugnale, che venissero alla volta della testa: Bisogna mettersi in guardia della prima lettione; e se il vostro nemico venisse tirandovi una Coltellata sù la testa, andategli incontro con il vostro Pugnale di taglio, & in quel tempo medesimo, tirare la punta al viso dell’inimico, e crescere alquanto con il piè dritto innanzi: Fate queste trè cose insieme, che vedrete l’effetto della figura. E meglio sarebbe per gran coltellata, che venisse, farla morire, che non habbia la metà della forza. Mentre che il vostro nemico alza la spada per tirare la Coltellata tirategli la vostra stoccata nel viso, che gli bisognerà ritirare alquanto la testa in dietro, e serrerà gli occhi, e le torrete la forza della Coltellata. A voler fare questo effetto, fa di mestieri esser ardito, non haver paura della spada, ne dell’inimico; saper parare bene con il pugnale; saper tirar bene una stoccata dritta, e lunga; e guardare di non parare la Coltellata con il piano del Pugnale, che se fusse una Coltellata forte vi getterebbe il Pugnale di mano, e vi ferirebbe sù la testa. Ma se parate con il taglio, tenendo il braccio disteso, non vi è pericolo. Tirato che haverete la punta, tornarete indietro fuori di misura, come sopra.
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/70|2|lbl=37}}
| [http://fechtgeschichte.blogspot.de/2014/08/das-fechtbuch-des-nicolai-giganti-in.html Text to copy over]
 
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| [[File:Giganti 26.png|400x400px|center|Figure 26]]
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| rowspan="2" | [[File:Giganti 26.png|400x400px|center|Figure 26]]
| <p>[41] METHOD OF PARRYING A RIVERSO WITH THE DAGGER</p>
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| <p>[63] '''Method of Parrying a Riverso''' with the Dagger</p>
  
<p>As you see, one learns from this figure how to parry a riverso that comes at your face. It is necessary to place oneself in guard of the first lesson with the dagger high and strong, and when you see the riverso come go to meet it with the edge of the dagger. In the same tempo increase a little with your right foot, throwing the stoccata at his uncovered flank so that you see the effect of the figure. Be aware that all six of these figures are of one manner, but it is necessary to parry and wound in one tempo. If you were to delay an instant from parrying to wounding, you would not create the effect. To create the effect it is necessary to exercise, to practice, and the stoccata given, to immediately return backward outside of measure.</p>
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<p>As you see, one learns from this figure how to parry a riverso that comes at your face. It is necessary to place oneself in guard of the first lesson<ref name="f21"/> with the dagger high and strong, and when you see the riverso come go to meet it with the edge of the dagger. In the same tempo increase a little with your right foot, throwing the stoccata at his uncovered flank so that you see the effect of the figure.</p>
| DEL MODO DI PARARE<br/>UN RIVERSO<br/>CON IL PUGNALE.
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| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/83|1|lbl=63}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/72|1|lbl=38}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/72|4|lbl=38}}
  
SI impara da questa figura, come vedete à parare un riverso, che venisse verso la faccia: Bisogna porsi in guardia della prima lettione con il Pugnale alto, e forte: e come vedete venir il riverso; andiate ad incontrarlo con il taglio del Pugnale, & in un tempo crescer alquanto con il piede dritto, ti randogli la stoccata nel fianco, che sarà discoperto, che vedrete l’effetto della figura. Avertendo, che tutte sei queste figure sono d’una maniera. Ma bisogna parare, e ferire in un tempo; che se voi tardaste punto dal parare al ferire, non fereste l’effetto. A far questo effetto, bisogna essercitarsi, a far prattica, e subito data la stoccata, tornare in dietro fuor di misura.
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| [http://fechtgeschichte.blogspot.de/2014/08/das-fechtbuch-des-nicolai-giganti-in.html Text to copy over]
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| <p>[64] Be aware that all six of these figures<ref name="f21-6">Figures 21-26.</ref> are of one manner, but it is necessary to parry and wound in one tempo. If you were to delay an instant from parrying to wounding, you would not create the effect. To create the effect it is necessary to exercise, to practise, and the stoccata given, to immediately return backward outside of measure.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/83|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/72|5|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| <p>[42] Be advised that these six lessons are the most important and the most beautiful that are found in fencing, but it is necessary to perform them well holding the dagger strongly, and when you see the sword come against you, with the thrust as with the cut, go to meet it with the dagger and in that same tempo throw the stoccata where the enemy is uncovered.</p>
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| <p>[65] Be advised that these six lessons are the most important and the most beautiful that are found in fencing, but it is necessary to perform them well holding the dagger strongly, and when you see the sword come against you, with the thrust as with the cut, go to meet it with the dagger and in that same tempo throw the stoccata where the enemy is uncovered.</p>
| Egli è d’avertire, che queste sei lettioni sono le più importanti, e le più belle, che nella Scrimia si ritrovino: ma bisogna fargli bene tenere il Pugnal forte, e come vedete la spada venire contro di voi, così di punta, come di taglio, andarla ad incontrare con il Pugnale, & in quel medesimo tempo tirare la stoccata, ove il nemico sarà discoperto.
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| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/83|3|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/72|3|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/72|6|lbl=-}}
  
 
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|-  
 
| [[File:Giganti 27.png|400x400px|center|Figure 27]]
 
| [[File:Giganti 27.png|400x400px|center|Figure 27]]
| <p>[43] THRUST THROWN AT THE CHEST WITH THE SWORD AND DAGGER</p>
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| <p>[66] '''Thrust Thrown at the Chest with the Sword''' and Dagger<br/><br/></p>
  
<p>The first quality that one who delights in making a profession of arms must have is the knowledge of how to approach to bind the enemy, give a stoccata to him, and return in guard outside of measure. To do this it is necessary to have understanding of the counterguards and know how to throw the stoccata where you see the enemy is uncovered. If he were a little uncovered in the chest it would be necessary to approach to bind him slowly, with the sword low, holding the point toward the enemy’s chest with the dagger to the guard of his sword, and when you are in measure throw the sword first, then the vita, and after the foot so that you see the effect of this figure. This is because if you throw the sword arm and then the vita you will give him the stoccata in the chest and he will not perceive it. Otherwise, if you were to move the vita first and then throw the stoccata, since he could see it and be able to parry and respond in the same tempo you would then be in danger. Having thrown the stoccata, immediately retreat outside of measure, standing in guard with your weapons ready to parry and wound because the enemy seeing himself wounded will become disconcerted enough to throw either a thrust or cut at you. You will then parry and wound in one tempo as described in the first six figures. The importance of this figure consists (after having thrown) in knowing how to return outside of measure. In order to return safely it is necessary (as has been said above) to carry your head back first so that the vita will come, and the leg, because if you were to pull your leg first you would be in danger either of falling or of your enemy wounding you since your head would go forward. This one of the principal things that you learn.</p>
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<p>The first quality that one who delights in making a profession of arms must have is the knowledge of how to approach to bind the enemy, give a stoccata to him, and return in guard outside of measure. To do this it is necessary to have understanding of the counterguards and know how to throw the stoccata where you see the enemy is uncovered. If he were a little uncovered in the chest it would be necessary to approach to bind him slowly, with the sword low, holding the point toward the enemy’s chest with the dagger to the guard of his sword, and when you are at measure throw the sword first, then the vita, and after the foot so that you see the effect of this figure. This is because if you throw the sword arm and then the vita you will give him the stoccata in the chest and he will not perceive it. Otherwise, if you were to move the vita first and then throw the stoccata, since he could see it and be able to parry and respond in the same tempo you would then be in danger. Having thrown the stoccata, immediately retreat outside of measure, standing in guard with your weapons ready to parry and wound because the enemy seeing himself wounded will become disconcerted enough to throw either a thrust or cut at you. You will then parry and wound in one tempo as described in the first six figures. <ref name="f21-6"/> The importance of this figure consists (after having thrown) in knowing how to return outside of measure. In order to return safely it is necessary (as has been said above) to carry your head back first so that the vita will come, and the leg, because if you were to pull your leg first you would be in danger either of falling or of your enemy wounding you since your head would go forward. This one of the principal things that you learn.</p>
| PUNTA TIRATE NEL PETTO<br/>DI SPADA,<br/>E PUGNALE.
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| {{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|85|lbl=65}}
 
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LA prima parte, che deve havere colui, che si diletta far professione d’armi, è il saper andare à stringere il nemico, dargli una stoccata, e tornare in guardia fuor di misura. A voler far questo fa di mestieri havere conoscimento del contrario delle guardie, e saper tirare la stoccata, ove vedrete ch’il vostro nemico è scoperto; perche se egli fusse un poco scoperto nel petto, bisogna andare à stringerlo piano, con la spada bassa, tenendo la punta verso il petto dell’inimico; e con il pugnale alla guardia della sua spada, e come sarete in misura, tirarete prima la spada, poi la vita, e dopò il piede, che vedrete l’effetto di questa figura. Perche se voi tirate il braccio della spada, e poi la vita gli date la stoccata nel petto, che egli non se n’avvede. Il contrario fareste, se voi moveste prima la vita, e poi tiraste la stoccata; poiche egli se n’avvederebbe, e potrebbe parare, e rispondere nel medesimo tempo, e all’hora voi saresti in pericolo. Subito poi, che haverete tirata la stoccata, vi tirarete in dietro fuor di misura, stando in guardia con le vostr’armi atte à parare, e ferire, perche il nimico vedendosi ferito verrà sconcertato à tirarvi, o di punta, o di taglio; voi all’hora pararete, e ferirete in un tempo, come è descritto nelle sei prime figure. Ma l’importanza di questa figura consiste,(che dopò haver tirato) nel saper tornare fuori di misura; & per tornar sicuro, bisogna, (come s’e detto di sopra) portare prima indietro la testa, che verrà la vita, e la gamba, perche se voi tiraste prima la gamba, stareste in pericolo, ò di cascare, ò che il vostro nemico vi ferisse: poiche la testa anderebbe innanzi; Si che questa sia una delle principali cose, che impariate.
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{{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/74|1|lbl=39|p=1}} {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/76|1|lbl=40|p=1}}
| [http://fechtgeschichte.blogspot.de/2014/08/das-fechtbuch-des-nicolai-giganti-in.html Text to copy over]
 
 
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{{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/74|2|lbl=39|p=1}} {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/76|2|lbl=40|p=1}}
  
 
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|-  
 
| [[File:Giganti 28.png|400x400px|center|Figure 28]]
 
| [[File:Giganti 28.png|400x400px|center|Figure 28]]
| <p>[44] THROWING THE STOCCATA WHILE THE ENEMY MOVES</p>
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| <p>[67] '''Throwing the Stoccata While the Enemy''' Moves<br/><br/></p>
  
<p>In fencing the principal things are understanding measure and tempo, which we discuss in this figure. When you have the sword in hand so that you go against your enemy, go to bind him with a lively eye, with the weapons ready to parry and wound. In that tempo take heed of whether he wants to be the first to wound or not. If you see that he wants to be first give a tempo to him so that he throws and meanwhile you, going to the parry, throw at him in the same tempo as above. But if you see that he is timid and stays in guard in order to wait approach him little by little to bind on the side where he is uncovered, and when you are in measure, holding the dagger forward to the guard of his sword, first throw the point, then the vita, and after the foot, always holding the dagger forward, so that if the enemy throws in that same tempo you are able to parry so that he does not produce an incontro and strike both of you. Having thrown, return backward outside of measure in the described way. It is necessary when you approach to bind him that he do one of these three things: either he throws, stays firm in order to parry, or he moves himself to one side or another in order to take himself outside. Therefore, it is necessary whether he throws or stays firm when you are in measure that you do it in the way described in the present lesson, but if he were to move himself, either withdrawing himself or here, there, or in whichever way, throw the stoccata at him strongly and quickly while his foot is moving, because while he moves you can wound him there in the tempo that you throw. Then return outside of measure as usual.</p>
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<p>In fencing the principal things are understanding measure and tempo, which we discuss in this figure. When you have the sword in hand so that you go against your enemy, go to bind him with an alert eye, with the weapons ready to parry and wound. In that tempo take heed of whether he wants to be the first to wound or not. If you see that he wants to be first give a tempo to him so that he throws and meanwhile you, going to the parry, throw at him in the same tempo as above. But if you see that he is timid and stays in guard in order to wait approach him little by little to bind on the side where he is uncovered, and when you are at measure, holding the dagger forward to the guard of his sword, first throw the point, then the vita, and after the foot, always holding the dagger forward, so that if the enemy throws in that same tempo you are able to parry so that he does not produce an incontro and strike both of you. Having thrown, return backward outside of measure in the described way. It is necessary when you approach to bind him that he do one of these three things: either he throws, stays firm in order to parry, or he moves himself to one side or another in order to take himself outside. Therefore, it is necessary whether he throws or stays firm when you are at measure that you do it in the way described in the present lesson, but if he were to move himself, either withdrawing himself or here, there, or in whichever way, throw the stoccata at him strongly and quickly while his foot is moving, because while he moves you can wound him there in the tempo that you throw. Then return outside of measure as usual.</p>
| A TIRARE LA STOCCATA,<br/>MENTRE IL NEMICO<br/>SI MUOVE.
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| {{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|87|lbl=67}}
 
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NElla Scrimia le cose principali, sono il sapere conoscere la misura, e il tempo, delle quali in questa figura ragioneremo. Come voi havete la spada in mano, che andate contro il vostro nemico, andate à stringerlo con l’occhio vivo, con l’armi pronte per parare, e ferire. In quel tempo avertite se egli vuol’ essere il primo à ferire, ò nò. E se vedete, che egli voglia essere il primo; dategli tempo, ch’egli tiri; e voi intanto andando alla parata gli tirerete nel medesimo tempo, come sopra. Ma se vedete ch’egli vi tema, & che stia in guardia per aspettare, andatelo pian piano à stringere dalla parte, ove egli è scoperto; e come sete in misura, tenendo il Pugnale innanzi alla guardia della sua spada, tirarete prima la punta, poi la vita, e dopò il piede, tenendo sempre il Pugnale innanzi, accioche se il nemico tirasse in quel medesimo tempo, possiate parare, che non fusse un incontro, e darvi ambidue. Tirato che havete, tornate indietro fuori di misura al modo descritto. Et perche bisogna, che quando voi andate à stringerlo, che faccia una di queste trè cose, ò che tiri, ò che stia fermo per parare; ò che si muova ò da una banda, ò dall’altra per tiorsi fuori, bisogna se tira, ò se stà fermo quando sete in misura, che voi faciate al modo descritto nella presente lettione. Ma se egli si movesse, ò si ritirasse ò in quà, ò in là, ò in qual si voglia modo; voi tirategli forte, e presto la stoccata, mentre che tiene il piede in varia. Perche mentre, ch’ei si muove non vi può ferire nel tempo, che voi tirate. Poi tornate fuori di misura al solito.
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{{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/77|1|lbl=41|p=1}} {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/79|1|lbl=42|p=1}}
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{{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/77|2|lbl=41|p=1}} {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/79|2|lbl=42|p=1}}
  
 
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| [[File:Giganti 29.png|400x400px|center|Figure 29]]
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| rowspan="2" | [[File:Giganti 29.png|400x400px|center|Figure 29]]
| <p>[45] THRUST THROWN OVER THE DAGGER</p>
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| <p>[68] '''Thrust Thrown Over the Dagger'''</p>
  
<p>To give a stoccata to someone who holds the dagger low it is necessary (as one sees in this figure) to approach him to bind on the side of the dagger, and when you are in measure first throw the sword, and then the vita, raising your wrist a little so that you make the effect. Then return backward in the way described in Figure ……, It is very difficult to defend oneself from one who is practiced at first throwing the sword, then the vita, and after this quickly returning backward in the way described in lesson ….., who understands approaching to bind with tempo, and when he is in measure throwing where the enemy is uncovered, since it is necessary that he is uncovered somewhere, as the sword and dagger cannot cover everything and where he is uncovered it is necessary to approach him to bind in the described way.</p>
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<p>To give a stoccata to someone who holds the dagger low it is necessary (as one sees in this figure) to approach him to bind on the side of the dagger, and when you are at measure first throw the sword, and then the vita, raising your wrist a little so that you make the effect. Then return backward in the way described in Figure ……<ref>The figure number is missing in both the 1606 and 1628 printings. Jakob de Zeter’s 1619 German/French version also omits a figure reference. The anonymous notes in the Vienna copy state that it is the 21st figure.</ref></p>
| PUNTA TIRATA<br/>SOPRA IL PUGNALE.
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| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/89|1|lbl=69}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/80|1|lbl=43}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/80|4|lbl=43}}
  
A Voler dare una stoccata à un che tenga il Pugnale basso, bisogna (come si vede in questa figura) andarlo à stringere dalla parte del Pugnale; e come sarete in misura, tirarete prima la Spada, e poi la vita, con alzare alquanto il nodo della mano, come vedete nella figura, che farete l’effetto. Poi tornarete indietro al modo descritto della ..... figura. Uno, che sia essercitato à tirare prima la Spada, e poi la vita, e dopò questo tornare indietro presto al modo descritto nella ..... lettione, e che sappia andara à stringere con tempo, e come è in misura, tirare dove il nemico è scoperto, è molto difficile à pararsi, poiche bisogna, che sia scoperto in qualche parte, poiche la Spada, & il Pugnale non lo possono coprire tutto: e dove è discoperto, bisogna andarlo à stringere al modo descritto.
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| <p>[69] It is very difficult to defend oneself from one who is practised at first throwing the sword, then the vita, and after this quickly returning backward in the way described in lesson [27],<ref>The figure number is missing in both the 1606 and 1628 printings. Jakob de Zeter’s 1619 German/French version refers to Figure 27.</ref> who understands approaching to bind with tempo, and when he is at measure throwing where the enemy is uncovered, since it is necessary that he<ref name="the enemy"/> is uncovered somewhere, as the sword and dagger cannot cover everything and where he is uncovered it is necessary to approach him to bind in the described way.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/89|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/80|5|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| [[File:Giganti 30.png|400x400px|center|Figure 30]]
 
| <p>[46] Many are the guards that can be made, because every method of holding the sword is a guard, as has been said, and all the guards are good to one who understands tempo and measure. In war one who knows how to make guards with artifice will always deceive the enemy.</p>
 
| Molte sono le guardie, che si possono fare, perche ogni modo di tenere la spada è guardia, come si è detto: e tutte le guardie sono buone, à chi sà conoscere il tempo, e la misura: E quello che in guerra saprà far guardie con artificio ingannerà sempre l’inimico.
 
| [http://fechtgeschichte.blogspot.de/2014/08/das-fechtbuch-des-nicolai-giganti-in.html Text to copy over]
 
 
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| <p>[70] </p>
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<p>Many are the guards that can be made, because every method of holding the sword is a guard, as has been said, and all the guards are good to one who understands tempo and measure. In war one who knows how to make guards with artifice will always deceive the enemy.</p>
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| <p><br/></p>
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{{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/91|1|lbl=71}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/80|3|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/80|6|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| rowspan="2" | [[File:Giganti 30.png|400x400px|center|Figure 30]]
| <p>[47] ARTIFICIAL GUARD UNCOVERING THE LEFT SIDE</p>
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| <p>[71] '''Artificial Guard Uncovering''' the Left Side</p>
  
 
<p>The artificial guards are infinite, but I will only place three of them in my first book, which for those who understand will be a light and road to making as many guards as they wish.</p>
 
<p>The artificial guards are infinite, but I will only place three of them in my first book, which for those who understand will be a light and road to making as many guards as they wish.</p>
| GUARDIA ARTIFICIOSA<br/>DI SCOPRIRSI<br/>LA PARTE SINISTRA.
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LE Guardie con artificio sono infinite; ma io in questo mio primo libro ne porrò trè sole, che sarà una luce, e strada à gli intendenti di fare quante guardie vorranno.
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| <p>[72] The proper and first method of standing in artificial guard is this: uncovering a part of the body while the other parts are completely covered, so that the enemy cannot wound you if not in one part alone, as you see in this figure where all of the left shoulder is uncovered. This is done so the enemy will intend to wound you in the uncovered part, and when he sets out to wound he will be in danger, since as he aims to throw at you either with a thrust or cut you can parry and wound him in the same tempo, increasing with the foot so that it accompanies the sword while you parry. As soon as the stoccata is thrown return outside of measure as above.</p>
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| <p>[48] The proper and first method of standing in artificial guard is this: uncovering a part of the body while the other parts are completely covered, so that the enemy cannot wound you if not in one part alone, as you see in this figure where all of the left shoulder is uncovered. This is done so the enemy will intend to wound you in the uncovered part, and when he sets out to wound he will be in danger, since as he aims to throw at you either with a thrust or cut you can parry and wound him in the same tempo, increasing with the foot so that it accompanies the sword while you parry. As soon as the stoccata is thrown return outside of measure as above. These artificial guards are for studious men that have understanding of tempo and measure and have practiced well, because many things can be done in these guards. Most of all in this first one can approach to bind the enemy, and when you are in measure, that same enemy waiting, it is possible to wound him in the part that is uncovered. If he throws you are able to do many things, such as parry and wound in one tempo, parry and make a feint, a pass, or all that you know how to do in other guards in which you are practiced. If your enemy standing in guard throws disconcerted you parry and wound in one tempo, or rather, disconcerted, and return immediately backward out of measure. This guard deceives many of those that know and do not know playing at weapons. Seeing you uncovered, he will throw at that uncovered part, and you easily parrying and wounding in the way described above in the first lessons of sword and dagger will strike him safely and easily.</p>
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| <p>[73] These artificial guards are for studious men that understand tempo and measure and have practised well, because many things can be done in these guards. Most of all in this first one can approach to bind the enemy, and when you are at measure, that same enemy waiting, it is possible to wound him in the part that is uncovered. If he throws you are able to do many things, such as parry and wound in one tempo, parry and make a feint, a pass, or all that you know how to do in other guards in which you are practised. If your enemy standing in guard throws disconcerted you parry and wound in one tempo, or rather, disconcerted, and return immediately backward out of measure. This guard deceives many of those that know and do not know playing at weapons. Seeing you uncovered, he will throw at that uncovered part, and you easily parrying and wounding in the way described above in the first lessons of sword and dagger will strike him safely and easily.</p>
| Il vero, e primo modo di stare in guardia artificiosa è questo, scoprirsi una parte del corpo, & l’altre parti siano tutti coperte, che l’inimico non vi possi ferire, se non in una parte sola, come vedete in questa figura, ove è scoperta tutta la spalla sinistra, perche verrà l’inimico à ferirvi nella parte scoperta, e come vuol ferire, sarà in pericolo, poiche egli come vi vorrà tirare, ò di punta, ò di taglio, potrete parare, e ferire in un’ istesso tempo lui, crescendo con il piede, che accompagna la spada, mentre che parate. Subito tirata la stoccata tornate fuori di misura come sopra. Queste guardie di artificio sono per huomini studiosi, che hanno conoscimento di tempo, e di misura, e che hanno buona prattica, perche in queste guardie si possono far molte cose, massime in questa prima si può andare à stringer l’inimico; e come sete in misura, che stesse aspettando, si può ferirlo in quella parte, che è discoperta; e se tirasse potrete fare molte cose: Come parare, e ferire in un tempo; parare, e fare una finta, una passata, o tutto quello che saprete fare in altre guardie, nelle quali sete esercitato. E se il vostro nemico stando in guardia tirasse sconcertato; voi parate, e ferite in un tempo, overo sconcertato, e subito tornare indietro fuori di misura. Questa guardia inganna molto quelli, che sanno, e che non sanno giuocare d’armi; perche vedendovi discoperto, vi tirarà à quella parte scoperta; e voi facilmente parando, e ferendo al modo descritto sopra nelle prime lettioni di Spada, e Pugnale, gli darete sicura, e facilmente.
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| <p>[49] ARTIFICIAL GUARD UNCOVERING THE RIGHT SIDE</p>
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| <p>[74] '''Artificial Guard Uncovering the Right Side'''</p>
  
<p>This is another artificial guard, as you see, that uncovers all the right side, and the rest of the vita is completely covered so that the enemy cannot wound if not in your uncovered right shoulder. However, you can parry with the sword or dagger as you like and wound with a firm foot or else pass with your foot, as is convenient. In this guard you can do many feints. These guards are good with those desirous to wound, who do not have patience to wait to throw with tempo and measure, and who as they see the enemy uncovered come toward him without considering that which he could still do, often finding themselves in danger. They are still good with those that know much, since you see your own work better. Making a feint at you, you will be able to parry it better than standing in a narrow guard, and the resolute thrusts are parried more easily still by carrying the vita back, and parrying, turning the body, according to how quick and long the thrusts will be.</p>
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<p>This is another artificial guard, as you see, that uncovers all the right side, and the rest of the vita is completely covered so that the enemy cannot wound if not in your uncovered right shoulder. However, you can parry with the sword or dagger as you like and wound with a firm foot or else pass with your foot, as is convenient.</p>
| GUARDIA ARTIFICIOSA<br/>DI SCOPRIRSI LA PARTE<br/>DESTRA.
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QUESTA è un’altra guardia artificiosa, come vedete, che è scoperta tutta la parte destra: e il resto della vita è tutto coperto, si che l’inimico non può ferire, se non dalla spalla destra scoperta; ma voi potete parare con la Spada, ò con il Pugnale, come volete, e potete ferire di piede fermo, overo passar con il piede, come vi torna commodo. In questa guardia potete far molte finte, e sono buone queste guardia con quelli, che sono volontarosi di ferire, che non hanno patienza d’aspettare di tirare con tempo, e con misura, i quali come vedono scoperto l’inimico gli vanno addosso senza considerare quello, che egli ancora può fare: e spesso si trovovano in pericolo: sono buone ancora con quelli, che sanno assai, poiche vedete meglio il fatto vostro; perche facendovi una finta, la potrete meglio parare, che stando in una guardia stretta: & ancora le punte risolute si parano più facilmente con il portar la vita indietro, e parando, voltar la vita, secondo che le punte saranno preste, e lunghe.
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| <p>[75] In this guard you can do many feints. These guards are good with those desirous to wound, who do not have patience to wait to throw with tempo and measure, and who as they see the enemy uncovered come toward him without considering that which he could still do, often finding themselves in danger. They are still good with those that know much, since you see your own work better. Making a feint at you, you will be able to parry it better than standing in a narrow guard, and the resolute thrusts are parried more easily still by carrying the vita back, and parrying, turning the body, according to how quick and long the thrusts will be.</p>
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| [[File:Giganti 32.png|400x400px|center|Figure 32]]
| <p>[50] ARTIFICIAL GUARD UNCOVERING THE CHEST</p>
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| <p>[76] '''Artificial Guard Uncovering the Chest'''</p>
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<p>In this other guard, where the chest is uncovered, it is<ref>The chest is uncovered.</ref> because your enemy cannot wound you either on the side of the sword or on that of the dagger, because coming in order to wound you he will throw at your rib cage, that being the only thing uncovered. While he throws, parry and wound in the same tempo, either in the right shoulder or the face, these being closest to you. You can also perform feints in this guard, pass with your foot, and all that you have learned in the other guards. It is also good with the choleric, who throw resolutely and do not perform feints. With those that have tempo and measure and know well how to throw a resolute thrust and a feint it is not to be used. Instead, bind with the weapons and seek to cover the enemy sword with yours outside of measure where you can parry and wound safely according to the occasion.</p>
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<p>In this other guard, where the chest is uncovered, it is because your enemy cannot wound you either on the side of the sword or on that of the dagger, because coming in order to wound you he will throw at your ribcage, that being the only thing uncovered. While he throws, parry and wound in the same tempo, either in the right shoulder or the face, these being closest to you. You can also perform feints in this guard, pass with your foot, and all that you have learned in the other guards. It is also good with the choleric, who throw resolutely and do not perform feints. With those that have tempo and measure and know well how to throw a resolute thrust and a feint it is not to be used. Instead, bind with the weapons and seek to cover the enemy sword with yours outside of measure where you can parry and wound safely according to the occasion.</p>
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| GUARDIA ARTIFICIOSA<br/>DI SCOPRIRE IL PETTO.
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| rowspan="2" | [[File:Giganti 33.png|400x400px|center|Figure 33]]
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| <p>[77] '''Feint with Sword and Dagger''' in Order to Wound Over the Dagger</p>
  
IN quest’altra guardia, dove è scoperto il petto, è; perche il vostro inimico non vi possa ferire, nè dalla banda della spada, nè da quella del pugnale, perche venendo per ferirvi, vi tirarà alla volta del petto, essendo quello solo scoperto. Mentre che tira, voi parate, e ferite in un’istesso tempo, ò  nella spalla destra, ò nella faccia, essendovi queste le più vicine. Potrete ancora in questa guardia far delle finte, passar con il piede, e tutto quello, che haverete imparato nell’altre guardie. E’buona ancora con coloro, che tirano risoluti, e che non fanno finte. Ma con quelli, che hanno tempo, e misura, e che sanno ben tirare una punta risoluta, e una finta, non è da usarsi, ma stringersi con le armi, e cercare di coprire con la vostra la spada nemica fuori di misura, ove potete parare, e ferire sicuro, secondo l’occasione.
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<p>Just as the understanding of tempo and measure are the principal foundation of fencing, so the disengage and feint are the ornament of it. The disengage consists entirely in the wrist. The feint is showing the doing of one thing and not doing it. It is not possible to do the feint without the disengage.</p>
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| <p>[78] One disengages above or under the guards of the sword, or over or under the point of the dagger, or inside or outside.</p>
| <p>[51] FEINT WITH SWORD AND DAGGER IN ORDER TO WOUND OVER THE DAGGER</p>
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<p>Just as the understanding of tempo and measure are the principal foundation of fencing, so the disengage and feint are the ornament of it. The disengage consists entirely in the wrist. The feint is showing the doing of one thing and not doing it. It is not possible to do the feint without the disengage. One disengages above or under the guards of the sword, or over or under the point of the dagger, or inside or outside. I cannot discuss the feint without including the disengage. The feint is a deadly deception, almost irreparable to persons of valour and professors of this science, and hardly to those without understanding. This is done in this way. At times in order to give a stoccata over the dagger in the chest or face of the enemy it is necessary to do it like so: bind him with the sword low under the dagger, holding your dagger to the guard of his sword. When you find yourself in measure, throw a resolute stoccata and then return backward, and if you run at him nothing else will happen, but if he parries, return to bind and when you are in measure, throw the thrust without extending your step, standing with the vita firm underneath the dagger. And while the enemy goes to parry it, in his lowering of the dagger raise the point of the sword with a turn of your hand then, extending your step and vita, wound him either in the chest or face, which he will certainly not perceive, as you see in the figure. To have the effect it needs to be done with great speed so that he will not know if it is resolute or a feint. Be advised that in approaching with the point of the sword over the enemy’s dagger you must proceed with the disengage so that it has disengaged and wounded in the same tempo. Then return outside of measure, as above, securing yourself from the enemy’s sword.</p>
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| DELLA<br/>FINTA DI SPADA,<br/>E PUGNALE,<br/>PER FERIRE SOPRA IL PUGNALE.
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| <p>[79] I cannot discuss the feint without including the disengage. The feint is a deadly deception, almost irreparable to persons of valour and professors of this science, and hardly to those without understanding. This is done in this way. At times in order to give a stoccata over the dagger in the chest or face of the enemy it is necessary to do it like so: bind him with the sword low under the dagger, holding your dagger to the guard of his sword. When you find yourself at measure, throw a resolute stoccata and then return backward, and if you run at him nothing else will happen, but if he parries, return to bind and when you are at measure, throw the thrust without extending your step, standing with the vita firm underneath the dagger. And while the enemy goes to parry it, in his lowering of the dagger raise the point of the sword with a turn of your hand then, extending your step and vita, wound him either in the chest or face, which he will certainly not perceive, as you see in the figure. To have the effect it needs to be done with great speed so that he will not know if it is resolute or a feint. Be advised that in approaching with the point of the sword over the enemy’s dagger you must proceed with the disengage so that it has disengaged and wounded in the same tempo. Then return outside of measure, as above, securing yourself from the enemy’s sword.</p>
COSI come la cognitione del tempo, e della misura è il principal fondamento della Scrimia, così la Cavatione, e la Finta, è l’ornamento di essa. La Cavatione consiste tutta nel nodo della mano: La Finta è il mostrare di fare una cosa, e non farla. Non si può far Finta senza Cavatione. Cavasi di sopra, o di sotto le guardie della Spada, o sopra, o sotto la punta del Pugnale, o di dentro, o di fuori; Io non posso trattare di Finta, ch’io non includa la Cavatione. La Finta è un inganno mortale, e quasi irreparabile alle persone di volore, e professori di questa scientia, e senza quasi, à quelli che non n’hanno cognitione. Questa si fà in questo modo: a volte per dare una stoccata sopra il Pugnale nel petto, o nel viso all’inimico bisogna far così, stringerlo con la spada bassa sotto il Pugnale, tenendo il vostro Pugnale alla guardia della sua Spada, e come vi trovate in misura, tirare una Stoccata risoluta, e poi tornare indietro: e se lo correte; non occorrerà altro: ma se egli para, voi tornate à stringere, e come sete in misura, tirate la Punta senza allungare il passo, stando con la vita fermo sotto co’l Pugnale. E mentre l’inimico va al parato di essa, nell’abbassare ch’egli fà del Pugnale, voi alzando la punta della Spada con il giro del nodo della mano, allungando allhora il passo, e la vita, lo ferirete, o nel petto, o nel viso, che non se n’avvede sicuramente, come vedete nella Figura. La quale accioche habbia effetto, bisogna con gran prestezza fare, perche non si conosca se sia risoluta, o finta. Et avertite, che nell’andare con la punta della Spada sopra al Pugnale nemico, habbiate à caminare con la cavatione; si che l’haver cavato, e ferito, sia in un’istesso tempo. Poi tornarete fuori di misura, come sopra, assicurandovi dall Spada nemica.
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| [[File:Giganti 34.png|400x400px|center|Figure 34]]
 
| [[File:Giganti 34.png|400x400px|center|Figure 34]]
| <p>[52] FEINT WITH SWORD AND DAGGER IN ORDER TO WOUND IN THE CHEST</p>
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| <p>[80] '''Feint With Sword and Dagger''' in Order to Wound in the Chest</p>
 
 
<p>This feint is not any different from the last, except that wounds over the dagger and this underneath. One does this with the same rule as the other. In this you have to hold the sword high, and when you have the enemy close throw a thrust at him over the dagger, raising your sword arm a little more. This method of wounding is called “Cutting the Dagger’s Throat”. If he does not parry nothing else will happen, but if he parries, you must present the point to him, not more or less, standing with your pace and foot firm, and while he goes to the parry, running with the point of the sword under the hilt of the dagger, turning your wrist and extending your pace, wound him in the chest so that he will not perceive it. Then return backward outside of measure, securing yourself as above.</p>
 
| DELLA FINTA<br/>DI SPADA, E PUGNALE,<br/>PER FERIRE NEL PETTO.
 
  
QUESTA Finta non è in altro differente dalla passata, se non che quella ferisce di sopra il Pugnale, è questa di sotto, la quale si fà con l’istesse regole di quell’altra. In questa havete à tenere la spada alta; e stretto, che haverete l’inimico, gli tirerete una Punta di sopra il Pugnale, alzando alquanto più il braccio della punta della Spada, il qual modo di ferire, si chiama Scannare il Pugnale. Se egli non para; non occorro far altro; ma se egli para, havete à presentargli la punta, ne più, ne meno, stando con il passo, e con il piede fermo; e mentre egli va al parato, voi caminando con la punta della Spada sotto l’Else del Pugnale; girando il nodo della mano, & allungando il passo, lo ferirete nel petto, che non se n’accorgerà. Poi tornerete in dietro fuor di misura, assicurandovi come sopra.
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<p>This feint is no different from the last, except that wounds over the dagger and this underneath. One does this with the same rule as the other. In this you have to hold the sword high, and when you have the enemy close throw a thrust at him over the dagger, raising your sword arm a little more. This method of wounding is called “Cutting the Dagger’s Throat”.<ref>''“Scannare”'' – to slaughter or cut the throat of.</ref> If he does not parry nothing else will happen, but if he parries, you must present the point to him, not more or less, standing with your pace and foot firm, and while he goes to the parry, running with the point of the sword under the hilt of the dagger, turning your wrist and extending your pace, wound him in the chest so that he will not perceive it. Then return backward outside of measure, securing yourself as above.</p>
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| [[File:Giganti 35.png|400x400px|center|Figure 35]]
 
| [[File:Giganti 35.png|400x400px|center|Figure 35]]
| <p>[53] FEINT WITH SWORD AND DAGGER AT THE FACE Disengaging the sword over the point of the dagger</p>
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| <p>[81] '''Feint with Sword and Dagger at the Face''' Disengaging the sword over the point of the dagger<br/><br/></p>
  
 
<p>To give a stoccata at the outset to your enemy’s face, it is necessary to do this feint which, just as it is the most difficult, is yet the most beautiful. It is necessary therefore to bind the enemy from the sword side, holding the point to his face from the right side, in order to wait for if he wants to wound, or rather if he wants to stand in guard in order to parry. If he is in guard, feint a thrust at his face and as he goes with the dagger to obedience turn the point of the sword over the enemy dagger with your wrist and wound him so that he will not perceive it, since in parrying he will completely uncover himself. The thrust being given, do as above.</p>
 
<p>To give a stoccata at the outset to your enemy’s face, it is necessary to do this feint which, just as it is the most difficult, is yet the most beautiful. It is necessary therefore to bind the enemy from the sword side, holding the point to his face from the right side, in order to wait for if he wants to wound, or rather if he wants to stand in guard in order to parry. If he is in guard, feint a thrust at his face and as he goes with the dagger to obedience turn the point of the sword over the enemy dagger with your wrist and wound him so that he will not perceive it, since in parrying he will completely uncover himself. The thrust being given, do as above.</p>
| DELLA FINTA<br/>DI SPADA, E PUGNALE<br/>NEL VISO<br/>Cavando la Spada sopra la punta del Pugnale.
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A Voler dare una Stoccata alla prima nel volto al vostro nemico, bisogna fare questa Finta: la quale, si come è la più difficile, così ancora è la più bella. Bisogna dunque stringere l’inimico dalla parte della Spada, tenendogli la punta della Spada al viso dalla parte destra; ad aspettare se egli vuol ferire, overo se egli vuol stare in guardia per parare, e se egli è in guardia, fingetegli una punta al viso, e come egli camina con il pugnale all’obedienza, voi co’l nodo della mano, girando la punta della Spada, sopra la punta del Pugnale nemico, lo ferirete, che egli non se n’avvedrà, poiche nel parare si scoprirà tutto. Dato che haverete la punta, farete come sopra.
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| [http://fechtgeschichte.blogspot.de/2014/08/das-fechtbuch-des-nicolai-giganti-in.html Text to copy over]
 
|  
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Giganti 36.png|400x400px|center|Figure 36]]
 
| [[File:Giganti 36.png|400x400px|center|Figure 36]]
| <p>[54] PARRYING THE LONG STOCCATA WITH THE SWORD BY BRINGING the vita back</p>
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| <p>[82] '''Parrying the Long Stoccata with the Sword by Bringing''' the vita back</p>
  
 
<p>It is such a necessity to be good at parrying that I hold that understanding parrying well is the most important thing in this profession. Now I want to teach you three ways to defend yourself from long stoccate. Stand in guard in the above way with the sword and vita forward, holding the chest a little uncovered, and stand either at measure or outside of measure, but not inside the measure. Being at measure when you see the stoccata being thrown at you, carry your vita backward and parry with the sword as you see in the figure. In the same tempo (because throwing yourself backward you escape from the thrust of the enemy’s sword, a little far, so that it does not reach you), dropping down with the vita he puts himself into disorder and it will be difficult for him to parry, whence you can lengthen your step, wounding him, and escape from him as above, taking care to stand strongly over your feet while you parry or return backward.</p>
 
<p>It is such a necessity to be good at parrying that I hold that understanding parrying well is the most important thing in this profession. Now I want to teach you three ways to defend yourself from long stoccate. Stand in guard in the above way with the sword and vita forward, holding the chest a little uncovered, and stand either at measure or outside of measure, but not inside the measure. Being at measure when you see the stoccata being thrown at you, carry your vita backward and parry with the sword as you see in the figure. In the same tempo (because throwing yourself backward you escape from the thrust of the enemy’s sword, a little far, so that it does not reach you), dropping down with the vita he puts himself into disorder and it will be difficult for him to parry, whence you can lengthen your step, wounding him, and escape from him as above, taking care to stand strongly over your feet while you parry or return backward.</p>
| DEL PARARE LA<br/>STOCCATA LUNGA<br/>CON LA SPADA,<br/>CON IL PORTARE<br/>la vita in dietro.
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| {{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|103|lbl=83}}
 
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/95|1|lbl=51}}
EGLI è così di mestieri l’esser buon paratore, ch’io tengo che il saper parare bene sia la maggiore importanza in questa professione. Hora in trè modi vi voglio insegnare à ripararvi dalle stoccate lunghe. Starete in guardia al modo di sopra con la Spada, e con la vita innanzi, tenendo alquanto scoperto il petto, e starete ò in misura, ò fuor di misura. Ma non dentro la misura, e essendo in misura, che vediate esservi, tirata la stoccata, e voi portando la vita in dietro pararete con la Spada, come vedete nella Figura, e in quell’istesso tempo (perche tirandovi in dietero, vi salvate dalla punta della Spada nemica lungi alquanto, si che non v’arrivi) egli calando con la vita in giù, si pone in disordine, e difficilmente si può parare, onde voi potrete allungando il passo ferirlo, e vi potete salvare da lui, come sopra, avertendo, che mentre parate, ò tornate in dietro, di stare forte sopra i piedi.
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/95|2|lbl=51}}
| [http://fechtgeschichte.blogspot.de/2014/08/das-fechtbuch-des-nicolai-giganti-in.html Text to copy over]
 
|  
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Giganti 37.png|400x400px|center|Figure 37]]
 
| [[File:Giganti 37.png|400x400px|center|Figure 37]]
| <p>[55] PARRYING WITH THE DAGGER, BRINGING THE VITA BACK</p>
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| <p>[83] '''Parrying With The Dagger,''' Bringing The Vita Back<br/><br/></p>
  
<p>Stand in the same guard as above, with the vita forward with artifice, holding the dagger to the guard of the enemy’s sword. When you are in measure and you see that he throws the thrust at you, parry with the dagger in the same tempo and bring the vita back with a withdrawal of your forward leg and the sword holding ready to wound, as you see in the figure where standing with the feet strong and the sword free you can do many things before he returns to guard, since throwing long and falling with his vita he will give you opportunity to do them.</p>
+
<p>Stand in the same guard as above, with the vita forward with artifice, holding the dagger to the guard of the enemy’s sword. When you are at measure and you see that he throws the thrust at you, parry with the dagger in the same tempo and bring the vita back with a withdrawal of your forward leg and the sword holding ready to wound, as you see in the figure where standing with the feet strong and the sword free you can do many things before he returns to guard, since throwing long and falling with his vita he will give you opportunity to do them.</p>
| DEL PARARE CON<br/>IL PUGNALE<br/>PORTANDO LA VITA IN DIETRO.
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| {{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|105|lbl=85}}
 
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/97|1|lbl=52}}
STARATE nella medesima guardia come sopra, con la vita innanzi con artificio, tenendo il Pugnale alla guardia della Spada nemico, e come sete in misura, e che vedete tirarvi la punta, e voi nel medesimo tempo pararete con il pugnale, e porterete la vita in dietro, con il ritirare la gamba dinanzi, e la Spada tenendo pronta per ferire, come vedete nella Figura, dove stando con i piedi forti, e la Spada libera potete far molte cose prima, che egli torni in guardia, poiche tirando lungo, e cadendo con la vita vi darà campo di farle.
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/97|2|lbl=52}}
| [http://fechtgeschichte.blogspot.de/2014/08/das-fechtbuch-des-nicolai-giganti-in.html Text to copy over]
 
|  
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Giganti 38.png|400x400px|center|Figure 38]]
 
| [[File:Giganti 38.png|400x400px|center|Figure 38]]
| <p>[56] PARRYING WITH THE DAGGER, CARRYING THE VITA BACK, and wounding with the sword in the same tempo</p>
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| <p>[84] '''Parrying with the Dagger, Carrying the Vita Back,''' and wounding with the sword in the same tempo</p>
 
 
<p>In the previous two figures one parried with the dagger, carrying the vita backward and then wounding. These show two tempi: one in the parrying and the other in the wounding. With this other figure you are shown how to parry and wounds in one tempo. The reason for this carrying back of the vita is that you disconcert the enemy and better see your work. Now, therefore, put yourself in the same guard as above, with sword, dagger, and vita forward, leaning your body. When you are in measure forgo throwing, and when he throws at you you must do three things in one tempo. That is, parrying with the dagger, bringing the vita backward, and pulling your front foot even with the rear, ending up curved with the body, your arm lengthened, and throwing the thrust at his chest. This method of parrying and wounding so deceives the enemy that it is impossible for him to defend himself. After this return outside of measure and secure yourself as has been said.</p>
 
| DEL PARARE CON<br/>IL PUGNALE<br/>PORTANDO LA VITA<br/>IN DIETRO,<br/>E ferire con la Spada in un tempo medesimo.
 
  
SI come nelle due prime Figure si para con il Pugnale, portando la vita in dietro, e poi si ferisce: lequali mostrano due tempi, l’uno nel parare, e l’altro nel ferire: così con questa altra mia Figura vi dimostro come si para, e ferisce in un tempo. La ragione di questo portare in dietro la vita è, che voi sconcertate l’inimico, e vedete meglio il fatto vostro. Hor dunque porretevi nella medesima guardia di sopra di Spada, e Pugnale con la vita innanzi piegando il corpo, e quando sarete in misura, lasciatevi tirare, e come, che egli vi tira; havete à far trè cose in un tempo; cioè, Parare con il Pugnale; Portare la vita in dietro, tirando il piede dinanzi uguale à quello di dietro, restando curvo con il corpo, & allungare il braccio, e tirargli la punta nel petto: il qual modo di parare, e ferire, inganna così l’inimico, che è impossibile, che egli si difenda. Dopò questo tornerete fuori di misura, e vi assicurarete, come si è detto.
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<p>In the previous two figures one parried with the dagger, carrying the vita backward and then wounding. These show two tempi: one in the parrying and the other in the wounding. With this other figure you are shown how to parry and wounds in one tempo. The reason for this carrying back of the vita is that you disconcert the enemy and better see your work. Now, therefore, put yourself in the same guard as above, with sword, dagger, and vita forward, leaning your body. When you are at measure forgo throwing, and when he throws at you you must do three things in one tempo. That is, parrying with the dagger, bringing the vita backward, and pulling your front foot even with the rear, ending up curved with the body, your arm lengthened, and throwing the thrust at his chest. This method of parrying and wounding so deceives the enemy that it is impossible for him to defend himself. After this return outside of measure and secure yourself as has been said.</p>
| [http://fechtgeschichte.blogspot.de/2014/08/das-fechtbuch-des-nicolai-giganti-in.html Text to copy over]
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| {{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|107|lbl=87}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/99|1|lbl=53}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/99|2|lbl=53}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Giganti 39.png|400x400px|center|Figure 39]]
 
| [[File:Giganti 39.png|400x400px|center|Figure 39]]
| <p>[57] THE THRUST AT THE FACE PARRYING WITH THE SWORD</p>
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| <p>[85] '''The Thrust at the Face Parrying with the Sword'''<br/><br/></p>
  
<p>Demonstrated in this figure is a very useful thrust of the firm foot, beautiful to those that know how to put it into work and who practice it. It is done in this way. If your enemy wishes to throw an imbroccata at your face, or rather a straight thrust, parrying with your sword straighten the point in the same tempo to the enemy’s face so that he will not be able to parry with the dagger in the same tempo, throwing in the same tempo that he does. If he intends to parry with the dagger, beat it with your sword and you will end up with the point in his face. This lesson only teaches how to wound him in the face - if you wished to throw at his chest he would be able to parry it with the dagger. If you want to do it more artificially so that you deceive even the knowledgeable, it is necessary to uncover your left side and hold the dagger low, giving the enemy occasion to throw either at your face or over the dagger, so that he believes you will parry with the dagger. In the same tempo you will parry with the forte of your sword and increase with your right foot, holding the point of your sword toward his face. If he attempts to parry he bumps into his own sword and cannot parry or wound, as in the figure. The thrust thrown, return backward outside of measure as above.</p>
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<p>Demonstrated in this figure is a very useful thrust of the firm foot, beautiful to those that know how to put it into work and who practise it. It is done in this way. If your enemy wishes to throw an imbroccata at your face, or rather a straight thrust, parrying with your sword straighten the point in the same tempo to the enemy’s face so that, you throwing in the same tempo that he does, he will not be able to parry with the dagger in the same tempo, because if he attempts to parry with the dagger he will bash into his sword with it and you will end up with the point in his face.</p>
| DELLA PUNTA NEL VISO<br/>PARANDO CON LA SPADA.
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| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/109|1|lbl=89}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/101|1|lbl=54}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/101|3|lbl=54}}
  
SI Dimostra in questa figura una punta di piede fermo molto utile, e bella à coloro, che la sapranno mettere in opera, e vi si essercitaranno: laquale si fà in questo modo. Se il vostro nemico vi volesse tirare una imbroccata nel volto, overo una punta dritta parando con la vostra Spada, drizzarete la punta in un’istesso tempo al volto dell’inimico, che non la potrà parare nell’istesso tempo con il Pugnale, tirando voi nel tempo, che tira egli. Perche se egli vorrà parare con il Pugnale, lo batterà nella sua spada, e resterà con la punta nel viso. Questa lettione non insegna, se non à ferire nella faccia, che se voi voleste tirare nel petto: egli la potrebbe parare con il pugnale. E à volerla fare con artificio, che ingannerà ancor quelli, che sapranno; Bisogna scoprirsi la parte sinistra, e tenere il Pugnal basso dando occasione al nemico, che tiri ò nel viso, ò di sopra al Pugnale, che crederà che voi pariate con il Pugnale, e voi nel tempo medesimo pararete con il forte della vostra Spada, e crescerete con il piede dritto, tenendo la punta della vostra Spada verso la faccia, perche se vuol parare, urta nella sua Spada, che non può parare, nè ferire, come nella Figura. Tirata la punta tornarete in dietro fuori di misura, come di sopra.
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| [http://fechtgeschichte.blogspot.de/2014/08/das-fechtbuch-des-nicolai-giganti-in.html Text to copy over]
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[86] This lesson only teaches how to wound him in the face - if you wished to throw at his chest he would be able to parry it with the dagger. If you want to do it more artificially so that you deceive even the knowledgeable, it is necessary to uncover your left side and hold the dagger low, giving the enemy occasion to throw either at your face or over the dagger, so that he believes you will parry with the dagger. In the same tempo you will parry with the forte of your sword and increase with your right foot, holding the point of your sword toward his face. If he attempts to parry he bumps into his own sword and cannot parry or wound, as in the figure. The thrust thrown, return backward outside of measure as above.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/109|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/101|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/101|4|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Giganti 40.png|400x400px|center|Figure 40]]
 
| [[File:Giganti 40.png|400x400px|center|Figure 40]]
| <p>[58] THE PASS WITH SWORD AND DAGGER IN ORDER TO COME TO GRIPS and wound with the dagger in the face</p>
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| <p>[87] '''The Pass with Sword and Dagger in Order to Come to Grips''' and wound with the dagger in the face</p>
  
<p>The approach to the grips and wounding with the dagger is done in many ways according to the occasions in which the enemy is found. Many that come to the grips cannot do otherwise, as is the case when the enemy is furious in the passing. Others who do not have patience in judging the thrust of the sword pass from cholera. Others pass with artifice in order to wound with the dagger. In my first book I will only write a pass with artifice in order to wound safely with the dagger so that your enemy will not be able to offend you with either the sword or dagger. This pass is done in this way. It is necessary to place yourself in guard in a way that you end up with all your right parts uncovered and give occasion to the enemy, who throws resolutely, namely by thrust or cut. You then parry with your sword, passing with your foot, strongly affront his sword with yours and place your sword in his dagger arm, as you see in the figure, for the reason that your enemy will not be able to move either the sword or the dagger and you will be able to give him as many dagger wounds as you like. This lesson is very safe to those who have practiced.</p>
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<p> The approach to the grips and wounding with the dagger is done in many ways according to the occasions in which the enemy is found. Many that come to the grips cannot do otherwise, as is the case when the enemy is furious in the passing. Others who do not have patience in judging the thrust of the sword pass from cholera. Others pass with artifice in order to wound with the dagger. In my first book I will only write a pass with artifice in order to wound safely with the dagger so that your enemy will not be able to offend you with either the sword or dagger. This pass is done in this way. It is necessary to place yourself in guard in a way that you end up with all your right parts uncovered and give occasion to the enemy, who throws resolutely, namely by thrust or cut. You then parry with your sword, passing with your foot, strongly affront his sword with yours and place your sword in his dagger arm, as you see in the figure, for the reason that your enemy will not be able to move either the sword or the dagger and you will be able to give him as many dagger wounds as you like. This lesson is very safe to those who have practised.</p>
| DELLA PASSATA<br/>DI SPADA, E PUGNALE<br/>PER ANDARE<br/>ALLE PRESE,<br/>E ferire con il Pugnale nel viso.
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| {{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|111|lbl=91}}
 
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/103|1|lbl=55}}
L’ANDARE alle prese, e ferire con il Pugnale is fà in molti modi, e secondo l’occasioni, nelle quali altri si ritrova. Molti vanno alle prese, che non possono fare di manco, secondo che  l’inimico è furioso nel passare: Altri passano dalla colera, che non hanno patienza di giucare in punta di Spada. Altri passano con artificio per ferire con il Pugnale. In questo mio primo libro scriverò solo una passata con artificio per ferire con il Pugnale sicuro; e che il vostro nemico non vi possa offendere nè con la Spada, nè con il Pugnale. La qual passata si fà in questo modo. Bisogna mettersi in guardia di maniera, che resti tutta la parte destra scoperta, e date occasione all’inimico, che tiri risoluto, overo dei punta, o di taglio, voi all’hora pararete con la vostra Spada, e passando con il piede affrontarete forte la sua con la vostra Spada, e metterete la vostra Spada nel braccio del suo Pugnale, come vedete nella figura, perche il vostro nemico non potrà muovere nè la Spada, nè il Pugnale, e voi all’hora gli potrete dare quante pugnalate vorrete. Questa lettione, à chi l’haverà esercitata, è molto sicura.
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/103|2|lbl=55}}
| [http://fechtgeschichte.blogspot.de/2014/08/das-fechtbuch-des-nicolai-giganti-in.html Text to copy over]
 
|  
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Giganti 41.png|400x400px|center|Figure 41]]
 
| [[File:Giganti 41.png|400x400px|center|Figure 41]]
| <p>[59] THE THRUST WITH THE SWORD AND DAGGER THROWN ON THE SIDE of the right shoulder</p>
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| <p>[88] '''The Thrust with the Sword and Dagger Thrown on the Side''' of the right shoulder</p>
  
<p>Someone in this profession who wants to be a valiant man will never place himself in guard, but will stand well outside of measure, consider the guard of the enemy, approach to bind him little by little at his uncovered place and when he is in measure will throw according to the method of the present figure, in which the right shoulder is uncovered, taking care to approach to bind him from the side of the sword. If he sees that he stands in guard in order to wait, he will throw the stoccata strongly in the described way, turning his wrist on the side of the enemy’s sword, as is seen. After the stoccata is thrown, return outside of measure as above.</p>
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<p>Someone in this profession who wishes to be a valiant man will never place himself in guard, but will stand well outside of measure, consider the guard of the enemy, approach to bind him little by little at his uncovered place and when he is at measure will throw according to the method of the present figure, in which the right shoulder<ref>Of the enemy.</ref> is uncovered, taking care to approach to bind him from the side of the sword. If he<ref>Our fencer.</ref> sees that he<ref name="the enemy"/> stands in guard in order to wait, he will throw the stoccata strongly in the described way, turning his wrist on the side of the enemy’s sword, as is seen. After the stoccata is thrown, return outside of measure as above.</p>
| DELLA PUNTA DI<br/>SPADA, E PUGNALE<br/>TIRATA DALLA BANDA<br/>della spalla destra.
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| {{pagetb|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|113|lbl=93}}
 
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/105|1|lbl=56}}
UNO che in questa professione sarà valent’huomo, non si metterà mai in guardia, ma si bene stando fuori di misura, considerarà la guardia dell’inimico, & anderà à stringerlo pian piano al luogo scoperto; & quando sarà in misura gli tirerà nel modo della presente Figura, nella quale è scoperta la spalla destra, avertendo andarlo à stringere dalla banda della spada; e se vedrà che egli stia in guardia per aspettare; tirarà forte la stoccata al modo descritto voltando il nodo della mano dalla banda della spada nemica, come si vede. Tirata poi la stoccata, tornarete fuori di misura come sopra.
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/105|2|lbl=56}}
| [http://fechtgeschichte.blogspot.de/2014/08/das-fechtbuch-des-nicolai-giganti-in.html Text to copy over]
 
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|-  
 
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| class="noline" | [[File:Giganti 42.png|400x400px|center|Figure 42]]
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| rowspan="2" | [[File:Giganti 42.png|400x400px|center|Figure 42]]
| class="noline" | <p>[60] PASSING WITH THE FOOT WITH SWORD AND DAGGER</p>
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| <p>[89] '''Passing with the Foot with Sword''' and Dagger</p>
  
<p>This figure does not serve as a demonstration of what I did in my first book, but of the others that I will, God willing, bring to light. I will discuss the passes of sword and dagger, that is, passing with the foot, since in this book more than the firm foot were not discussed because all that one does with firm foot, if one knows how to take the tempo, one can do with a pass of the foot. The pass done then, it is necessary to know how to disengage the sword and then escape as you see in this figure, where it is seen that he passed, has disengaged the sword, and can safely give as many stoccate as he likes, holding the enemy’s sword with his dagger. If the enemy were to disengage the sword it would be necessary to follow it with the dagger and then wound with the sword, and when you have given the stoccate that you wish return backward outside of measure. If one knows how to take the tempo well and passes with the foot but does not know how to disengage the sword, it must be said that he knows nothing since in passing, although he wounds, he finds himself in danger in regard to the enemy who still will attempt to make his blow. This is because those courageous are found that even wounded still want to avenge themselves. Thus infuriated, they throw in the worst way possible, so that you can still end up wounded and dead. Even if in passing the enemy were to parry the stoccata you would find yourself in huge danger if you did not know how to disengage the sword and were you to not know how to fight at half-sword, as you see in the figure, and be able to return backward and escape as I, God willing, will discuss in my other books, My Lord.</p>
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<p>This figure does not serve as a demonstration of what I did in my first book, but of the others that I will, God willing, bring to light. I will discuss the passes of sword and dagger, that is, passing with the foot, since in this book more than the firm foot were not discussed because all that one does with firm foot, if one knows how to take the tempo, one can do with a pass of the foot.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/115|1|lbl=95}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/107|1|lbl=57}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/107|4|lbl=57}}
  
THE END
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|-
| class="noline" | DEL PASARE<br/>CON IL PIEDE<br/>DI SPADA,<br/>E PUGNALE.
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| <p>[90] The pass done then, it is necessary to know how to disengage the sword and then escape as you see in this figure, where it is seen that he passed, has disengaged the sword, and can safely give as many stoccate as he likes, holding the enemy’s sword with his dagger.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/115|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/107|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/107|5|lbl=-}}
  
QUESTA Figura non serve ad altro, se non per una mostra ch’io fò in questo mio primo libro: ma ne gli altri, che manderò, piacendo à Dio in luce, tratterò di passate di Spada, e Pugnale, cioè passare con il piede, poiche in questo non tratto d’altro, che di piede fermo; perche tutto quello, che si fà di piede fermo, sapendo pigliare il tempo si può fare di passata con il piede. Fatta poi la passata, fà di mestieri sapere cavare la Spada, e poi salvarsi, come vedete in questa Figura, ove si vede che è passato, ed hà cavato la Spada, e gli può dare quante stoccate vuole sicure, tenendo con il suo Pugnale la spada nemica. Ma se il nemico cavasse la Spada, bisogna seguirla con il Pugnale, e in tanto ferire con la Spada, e come haverete dato le stoccate, che vorrete, tornerete in dietro fuori di misura, perche uno, che sappia pigliare il tempo bene, e che passi con il piede, e non sappia cavar la Spada, si può dire, che non sappia niente. Poiche passando, ancorche ferisca, si truova in pericolo, rispetto che il nemico ancora vorrà fare la sua botta; perche si trovano di quegli coraggiosi, che ancora che siano feriti, vogliono essi ancora vendicarsi; e così infuriati tirano alla peggio; si che ancora voi potreste restare ferito, e morto. & ancorche passando il vostro nemico paraste la stoccata, vi trovereste in grandissimo pericolo, se voi non sapeste cavare la spada, e non sapeste combattere à mezza Spada, come vedete nella Figura, e poter tornare in dietro, e salvarsi, come in quest’altri miei libri piacendo à Dio Nostro Signore ragionerò.
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|-
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| class="noline" |
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| class="noline" | <p>[91] If the enemy were to disengage the sword it would be necessary to follow it with the dagger and then wound with the sword, and when you have given the stoccate that you wish return backward outside of measure. If one knows how to take the tempo well and passes with the foot but does not know how to disengage the sword, it must be said that he knows nothing since in passing, although he wounds, he finds himself in danger in regard to the enemy who still will attempt to make his blow. This is because those courageous are found that even wounded still want to avenge themselves. Thus infuriated, they throw in the worst way possible, so that you can still end up wounded and dead. Even if in passing the enemy were to parry the stoccata you would find yourself in huge danger if you did not know how to disengage the sword and were you to not know how to fight at half-sword, as you see in the figure, and be able to return backward and escape as I, God willing, will discuss in my other books, My Lord.</p>
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| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/115|3|lbl=-}}
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| class="noline" |
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{{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/107|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/109|1|lbl=58|p=1}}
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| class="noline" |
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{{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/107|6|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/109|2|lbl=58|p=1}}
  
IL FINE
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|-  
| class="noline" | [http://fechtgeschichte.blogspot.de/2014/08/das-fechtbuch-des-nicolai-giganti-in.html Text to copy over]
 
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
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| class="noline" | <p>'''THE END'''</p>
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| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf/115|4|lbl=-}}
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| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/109|3|lbl=-}}
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| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf/109|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
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  | authors    = [[Nicoletto Giganti]]
 
  | authors    = [[Nicoletto Giganti]]
 
  | source link = http://www.internetculturale.it/opencms/opencms/it/viewItemMag.jsp?case=&id=oai%3Awww.internetculturale.sbn.it%2FTeca%3A20%3ANT0000%3ARMLE040288&hits=0
 
  | source link = http://www.internetculturale.it/opencms/opencms/it/viewItemMag.jsp?case=&id=oai%3Awww.internetculturale.sbn.it%2FTeca%3A20%3ANT0000%3ARMLE040288&hits=0
 
 
  | source title= Italian Digital Library
 
  | source title= Italian Digital Library
 
  | license    = public domain
 
  | license    = public domain
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  | work        = Translation
 
  | work        = Translation
 
  | authors    = [[Jeff Vansteenkiste]]
 
  | authors    = [[Jeff Vansteenkiste]]
  | source link = https://labirinto.ca/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/Giganti-Nicoletto-Scola-overo-teatro-1606-and-Marginalia-v-2020-04-24.pdf
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  | source link = https://labirinto.ca/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/Giganti-Nicoletto-Scola-overo-teatro-1606-and-Marginalia-rev-2020-07-17.pdf
 
  | source title= Il labirinto
 
  | source title= Il labirinto
  | license    = {{CC-BY-NC-SA-4.0}}
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  | license    = noncommercial
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{sourcebox
 
{{sourcebox
  | work        = Italian Version (1606)
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  | work        = Italian Transcription (1606)
 
  | authors    = [[Jeff Vansteenkiste]]
 
  | authors    = [[Jeff Vansteenkiste]]
 
  | source link =  
 
  | source link =  
  | source title=  
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  | source title= [[Index:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti) 1606.pdf|Index:Scola, overo teatro (Nicoletto Giganti)]]
  | license    = {{CC-BY-NC-SA-4.0}}
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  | license    = noncommercial
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{sourcebox
 
{{sourcebox
  | work        = German Version (1619)
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  | work        = German Transcription (1619)
 
  | authors    = [[Jan Schäfer]]
 
  | authors    = [[Jan Schäfer]]
  | source link = http://fechtgeschichte.blogspot.de/2014/08/das-fechtbuch-des-nicolai-giganti-in.html
+
  | source link =  
  | source title= Fechtgeschichte
+
  | source title= [[Index:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf|Index:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1]]
 
  | license    = copyrighted
 
  | license    = copyrighted
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{sourcebox
 
{{sourcebox
  | work        = French Version (1619)
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  | work        = French Transcription (1619)
  | authors    =  
+
  | authors    = [[Olivier Delannoy]]
 
  | source link =  
 
  | source link =  
  | source title=  
+
  | source title= [[Index:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1 1619.pdf|Index:Escrime Novvelle ou Theatre (Nicoletto Giganti) Book 1]]
  | license    =  
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  | license    = copyrighted
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{sourcebox footer}}<section end="sourcebox"/>
 
{{sourcebox footer}}<section end="sourcebox"/>
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== Additional Resources ==
 
== Additional Resources ==
  
* '''Giganti, Nicoletto'''; Pendragon, Joshua; [[Piermarco Terminiello|Terminiello, Piermarco]]. ''The 'Lost' Second Book of Nicoletto Giganti (1608): A Rapier Fencing Treatise''. Vulpes, 2013. ISBN 978-1909348318
 
 
* Leoni, Tom. ''Venetian Rapier: The School, or Salle. Nicoletto Giganti's 1606 Rapier Fencing Curriculum.'' Wheaton, IL: [[Freelance Academy Press]], 2010. ISBN 978-0-9825911-2-3
 
* Leoni, Tom. ''Venetian Rapier: The School, or Salle. Nicoletto Giganti's 1606 Rapier Fencing Curriculum.'' Wheaton, IL: [[Freelance Academy Press]], 2010. ISBN 978-0-9825911-2-3
 
* Mediema, Aaron Taylor. ''Nicoletto Giganti's the School of the Sword: A New Translation by Aaron Taylor Miedema.'' Legacy Books Press, 2014. ISBN 978-1927537077
 
* Mediema, Aaron Taylor. ''Nicoletto Giganti's the School of the Sword: A New Translation by Aaron Taylor Miedema.'' Legacy Books Press, 2014. ISBN 978-1927537077
 +
* [[Piermarco Terminiello|Terminiello, Piermarco]] and Pendragon, Joshua. ''The 'Lost' Second Book of Nicoletto Giganti (1608): A Rapier Fencing Treatise''. Vulpes, 2013. ISBN 978-1909348318
  
 
== References ==
 
== References ==
  
{{reflist|2}}
+
{{reflist|1}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Giganti, Nicoletto}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Giganti, Nicoletto}}
 
{{Early Italian masters}}
 
{{Early Italian masters}}
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[[Category:Masters]]
 
[[Category:Masters]]
  
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[[Category:French]]
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[[Category:German]]
 
[[Category:Italian]]
 
[[Category:Italian]]
[[Category:French Translation]]
 
[[Category:German Translation]]
 
  
 
[[Category:Research/Background Information]]
 
[[Category:Research/Background Information]]
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[[Category:Rapier and Shield]]
 
[[Category:Rapier and Shield]]
  
[[Category:Old format]]
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[[Category:New format]]

Latest revision as of 14:06, 26 July 2020

Nicoletto Giganti
Born 1550s-60s
Fossombrone, Italy
Died date of death unknown
Occupation
Nationality Italian
Citizenship Republic of Venice
Patron
  • Cosimo II de' Medici
  • Christofano Chigi
Influenced Bondì di Mazo (?)
Genres Fencing manual
Language Italian
Notable work(s)
First printed
english edition
Leoni, 2010
Concordance by Michael Chidester

Nicoletto Giganti (Niccoletto, Nicolat) was an Italian soldier and fencing master around the turn of the 17th century. He was likely born to a noble family in Fossombrone in central Italy,[1] and only later became a citizen of Venice.[2] Little is known of Giganti’s life, but in the dedication to his 1606 treatise he claims 27 years of professional experience, meaning that his career began in 1579 (possibly referring to service in the Venetian military, a long tradition of the Giganti family).[1] Additionally, the preface to his 1608 treatise describes him as a Master of Arms to the Order of Santo Stefano in Pisa, a powerful military order founded by Cosimo I de' Medici, giving some further clues to his career.

In 1606, Giganti published a treatise on the use of the rapier (both single and with the dagger) titled Scola, overo teatro ("School or Theater"). It is dedicated to Cosimo II de' Medici. This treatise is structured as a series of progressively more complex lessons, and Tom Leoni opines that this treatise is the best pedagogical work on rapier fencing of the early 17th century.[3] It is also the first treatise to fully articulate the principle of the lunge.

In 1608, Giganti made good on the promise in his first book that he would publish a second volume.[4] Titled Libro secondo di Niccoletto Giganti ("Second Book of Niccoletto Giganti"), it is dedicated to Christofano Chigi, a Knight of Malta, and covers the same weapons as the first as well as rapier and buckler, rapier and cloak, rapier and shield, single dagger, and mixed weapon encounters. This text in turn promises additional writings on the dagger and on cutting with the rapier, but there is no record of further books by Giganti ever being published.

While Giganti's second book quickly disappeared from history, his first seems to have been quite popular: reprints, mostly unauthorized, sprang up many times over the subsequent decades, both in the original Italian and, beginning in 1619, in French and German translations. This unauthorized dual-language edition also included book 2 of Salvator Fabris' 1606 treatise Lo Schermo, overo Scienza d’Arme which, coupled with the loss of Giganti's true second book, is probably what has lead many later bibliographers to accuse Giganti himself of plagiarism.[5]

Treatise

Giganti, like many 17th century authors, had a tendency to write incredibly long, multi-page paragraphs which quickly become hard to follow. Jacob de Zeter's 1619 dual-language edition often breaks these up into more manageable chunks, and so his version is used as the template for these concordances. Neither scans nor transcription of Giganti's second book are yet available, so it cannot yet be included in the tables below.

A copy of the 1628 printing that was extensively annotated by a contemporary reader now resides in the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek. Its annotations are beyond the scope of this concordance, but they have been transcribed by Julian Schrattenecker and Florian Fortner, and incorporated into Jeff Vansteenkiste's translation in a separate document.