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| style="min-width:55%; text-align:center;" | <h1 style="padding:0.2em; margin-bottom:0.1em;">Welcome&nbsp;to&nbsp;the&nbsp;Wiktenauer!</h1>The free library of [[Historical European Martial Arts]] books and manuscripts
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| style="font-size:90%; line-height:110%;" | ''Without books no one can be a good teacher nor even a good student of this art.''<br/ style="margin-bottom:0.5em;"><span style="margin-left:2em;">~ Master [[Fiore de'i Liberi]], ca. 1405</span>
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| style="width:51%; text-align:center;" | <h1 style="padding:0.2em; margin: 0 0 0.2em 0; color:#343A47; font-size:225%;">Welcome&nbsp;to&nbsp;the&nbsp;Wiktenauer!</h1>The free library of [[Historical European Martial Arts]] books and manuscripts
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''Without books no one can be a good teacher nor even a good student of this art.''<br/ style="margin-bottom:0.5em;"><span style="margin-left:1em;">~ Master [[Fiore de'i Liberi|Fiore Furlano de’i Liberi]], ca. 1405</span>
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Wiktenauer is an ongoing collaboration among researchers and practitioners from across the Western martial arts community, seeking to collect all of the primary and secondary source literature that makes up the text of historical European martial arts research and to organize and present it in a scholarly but accessible format. The Wiktenauer project started in 2009, later receiving sponsorship from the [[Historical European Martial Arts Alliance]], and is named for [[Johannes Liechtenauer]], grand master of the oldest known longsword fencing style; his tradition was also the best-documented of the early Modern era, the subject of many dozens of manuscripts and books over a period of more than three centuries. Here are a few basic categories of pages that are being constructed:
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* '''Master Pages''' host biographical information about each master, as well as the transcription and translation of his complete works. In cases of multiple copies of a master's work, the transcriptions are laid out side-by-side to facilitate the most accurate translation possible. To aid in interpretation, the writings will also be illustrated with images from the masters' work as available. A bibliography at the end of each page lists additional transcriptions, translations, and scans that are available in print. The exemplar for this category of pages is [[Fiore de'i Liberi]]. Ultimately, every master in all of the traditions of Western Martial Arts will have a dedicated page.
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{{Wiktenauer:About}}
* '''Treatise Pages''' host all relevant data on a book or manuscript, including description, provenance, table of contents (with links to the appropriate master pages), gallery of page scans, and bibliography of additional print resources. The exemplar for manuscripts is the [[Goliath (MS Germ.Quart.2020)|Goliath Fechtbuch]], while the exemplar for printed books is ''[[Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey (Andre Paurñfeyndt)|Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey]]''. Ultimately, every text in the corpus of Historical European Martial Arts literature will have a dedicated page.
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* '''Technique Pages''' compile all of the relevant information from all of the relevant manuals on a particular technique, including transcriptions, translations, and images. There is also a section at the end of each page where groups may embed videos of their interpretations. The template for techniques is the [[Zornhaw]]. Ultimately, every technique mentioned in the manuals will have a dedicated page.
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* '''Weapon Pages''' provide information about how a specific weapon form is described and used in the treatises, data on surviving artifacts, an overview of archaeological research pertinent to a given weapon, and a comprehensive index of the treatises and writers that discuss each weapon.
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                FIRST COLUMN
 
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The wiki also features pages for HEMA groups, pages for HEMA events, general information pages, and almost other topic of interest to the HEMA community you can think of. If you'd like to pitch in, simply request an account and consult [[How can I help?]]
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! style="padding:2px;" | <h3 style="margin:3px; background:#cedff2; border:1px solid #a3b0bf; text-align:left; color:#000; padding:0.2em 0.4em;">Recent Feature Additions</h3>
 
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Our [[Wiktenauer:Fundraiser|fundraising drive]] ended on Friday, and I've clean run out of synonyms for "incredible" to use in these posts. After PayPal fees, we took in $3,611.93, over seven times our initial goal. This generous outpouring from our users has vastly exceeded any plans we've made for projects, so at the moment the bulk of it will sit in an account while we investigate new digital scan acquisitions over the next several months. (I've already put in a few inquiries and settled one agreement that was pending before the fundraiser, but until this point I've been reaching out to institutions one at a time as I get ready to work on the associated index page.)
 
 
 
All told, we received 85 separate donations, including nineteen at the sponsor level. In particular I'd like to highlight our top five sponsors: MARS Swordfighting, Purpleheart Armoury, Esfinges, the Bramble Schoole of Defence, and Iron Gate Exhibition. Together, these five organizations--schools from Europe and the US, a leading HEMA supplier, an international network for female fencers, and a major HEMA event, illustrate in some small way the breadth of our community. I'll be getting in touch with them and all of the other donors to find out if you'd like your name listed in the donor list or would prefer to remain anonymous. If you know that you donated $100 or more, please decide if you'd like your organization represented in the sponsor list, and if so, prepare some sort of logo for me to potentially use.
 
 
 
To return to my initial refrain, the outcome of this year's fundraiser was beyond anything we ever expected. I thank all of you, and I'm sure the HEMA Alliance general council does as well (since this removes a big item from their annual budget ;)). Here's to another year of exciting manual research!
 
 
 
:<br/>[[user:Michael Chidester|Michael Chidester]] <sup>([[user talk:Michael Chidester|Contact]])</sup><br/>Wiktenauer Director<br/>HEMA Alliance, WMAC<br/>21:11, 3 February 2014 (UTC)
 
 
 
<br/>P.S. If you missed the window for the fundraiser, fear not! The donate button at the bottom of the sidebar will remain where it's always been, and donations are welcome at any time. If you donate over $100 in the next week or so while I'm still figuring out the while sponsor thing, I'll even include you in the list.
 
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{{infobox writer
 
| name                = Paulus Kal
 
| image                = File:Paulus Kal.png
 
| imagesize            = 250px
 
| caption              =  
 
 
 
| pseudonym            =
 
| birthname            =
 
| birthdate            = ca.1420s
 
| birthplace          = Dingolfing, Germany
 
| deathdate            = after 1485
 
| deathplace          =
 
| occupation          = {{plainlist | [[Fencing master]] | [[Toll collector]] }}
 
| nationality          =
 
| ethnicity            =
 
| citizenship          =
 
| education            =
 
| alma_mater          =
 
| patron              = {{plainlist | Ludwig IV "the Gentle" | Ludwig IX "the Rich" | Sigismund of Austria }}
 
 
 
| spouse              =
 
| children            =
 
| relatives            =
 
| period              =
 
| movement            = [[Society of Liechtenauer]]
 
| influences          = {{plainlist | [[Johannes Liechtenauer]] | [[Hans Stettner von Mörnsheim]] }}
 
| influenced          = [[Peter Falkner]] (?)
 
 
 
| genre                = {{plainlist | [[Fencing manual]] | [[Wrestling manual]] }}
 
| language            = {{plainlist | [[Early New High German]] | [[New Latin]] }}
 
| notableworks        =
 
| archetype            = {{plainlist | [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS 1825)|MS 1825]] (1458-1467) | [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (Cgm 1507)|Cgm 1507]] (ca.1470) }}
 
| manuscript(s)        =
 
{{Collapsible list
 
| title = List of manuscripts
 
| 1    = [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS KK5126)|MS KK5126]] (ca.1480)
 
| 2    = [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS Chart.B.1021)|MS Chart.B.1021]] (1473-1503)
 
| 3    = [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (Gotti MS)|Gotti MS]] (late 1400s)
 
| 4    = [[Solothurner Fechtbuch (Cod.S.554)|Codex S.554]] (1506-1514)
 
 
}}
 
}}
| principal manuscript(s)=
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| first printed edition= [[Christian Henry Tobler|Tobler]], 2006
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| wiktenauer compilation by=[[Michael&nbsp;Chidester]], [[Carsten&nbsp;Lorbeer]], [[Julia&nbsp;Lorbeer]], [[Andreas&nbsp;Meier]], [[Marita&nbsp;Wiedner]]
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'''Paulus Kal''' was a 15th century [[:German]] [[fencing master]]. He wrote that he studied martial arts under [[Hans Stettner von Mörnsheim]], and was an initiate of the tradition of [[Johannes Liechtenauer]]. He was also attached as ''Schirrmeister'' to three different courts in his career, serving in various military capacities including commanding men in at least three campaigns. Perhaps his most significant legacy is an honor role of deceased masters included in the [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (Cgm 1507)|Munich version]] of his [[fencing manual]], which he styled the [[Society of Liechtenauer]] (''Geselschaft Liechtenauers''). While several of these masters remain unknown, the majority wrote treatises of their own and Kal's list stands as an independent confirmation of their connection to the grand master. Kal's treatise is interesting in that it represents the first attempt to illustrate Liechtenauer's Record (''Zettel'').
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Little is known of Kal's early life, but from 1440 to ca. 1449 he served Ludwig IV "the Gentle" of the House of Wittelsbach, Count Palatine of the Rhine. In 1448, while in the count's service he participated in the defense Nuremberg, commanding a unit of wheel cannons below the gates. The Nuremberg Council notes from 17 March 1449 mention that he had broken the peace of the city at that time by drawing his weapons.
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Kal entered the service of Ludwig IX "the Rich" of the House of Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria-Landshut, on 29 September 1450. In 1461, he is mentioned commanding a unit of 12 marksmen.{{cn}} From 1465 to 1475, he seems to have also maintained a secondary occupation as a toll collector in Dingolfing. In November 1468, he participated in military actions on the castle Saldenburg, which was successfully taken on 4 December. Shortley thereafter, in ca. 1470, Paulus Kal created a second, expanded version of his fencing manual for Ludwig IX, the current [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (Cgm 1507)|Cgm 1507]] (as well, possibly, as the [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS 1825)|MS 1825]]). Kal is listed as a guest at the wedding of Ludwig's son George, and continued in the duke's service until his death on 18 January 1479.
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On 12 February 1480, Paulus Kal entered the service of Sigismund of the House of Habsburg, Archduke of Austria and Tyrol. Kal acted as one of the archduke's witnesses at a number of interrogations held on 17 October 1485 in Innsbruck, related to the witch trials being conducted by Heinrich Kramer at that time. This is the final time that Kal's name appears in the histories. Several copies of Kal's treatise were created during the 1480s and 90s, including the extensive [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS KK5126)|MS KK5126]], but it is unknown if he directly commissioned any of them.
 
 
 
In total, Paulus Kal's teachings are preserved in at least six manuscripts written between 1440 and 1514. The probable archetype, Cgm 1507, includes brief explanations in German for most devices (many extracted from Liechtenauer's record). There are four other text-less versions, and these were probably copied from the 1470 version. A [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (Gotti MS)|sixth version]] was sold at auction in Italy during the 20th century as individual leaves; this copy contains single-word captions in Latin or Italian and was likely based on one of the four without text. In addition, [[Paulus Hector Mair]] based content in several sections of the [[Opus Amplissimum de Arte Athletica (Cod.icon. 393)|Munich version]] of his ''Opus Amplissimum de Arte Athletica'' on Kal's treatise. It appears that the copy he used for this was textless, and so he added his own extensive commentary on the images. The precise set of images Mair drew upon do not appear in any of the six extant manuscripts, which may signify that there was once a seventh copy of Kal's work which has since been lost.
 
 
 
([[Paulus Kal|Read more]]...)
 
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| style="color:#000;" | <div style="margin:3px; border:1px solid #e1bd64; background:#faecc8; text-align:left; padding:0.2em 0.4em;">'''Recently Featured: [[Paulus Hector Mair]] –  [[Vechtboek (MS BPL.3281)]] –  [[Peter Falkner]] – [[Das Ander Theil Des Newen Kůnstreichen Fechtbůches (Cod.Guelf.83.4 Aug.8º)|Cod.Guelf.83.4 Aug.8º]]'''</div>
 
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Latest revision as of 16:00, 11 May 2018

Welcome to the Wiktenauer!

The free library of Historical European Martial Arts books and manuscripts

Without books no one can be a good teacher nor even a good student of this art.
~ Master Fiore Furlano de’i Liberi, ca. 1405

Dedicated to the memory of Dr. Patri Pugliese

Wiktenauer is an ongoing collaboration among researchers and practitioners from across the Western martial arts (WMA) community, seeking to collect all of the primary and secondary source literature that makes up the text of historical European martial arts (HEMA) research and to organize and present it in a scholarly but accessible format. The Wiktenauer project started in 2009, later receiving sponsorship from the HEMA Alliance, and is named for Johannes Liechtenauer, grand master of the oldest known longsword fencing style; his tradition was also the best-documented of the early Modern era, the subject of many dozens of manuscripts and books over a period of more than three centuries.

Wiktenauer's data model is built on separating the contents of each master's teachings from the books and manuscripts that contain them. For this reason, there are three main types of pages:

Treatise Pages host all relevant data on an individual book or manuscript, including codicological description, provenance, table of contents (with links to the appropriate master pages), gallery of page scans, and bibliography of print resources. The exemplar for manuscripts is the Goliath Fechtbuch, while the exemplar for printed books is Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey. Ultimately, every text in the corpus of Historical European Martial Arts literature will have a dedicated page.

Master Pages host the actual transcription and translation of a given master's complete works, as well as bibliographical information when available. In cases of multiple copies of a master's work, the transcriptions are laid out side-by-side to facilitate the most accurate translation possible. To aid in interpretation, the writings are also illustrated with pictures from the masters' work (if available). A bibliography at the end of each page lists additional transcriptions, translations, and scans that are available in print. The exemplar for this category of pages is Fiore de'i Liberi. Ultimately, every master in all of the traditions of Western Martial Arts will have a dedicated page.

(Anonymous texts are displayed on orphan treatise pages, which are structured like master pages but without the biography.)

If you'd like to pitch in, simply request an account and consult How can I help?

Announcements

11th May 2020 would mark the 70th birthday of Dr. Patri Pugliese, the most important person in the history of modern HEMA that you've never heard of. I will go so far as to say that there is no one in this world who contributed more to the spread and development of the HEMA movement, and especially of HEMA in America, than did Patri.

For himself, he was a passionate student of both historical combat (not just fencing, but also drill with pike and musket) and historical dance, and founded or participated in groups dedicated to those activities around New England. Most recognizably to readers today, he co-founded the Higgins Armory Sword Guild, which not only provided online resources and public classes and demonstrations for over a decade, but also supported his friend and fellow instructor Dr. Jeffrey Forgeng in his translation and interpretation efforts (leading to his publication of I.33, Meyer, and others).

But Patri's more profound legacy is fencing manuals. Throughout the '90s and continuing until his death, he distributed a staggering catalog of fencing treatises. This was before (and while) the consumer computing revolution changed everything—he was physically mailing sheaves of paper, loose or stapled together. Some were fencing manuals that he photocopied at local research libraries, others were printed from microfilm ordered from museums. He was the first person in the community to do this, and he charged only the cost of printing and postage, or in some cases a slight premium to recoup the initial purchase.

Of this, he simply wrote "I regard myself as a student of the sword rather than a publisher, and am making these manuals available to support research in this area. It would, of course, be selfish and inconsistent with the honorable traditions associated with fencing to do otherwise."

I will include a partial list of Patri's catalog below. As the internet became more established, most of these were scanned and placed online (with his blessing—he was happy to increase their accessibility). If you ever accessed black and white scans of any of these texts from sites like Bill Wilson's homepage, the ARMA site, the Raymond J. Lord Collection, or the Higgins Sword Guild, then you have likely benefited from Patri's work. Wiktenauer itself could not have grown so quickly or easily without these scans, some of which we still use.

I often joke that Wiktenauer's patron saint is Paulus Hector Mair, the shady 16th century Augsburg patrician who embezzled public funds to cover the cost of collecting fencing manuals and throwing lavish parties.

It is Patri, however, who embodied our highest aspirations of disseminating knowledge and resources as widely and freely as possible, and thereby pushing the bounds of our understanding of historical fencing traditions.

Patri Pugliese died in 2007, thirteen years ago. One of my greatest HEMA regrets is that even though I spent considerable time in Massachusetts during the years between 2001, when I started, and his death, I never crossed paths with him.

Thirteen years is an eternity in the world of HEMA. It is enough time that his name is no longer familiar to most teachers and students of historical fencing, but if anyone of us deserves to be remembered, he does.

So raise a glass to Patri, my friends. He was a pioneer, not just of the study of fencing, but of the sharing of it. The edifice of knowledge that we have constructed in HEMA today was built on the materials he offered us, freely.

And then tell your students about this man to whom we all owe a great debt.

(Read more)

Michael Chidester (Contact)
Wiktenauer Director
11 May 2020

Featured article
Ridolfo Capo Ferro da Cagli
Born 16th century
Died 17th century
Occupation Fencing master
Patron Federico Ubaldo della Roevere
Influences Camillo Aggrippa
Influenced Sebastian Heußler
Genres Fencing manual
Language Italian
Notable work(s) Gran Simulacro dell'Arte e dell'Uso della
Scherma
(1610)
Concordance by Michael Chidester

Ridolfo Capo Ferro da Cagli (Ridolfo Capoferro, Rodulphus Capoferrus) was a 17th century Italian fencing master.

He seems to have been born in the town of Cagli in the Province of Pesaro e Urbino, and was a resident of Siena, Tuscany. Little is known about the life of this master, though the dedication to Federico Ubaldo della Roevere, the young son of Duke Francesco Maria Feltrio della Roevere, may indicate that he was associated with the court at Urbino in some capacity. The statement at the beginning of Capo Ferro's treatise describing him as a "master of the great German nation" likely signifies that he was faculty at the University of Siena, either holding a position analogous to dean of all German students, or perhaps merely the fencing master who taught the German students.

At the age of 52, Capo Ferro authored a treatise on the rapier entitled Gran Simulacro dell'Arte e dell'Uso della Scherma ("Great Representation of the Art and Use of Fencing"); it was published in Siena in 1610, but refers to Federico by the ducal title. Though this treatise is highly praised by modern fencing historians, it is neither comprehensive nor particularly innovative and does not seem to have been influential in its own time.

Treatise

This concordance uses the watercolor illustrations from the 1629 edition where they are available, except for a few in which the paint obscures the actual fencing actions. You can view all of the painted illustrations on the treatise page.

(Read more…)


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Wiktenauer parent organizations

HEMAA logo.png
Historical European Martial Arts (HEMA) Alliance

A US educational non-profit which provides a range of programs and services for its members and affiliate schools and clubs, as well as serving the wider HEMA community.

WMAC logo.png
Western Martial Arts Coalition (WMAC)

A pan-American network of researchers and instructors dedicated to the study of traditional European, American, and related fighting arts and martial traditions.