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Difference between revisions of "Joachim Meyer"

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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword D.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword D.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| <p>And now stands the whole Handwork applied in binding or staying, Travelling After, Cutting, Chopping Down, Walking Around, Misleading, Flowing Off, Putting Away, Displacing, Twitching, Doubling, Overturning, Capturing, Avoiding, Circling, Channeling, Winding, Winding Through, Changing, Changing Through, Cutting Away, Hand Punching, Shooting Ahead, Hanging, Moving Out, Blocking, Adjusting, Grappling, Closing, etc.</p>
 
| <p>And now stands the whole Handwork applied in binding or staying, Travelling After, Cutting, Chopping Down, Walking Around, Misleading, Flowing Off, Putting Away, Displacing, Twitching, Doubling, Overturning, Capturing, Avoiding, Circling, Channeling, Winding, Winding Through, Changing, Changing Through, Cutting Away, Hand Punching, Shooting Ahead, Hanging, Moving Out, Blocking, Adjusting, Grappling, Closing, etc.</p>
| '''[XVIIrv]''' Und steht zwar die ganze Handtarbeit vornemlich im Binden oder bleiben / Nachreisen / Schneiden / Umbschlagen / Umblauffen / Verfüren / Verfliigen / Absetzen / Versetzen / Zucken / Doplieren / Verkehren / Schnappen / Felen / Zirckeln / Rinden / Winden / Durchwinden / Wechseln / Durchwechseln / Abschneiden / Hendtrucken / Vorschieben / Hengen / Außreissen / Sperren / Verstellen / Übergreiffen / Einlauffen / rc.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/55|1|lbl=Ⅰ.17v.1}}
  
 
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<p>These are names for when the swords are in contact with each other. Staying is two moded, firstly when the swords stop each other, watch what One wants to fence with then and where you can attack your opponent if you will. Then there is the other with which one sends strikes, when you set yourself as if you sought to recover from a strike, only to slash quickly and come inward again with the short edge, thus back to the Before to strike with the long edge. Now mark the word “feeling” which means so much, as it therewith sends or finds, you will become aware how hard or soft on your sword he is, etc.</p>
 
<p>These are names for when the swords are in contact with each other. Staying is two moded, firstly when the swords stop each other, watch what One wants to fence with then and where you can attack your opponent if you will. Then there is the other with which one sends strikes, when you set yourself as if you sought to recover from a strike, only to slash quickly and come inward again with the short edge, thus back to the Before to strike with the long edge. Now mark the word “feeling” which means so much, as it therewith sends or finds, you will become aware how hard or soft on your sword he is, etc.</p>
| '''Anbinden / Bleiben / Fülen.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/55|2|lbl=Ⅰ.17v.2}}
HEist wann die Schwerdter an einander Rüren / Bleiben ist zweyerley / Erstlich wan die Schwerdter an einander gehalten / zusehen was der Mann will fechten / unnd wo er seinen gegenman anzugreiffen in willens. Darnach zum andern / welches mit streichen geschicht / wenn du dich stellest / als ob du zuckest einen streich zuerholen / und nur schlechts widerumb umbschnelst / und mit kurtzer schneid wider dahinein kompst / dahin du zuvor mit Langer schneid gehauwen. Hie merck das wort fülen welches soviel heist / als brüffen oder empfinden / damit du gewahr werden magst / ob er mit seinem Band hert oder weich an deinem Schwerdt ist / etc.
 
  
 
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<p>This is an especially good handwork, and therein the need and will to know will be raised if you want to rise and become a Master at low cost, thus conduct yourself in Travelling After: When your opponent starts to move his sword above or below himself so as to prepare to strike, you rush at his targets and thus preemptively intercept his Strike, which then can be joined against as you come to want or need, with this one fences and sweeps away with your strike. Since you soon require better understanding, I will clarify this to you with an example.</p>
 
<p>This is an especially good handwork, and therein the need and will to know will be raised if you want to rise and become a Master at low cost, thus conduct yourself in Travelling After: When your opponent starts to move his sword above or below himself so as to prepare to strike, you rush at his targets and thus preemptively intercept his Strike, which then can be joined against as you come to want or need, with this one fences and sweeps away with your strike. Since you soon require better understanding, I will clarify this to you with an example.</p>
| '''Nachreisen.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/55|3|lbl=Ⅰ.17v.3}}
DIß ist ein sonder gut Handtarbeit / und darin wol geübt und das wol weiß zu brauchen / mag billich ein Meister gelobt werden / und helt sich mit dem Nachreisen also / Wann du (so dein gegenfechter entweders mit seinem Wehr zu hoch uber oder undersich / oder zu weit neben aus Hauwet) ihm zur Blösse nacheilest / unnd also sein Hauw zuvolfüren hinderst / welches denn füglich kann und mag gegen die gebraucht werden / so mit ihren häuwen weit schweiffig umb sich fechten / solches damit du es desto baß verstehen mögest / will ich dirs mit disem Exempel erkleren.
 
  
 
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| <p>When one fences against you, take on whatever part his sword takes, if leading first in the right Ox, that is in the high right quarter, thus you shall take off as soon as he changes his sword from there to the other side or off to seek a strike, move similarly and strike after it with cunning, and of course you’ll need to pick a strike and target, against which you close and soon you’ll want your displacement. However if he fences out of the Low Guard, thus mark that as soon as he drives out, (he fences from either left or right side), follow cunningly under his sword from below with the long edge and strike the next opening.</p>
 
| <p>When one fences against you, take on whatever part his sword takes, if leading first in the right Ox, that is in the high right quarter, thus you shall take off as soon as he changes his sword from there to the other side or off to seek a strike, move similarly and strike after it with cunning, and of course you’ll need to pick a strike and target, against which you close and soon you’ll want your displacement. However if he fences out of the Low Guard, thus mark that as soon as he drives out, (he fences from either left or right side), follow cunningly under his sword from below with the long edge and strike the next opening.</p>
| Wann einer gegen dir Fechtet / so nim war in welchem theil er sein Schwerdt führet / fürt ers dann im rechten Ochsen / das ist im rechten Obern quatier / so soltu als bald unnd in dem er sein Schwerdt von dannen auff die ander seiten zu Wechseln abnimpt / oder nur zum streich auffzeucht / daselbs behendiglich und mit list hinein '''[XVIIIr]''' / und dich doch solcher häuw und stuck gebrauchen / auß welchn du gleich mit und als bald dein versatzung haben magst / Ficht er aber aus der Underhuten / so merck das du ihm (er Fecht von der Lincken oder Rechten seiten) als bald und in dem er aufffehrt / underhalb seinem Schwerdt listiglich mit der Langschneid nachfolgest / und der nechsten Blöß zu streichest.  
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/55|4|lbl=Ⅰ.17v.4|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/56|1|lbl=Ⅰ.18r.1|p=1}}
  
 
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<p>Is a fundamental element of proper handwork, when you rush from your opponent with quick and agile blows, you can block and impede him better with no other move than with the slice, which you, though you will treasure it in all instances as special as here, will hold in reserve. You must however complete the slices thus: after you entangle your opponent’s sword with the bind, you shall strive thereon, feel if he would withdraw or flow off from the bind, as soon as he flows off, drive against him with the long edge on his arm, thrust the strong or quillons from you in the effort, let fly, and as he himself seeks to retrieve, strike then to the next opening.</p>
 
<p>Is a fundamental element of proper handwork, when you rush from your opponent with quick and agile blows, you can block and impede him better with no other move than with the slice, which you, though you will treasure it in all instances as special as here, will hold in reserve. You must however complete the slices thus: after you entangle your opponent’s sword with the bind, you shall strive thereon, feel if he would withdraw or flow off from the bind, as soon as he flows off, drive against him with the long edge on his arm, thrust the strong or quillons from you in the effort, let fly, and as he himself seeks to retrieve, strike then to the next opening.</p>
| '''Schneiden.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/56|2|lbl=Ⅰ.18r.2}}
ISt under der Handarbeit auch der Rechten kern stuck eines / dann so du von deinem gegenpart mit behenden und geschwinden stucken ubereilet / kanstu ihn mit keinem andern stuck besser stecken und hindern / dann mit dem schnit / welches du dir dann auch in allen stucken als ein sonders hiezu erfunden kleinot / im vorrath behalten solt / Du must aber das Schneiden also volbringen / nach dem du deines widerparts Schwerdt mit dem Band empfangen / soltu daran verharren / zufülen ob er vom Bandt abgehn oder umbschlagen wolt / als bald er umbschlegt / so fahr ihm mit der Langen schneiden auff sein Arm nach / stoß ihn mit der sterck oder schilt im ruck von dir / laß fliegen / und ehe er sich erholen mag / so hauwe der nechsten Blössen zu.  
 
  
 
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<p>Is named from hitting around with the sword, when you have bound from your right against his left, from this bind leave off again, strike or rush around to the other side.</p>
 
<p>Is named from hitting around with the sword, when you have bound from your right against his left, from this bind leave off again, strike or rush around to the other side.</p>
| '''Umbschlagen.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/56|3|lbl=Ⅰ.18r.3}}
HEist vom Schwerdt umbschlagen / wann du von deiner Rechten gegen seiner Lincken angebunden / vom selben Bandt wider abgehest / zur andern seiten umbschlegest oder zu schnellest.
 
  
 
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<p>On whichever hand you bind on your opponent’s sword, so move while retrieving your hand, and let yourself flow off below you with the half edge, and twitch under to bring your riccasso high overhead to strike, and drive such to both sides.</p>
 
<p>On whichever hand you bind on your opponent’s sword, so move while retrieving your hand, and let yourself flow off below you with the half edge, and twitch under to bring your riccasso high overhead to strike, and drive such to both sides.</p>
| '''Ablauffen.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/56|4|lbl=Ⅰ.18r.4}}
ISt / von welcher Handt du dem Mann an sein Schwerdt bindest / so verkehr in dem es riert dein Hand / und laß mit halber schneid undersich ablauffen / und zuck under des dein Hefft ubersich in die höh zum streich / und solches treib zu beiden seiten.
 
  
 
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<p>Remember this: when you show your intent, as if you mean to fence to one of your opponent’s openings, absolutely do not do so, but instead slash the strike unto another opening, to which you should come properly without injury, and thus Misleading enables many moves, such as facing with the Glancer Strike, Hacking, Flying, Beckoning, Off Flowing, Twitch, Circle and others. In addition, Misleading is not only performed with the sword, but also by presenting various initial stances, which are not yet more techniques, because techniques are the fencer’s distinction, toward which you direct yourself throughout fencing at every single distinction and habit which then shall be set upon with wrath. This quickly clears hands fenced slowly, thus Misleading likewise requires forms which will be directed in the work.</p>
 
<p>Remember this: when you show your intent, as if you mean to fence to one of your opponent’s openings, absolutely do not do so, but instead slash the strike unto another opening, to which you should come properly without injury, and thus Misleading enables many moves, such as facing with the Glancer Strike, Hacking, Flying, Beckoning, Off Flowing, Twitch, Circle and others. In addition, Misleading is not only performed with the sword, but also by presenting various initial stances, which are not yet more techniques, because techniques are the fencer’s distinction, toward which you direct yourself throughout fencing at every single distinction and habit which then shall be set upon with wrath. This quickly clears hands fenced slowly, thus Misleading likewise requires forms which will be directed in the work.</p>
| '''[XVIIIv] Verführen.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/57|1|lbl=Ⅰ.18v.1}}
HElt sich also / wann du dich mit geberden erzeigest / als ob du deiner gegenpart zu einer Blöß zufechten wollest / thust es aber doch nit / sondern schlechst den streich zu einer andern Blöß hinein / zu der du am füglichsten ohn schaden zukommen vermeinest / und ob aber schon vilerlei stuck so dem verführen zustendig / als der Schillerhauw mit dem gesicht / das Verfelen / Verfliegen / Wincken / Ablauffen /Verzuck / Zirckel und andere / auch dero wegen das Verführen nit allein mit dem Schwerdt / sonder auch mit den geberden mancherley hieraus entstehet / so seind doch dessen nit mehr art / als art und eigenschaft der Fechter seind / denn es richt sich durchaus nach eines jeden eigenschafft unnd gewonheit im Fechten / als da der zornig / einander sitsam / dieser geschwindt und hurtig / jhender langsam fichtet / also auch das Verführen gleicher gestalt gebraucht und in das werck gerichtet wirt.
 
  
 
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<p>Withdrawing thus is shown: when you in either pre-fencing or full work strike at your opponent’s opening, but he drives to intercept your strike in the air, do not allow him to put his blade onto your sword, but twitch off the strike with one flight in the air to another opening, which will work very well against this, follow only after your sword and your body will not come to be hurt.</p>
 
<p>Withdrawing thus is shown: when you in either pre-fencing or full work strike at your opponent’s opening, but he drives to intercept your strike in the air, do not allow him to put his blade onto your sword, but twitch off the strike with one flight in the air to another opening, which will work very well against this, follow only after your sword and your body will not come to be hurt.</p>
| '''Verfliegen.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/57|2|lbl=Ⅰ.18v.2}}
MUß also geschehen / wann du im zufechten oder voller arbeit deines widerparts Blöß zuhauwest / er aber dein streich in der lufft zu empfangen dir entgegen fehret / das du jn nit lassest mit seiner Klinge an dein Schwerdt rühren / sonder in der lufft solchen streich mit einem flug wider abzuckest / zu einer andern Blöß / welche arbet den gegen disen sehr nützlich / o nur dein Schwerdt nachreisen und nit den leib zu verletzen begirig.
 
  
 
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<p>Now in all Fencing moves, as above were shown, two things are necessary, namely strikes, and strikes which clear or displace with the sword. So mark that this handwork is the proper clearing or displacing, with which you won’t address the strikes badly and not strike onward again, but move at the same time to address his opening during the withdrawal. As you come during pre-fencing into the Changer, and as he strikes to you then from Above, drive upward with the long edge against his strike, and step at the same time with your right foot against his left and offset him, then as soon as he glides, wind the short edge, and rush at him against his head.</p>
 
<p>Now in all Fencing moves, as above were shown, two things are necessary, namely strikes, and strikes which clear or displace with the sword. So mark that this handwork is the proper clearing or displacing, with which you won’t address the strikes badly and not strike onward again, but move at the same time to address his opening during the withdrawal. As you come during pre-fencing into the Changer, and as he strikes to you then from Above, drive upward with the long edge against his strike, and step at the same time with your right foot against his left and offset him, then as soon as he glides, wind the short edge, and rush at him against his head.</p>
| '''Absetzen.'''
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DIeweil alle Fechtstuck / wie oben angezeigt / zwey ding erfordern nemlich hauwen / und die häuw mit dem Schwerdt abtragen oder versetzen / so merck das hie diese Handtarbeit das recht abtragen oder versetzen ist / mit welchem du nit allein die streich schlecht empfahest / und nit herwider hauwest / sonder auch zugleich indem der absatz rühret zu seiner Blöß mit außtretten triffest / als kompstu im zufechten in Wechsel / Hauwet er dir als dann '''[XIXr]''' von Oben zu / so fahr ubersich mit Langer schneid gegen seinem streich / und trit zugleich mit dem Rechten fuß gegen seiner Lincken unnd setz jhm ab / gleich in dem es dann gliitzt / so verwendt die kurtze schneid / unnd schnell jhm gegen seinem Kopff.
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Revision as of 21:22, 4 April 2021

Joachim Meyer
Born ca. 1537
Basel, Germany
Died 24 February 1571 (aged 34)
Schwerin, Germany
Spouse(s) Appolonia Ruhlman
Occupation
Citizenship Strasbourg
Patron
  • Johann Albrecht (?)
  • Johann Casimir
Movement Freifechter
Influences
Influenced
Genres Fencing manual
Language Early New High German
Notable work(s) Gründtliche Beschreibung der
Kunst des Fechtens
(1570)
Manuscript(s)
First printed
english edition
Forgeng, 2006
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations
Signature Joachim Meyer sig.jpg

Joachim Meyer (ca. 1537 - 1571)[1] was a 16th century German Freifechter and fencing master. He was the last major figure in the tradition of the German grand master Johannes Liechtenauer, and in the last years of his life he devised at least three distinct and quite extensive fencing manuals. Meyer's writings incorporate both the traditional Germanic technical syllabus and contemporary systems that he encountered in his travels, including Italian rapier fencing.[2] In addition to his fencing practice, Meyer was a Burgher and a master cutler.[3]

Meyer was born in Basel,[4] where he presumably apprenticed as a cutler. He writes in his books that he traveled widely in his youth, most likely a reference to the traditional Walz that journeyman craftsmen were required to take before being eligible for mastery and membership in a guild. Journeymen were often sent to stand watch and participate in town and city militias (a responsibility that would have been amplified for the warlike cutlers' guild), and Meyer learned a great deal about foreign fencing systems during his travels. It's been speculated by some fencing historians that he trained specifically in the Bolognese school of fencing, but this doesn't stand up to closer analysis.[5]

Records show that by 4 June 1560 he had settled in Strasbourg, where he married Appolonia Ruhlman (Ruelman)[1] and was granted the rank of master cutler. His interests had already moved beyond smithing, however, and in 1561, Meyer petitioned the City Council of Strasbourg for the right to hold a Fechtschule (fencing competition). He would repeat this in 1563, 1566, 1567 and 1568;[6] the 1568 petition is the first extant record in which he identifies himself as a fencing master.

Meyer probably wrote his first manuscript (MS A.4º.2) in either 1560 or 1568 for Otto Count von Sulms, Minzenberg, and Sonnenwaldt.[7] Its contents seem to be a series of lessons on training with long sword, dussack, and rapier. His second manuscript (MS Var.82), written between 1563 and 1570 for Heinrich Graf von Eberst, is of a decidedly different nature. Like many fencing manuscripts from the previous century, it is an anthology of treatises by a number of prominent German masters including Sigmund ain Ringeck, pseudo-Peter von Danzig, and Martin Syber, and also includes a brief outline by Meyer himself on a system of rapier fencing based on German Messer teachings. Finally, on 24 February 1570 Meyer completed (and soon thereafter published) an enormous multi-weapon treatise entitled Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens ("A Thorough Description of the Art of Combat"); it was dedicated to Johann Casimir, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and illustrated at the workshop of Tobias Stimmer.[8]

Unfortunately, Meyer's writing and publication efforts incurred significant debts (about 1300 crowns), which Meyer pledged to repay by Christmas of 1571.[1] Late in 1570, Meyer accepted the position of Fechtmeister to Duke Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg at his court in Schwerin. There Meyer hoped to sell his book for a better price than was offered locally (30 florins). Meyer sent his books ahead to Schwerin, and left from Strasbourg on 4 January 1571 after receiving his pay. He traveled the 800 miles to Schwerin in the middle of a harsh winter, arriving at the court on 10 February 1571. Two weeks later, on 24 February, Joachim Meyer died. The cause of his death is unknown, possibly disease or pneumonia.[6]

Antoni Rulman, Appolonia’s brother, became her legal guardian after Joachim’s death. On 15 May 1571, he had a letter written by the secretary of the Strasbourg city chamber and sent to the Duke of Mecklenburg stating that Antoni was now the widow Meyer’s guardian; it politely reminded the Duke who Joachim Meyer was, Meyer’s publishing efforts and considerable debt, requested that the Duke send Meyer’s personal affects and his books to Appolonia, and attempted to sell some (if not all) of the books to the Duke.[1]

Appolonia remarried in April 1572 to another cutler named Hans Kuele, bestowing upon him the status of Burgher and Meyer's substantial debts. Joachim Meyer and Hans Kuele are both mentioned in the minutes of Cutlers' Guild archives; Kuele may have made an impression if we can judge that fact by the number of times he is mentioned. It is believed that Appolonia and either her husband or her brother were involved with the second printing of his book in 1600. According to other sources, it was reprinted yet again in 1610 and in 1660.[9][10]

Treatises

Joachim Meyer's writings are preserved in two manuscripts prepared in the 1560s, the MS A.4º.2 (Lund) and the MS Var 82 (Rostock); a third manuscript from 1561 has been lost since at least the mid-20th century, and its contents are unknown.[11] Dwarfing these works is the massive book he published in 1570 entitled "A Thorough Description of the Free, Chivalric, and Noble Art of Fencing, Showing Various Customary Defenses, Affected and Put Forth with Many Handsome and Useful Drawings". Meyer's writings purport to teach the entire art of fencing, something that he claimed had never been done before, and encompass a wide variety of teachings from disparate sources and traditions. To achieve this goal, Meyer seems to have constructed his treatises as a series of progressive lessons, describing a process for learning to fence rather than merely outlining the underlying theory or listing the techniques. In keeping with this, he illustrates his techniques with depictions of fencers in courtyards using training weapons such as two-handed foils, wooden dussacks, and rapiers with ball tips.

The first part of Meyer's treatise is devoted to the long sword (the sword in two hands), which he presents as the foundational weapon of his system, and this section devotes the most space to fundamentals like stance and footwork. His long sword system draws upon the teachings of Freifechter Andre Paurñfeyndt (via Christian Egenolff's reprint) and Liechtenauer glossators Sigmund ain Ringeck and Lew, as well as using terminology otherwise unique to the brief Recital of Martin Syber. Not content merely to compile these teachings as his contemporary Paulus Hector Mair was doing, Meyer sought to update—even reinvent—them in various ways to fit the martial climate of the late sixteenth century, including adapting many techniques to accommodate the increased momentum of a greatsword and modifying others to use beats with the flat and winding slices in place of thrusts to comply with street-fighting laws in German cities (and the rules of the Fechtschule).

The second part of Meyer's treatises is designed to address new weapons gaining traction in German lands, the dussack and the rapier, and thereby find places for them in the German tradition. His early Lund manuscript presents a more summarized syllabus of techniques for these weapons, while his printed book goes into greater depth and is structured more in the fashion of lesson plans.[12] Meyer's dussack system, designed for the broad proto-sabers that spread into German lands from Eastern Europe in the 16th century,[13] combines the old Messer teachings of Johannes Lecküchner and the dussack teachings of Andre Paurñfeyndt with other unknown systems (some have speculated that they might include early Polish or Hungarian saber systems). His rapier system, designed for the lighter single-hand swords spreading north from Iberian and Italian lands, seems again to be a hybrid creation, integrating both the core teachings of the 15th century Liechtenauer tradition as well as components that are characteristic of the various regional Mediterranean fencing systems (including, perhaps, teachings derived from the treatise of Achille Marozzo). Interestingly, Meyer's rapier teachings in the Rostock seem to represent an attempt to unify these two weapon system, outlining a method for rapier fencing that includes key elements of his dussack teachings; it is unclear why this method did not appear in his book, but given the dates it may be that they represent his last musings on the weapon, written in the time between the completion of his book in 1570 and his death a year later.

The third part of Meyer's treatise only appears in his published book and covers dagger, wrestling, and various pole weapons. His dagger teachings, designed primarily for urban self-defense, seem to be based in part on the writings of Bolognese master Achille Marozzo[14] and the anonymous teachings in Egenolff, but also include much unique content of unknown origin (perhaps the anonymous dagger teachings in his Rostock manuscript). His staff material makes up the bulk of this section, beginning with the short staff, which, like Paurñfeyndt, he uses as a training tool for various pole weapons (and possibly also the greatsword), and then moving on to the halberd before ending with the long staff (representing the pike). As with the dagger, the sources Meyer based his staff teachings on are largely unknown.

Additional Resources

  • Kiermayer, Alex. Joachim Meyers Kunst Des Fechtens. Gründtliche Beschreibung des Fechtens, 1570. Arts of Mars Books, 2012. ISBN 978-3981162738
  • Meyer, Joachim. Joachim Meyer 1600: Transkription des Fechtbuchs 'Gründtliche Beschreibung der freyen Ritterlichen und Adelichen kunst des Fechtens’. TAT. Wolfgang Landwehr, 2011. ISBN 978-3932077371
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Combat: A German Martial Arts Treatise of 1570. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng.
    • 1st edition. London: Greenhill Books, 2006. ISBN 978-1-85367-643-7
    • 1st edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. ISBN 1-4039-7092-0
    • 2nd edition. London: Frontline Books, 2014. ISBN 978-1-84832-778-8
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Sword Combat: A 1568 German Treatise on Swordmanship. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng. London: Frontline Books, 2016. ISBN 9781473876750

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Dupuis, Olivier. Joachim Meyer, escrimeur libre, bourgeois de Strasbourg (1537 ? - 1571). In Maîtres et techniques de combat. Dijon: AEDEH, 2006.
  2. Castle, Egerton. Schools and Masters of Fencing: From the Middle Ages to the Eighteenth Century. London: George Bell and Sons, 1885. pp 74 - 76.
  3. Naumann, Robert. Serapeum. Vol. 5. T.O. Weigel, 1844. pp 53-59.
  4. According to his wedding certificate.
  5. His dagger teachings do, however, show some evidence of influence by Achilles Marozzo's printed treatise.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Van Slambrouck, Christopher. "The Life and Work of Joachim Meyer". Meyer Frei Fechter Guild, 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
  7. Norling, Roger. "The history of Joachim Meyer’s fencing treatise to Otto von Solms". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  8. Whose members included Christoph Maurer and Hans Christoffel Stimmer.
  9. Schaer, Alfred. Die altdeutschen fechter und spielleute: Ein beitrag zur deutschen culturgeschichte. K.J. Trübner, 1901. p 76.
  10. Pollock, W. H., Grove, F. C., and Prévost, C. Fencing. London and Bombay: Longmans, Green, and co, 1897. pp 267-268.
  11. Jens P. Kleinau. "1561 Joachim Meyer dedicated a fencing book to the Pfalzgrafen of Pfalz-Veldenz". Hans Talhoffer ~ as seen by Jens P. Kleinau. 04 July 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  12. Roberts, James. "System vs Syllabus: Meyer’s 1560 and 1570 sidesword texts". Hroarr.com, 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  13. Roger Norling. "The Dussack - a weapon of war". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  14. Norling, Roger. "Meyer and Marozzo dagger comparison". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  15. Originally printed "am meisten gebreuchlichsten", but corrected on Ⅲ.47v.
  16. Originally printed "B", but corrected on Ⅲ.47v.
  17. 17.00 17.01 17.02 17.03 17.04 17.05 17.06 17.07 17.08 17.09 17.10 17.11 17.12 17.13 17.14 17.15 17.16 17.17 17.18 17.19 17.20 17.21 17.22 17.23 17.24 17.25 17.26 17.27 17.28 17.29 17.30 17.31 indes
  18. palm up
  19. Illegible deletion.
  20. oberhauw
  21. ‘right’ is originally written, ‘left’ is written above it
  22. short edge
  23. “Degen”, lit. dagger, could either refer to a sword or dagger.
  24. short edge
  25. Unleserliche Streichung. Illegible deletion.
  26. Unleserliche gestrichen Einfügung oberhalb der Zeile. Crossed out illegible insertion above the line.
  27. Die Schlaufe des »h« trägt ein Diärese. The loop of the “h” carries a diaeresis.
  28. Korrigiert aus »mitelhauw«. Corrected from “mitelhauw”.
  29. Leicht unleserlich. Slightly illegible.
  30. Überschriebens »vom«. Overwritten “vom”.
  31. Inserted by means of a special mark.
  32. Word inserted next to the text.
  33. Inserted nest to the text.
  34. Zwei Worte am Seitenrand nachgetragen. Two words inserted at the margin.
  35. Wort am Seitenrand nachgetragen. Word inserted at the margin.