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| '''Middle Guard'''
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| <p>'''Middle Guard'''</p>
You will learn of the Middle Guard later with the Dusack, whereas that will be done with one hand, here you shall place yourself in it with two hands. Then even if in the beginning I was not well disposed to set this here, I can indeed (since from nothing else can the Ward of the Roses be taught onward) otherwise not go forward, then mark when one comes ahead to you so that his sword is stretched out before him in the long point or else driving in direct displacement, then drive with your blade around in a circle from the middle guard right over around his, so that you come right back to the same middle guard with your blade, from there swing the weak forcefully out to him over his arm to his head, or as he then (just as you would would drive over his blade through the roses) meanwhile would fall from above down to your opening, then take his blade outward with the half edge, namely on the second time you come to be in the middle guard, then as quickly as he has not yet come to reach your opening, you come around just then with the Roses, with which you have enough time to come to the described out, after this you still take him outward, then let flow over in a curve in the air over your head (by which you mislead him) through a circle to the next opening.
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| '''[XLv] Mittelhut.'''
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<p>You will learn of the Middle Guard later with the Dusack, whereas that will be done with one hand, here you shall place yourself in it with two hands. Then even if in the beginning I was not well disposed to set this here, I can indeed (since from nothing else can the Ward of the Roses be taught onward) otherwise not go forward, then mark when one comes ahead to you so that his sword is stretched out before him in the long point or else driving in direct displacement, then drive with your blade around in a circle from the middle guard right over around his, so that you come right back to the same middle guard with your blade, from there swing the weak forcefully out to him over his arm to his head, or as he then (just as you would would drive over his blade through the roses) meanwhile would fall from above down to your opening, then take his blade outward with the half edge, namely on the second time you come to be in the middle guard, then as quickly as he has not yet come to reach your opening, you come around just then with the Roses, with which you have enough time to come to the described out, after this you still take him outward, then let flow over in a curve in the air over your head (by which you mislead him) through a circle to the next opening.</p>
VOn diser Mittelhut wirstu hernach im Dusacken bericht / derwegen wie du sie daselbs zu einer hand / also solt du sie hie zu beiden henden anschicken / Dann ob ich wol anfangs nit gesint wahr solche hie zu setzen / hab ich sie doch (dieweil auß keiner andern Hut die Rosen füglicher gelehrt kann werden) nicht umbgehn können / und merck wann dir einer fürkompt / der sein Schwerdt vor jhm außgestreckt im Langen ort oder sonst in gerader versatzung führet / so fahr mit deiner klingen in einem Zürckel herumb / auß der Mittelhut umb die seinen kantz herumb / also das du mit deiner klingen gar nahet wider zu der ersten Mittelhut ankomest / von dannen schwinge jhm die schwech gewaltiglich aussen uber seinen Armen zum Kopff / oder so er dir (in dem du also durch die Rosen umb seine klingen fahren wurdest) dieweil von Oben nider zur Blös einfallen wurde / so nime jhm sein kling mit halber schneide auß / nemlich wann du zum andern mal in die Mittelhut ankomen bist / dan so geschwindt wirt er dir der Blöß als unversehens nit zu eilen / du wirst in des mit der Rosen herumb komen / damit du zu gemeltem ausnemen noch zeit gnug komest / nach dem du jhm aber also aus genomen / so laß in der lufft ober deinem Kopff (jhn damit zu verführen) umblauffen in einer rinde durch ein Zürckel / der nechsten Blös zu.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/101|1|lbl=1.40va}}
  
 
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| Or as you have struck to the left into the Middle Guard in pre-fencing, and your counterpart strikes below this to you from above, then step well out from his strike to his right side, and throw your short edge above or outside his right arm to his head, and in this throw in let your blade shoot well in, either to his head or above both his arms, then nimbly twitch your sword upward again and strike him strongly with the long edge from your left above to his right arm, from there fence to him onward as with previous and following elements at your pleasure, and meanwhile since the Roses can also be fenced rightly from the Long Point, just as I set forth the previous element, I will describe it with the Long Point as well thus:
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| <p>Or as you have struck to the left into the Middle Guard in pre-fencing, and your counterpart strikes below this to you from above, then step well out from his strike to his right side, and throw your short edge above or outside his right arm to his head, and in this throw in let your blade shoot well in, either to his head or above both his arms, then nimbly twitch your sword upward again and strike him strongly with the long edge from your left above to his right arm, from there fence to him onward as with previous and following elements at your pleasure, and meanwhile since the Roses can also be fenced rightly from the Long Point, just as I set forth the previous element, I will describe it with the Long Point as well thus:</p>
| Oder so du im zufechten dich in die Mittelhut zu deiner Lincken verhauwen hast / unnd er dein gegen theil hauwet dir under des zu von Oben / so trit wol aus seinem hauw gegen seiner Rechten seiten / und wirffe jhm dein kurtze schneid oberhalb oder ausserhalb seinem Rechten arm zum Kopff / und laß dein klingen in solchem einwurff wol einschiessen / eintweders zu seinem Kopff oder uber seine beide Arm / demnoch zuck dein Schwerdt behendiglich wider ubersich / und hauwe jhm von deiner Lincken mit Langer schneid starck ubersich / gegen seinem rechten arm / von dannen ficht jhm fürbaß zu auß Vor und Nachgehenden stucken / nach deinem gefallen / und dieweil im Langen ort auch füglich die Rosen gefochten werden kann / will ich die uberigen stuck die ich zu setzen willens / im Langen ort vollens beschreiben / also.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/101|2|lbl=1.40vb}}
  
 
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| '''[XLIrv] Langort.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/102|1|lbl=1.41ra}}
LAngort ist bey den Alten eigentlich das Brechfenster genant worden / darumb das alle andere stuck daraus gebrochen werden können / dieweil aber (was man bey einem gleichen aus disem Leger Fechten sol) gnugsam aus bisher gelehrten stucken abzunemen ist / will ich (dieweil das Langort ohne das das ende aller Bandt ist) etwas von demselbigen durch Exempel anzeigen.
 
  
 
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword I.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword I.jpg|center|400px]]
 
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| Im zufechten so binde deinem gegenman durch den Oberhauw an sein Schwerdt / unnd merck als bald er von deinem Schwerdt wider ubersich fehrt so hauwe ihm in dem er mit seinen Armen im aufffahren ist / von Unden zwischen sein beiden Armen zum kiinn / von disem stuck besihe die zwey obern kleinern Bilder / zur Lincken hand in der Figur so mit dem Buchstaben I. gezeichnet.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/102|2|lbl=1.41rb}}
  
 
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| Item bind jhm an wie vor / unnd als bald die Schwerdter im Band zusamen rühren / so brich mit er Rosen zwischen dir und jhm unden durch / unnd wirff jhm die kurtz schneid auff der andern seiten hinein zum Kopff / oder nach dem du vom Band mit der Rosen unden durch gebrochen hast / so reiss von der andern seiten mit der kurtzen schneid sein Schwerdt beseits aus / also das sich deine hend in der lufft uber einander schrencken / schlage jhm mit kurtzer schneid dieff uber zum Kopff.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/102|3|lbl=1.41rc}}
  
 
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| Item bind jhme gegen seinem herfliegen hauw ahn / und so bald die klingen zusamen rühren / so stoß dein knopf under deinem rechten Arm durch (auch trit under des wol gegen seiner Lincken seiten aus) unnd fahr also mit geschrenckten henden ubersich / und hauwe jhm mit Langer schneid durch die Rosen von unden beseitz hinder seinem Arm zum Kopff.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/102|4|lbl=1.41rd}}
  
 
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword H.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword H.jpg|center|400px]]
 
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| Item / merck in dem du dem Mann anbindest / so laß die Lincke hand vom Knopff / unnd begreiff damit sein kling im Bandt zu der deinen / und das behend / demnach fahr mit deiner Rechten hand sampt dem Hefft / unden durch und schlag also gegen deiner Rechten ubersich / wie du solches an den zweyen kleynern bossen zur Rechten hand in der Figur H. sehen kanst / so nimstu jhm das Schwerdt.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/102|5|lbl=1.41re}}
  
 
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| '''[XLIIr]''' Item bindet dir einer mit ausgestrecktem Schwerdt an das deine / so merck in dem die Band zusamen rühren / so Wechseln behendiglich unden durch / und schnel jm die schwech flechlingen von der ander seiten zu seinem ohr / aus disem durchwechseln wirstu vil schöner stuck machen lernen / so du jhm fleissig nachtrachtest.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/104|1|lbl=1.42ra}}
  
 
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword N.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword N.jpg|center|400px]]
 
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| Item so du merckest das einer auff dich binden oder hauwen will / so führe dein Schwerdt gegen jhm her / als wwolltestdu auch anbinden / und merck aber in dem die klingen eben jetzt zusamen rühren sollen / so stoß behend dein knopff ubersich / und wende die klingen durch die Rosen von unden auff / und fang jhm sein Hauw also auff dein Lange schneid / wie solches das kleiner Bilde in der Figur N. gegen der Rechten hand anzeiget / nach dem du jhm also sein Hauw (wie gemelt) entpfangen hast / kanstu das selbige stuck auff zwen weg vollenden / Erstlich also / in dem die Schwerdter zusamen gerühret hand / so fahre vollen Unden mit deiner klingen durch / unnd reisse jhm die seine gegen deiner Rechten auß / und laß die hend abermal in der lufft umbschnappen oder kreutzweis ubereinander schrencken / und hauwe jhm also mit kurtzer schneide starck zum Kopff / Dis ist ein Meisterlicher durchgang / der dir (so er anders von oben hauwet) nit fehlet / zum andern wann du jhm sein Schwerdt also entpfangen hast / so trit in dem die Schwerdter zusamen gliitzen wol auff sein Lincke seiten / und hauw wider mit Langer schneid von aussen uber seinem Lincken arm zum Kopff / Dieser letste Hauw gehet unversehens sehr geschwindt / sicher unnd starck an.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/104|2|lbl=1.42rb}}
  
 
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| '''Wechsel.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/104|3|lbl=1.42rc}}
WIewol ohne not den Wechsel in sonderheit zu setzen / dieweil doch sonst alle stuck aus disem füglicher dann in keinem andern können gefochten werden / hab ich doch nicht underlassen wollen ein par stuck darinen zusetzen / auß welchen du auch etliche sondere geschwindigkeit vermercken kanst / also.
 
  
 
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword F.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword F.jpg|center|400px]]
 
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| Findestu einen in gerader Versatzung / oder wie vor vom Langen ort gesagt / so streiche mit halber schneide aus dem rechten Wechsel starck ubersich durch / ein mal zwey / das dritte mal aber streiche under seinem Schwert durch / und trit mit deinem Rechten fuß zu jhm / und schlage jhn mit der fleche oder kurtzer schneide gewaltig und hoch ein / zu seinem Lincken ohr / wie dir solches das kleiner Bild zur Lincken in der Figur mit dem F. verzeichnet anzeiget / '''[XLIIv]''' damit zwingestu jhn das er gehlingen ubersich fehrt / als bald er solch es thut / so lasse dein Lincke hand vom knopff ab / und laß dein klingen gegen seiner Rechten von Unden auff in einer hand umb schnappen / und setze jhm den vordern ort an sein Brust / greiff in des dein knopff wider an / wie du solches an den kleinern Bilder zur Rechten hand mit dem F. hievor sehen kanst / stoß jhn also mit verkehrter hand von dir / laß als bald dein knopff wider ab / und dein Schwerdt umb dein Kopff fahren / und hauwe lang mit angreiffung des knopffs nach / dergleichen stuck soltu gegen die welche gern einlauffen gebrauchen.
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/104|4|lbl=1.42rd|p=1}} '''[XLIIv]''' damit zwingestu jhn das er gehlingen ubersich fehrt / als bald er solch es thut / so lasse dein Lincke hand vom knopff ab / und laß dein klingen gegen seiner Rechten von Unden auff in einer hand umb schnappen / und setze jhm den vordern ort an sein Brust / greiff in des dein knopff wider an / wie du solches an den kleinern Bilder zur Rechten hand mit dem F. hievor sehen kanst / stoß jhn also mit verkehrter hand von dir / laß als bald dein knopff wider ab / und dein Schwerdt umb dein Kopff fahren / und hauwe lang mit angreiffung des knopffs nach / dergleichen stuck soltu gegen die welche gern einlauffen gebrauchen.
  
 
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Revision as of 00:52, 6 November 2018

Joachim Meyer
Born ca. 1537
Basel, Germany
Died 24 February 1571 (aged 34)
Schwerin, Germany
Spouse(s) Appolonia Ruhlman
Occupation
Citizenship Strasbourg
Patron
  • Johann Albrecht (?)
  • Johann Casimir
Movement Freifechter
Influences
Influenced
Genres Fencing manual
Language Early New High German
Notable work(s) Gründtliche Beschreibung der
Kunst des Fechtens
(1570)
Manuscript(s)
First printed
english edition
Forgeng, 2006
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations
Signature Joachim Meyer sig.jpg

Joachim Meyer (ca. 1537 - 1571)[1] was a 16th century German Freifechter and fencing master. He was the last major figure in the tradition of the German grand master Johannes Liechtenauer, and in the last years of his life he devised at least three distinct and quite extensive fencing manuals. Meyer's writings incorporate both the traditional Germanic technical syllabus and contemporary systems that he encountered in his travels, including the Italian school of side sword fencing.[2] In addition to his fencing practice, Meyer was a Burgher and a master cutler.[3]

Meyer was born in Basel,[4] where he presumably apprenticed as a cutler. He writes in his books that he traveled widely in his youth, most likely a reference to the traditional Walz that journeyman craftsmen were required to take before being eligible for mastery and membership in a guild. Journeymen were often sent to stand watch and participate in town and city militias (a responsibility that would have been amplified for the warlike cutlers' guild), and Meyer learned a great deal about foreign fencing systems during his travels. It's been speculated by some fencing historians that he trained specifically in the Bolognese school of fencing, but this doesn't stand up to closer analysis.[5]

Records show that by 4 June 1560 he had settled in Strasbourg, where he married Appolonia Ruhlman (Ruelman)[1] and joined the Cutler's Guild. His interests had already moved beyond knife-smithing, however, and in 1561, Meyer petitioned the City Council of Strasbourg for the right to hold a Fechtschule (fencing competition). He would repeat this in 1563, 1566, 1567 and 1568;[6] the 1568 petition is the first extant record in which he identifies himself as a fencing master.

Meyer probably wrote his first manuscript (MS A.4º.2) in either 1560 or 1568 for Otto Count von Sulms, Minzenberg, and Sonnenwaldt.[7] Its contents seem to be a series of lessons on training with long sword, dussack, and rapier. His second manuscript (MS Var.82), written between 1563 and 1570 for Heinrich Graf von Eberst, is of a decidedly different nature. Like many fencing manuscripts from the previous century, it is an anthology of treatises by a number of prominent German masters including Sigmund ain Ringeck, pseudo-Peter von Danzig, and Martin Syber, and also includes a brief outline by Meyer himself on a system of rapier fencing based on German Messer teachings. Finally, on 24 February 1570 Meyer completed (and soon thereafter published) an enormous multi-weapon treatise entitled Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens ("A Thorough Description of the Art of Combat"); it was dedicated to Johann Casimir, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and illustrated at the workshop of Tobias Stimmer.[8]

Unfortunately, Meyer's writing and publication efforts incurred significant debts (about 1300 crowns), which Meyer pledged to repay by Christmas of 1571.[1] Late in 1570, Meyer accepted the position of Fechtmeister to Duke Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg at his court in Schwerin. There Meyer hoped to sell his book for a better price than was offered locally (30 florins). Meyer sent his books ahead to Schwerin, and left from Strasbourg on 4 January 1571 after receiving his pay. He traveled the 500 miles to Schwerin in the middle of a harsh winter, arriving at the court on 10 February 1571. Two weeks later, on 24 February, Joachim Meyer died. The cause of his death is unknown, possibly disease or pneumonia.[6]

Antoni Rulman, Appolonia’s brother, became her legal guardian after Joachim’s death. On 15 May 1571, he had a letter written by the secretary of the Strasbourg city chamber and sent to the Duke of Mecklenburg stating that Antoni was now the widow Meyer’s guardian; it politely reminded the Duke who Joachim Meyer was, Meyer’s publishing efforts and considerable debt, requested that the Duke send Meyer’s personal affects and his books to Appolonia, and attempted to sell some (if not all) of the books to the Duke.[1]

Appolonia remarried in April 1572 to another cutler named Hans Kuele, bestowing upon him the status of Burgher and Meyer's substantial debts. Joachim Meyer and Hans Kuele are both mentioned in the minutes of Cutlers' Guild archives; Kuele may have made an impression if we can judge that fact by the number of times he is mentioned. It is believed that Appolonia and either her husband or her brother were involved with the second printing of his book in 1600. According to other sources, it was reprinted yet again in 1610 and in 1660.[9][10]

Treatises

Joachim Meyer's writings are preserved in two manuscripts prepared in the 1560s, the MS A.4º.2 (Lund) and the MS Var 82 (Rostock); a third manuscript from 1561 has been lost since at least the mid-20th century, and its contents are unknown.[11] Dwarfing these works is the massive book he published in 1570 entitled "A Thorough Description of the Free, Chivalric, and Noble Art of Fencing, Showing Various Customary Defenses, Affected and Put Forth with Many Handsome and Useful Drawings". Meyer's writings purport to teach the entire art of fencing, something that he claimed had never been done before, and encompass a wide variety of teachings from disparate sources and traditions. In keeping with this goal, Meyer seems to have constructed his treatises to present a method for training to fence, a significant departure from the earlier works in the tradition which explain the system of fencing directly. In keeping with this, he illustrated the techniques with depictions of fencers in courtyards using training weapons such as two-handed fencing swords, wooden dussacks, and rapiers with ball tips.

The first part of Meyer's treatise is devoted to the long sword (the sword in two hands), which he presents as the foundational weapon of his system, and this section devotes the most space to fundamentals like stance and footwork. His long sword system draws upon the teachings of Freifechter Andre Paurñfeyndt (via Christian Egenolff's reprint) and Liechtenauer glossators Sigmund ain Ringeck and pseudo-Peter von Danzig, as well as using terminology otherwise unique to the brief Recital of Martin Syber. Not content merely to compile these teachings as his contemporary Paulus Hector Mair was doing, Meyer sought to update—even reinvent—them in various ways to fit the martial climate of the late sixteenth century, including adapting many techniques to accommodate the increased momentum of a greatsword and modifying others to use beats with the flat and winding slices in place of thrusts to comply with street-fighting laws in German cities (and the rules of the Fechtschule).

The second part of Meyer's treatises is designed to address new weapons gaining traction in German lands, the dussack and the rapier, and thereby find places for them in the German tradition. His early Lund manuscript presents a more summarized syllabus of techniques for these weapons, while his printed book goes into greater depth and is structured more in the fashion of lesson plans.[12] Meyer's dussack system, designed for the broad proto-sabers that spread into German lands from Eastern Europe in the 16th century,[13] combines the old Messer teachings of Johannes Lecküchner and the dussack teachings of Andre Paurñfeyndt with other unknown systems (some have speculated that they might include early Polish or Hungarian saber systems). His rapier system, designed for the lighter single-hand swords spreading north from Iberian and Italian lands, seems again to be a hybrid creation, integrating both the core teachings of the 15th century Liechtenauer tradition as well as components that are characteristic of the various regional Mediterranean fencing systems (including, perhaps, teachings derived from the treatise of Achille Marozzo). Interestingly, Meyer's rapier teachings in the Rostock seem to represent an attempt to unify these two weapon system, outlining a method for rapier fencing that includes key elements of his dussack teachings; it is unclear why this method did not appear in his book, but given the dates it may be that they represent his last musings on the weapon, written in the time between the completion of his book in 1570 and his death a year later.

The third part of Meyer's treatise only appears in his published book and covers dagger, wrestling, and various pole weapons. His dagger teachings, designed primarily for urban self-defense, seem to be based in part on the writings of Bolognese master Achille Marozzo[14] and the anonymous teachings in Egenolff, but also include much unique content of unknown origin (perhaps the anonymous dagger teachings in his Rostock manuscript). His staff material makes up the bulk of this section, beginning with the short staff, which, like Paurñfeyndt, he uses as a training tool for various pole weapons (and possibly also the greatsword), and then moving on to the halberd before ending with the long staff (representing the pike). As with the dagger, the sources Meyer based his staff teachings on are largely unknown.

Additional Resources

  • Kiermayer, Alex. Joachim Meyers Kunst Des Fechtens. Gründtliche Beschreibung des Fechtens, 1570. Arts of Mars Books, 2012. ISBN 978-3981162738
  • Meyer, Joachim. Joachim Meyer 1600: Transkription des Fechtbuchs 'Gründtliche Beschreibung der freyen Ritterlichen und Adelichen kunst des Fechtens’. TAT. Wolfgang Landwehr, 2011. ISBN 978-3932077371
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Combat: A German Martial Arts Treatise of 1570. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng.
    • 1st edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. ISBN 978-1-4039-7092-0
    • 2nd edition. London: Frontline Books, 2014. ISBN 978-1-84832-778-8
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Sword Combat: A 1568 German Treatise on Swordmanship. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng. London: Frontline Books, 2016. ISBN 9781473876750

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Dupuis, Olivier. Joachim Meyer, escrimeur libre, bourgeois de Strasbourg (1537 ? - 1571). In Maîtres et techniques de combat. Dijon: AEDEH, 2006.
  2. Castle, Egerton. Schools and Masters of Fencing: From the Middle Ages to the Eighteenth Century. London: George Bell and Sons, 1885. pp 74 - 76.
  3. Naumann, Robert. Serapeum. Vol. 5. T.O. Weigel, 1844. pp 53-59.
  4. According to his wedding certificate.
  5. His dagger teachings do, however, show some evidence of influence by Achilles Marozzo's printed treatise.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Van Slambrouck, Christopher. "The Life and Work of Joachim Meyer". Meyer Frei Fechter Guild, 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
  7. Norling, Roger. "The history of Joachim Meyer’s fencing treatise to Otto von Solms". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  8. Whose members included Christoph Maurer and Hans Christoffel Stimmer.
  9. Schaer, Alfred. Die altdeutschen fechter und spielleute: Ein beitrag zur deutschen culturgeschichte. K.J. Trübner, 1901. p 76.
  10. Pollock, W. H., Grove, F. C., and Prévost, C. Fencing. London and Bombay: Longmans, Green, and co, 1897. pp 267-268.
  11. Jens P. Kleinau. "1561 Joachim Meyer dedicated a fencing book to the Pfalzgrafen of Pfalz-Veldenz". Hans Talhoffer ~ as seen by Jens P. Kleinau. 04 July 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  12. Roberts, James. "System vs Syllabus: Meyer’s 1560 and 1570 sidesword texts". Hroarr.com, 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  13. Roger Norling. "The Dussack - a weapon of war". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  14. Norling, Roger. "Meyer and Marozzo dagger comparison". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2015.