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Difference between revisions of "Joachim Meyer"

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| '''Of The Strikes<br/>Chapt. 4'''
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| <p>'''Of The Strikes'''</p>
Now I come to write of the artful and free Knightly exersize, namely to the Strikes, which is a major Heading in Fencing in that the basics are given here, the number is told, each is described, and how they are executed to the full, will here be noted and told, and from here alone the friendly reader will afterward be reminded, that between the Sword Fighting times, when it was in custom for our forefathers and the ancients, and our time there is a great difference, in that not only was the point used, which is not the custom today, but of old much more of the Sword was used in the strikes, and they fenced sharply with both strikes and stabs, and thus shall I present this and other points of knowledge.
+
 
| '''[Xv] Von den Häuwen.<br/>Cap. 4.'''
+
<p>Chapter 4</p>
Nun kompt das man zu der kunst und freien Ritterlichen übung selbst schreite / nemlich zu den Haewen / welche das eine rechte Hauptstück im Fechten /wie solches anfangs gemeldet) seind / wie viel deren / was ein jeder sey / wie er gemacht und volbracht sol werden / ist nöttig hie etwas zusagen / will allein hie den freundlichen Leser zu vorderst erinnert haben / Dieweil zwischen dem Schwerdt Fechten zu unsern zeiten / wie bey unsern vornfahren und uralten im gebrauch gewesen / ein grosser underscheid / das ich an diesem ort nur was jetzund gebräuchlich und so viel zum Schwerdt gehörig von häuwen erzelen / so vil der alten gebrauch aber belangt / wie sie beide mit Hauwen und stechen scharpff gefochten / will ich in seinem gewissen unnd sondern ort anzeigen.
+
 
 +
<p>Now I come to write of the artful and free Knightly exersize, namely to the Strikes, which is a major Heading in Fencing in that the basics are given here, the number is told, each is described, and how they are executed to the full, will here be noted and told, and from here alone the friendly reader will afterward be reminded, that between the Sword Fighting times, when it was in custom for our forefathers and the ancients, and our time there is a great difference, in that not only was the point used, which is not the custom today, but of old much more of the Sword was used in the strikes, and they fenced sharply with both strikes and stabs, and thus shall I present this and other points of knowledge.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/41|1|lbl=1.10va}}
  
 
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| However, as of now the Strikes with the Sword belong to two underlying principles, as in the direct and inverted strikes. The Direct strikes are named such as they strike against the opponent with the long edge and outstretched arms. There are four, the Over, Wrathful, Middle and Under Strikes, and from these all the others come forth, and in the world will still be found none conceived as such, and of them not one of these will be feebly grasped and deployed by you. These are named the Lead or Principal Strikes.
+
| <p>However, as of now the Strikes with the Sword belong to two underlying principles, as in the direct and inverted strikes. The Direct strikes are named such as they strike against the opponent with the long edge and outstretched arms. There are four, the Over, Wrathful, Middle and Under Strikes, and from these all the others come forth, and in the world will still be found none conceived as such, and of them not one of these will be feebly grasped and deployed by you. These are named the Lead or Principal Strikes.</p>
| Der Häuw aber so vie das Schwerdt jetzt belangt / sind zweierlei underschiedne art / als gerade und verkerte Häuw / die Gerade nenne ich so mit Langer schneid und außgestreckten Armen gegen dem Man gehauwen werden / deren sein vier Ober / Zorn / Mittel / Underhauw / auß disen dieweil die anderen alle herkommen / und keiner auff der welt so seltzam erdacht noch erfunden kann werden / der nit under deren einem füglich möchte begriffen werden / seind sie auch / unnd billich / die Haupt oder Principal Häuw geheissen.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/41|2|lbl=1.10vb}}
  
 
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| The inverted strikes are those where in the strike you turn your sword hand around so that you hit the opponent, not with the full or long edge, but somewhat with the short edge, flat, or engage at an angle. Face this with the Slide, Short, Crown, Glance, Arc, Traverse, Bounce, Blind, Wind, Knee Hollow, Plunge, and Changer Strikes. Thus you come to the four above cited Strikes, and from there the various strikes are named.
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| <p>The inverted strikes are those where in the strike you turn your sword hand around so that you hit the opponent, not with the full or long edge, but somewhat with the short edge, flat, or engage at an angle. Face this with the Slide, Short, Crown, Glance, Arc, Traverse, Bounce, Blind, Wind, Knee Hollow, Plunge, and Changer Strikes.</p>
| Die Verkerte Häuw seind die / wan man in den Häuwen die handt mit dem Schwerdt verkert also das man nicht mit voller oder Langer schneid / soder etwa mit halber schneid / flech / oder einer ecken den Man trifft / als da geschicht mit dem Glitz / Kurtz / Kron / Schiel / Krump / Zwerch / Brell / Blend / Windt / Knichel / Sturtz / Wechselhauw. '''[XIr]''' Dise dieweil sie auß den vier oberzelten Häuwen herkomen sein / werden sie darauß wachsende Häuw genannt.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/41|3|lbl=1.10vc}}
  
 
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| Now from these both come five for further reading, as the Master Strikes will be named, not that one can thus fully use the weapon Rightly, and Master this art so soon, but that from them one can Master all proper artful elements which will be acted on from knowing them here, and thus you can Fence properly at need, and become an artfully striking Fencer, who retains all Master principles at the same time, and against whom nothing can be borne. These Strikes are Wrathful, Arc, Thwart, Glancer, and Vertex.
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| <p>Thus you come to the four above cited Strikes, and from there the various strikes are named.</p>
| Nun auß disen beiden komen un werden außgelesen fünff / so die Meisterhäuw genandt werden / nit das wer dieselben wie Recht volbringen kann / als bald ein Meister dieser kunst zunennen / sondern das aus denselben alle rechte künstliche stuck die einem Meister wol gezimen zuwissen her gehen / und der sie recht Fechten und brauchen kann / für einen kunstreichen Fechter zuhalten / sintemal alle Meisterstuck in denselben verborgen / und man derer mit nichten kann entberen. Die seind der Zorn / Krump / Zwerch / Schieler / und Scheitelhauw.  
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/42|1|lbl=1.11ra}}
  
 
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| How all these are done I will show you in due order, and firstly speak of the Direct Strikes, of which the first will be the Over Strike.
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| <p>Now from these both come five for further reading, as the Master Strikes will be named, not that one can thus fully use the weapon Rightly, and Master this art so soon, but that from them one can Master all proper artful elements which will be acted on from knowing them here, and thus you can Fence properly at need, and become an artfully striking Fencer, who retains all Master principles at the same time, and against whom nothing can be borne. These Strikes are Wrathful, Arc, Thwart, Glancer, and Vertex.</p>
| Diese alle wie sie gemacht sollen werden / will ich ordenlich nach einander anzeigen / und erstlich von den Geraden Häuwen sagen / under welchen der erst der Oberhauw.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/42|2|lbl=1.11rb}}
 
 
 
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|  
 
|  
| '''Over Strike'''
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| <p>How all these are done I will show you in due order, and firstly speak of the Direct Strikes, of which the first will be the Over Strike.</p>
The Over Strike is a strong strike directly from Above, against your opponent’s head or scalp, therefore it is also called Vertex Strike.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/42|3|lbl=1.11rc}}
| '''Oberhauw.'''
 
DEr Oberhauw ist ein Gerader hauw stracks von Oben / gegen deines widerparts kopff nach dem Schedel zu / darumb er auch Schedelhauw genant wirt.
 
  
 
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|  
 
|  
| '''Wrathful Strike'''
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| <p>'''Over Strike'''</p>
The Wrathful Strike is a serious strike from your Right Shoulder, against your opponent’s left ear, or through his face or chest, consider how it’s done through two lines, with the lines drawn through the upper right and crosswise overtop one another. This is the strongest beyond all others in that all one’s strength and manliness is laid against one’s opponent in fighting and fencing, therefore the ancients also named it Straight Strike or Father Strike. Along the considered lines you can move onwards, etc.
+
 
| '''Zornhauw.'''
+
<p>The Over Strike is a strong strike directly from Above, against your opponent’s head or scalp, therefore it is also called Vertex Strike.</p>
DEr Zornhauw ist ein Schlimmer hauw von deiner Rechte Achsel / gegen deines widerparts lincken ohrs / oder durch sein gesicht und Brust / Schlims durch wie die zwo Linien / so durch die auffrecht Linien kreutzweiß uber einander sich schrencken anzeigen. Diß ist der sterckest under allen andern / als darinen alle krafft unnd manligkeit des des Mans gegen seinem feindt im Kempffen unnd Fechten gelegen / darumb er auch von den Alten Streithauw oder Vatterstreich genant und geheissen wirt. Von gedachten Lini findestu hernach / etc.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/42|4|lbl=1.11rd}}
  
 
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword C.jpg|center|400px]]
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| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword Cuts.jpg|center]]
| rowspan="2" | '''Middle or Diagonal Traverse Strike'''
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| <p>'''Wrathful Strike'''</p>
The Middle or Traversing Strike can execute most effects the Wrathful Strike can, the difference is only that while the Wrathful Strike is a forceful high point, the Diagonal Traverse is traverses above, as shown in the Traverse line including both C and G. Such lines are also applicable to Dusack.
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| rowspan="2" | '''[XIv] Mittel oder Uberzwerchhauw.'''
+
<p>The Wrathful Strike is a serious strike from your Right Shoulder, against your opponent’s left ear, or through his face or chest, consider how it’s done through two lines, with the lines drawn through the upper right and crosswise overtop one another. This is the strongest beyond all others in that all one’s strength and manliness is laid against one’s opponent in fighting and fencing, therefore the ancients also named it Straight Strike or Father Strike. Along the considered lines you can move onwards, etc.</p>
Der Mittel oder zwerchhauw kann fast aller ding wie der Zornhauw gemacht werden / allein ist diß der underscheidt / das wie der Zornhauw schlims uber ort / also dieser aber uberzwerch volbracht wirdt / wie zusehen an der uberzwerch Linien mit beiden Buchstaben G und C verzeichnet / solche Linie findestu hernach im Dusacken.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/42|5|lbl=1.11re}}
  
 
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|-  
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword G.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| <p>'''Middle or Diagonal Traverse Strike'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>The Middle or Traversing Strike can execute most effects the Wrathful Strike can, the difference is only that while the Wrathful Strike is a forceful high point, the Diagonal Traverse is traverses above, as shown in the Traverse line including both C and G. Such lines are also applicable to Dusack.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/43|1|lbl=1.11va}}
  
 
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|-  
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword B.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword B.jpg|center|400px]]
| '''Under Strike'''
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| <p>'''Under Strike'''</p>
This you execute thusly, strike so that you move into the Right Ox (more is said about this in the next chapter) and thus can bring your opponent fencer into range, and step to strike from below traversing above into their left arm, while coming into position with the hilt high above your head, and thus complete. Regarding this, see the figures fighting against the left in the background of illustration B.
+
 
| '''Underhauw.'''
+
<p>This you execute thusly, strike so that you move into the Right Ox (more is said about this in the next chapter) and thus can bring your opponent fencer into range, and step to strike from below traversing above into their left arm, while coming into position with the hilt high above your head, and thus complete. Regarding this, see the figures fighting against the left in the background of illustration B.</p>
Disen machstu also / Verhauw dich das du in Rechten Ochsen kommest (davon im nechst vorgehenden Capitel gesagt ist) und als bald du deinen gegenfechter erlangen kanst / so trit und hauw von Unden uberzwerch nach seinem Lincken Arm / das du mit dem kreutz hoch uber deinem Haupt kommest / so hastu in volbracht. Davon besihe die kleinen bossen in der Figur mit dem B gegen der Lincken handt.  
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/43|2|lbl=1.11vb}}
  
 
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword G.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword G.jpg|center|400px]]
| '''Glancing Strike'''
+
| <p>'''Glancing Strike'''</p>
The Glancing Strike is also a High strike, but has been so named in that one closes with a small glancing blow, which is done thus: put yourself in the Guard of the Roof or Wrath (as shown in the third chapter) with your left foot forward, from which you will be striking, and while striking be sure to wind your short edge against his strike, and hit with inverting hands at the same time as closing with him, step fully with your Right Foot toward his left side, and so quickly take his head, thus have you done it rightly, and will stand as shown by the figures fighting on the left side of illustration G.
+
 
| '''Schielhauw.'''
+
<p>The Glancing Strike is also a High strike, but has been so named in that one closes with a small glancing blow, which is done thus: put yourself in the Guard of the Roof or Wrath (as shown in the third chapter) with your left foot forward, from which you will be striking, and while striking be sure to wind your short edge against his strike, and hit with inverting hands at the same time as closing with him, step fully with your Right Foot toward his left side, and so quickly take his head, thus have you done it rightly, and will stand as shown by the figures fighting on the left side of illustration G.</p>
Schielhauw ist auch ein Oberhauw / aber darumb also genant das er gleich mit einer kleinen Schiele gehawen / wirt also gemacht / stell dich in die Hut des Tags oder Zorns (davon im dritten Capitel) mit dem Lincken fuß vor / wirt auff dich gehauwen / so Hauwe hingegen / doch im streich verwende dein kurtze schneid gegen seinem streich / unnd Schlag mit ebichter hand zuglich mit ihme hinein / trit mit deinem Rechten Fuß wol auff seine Lincke seiten / und nimm den Kopf geschwindt mit / so hastu ihm recht gethan / und stehest wie das grosser Bild in nechst gedachter Figur mit dem G gegen der lincken anzeiget.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/43|3|lbl=1.11vc}}
  
 
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword D.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword D.jpg|center|400px]]
| '''Arc Strike'''
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| <p>'''Arc Strike'''</p>
This strike is described thus: stand in the Wrath Guard with your left foot forward, when your opponent strikes, step with your right foot fully away from his strike and against his left side, strike with the long edge and crossed hands against his strike, or between his pommel and blade, diagonally over his hands, and fully overshoot his arms to lay on the blade, as shown in illustration D by the figures on the upper right hand side.
+
 
| '''[XIIrv] Krumphauw.'''
+
<p>This strike is described thus: stand in the Wrath Guard with your left foot forward, when your opponent strikes, step with your right foot fully away from his strike and against his left side, strike with the long edge and crossed hands against his strike, or between his pommel and blade, diagonally over his hands, and fully overshoot his arms to lay on the blade, as shown in illustration D by the figures on the upper right hand side.</p>
DIser Hauw wirt also volbracht / stehe in der Zornhut mit dem Lincken fuß vor / Hauwet dein gegen Man auff dich / so trit mit deinem Rechten fuß wol auß seinem streich gegen seiner Lincken seiten / Hauwe mit Langer schneid unnd geschrenckten henden seinem hauw entgegen / oder zwischen seinen Kopff und Klingen / uberzwerch auff seine hendt / und laß die Kling wol uber seinen Arm uberschiessen / wie solches in der Figuren mit dem D an obern bossen zur rechten Hand zusehen.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/45|1|lbl=1.12va}}
  
 
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword H.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword H.jpg|center|400px]]
| '''Thwart'''
+
| <p>'''Thwart'''</p>
You send yourself into the Thwarter thus: assume the primary stance of Wrathful Guard to the right (as shown in the previous chapter), that is you put your left foot forward and hold your sword over your right shoulder, as if you would strike a wrathful strike, and when your opponent strikes you from the roof or above, strike closely with your short edge, breaking against his strike from below, holding your hilt high above to displace near your head, and strike to close by stepping full onto his Left side, thus displacing and closing against the other as shown by the left background figures of illustration H. This can be executed to the left thus striking his right side with a changed point, in that you will strike against his right by engaging with the long edge.
+
 
| '''Zwerch.'''
+
<p>You send yourself into the Thwarter thus: assume the primary stance of Wrathful Guard to the right (as shown in the previous chapter), that is you put your left foot forward and hold your sword over your right shoulder, as if you would strike a wrathful strike, and when your opponent strikes you from the roof or above, strike closely with your short edge, breaking against his strike from below, holding your hilt high above to displace near your head, and strike to close by stepping full onto his Left side, thus displacing and closing against the other as shown by the left background figures of illustration H. This can be executed to the left thus striking his right side with a changed point, in that you will strike against his right by engaging with the long edge.</p>
ZU der Zwerch schick dich also / stell dich im zufechten in die Zornhut zur Rechten (davon in vorgedachte Capitel) das ist / setz deinen Lincken fuß vor / halt dein Schwerdt an deine Rechte Achsel / als ob du ein Zornhauw thun wolltest / Hauwet dan dein gegen Man auff dich von dach oder Oben / so Hauwe zugleich mit halber schneid / von unden uberzwerch gegen seinem hauw / behalt dein kreutz hoch ob deinem Haupt / damit dein Kopff versetzet sey / und mit dem hauw zugleich trit wol auff seine Lincke seiten / so versetzestu und triffest mit einander wie die zwen bossen in der Figur mit dem H gegen der Lincken anzeigen. Wie du diese Zwerch zur Lincken volbracht / also soltu sie auch gegen seiner Rechten in das weck richten / allein das du gegen seiner Rechten mit Langer schneide antreffen solt.  
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/45|2|lbl=1.12vb}}
  
 
<section begin="Kurtzhauw"/>
 
<section begin="Kurtzhauw"/>
 
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword B.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword B.jpg|center|400px]]
| '''Short Strike'''
+
| <p>'''Short Strike'''</p>
This is a secretive attack, and is described thus: when your opponent strikes you from above, stand as if you would respond with a Arc Strike, that is to bind his sword with the half edge, but let it fall and drive through under his sword, strike with the half edge and crossed arms over his right arm to hit his head, thus you have closed off his sword with the long edge, and accomplished the Short Strike, and stand as is shown by the smaller figure (mid background) on the left of illustration B fighting against the right.
+
 
| '''Kurtzhauw.'''
+
<p>This is a secretive attack, and is described thus: when your opponent strikes you from above, stand as if you would respond with a Arc Strike, that is to bind his sword with the half edge, but let it fall and drive through under his sword, strike with the half edge and crossed arms over his right arm to hit his head, thus you have closed off his sword with the long edge, and accomplished the Short Strike, and stand as is shown by the smaller figure (mid background) on the left of illustration B fighting against the right.</p>
DIser ist ein heimlicher durchgang / und wirt also gemacht / wann man von Oben zu dir einhauwet / so stelle dich als woltestu mit dem Krumphauw / das ist mit halber schneide auff sein Schwerdt anbinden / underlaß es doch / unnd fahr behend under seinem Schwerdt durch / schlahe mit halber schneid unnd geschrenckten Armen '''[XIIIr]''' uber seinen Rechten arm zum Kopff / so hast sein Schwerdt mit Langer schneid auffgefangen / unnd den Kurtzhauw volbracht / und stehest nach ende desselbigen / wie an den obern kleinern bossen zur Lincken / das Bilde gegen der Rechten handt außweisset / welche Figur ist mit dem Buchstaben B verzeichnet.
+
|
<section end="Kurtzhauw"/><section begin="Glützhauw"/>
+
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/45|3|lbl=1.12vc|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/46|1|lbl=1.13ra|p=1}}
 +
<section end="Kurtzhauw"/> <section begin="Glützhauw"/>
 
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|  
 
|  
| '''Slide Strike'''
+
| <p>'''Slide Strike'''</p>
The Slide Strike is described as follows: when you are attacked from above, hit with even or free hands against his strike, aiming at his upper left opening, let your blade’s midsection ride up his blade so that the short edge will swing over his hands and hit his head.
+
 
| '''Glützhauw.'''
+
<p>The Slide Strike is described as follows: when you are attacked from above, hit with even or free hands against his strike, aiming at his upper left opening, let your blade’s midsection ride up his blade so that the short edge will swing over his hands and hit his head.</p>
DEr Glützhauw wirdt dermassen volbracht / hauwet einer von Oben gegen dir zu / so schlag mit letzer oder ebichier handt gegen seinem streich / der Lincken obern Blöß zu / laß deinen Schwerdts klinge an seiner klingen mit ebichter fleche abritschen / das die kurtze schneidt im schwung uber die handt den Kopff treffe.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/46|2|lbl=1.13rb}}
 
<section end="Glützhauw"/><section begin="Prellhauw"/>
 
<section end="Glützhauw"/><section begin="Prellhauw"/>
 
|-  
 
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword K.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword K.jpg|center|400px]]
| '''Bounce Strike'''
+
| <p>'''Bounce Strike'''</p>
This one is twofold, one the single, the other one named the double. The single is made thus: when your adversary strikes at you from above, meet his strike with a Zwerch, as soon as it connects, twitch the sword around the head, and strike from your left with the outward flat towards his ear, as shown by the large figures on the right hand side of Illustration K, so that the sword bounces back again, thus twitch it during the rebounding swing back around the head again, strike with the Zwerch towards the left, thus it is completed.
 
| '''Prellhauw.'''
 
DIser ist zweyerley: Einer der Einfach / der ander der Doppel genandt. Der Einfache wirt also gemacht / hauwet dein gegentheil auff dich von Oben her / so begegne seinem streich mit einer Zwerch / als bald es dan glitzt so zuck das Schwerdt umb deinen Kopf / unnd schlag von deiner Lincken mit außwendiger letzer flech / zu seinem Oher / aller ding wie das reosser Bild zur Rechten hand in der Figur K außweißt / das das Schwerdt widerumb zu ruck abprelt / zuck es also im abpreleten schwung wider umb deinen Kopf / Hauw mit der zwerch zur Lincken / so ist er volbracht.
 
  
 +
<p>This one is twofold, one the single, the other one named the double. The single is made thus: when your adversary strikes at you from above, meet his strike with a Zwerch, as soon as it connects, twitch the sword around the head, and strike from your left with the outward flat towards his ear, as shown by the large figures on the right hand side of Illustration K, so that the sword bounces back again, thus twitch it during the rebounding swing back around the head again, strike with the Zwerch towards the left, thus it is completed.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/46|3|lbl=1.13rc}}
 
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword I.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword I.jpg|center|400px]]
| Do the double thus: just as your adversary brings his sword in the air to work against you while closing in, place yourself in the right Ochs, twitch your sword around your head, and strike with the inward flat strongly against his blade from your right side so that your pommel touches your forearm during the strike, as it is depicted in the large picture in Illustration I, and can be seen on the left hand side. However, while striking step well around towards his left with your right foot, and as soon as it hits or connects, pull it upwards and wrench out simultaneously towards your left side and nimbly strike from the outside with inverted hands again towards the same opening, that is with the inverted flat when it strongly rebounds in a ricochet motion, thus you have done it right.
+
| <p>Do the double thus: just as your adversary brings his sword in the air to work against you while closing in, place yourself in the right Ochs, twitch your sword around your head, and strike with the inward flat strongly against his blade from your right side so that your pommel touches your forearm during the strike, as it is depicted in the large picture in Illustration I, and can be seen on the left hand side. However, while striking step well around towards his left with your right foot, and as soon as it hits or connects, pull it upwards and wrench out simultaneously towards your left side and nimbly strike from the outside with inverted hands again towards the same opening, that is with the inverted flat when it strongly rebounds in a ricochet motion, thus you have done it right.</p>
| Den Doppeln mach also / als bald im zufechten dein widerpart sein Schwerdt in die lufft bringt zur arbeit / so stell dich in den Rechten Ochsen (davon im nechsten Capitel) zucke das Schwerdt umb dein Haupt / unnd Hauw mit inwendiger flech von deiner Rechten starck wider seine klinge / das dir dein Knopf im schlag unden an die spindel rühre / wie solchs an dem grossern Bild in der Figur I verzeichnet / gegen der Lincken handt zusehen / im streich aber trit mit deinem rechten fuß wol umb seinen Lincke / und so bald es glitzt oder rühret / so ruck es ubersich / reiß in des gegen der Lincken seiten gleich mit auß / und schlage behend außwendig mit ebichter handt wider '''[XIIIIr]''' umb zu derselben Blöß hinein / nemlich mit letzer oder ebichter fleche / als wann es sich in einem widerprell also herte umbprellt / so hastu ihn recht gemacht.
+
|
 +
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/46|4|lbl=1.13rd|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/48|1|lbl=1.14ra|p=1}}
 
<section end="Prellhauw"/><section begin="Blendthauw"/>
 
<section end="Prellhauw"/><section begin="Blendthauw"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Blind Strike'''
+
| <p>'''Blind Strike'''</p>
Bind your opponent’s sword from your right side, wind through in the clash against his left side with your hilt or haft below, when your opponent tries to swipe away the winding, quickly move the weak with crossed hands from your right toward his left against his head, that is the forward point, wind your hands through again or twist out to your left with the half edge. Thus you have fully executed the Blind Strike, which can be made in many ways and from there further on in places.
+
 
| '''Blendthauw.'''
+
<p>Bind your opponent’s sword from your right side, wind through in the clash against his left side with your hilt or haft below, when your opponent tries to swipe away the winding, quickly move the weak with crossed hands from your right toward his left against his head, that is the forward point, wind your hands through again or twist out to your left with the half edge. Thus you have fully executed the Blind Strike, which can be made in many ways and from there further on in places.</p>
BIndt dem Mann von deiner Rechten an sein Schwerdt / windt im Bandt mit dem gehültz oder Hefft unden durch gegen seiner Lincken seiten / wann nun dein widerpart dem winden will nachwischen / so schnell geschwindt von deiner Rechten gegen seiner Lincken mit geschrenckten henden / die schweche zu seinem Kopff / das ist der vorder ort / windt behend wider durch / oder reiß auff deiner Lincken seiten mit halber schneiden auß / so hastu den Blendthauw volbracht / dieser Blendthauw wirdt auff vil wege gemacht. Darvon in Stucken weiter.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/48|2|lbl=1.14rb}}
 
<section end="Blendthauw"/><section begin="Windthauw"/>
 
<section end="Blendthauw"/><section begin="Windthauw"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword H.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword H.jpg|center|400px]]
| '''Wound Strike'''
+
| <p>'''Wound Strike'''</p>
The Wound Strike is described as follows: if your opponent strikes from above, then strike against his sword with crossed hands from the left and below, so that your pommel sits under your right arm, and thus quick to glide, step strongly from him from your left side with your left foot, swing your sword’s pommel out farther in an arc toward your left side so that the swing moves your long edge over his right arm behind his pommel or hits atop his right arm, as is shown by the figure in the right side foreground of illustration H, and closely thereafter your sword flies out from close to your side, and again strikes against the hands through the cross, so it is done.
+
 
| '''Windthauw.'''
+
<p>The Wound Strike is described as follows: if your opponent strikes from above, then strike against his sword with crossed hands from the left and below, so that your pommel sits under your right arm, and thus quick to glide, step strongly from him from your left side with your left foot, swing your sword’s pommel out farther in an arc toward your left side so that the swing moves your long edge over his right arm behind his pommel or hits atop his right arm, as is shown by the figure in the right side foreground of illustration H, and closely thereafter your sword flies out from close to your side, and again strikes against the hands through the cross, so it is done.</p>
DEr Windthauw wirt volgender gestalt gemacht / Hauwet dein gegenpart auff dich von Oben / so Hauwe von Unden mit gekreuzten henden / von deiner Lincken an sein Schwerdt / also das dein Knopff under deinem rechten Arm außsehe / unnd so bald es gliitzt / so blad trit mit dem Linkcen fuß von ihme aus / wol auff dein Lincke seiten / zeuch dein Schwerdts knopff wider ab in ein runde / gegen deiner Lincken seiten herfür / das deine Lange schneid uber seinem Rechten Arm hinder seine klingen seinen Kopff im schwang rühret / oder uber seinen rechten Arm treffe / davon besihe das grosser Bild in gedachter Figur mit dem H gezeichnet zur Rechten / und das demnach zuglich dein Schwerdt neben deiner seiten ausfliehe / unnd Hauw behendt durch das kreutz wider dargegen / so ist er gemacht.  
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/48|3|lbl=1.14rc}}
 
<section end="Windthauw"/><section begin="Kronhauw"/>
 
<section end="Windthauw"/><section begin="Kronhauw"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Crown Strike'''
+
| <p>'''Crown Strike'''</p>
This you hold thus: when you stand in the Plough or in a similar stance (which are discussed in an earlier chapter) which allow stabs from below, and your opponent strikes at you from above, then drive above you with a high traversing cross, intercept his strike above on your riccasso or quillons, and as soon as he slides, bring your pommel up high and strike with the half edge behind his blade onto his head, thus you have rightly executed the Crown Strike.
+
 
| '''Kronhauw.'''
+
<p>This you hold thus: when you stand in the Plough or in a similar stance (which are discussed in an earlier chapter) which allow stabs from below, and your opponent strikes at you from above, then drive above you with a high traversing cross, intercept his strike above on your riccasso or quillons, and as soon as he slides, bring your pommel up high and strike with the half edge behind his blade onto his head, thus you have rightly executed the Crown Strike.</p>
DIeser helt sich also / wann du im Pflug stehest / oder sonsten durch ein Leger (von welchem im vorgehenden Capitel gesagt ist) von Unden auff zustechest / unnd dein widerpart von Oben auff dich Hauwet / so fahre mit uberzwerchem kreutz ubersich / fang ihme seinen streich in der lufft auff dein schilt oder kreutzstang / und als bald es glitschet / stoß den Knopff behnd ubersich / und schlag ihn mit der halben schneiden hinder seiner klingen auff den Kopff / so hastu den Kronhauw recht volbracht.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/48|4|lbl=1.14rd}}
 
<section end="Kronhauw"/><section begin="Kniechelhauw"/>
 
<section end="Kronhauw"/><section begin="Kniechelhauw"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Knuckle Strike'''
+
| <p>'''Knuckle Strike'''</p>
This strike takes its name from the joint against which it is tried, and is completed thus: when at first you hold your hands high above your head, and your opponent is moving under his sword so his head is held between both arms, then strike with a traversing strike under his sword’s pommel, with a view to his knuckles or to the joints between hand and arm. If he holds his hands much too high, then strike with a rising traverse Strike from below up against the knob of his elbows, thus is it completed.
+
 
| '''[XIIIIv] Kniechelhauw.'''
+
<p>This strike takes its name from the joint against which it is tried, and is completed thus: when at first you hold your hands high above your head, and your opponent is moving under his sword so his head is held between both arms, then strike with a traversing strike under his sword’s pommel, with a view to his knuckles or to the joints between hand and arm. If he holds his hands much too high, then strike with a rising traverse Strike from below up against the knob of his elbows, thus is it completed.</p>
DIeser hat den Namen von dem Gliedt / nach welchem er gerichtet wirdt / den vollend also / wann du mit deinen henden hoch uber den Kopff nach dem ersten angriff / deinem gegenfechter under sein Schwerdt kommen bist / und seinen Kopff also zwischen beiden Armen heltet / so Hauw mit den Zwirchhäuwen under seines Schwerts Knopff / ubersich nach seinen Kniecheln / oder zu den gelencken zwischen seiner Hand und Arm / helt er die hendt gar zu hoch / so Hauw mit obgemelten Zwirchhäuwen von Unden auff nach dem knöpfflein bey den Elenbogen / so ist er gemacht.  
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/49|1|lbl=1.14va}}
 
<section end="Kniechelhauw"/><section begin="Sturzhauw"/>
 
<section end="Kniechelhauw"/><section begin="Sturzhauw"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Plunge Strike'''
+
| <p>'''Plunge Strike'''</p>
Although this strike is an Over Strike, be aware that between one and the other lies a minor difference, from which comes this strike’s name of Plunge Strike, that one strikes through by plungeing from above, and that the point comes against one’s opponent’s face from the Ox, and can thus be executed from the start or pre-fencing.
+
 
| '''Sturzhauw.'''
+
<p>Although this strike is an Over Strike, be aware that between one and the other lies a minor difference, from which comes this strike’s name of Plunge Strike, that one strikes through by plungeing from above, and that the point comes against one’s opponent’s face from the Ox, and can thus be executed from the start or pre-fencing.</p>
OBwohl dieser Hauw ein Oberhauw ist / unnd dafür geachtet das zwischen diesem und jenem ein geringer underscheidt sey / wirdt doch dieser darumb der Sturzhauw genant / das er im durchhauwen alweg oben ubersturzt / das die spitz dem widerpart gegen seinem gesicht kompt in Ochsen / und wirt den mehrertheil im gang oder zufechten gebraucht.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/49|2|lbl=1.14vb}}
 
<section end="Sturzhauw"/><section begin="Wechselhauw"/>
 
<section end="Sturzhauw"/><section begin="Wechselhauw"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Change Strike'''
+
| <p>'''Change Strike'''</p>
The Change Strike is nothing other than changing from one side to the other, from above to below and back again, before striking your opponent, thus make it so.
+
 
| '''Wechselhauw.'''
+
<p>The Change Strike is nothing other than changing from one side to the other, from above to below and back again, before striking your opponent, thus make it so.</p>
DEr Wechselhauw ist nichts anders / dann vor dem Manne mit den häuwen von einer seiten zur andern / von Oben zum Undern und hinwieder abwechseln / ihn damit irre zumachen.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/49|3|lbl=1.14vc}}
 
<section end="Wechselhauw"/><section begin="Schneller"/>
 
<section end="Wechselhauw"/><section begin="Schneller"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Rusher or Twitch-hit'''
+
| <p>'''Rusher or Twitch-hit'''</p>
Rusher or twitch-hit(?) is basically a thing which is actually not a strike, but if the strike should be rushed it will be completed in the middle or full work when one has engaged, namely from above or on both sides or from below against your opponent with the flat or outer part of the blade, let the weapon snatch or rush inward in a swing over or under his blade.
+
 
| '''Schneller oder Zeckrur.'''
+
<p>Rusher or twitch-hit(?) is basically a thing which is actually not a strike, but if the strike should be rushed it will be completed in the middle or full work when one has engaged, namely from above or on both sides or from below against your opponent with the flat or outer part of the blade, let the weapon snatch or rush inward in a swing over or under his blade.</p>
SChneller oder Zeckrur ist fast ein ding / welche eigentlich nit häuw seindt die gehauwen / sonder geschnelt werden / die werden volbracht in mitten oder voller arbeit / wann einer fug hat / so nemlich von Oben oder auff beiden seiten / oder von Unden gegen deinem gegenpart mit der flech oder eussern theil der klingen / das wehr last Schnappen oder in einem schwung oben oder under seiner klingen hinein schnellest.  
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/49|4|lbl=1.14vd}}
 
<section end="Schneller"/>
 
<section end="Schneller"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| Diß ist kurtzlich die eigentlich beschreibung der Häuw / wie sie im Fechten des Schwerdts üblich / Dieweil [XVr] aber dieselb mit den streichen / treten unnd Häuwen nur wie sie auff eine seiten unnd art einfach gebraucht werden mögen / alhier beschrieben / und aber sie auff beiden seiten können gefochten werden / hab ich den gutherzigen Leser dessen alhier erinnern wollen / das gleicher gestalt ein jeder aus den vorgehenden Häuwen wie er gesetzt / unnd von einer seiten gemacht / also auch von der andern artig und füglich kann volbracht werden / darumb dann ich der selben weitleuffige widerholung unnd ernewerte beschreibung / als uberflüssig gutwillig übergangen.
+
|  
 +
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/49|5|lbl=1.14ve|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/50|1|lbl=1.15ra|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| Weil aber umb vile der Häuw und ihrer verenderung möchte gefragt werden / warumb solches beschehe / so doch alles genugsam in den vier Haupthäuwen sampt dem Schielhauw / mit welchem die andere verkehrte häuw begriffen unnd verstanden werden / will ich den liebhabenden Leser dieser kunst ermanet haben / das solche bißher erzelte zuhäuw wol all in den fünff Meisterhäuwen begriffen / als die aus denselbigen herwachsen / jedoch eigentlich von den erfahrnen dieser kunst / zu mehrer fleissiger unnd nutzlicher ersuchung / unnd von einander theilung der kunst darumb erfunden / unnd mit ihren underschiedlichen namen benamset / damit die kunst die also in einander gewickelt verborgen / desto ehe und leichter begriffen / gefast und underschiedlich behalten werden köndt.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/50|2|lbl=1.15rb}}
  
 
|}
 
|}
Line 857: Line 861:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Of Displacing, a useful concept<br/>Chapt. 5'''
+
| <p>'''Of Displacing, a useful concept'''</p>
Fencing is based on two prerequisite parts, namely first on the Strikes which you initially put against your opponent, with the other being displacement, which is how you judge and work off of your opponent’s Strikes, and you do not do this weakly. How you accomplish the Strikes and the elements of striving has already been sufficiently clarified, because displacing, or how one properly meets every opposing strike with your weapon and therewith put them away at need so as not to have your body injured, cannot be learned without first learning the Strikes. Because you have now learned the Strikes you can approach the subject of how you displace those Strikes, and come to learn and understand these just as the Strikes have now been heeded and cannot be dismissed, and will be solidified from noting and treating the basics with special care. Be first aware that the parries are twofold, the first is without any particular advantage and is resorted to only for blocking parries from which you cannot do more with your weapon in that you oppose your opponent’s strike to avoid being damaged, but then seek not to damage him, but only to withdraw as you wish without being injured by him.
+
 
| '''Vom versetzen ein nützliche vermanung.<br/>Cap. 5.'''
+
<p>Chapt. 5</p>
Nach dem das Fechten auff zweyen fürnemen stucken beruhet / als nemlich zum ersten auff den Häuwen mit welchen du dein feindt begerst zustillen / dann zum andern auff dem Versetzen / das ist wie du die Häuw so von deinem feindt auff dich gericht möchst abschaffen / krafftloß und die nichtsöllig machen solt. Wie du aber die Häuw volbringen und ins werck richten / ist hievor gnugsam erkleret / dieweil aber ein jeder Hauw so wol zur gegenwehr deins feindts streich / damit abzuschaffen gebraucht wirt / als zur verletzung seins leibs / haben die Häuw ohn mit lehrung der versatzungen nicht können gelehrt werden / derwegen wie du bißher gelehrt die Häuw [XVv] hauwen bistu zugleich auch wie du die Häuw abtragen solt / gelert und underricht worden / dises ob es wol mit den Häuwen wie jetzt gehört / nit kann abgesondert werden / will doch von nöten sein / hie von insonderheit mit underschiedlicher theilung zuhandlen. Merck derwegen anfenglich das des Versetzens zweyerley ist / das erste ist da du ohn allen sondern vortheil / gemeniglich nur aus forcht versetzest / in welchem du nichts anders thust / dann mit deinem Wehr / so du deinem gegenfechter entgegen heltst die streich die von im beschehen aufffahest / auch nit begerest ihn zu beschedigen / allein benüget an dem / wie du ohn schaden von ihm abziehen mögest.
+
 
 +
<p>Fencing is based on two prerequisite parts, namely first on the Strikes which you initially put against your opponent, with the other being displacement, which is how you judge and work off of your opponent’s Strikes, and you do not do this weakly. How you accomplish the Strikes and the elements of striving has already been sufficiently clarified, because displacing, or how one properly meets every opposing strike with your weapon and therewith put them away at need so as not to have your body injured, cannot be learned without first learning the Strikes. Because you have now learned the Strikes you can approach the subject of how you displace those Strikes, and come to learn and understand these just as the Strikes have now been heeded and cannot be dismissed, and will be solidified from noting and treating the basics with special care. Be first aware that the parries are twofold, the first is without any particular advantage and is resorted to only for blocking parries from which you cannot do more with your weapon in that you oppose your opponent’s strike to avoid being damaged, but then seek not to damage him, but only to withdraw as you wish without being injured by him.</p>
 +
|
 +
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/50|3|lbl=1.15rc|p=1}} [XVv] hauwen bistu zugleich auch wie du die Häuw abtragen solt / gelert und underricht worden / dises ob es wol mit den Häuwen wie jetzt gehört / nit kann abgesondert werden / will doch von nöten sein / hie von insonderheit mit underschiedlicher theilung zuhandlen. Merck derwegen anfenglich das des Versetzens zweyerley ist / das erste ist da du ohn allen sondern vortheil / gemeniglich nur aus forcht versetzest / in welchem du nichts anders thust / dann mit deinem Wehr / so du deinem gegenfechter entgegen heltst die streich die von im beschehen aufffahest / auch nit begerest ihn zu beschedigen / allein benüget an dem / wie du ohn schaden von ihm abziehen mögest.
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,535: Line 1,542:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword Cuts.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword Cuts.jpg|center]]
 
| '''With the Ox'''
 
| '''With the Ox'''
 
I hope you have taken and judged how you will apply your strikes and elements against your opponent’s four openings with sufficient guidance from the parts taught up to now, also how at times how you should apply a wind, cut, note the flowing off, circle, and flying off with stepping, which are not counted alone as such from this, indeed pre-fencing from all other stances shall also be understood. So now, because the Ox is an especially good stance to engage your opponent, I will give a short lesson and rules on how you shall engage your opponent in the Before, rush, and force displacement from it.
 
I hope you have taken and judged how you will apply your strikes and elements against your opponent’s four openings with sufficient guidance from the parts taught up to now, also how at times how you should apply a wind, cut, note the flowing off, circle, and flying off with stepping, which are not counted alone as such from this, indeed pre-fencing from all other stances shall also be understood. So now, because the Ox is an especially good stance to engage your opponent, I will give a short lesson and rules on how you shall engage your opponent in the Before, rush, and force displacement from it.

Revision as of 18:48, 29 October 2018

Joachim Meyer
Born ca. 1537
Basel, Germany
Died 24 February 1571 (aged 34)
Schwerin, Germany
Spouse(s) Appolonia Ruhlman
Occupation
Citizenship Strasbourg
Patron
  • Johann Albrecht (?)
  • Johann Casimir
Movement Freifechter
Influences
Influenced
Genres Fencing manual
Language Early New High German
Notable work(s) Gründtliche Beschreibung der
Kunst des Fechtens
(1570)
Manuscript(s)
First printed
english edition
Forgeng, 2006
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations
Signature Joachim Meyer sig.jpg

Joachim Meyer (ca. 1537 - 1571)[1] was a 16th century German Freifechter and fencing master. He was the last major figure in the tradition of the German grand master Johannes Liechtenauer, and in the last years of his life he devised at least three distinct and quite extensive fencing manuals. Meyer's writings incorporate both the traditional Germanic technical syllabus and contemporary systems that he encountered in his travels, including the Italian school of side sword fencing.[2] In addition to his fencing practice, Meyer was a Burgher and a master cutler.[3]

Meyer was born in Basel,[4] where he presumably apprenticed as a cutler. He writes in his books that he traveled widely in his youth, most likely a reference to the traditional Walz that journeyman craftsmen were required to take before being eligible for mastery and membership in a guild. Journeymen were often sent to stand watch and participate in town and city militias (a responsibility that would have been amplified for the warlike cutlers' guild), and Meyer learned a great deal about foreign fencing systems during his travels. It's been speculated by some fencing historians that he trained specifically in the Bolognese school of fencing, but this doesn't stand up to closer analysis.[5]

Records show that by 4 June 1560 he had settled in Strasbourg, where he married Appolonia Ruhlman (Ruelman)[1] and joined the Cutler's Guild. His interests had already moved beyond knife-smithing, however, and in 1561, Meyer petitioned the City Council of Strasbourg for the right to hold a Fechtschule (fencing competition). He would repeat this in 1563, 1566, 1567 and 1568;[6] the 1568 petition is the first extant record in which he identifies himself as a fencing master.

Meyer probably wrote his first manuscript (MS A.4º.2) in either 1560 or 1568 for Otto Count von Sulms, Minzenberg, and Sonnenwaldt.[7] Its contents seem to be a series of lessons on training with long sword, dussack, and rapier. His second manuscript (MS Var.82), written between 1563 and 1570 for Heinrich Graf von Eberst, is of a decidedly different nature. Like many fencing manuscripts from the previous century, it is an anthology of treatises by a number of prominent German masters including Sigmund ain Ringeck, pseudo-Peter von Danzig, and Martin Syber, and also includes a brief outline by Meyer himself on a system of rapier fencing based on German Messer teachings. Finally, on 24 February 1570 Meyer completed (and soon thereafter published) an enormous multi-weapon treatise entitled Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens ("A Thorough Description of the Art of Combat"); it was dedicated to Johann Casimir, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and illustrated at the workshop of Tobias Stimmer.[8]

Unfortunately, Meyer's writing and publication efforts incurred significant debts (about 1300 crowns), which Meyer pledged to repay by Christmas of 1571.[1] Late in 1570, Meyer accepted the position of Fechtmeister to Duke Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg at his court in Schwerin. There Meyer hoped to sell his book for a better price than was offered locally (30 florins). Meyer sent his books ahead to Schwerin, and left from Strasbourg on 4 January 1571 after receiving his pay. He traveled the 500 miles to Schwerin in the middle of a harsh winter, arriving at the court on 10 February 1571. Two weeks later, on 24 February, Joachim Meyer died. The cause of his death is unknown, possibly disease or pneumonia.[6]

Antoni Rulman, Appolonia’s brother, became her legal guardian after Joachim’s death. On 15 May 1571, he had a letter written by the secretary of the Strasbourg city chamber and sent to the Duke of Mecklenburg stating that Antoni was now the widow Meyer’s guardian; it politely reminded the Duke who Joachim Meyer was, Meyer’s publishing efforts and considerable debt, requested that the Duke send Meyer’s personal affects and his books to Appolonia, and attempted to sell some (if not all) of the books to the Duke.[1]

Appolonia remarried in April 1572 to another cutler named Hans Kuele, bestowing upon him the status of Burgher and Meyer's substantial debts. Joachim Meyer and Hans Kuele are both mentioned in the minutes of Cutlers' Guild archives; Kuele may have made an impression if we can judge that fact by the number of times he is mentioned. It is believed that Appolonia and either her husband or her brother were involved with the second printing of his book in 1600. According to other sources, it was reprinted yet again in 1610 and in 1660.[9][10]

Treatises

Joachim Meyer's writings are preserved in two manuscripts prepared in the 1560s, the MS A.4º.2 (Lund) and the MS Var 82 (Rostock); a third manuscript from 1561 has been lost since at least the mid-20th century, and its contents are unknown.[11] Dwarfing these works is the massive book he published in 1570 entitled "A Thorough Description of the Free, Chivalric, and Noble Art of Fencing, Showing Various Customary Defenses, Affected and Put Forth with Many Handsome and Useful Drawings". Meyer's writings purport to teach the entire art of fencing, something that he claimed had never been done before, and encompass a wide variety of teachings from disparate sources and traditions. In keeping with this goal, Meyer seems to have constructed his treatises to present a method for training to fence, a significant departure from the earlier works in the tradition which explain the system of fencing directly. In keeping with this, he illustrated the techniques with depictions of fencers in courtyards using training weapons such as two-handed fencing swords, wooden dussacks, and rapiers with ball tips.

The first part of Meyer's treatise is devoted to the long sword (the sword in two hands), which he presents as the foundational weapon of his system, and this section devotes the most space to fundamentals like stance and footwork. His long sword system draws upon the teachings of Freifechter Andre Paurñfeyndt (via Christian Egenolff's reprint) and Liechtenauer glossators Sigmund ain Ringeck and pseudo-Peter von Danzig, as well as using terminology otherwise unique to the brief Recital of Martin Syber. Not content merely to compile these teachings as his contemporary Paulus Hector Mair was doing, Meyer sought to update—even reinvent—them in various ways to fit the martial climate of the late sixteenth century, including adapting many techniques to accommodate the increased momentum of a greatsword and modifying others to use beats with the flat and winding slices in place of thrusts to comply with street-fighting laws in German cities (and the rules of the Fechtschule).

The second part of Meyer's treatises is designed to address new weapons gaining traction in German lands, the dussack and the rapier, and thereby find places for them in the German tradition. His early Lund manuscript presents a more summarized syllabus of techniques for these weapons, while his printed book goes into greater depth and is structured more in the fashion of lesson plans.[12] Meyer's dussack system, designed for the broad proto-sabers that spread into German lands from Eastern Europe in the 16th century,[13] combines the old Messer teachings of Johannes Lecküchner and the dussack teachings of Andre Paurñfeyndt with other unknown systems (some have speculated that they might include early Polish or Hungarian saber systems). His rapier system, designed for the lighter single-hand swords spreading north from Iberian and Italian lands, seems again to be a hybrid creation, integrating both the core teachings of the 15th century Liechtenauer tradition as well as components that are characteristic of the various regional Mediterranean fencing systems (including, perhaps, teachings derived from the treatise of Achille Marozzo). Interestingly, Meyer's rapier teachings in the Rostock seem to represent an attempt to unify these two weapon system, outlining a method for rapier fencing that includes key elements of his dussack teachings; it is unclear why this method did not appear in his book, but given the dates it may be that they represent his last musings on the weapon, written in the time between the completion of his book in 1570 and his death a year later.

The third part of Meyer's treatise only appears in his published book and covers dagger, wrestling, and various pole weapons. His dagger teachings, designed primarily for urban self-defense, seem to be based in part on the writings of Bolognese master Achille Marozzo[14] and the anonymous teachings in Egenolff, but also include much unique content of unknown origin (perhaps the anonymous dagger teachings in his Rostock manuscript). His staff material makes up the bulk of this section, beginning with the short staff, which, like Paurñfeyndt, he uses as a training tool for various pole weapons (and possibly also the greatsword), and then moving on to the halberd before ending with the long staff (representing the pike). As with the dagger, the sources Meyer based his staff teachings on are largely unknown.

Additional Resources

  • Kiermayer, Alex. Joachim Meyers Kunst Des Fechtens. Gründtliche Beschreibung des Fechtens, 1570. Arts of Mars Books, 2012. ISBN 978-3981162738
  • Meyer, Joachim. Joachim Meyer 1600: Transkription des Fechtbuchs 'Gründtliche Beschreibung der freyen Ritterlichen und Adelichen kunst des Fechtens’. TAT. Wolfgang Landwehr, 2011. ISBN 978-3932077371
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Combat: A German Martial Arts Treatise of 1570. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng.
    • 1st edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. ISBN 978-1-4039-7092-0
    • 2nd edition. London: Frontline Books, 2014. ISBN 978-1-84832-778-8
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Sword Combat: A 1568 German Treatise on Swordmanship. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng. London: Frontline Books, 2016. ISBN 9781473876750

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Dupuis, Olivier. Joachim Meyer, escrimeur libre, bourgeois de Strasbourg (1537 ? - 1571). In Maîtres et techniques de combat. Dijon: AEDEH, 2006.
  2. Castle, Egerton. Schools and Masters of Fencing: From the Middle Ages to the Eighteenth Century. London: George Bell and Sons, 1885. pp 74 - 76.
  3. Naumann, Robert. Serapeum. Vol. 5. T.O. Weigel, 1844. pp 53-59.
  4. According to his wedding certificate.
  5. His dagger teachings do, however, show some evidence of influence by Achilles Marozzo's printed treatise.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Van Slambrouck, Christopher. "The Life and Work of Joachim Meyer". Meyer Frei Fechter Guild, 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
  7. Norling, Roger. "The history of Joachim Meyer’s fencing treatise to Otto von Solms". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  8. Whose members included Christoph Maurer and Hans Christoffel Stimmer.
  9. Schaer, Alfred. Die altdeutschen fechter und spielleute: Ein beitrag zur deutschen culturgeschichte. K.J. Trübner, 1901. p 76.
  10. Pollock, W. H., Grove, F. C., and Prévost, C. Fencing. London and Bombay: Longmans, Green, and co, 1897. pp 267-268.
  11. Jens P. Kleinau. "1561 Joachim Meyer dedicated a fencing book to the Pfalzgrafen of Pfalz-Veldenz". Hans Talhoffer ~ as seen by Jens P. Kleinau. 04 July 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  12. Roberts, James. "System vs Syllabus: Meyer’s 1560 and 1570 sidesword texts". Hroarr.com, 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  13. Roger Norling. "The Dussack - a weapon of war". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  14. Norling, Roger. "Meyer and Marozzo dagger comparison". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2015.