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Difference between revisions of "Joachim Meyer"

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| <p>'''Contents of the first Book on Fencing with the Sword / and how its description is ordered / and whereupon this Knightly Art’s foundations are laid.'''</p>
 
| <p>'''Contents of the first Book on Fencing with the Sword / and how its description is ordered / and whereupon this Knightly Art’s foundations are laid.'''</p>
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| <p>As I intent to diligently and truly and to the best of my understanding and abilities describe the art of Fencing in the Knightly and Manly weapons that are currently used most often by us Germans, and because fencing with the sword is not just the source and origin of all other forms of fencing but, as experience shows and as is obvious, also the most artful and manly next to other weapons, I deem it necessary and good to begin with it and do so in brevity but also clarity as it is customary in other arts and disciplines.</p>
 
| <p>As I intent to diligently and truly and to the best of my understanding and abilities describe the art of Fencing in the Knightly and Manly weapons that are currently used most often by us Germans, and because fencing with the sword is not just the source and origin of all other forms of fencing but, as experience shows and as is obvious, also the most artful and manly next to other weapons, I deem it necessary and good to begin with it and do so in brevity but also clarity as it is customary in other arts and disciplines.</p>
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| <p>Firstly, list the terminology invented by masters of this art so that one can learn and comprehend the secrecy and speed of it all the quicker and easier. After that, explain these terms so that everyone may understand what is meant by them.</p>
 
| <p>Firstly, list the terminology invented by masters of this art so that one can learn and comprehend the secrecy and speed of it all the quicker and easier. After that, explain these terms so that everyone may understand what is meant by them.</p>
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| <p>Then thirdly, achieve the ability to extend the art in your own right, and from your clarity attain and exude the proper judgement in Stance and Strikes so that Youth will not have to learn this art unguided and, because of your unspoken word, ill is wrought and they thus learn wrongly to the detriment of the art. Once achieved, we need your words and thoughts in this art, first from notes you would clarify, then onto subjects important to read in training, then to other subjects you want to develop further, so that the discipline of fencing grows on properly understood principles you have contributed to, rather than relying on mindless juggling, thus greater the difference between juggling and fencing will become, and the Knightly art of Fencing will grow from Warriors far and wide, particularly to Citizens at large, but beware the Juggler, to whom the unseemliest losses are and who is found everywhere in the world, until all are put away.</p>
 
| <p>Then thirdly, achieve the ability to extend the art in your own right, and from your clarity attain and exude the proper judgement in Stance and Strikes so that Youth will not have to learn this art unguided and, because of your unspoken word, ill is wrought and they thus learn wrongly to the detriment of the art. Once achieved, we need your words and thoughts in this art, first from notes you would clarify, then onto subjects important to read in training, then to other subjects you want to develop further, so that the discipline of fencing grows on properly understood principles you have contributed to, rather than relying on mindless juggling, thus greater the difference between juggling and fencing will become, and the Knightly art of Fencing will grow from Warriors far and wide, particularly to Citizens at large, but beware the Juggler, to whom the unseemliest losses are and who is found everywhere in the world, until all are put away.</p>
 
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| <p>Fencing with the Sword is nothing other than a discipline, wherein your force strives together with your sword in placement so that one with the other, using care and agility, artfulness, delicacy and manlyness, are at need the same both in strikes and in other handwork one is obliged to, excepting when one is not in a serious situation, thus by such discipline one will be more dangerous and more skillful, and when needing to protect one’s body be more effective.</p>
 
| <p>Fencing with the Sword is nothing other than a discipline, wherein your force strives together with your sword in placement so that one with the other, using care and agility, artfulness, delicacy and manlyness, are at need the same both in strikes and in other handwork one is obliged to, excepting when one is not in a serious situation, thus by such discipline one will be more dangerous and more skillful, and when needing to protect one’s body be more effective.</p>
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| <p>This can be advanced in three stages and be organized thus, namely as the Start, the Middle and the End, where the three stages each have one aim which you shall fence through, and must do one by one to advance, that you thereby know with which strikes or stances you will engage your counterpart and then frontally attack as you would in the Middle stage’s handwork, letting fly to work against the openings, keeping the initiative such that his attacks are preempted.</p>
 
| <p>This can be advanced in three stages and be organized thus, namely as the Start, the Middle and the End, where the three stages each have one aim which you shall fence through, and must do one by one to advance, that you thereby know with which strikes or stances you will engage your counterpart and then frontally attack as you would in the Middle stage’s handwork, letting fly to work against the openings, keeping the initiative such that his attacks are preempted.</p>
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| <p>The Last is as you are fulfilled and will, with harm neither inflicted nor received, withdraw.</p>
 
| <p>The Last is as you are fulfilled and will, with harm neither inflicted nor received, withdraw.</p>
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<p>The End is the resolution, where one fencer shall withdraw without damage from his opponent and strike away if desired.</p>
 
<p>The End is the resolution, where one fencer shall withdraw without damage from his opponent and strike away if desired.</p>
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| <p>The initial pre-fencing is the face off from the Stances to the strikes, which are of two kinds, namely the Lead Stances and the Secondary Stances, we start with the Lead Stances.</p>
 
| <p>The initial pre-fencing is the face off from the Stances to the strikes, which are of two kinds, namely the Lead Stances and the Secondary Stances, we start with the Lead Stances.</p>
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| <p>There are four Lead Stances, the Roof or Upper Guard, the Ox, the Fool, and the Plough. There are eight Secondary Stances, Wrathful Guard, Window Breaker, Long Point, Barrier Guard, Unicorn, Key, Iron Door, Changer.</p>
 
| <p>There are four Lead Stances, the Roof or Upper Guard, the Ox, the Fool, and the Plough. There are eight Secondary Stances, Wrathful Guard, Window Breaker, Long Point, Barrier Guard, Unicorn, Key, Iron Door, Changer.</p>
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| <p>The strikes with the Sword are many, belonging to two groups, which are common to both the direct and indirect strikes which we shall name. The first group is named the Lead or Principal strikes, on which all other strikes are based, and which are four, Over, Under, Middle, and Wrathful strikes. The others are named the secondary or derivative strikes, which are twelve in number, namely the Glance, Curve, Short, Slide, Bounce: Single and Double, Blind, Wound, Crown, Knee Hollow, Plunge, and Change Strike.</p>
 
| <p>The strikes with the Sword are many, belonging to two groups, which are common to both the direct and indirect strikes which we shall name. The first group is named the Lead or Principal strikes, on which all other strikes are based, and which are four, Over, Under, Middle, and Wrathful strikes. The others are named the secondary or derivative strikes, which are twelve in number, namely the Glance, Curve, Short, Slide, Bounce: Single and Double, Blind, Wound, Crown, Knee Hollow, Plunge, and Change Strike.</p>
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| <p>Beyond these strikes come the proper Master Strikes, which we shall also name, from which all masterful and artful moves with the Sword are made and accomplished with varying grips, these are Wrath, Arc, Traverser, Glancer and Vertex which are all used when wanting to conclude and complete, and which I will describe to you. Just as I introduced pre-fencing, so I have clearly spoken and introduced the Strikes to you.</p>
 
| <p>Beyond these strikes come the proper Master Strikes, which we shall also name, from which all masterful and artful moves with the Sword are made and accomplished with varying grips, these are Wrath, Arc, Traverser, Glancer and Vertex which are all used when wanting to conclude and complete, and which I will describe to you. Just as I introduced pre-fencing, so I have clearly spoken and introduced the Strikes to you.</p>
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| <p>The second or Handwork in the Middle Stage involves the greatest art, where all your withdrawals in the fight can be advances. Look not only to how one can use the sword in binding, Winding, Changing, Enticing, Following After, Cutting, Doubling, Flowing off to leave be or in whatever shape you’ve cut, Hewing, Advancing, Twitching and Jerking, Adjusting, Grappling, Charging In, Throwing, and End Wrestling. An important concept is Targetting, through which one must come to understand Man and Sword, and through which one comes to understand proper stance and footwork, and from which how one shall handle one’s point.</p>
 
| <p>The second or Handwork in the Middle Stage involves the greatest art, where all your withdrawals in the fight can be advances. Look not only to how one can use the sword in binding, Winding, Changing, Enticing, Following After, Cutting, Doubling, Flowing off to leave be or in whatever shape you’ve cut, Hewing, Advancing, Twitching and Jerking, Adjusting, Grappling, Charging In, Throwing, and End Wrestling. An important concept is Targetting, through which one must come to understand Man and Sword, and through which one comes to understand proper stance and footwork, and from which how one shall handle one’s point.</p>
 
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| <p>That brings us to the end, which flows from the Middle, and has the greatest Practical use, by which one ends each case, from thereof Withdraw soundly, in order to report what happened, and so arrange it all in the first chapter of Sword Fighting, from the Master Principles onward, so on to officially profess more skill in this Weapon, and by using this Book you shall Teach the initiates, and so after shall this art drive on to become more useful at need, and shall from others range farther to be sufficiently retold.</p>
 
| <p>That brings us to the end, which flows from the Middle, and has the greatest Practical use, by which one ends each case, from thereof Withdraw soundly, in order to report what happened, and so arrange it all in the first chapter of Sword Fighting, from the Master Principles onward, so on to officially profess more skill in this Weapon, and by using this Book you shall Teach the initiates, and so after shall this art drive on to become more useful at need, and shall from others range farther to be sufficiently retold.</p>
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| <p>Such input I have seen fit to make for purposes of clearer understanding, so that with this Book each onward going shall become easier to understand, thus easier to modify, and thus initially to learn, and thus I shall see such Knightly arts grow onward, and will now with the first Letter of this chapter, whose first purpose is to teach usefulness, instruct by moving on to present the Four Targets.</p>
 
| <p>Such input I have seen fit to make for purposes of clearer understanding, so that with this Book each onward going shall become easier to understand, thus easier to modify, and thus initially to learn, and thus I shall see such Knightly arts grow onward, and will now with the first Letter of this chapter, whose first purpose is to teach usefulness, instruct by moving on to present the Four Targets.</p>
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<p>From One’s divisions one shall come to understand the Openings and Stances, to and from which one will fence, ongoing to grasping the Middle or Handwork which will be described in the course of this Book, even though at first I was willing to sit and describe this subject alone without any other considerations. Then we move on to examine Fencing in all its components and arts, to be at first known from lessons, then from there to be shown, and then onward to be handled, and you shall at first want to take care to demonstrate how it’s properly done, so that not only the Middle or Handwork is attained, but that the Openings shall be minded, from lessons thereon to note taking, and going forward I shall not leave my written lessons behind me to be forgotten.</p>
 
<p>From One’s divisions one shall come to understand the Openings and Stances, to and from which one will fence, ongoing to grasping the Middle or Handwork which will be described in the course of this Book, even though at first I was willing to sit and describe this subject alone without any other considerations. Then we move on to examine Fencing in all its components and arts, to be at first known from lessons, then from there to be shown, and then onward to be handled, and you shall at first want to take care to demonstrate how it’s properly done, so that not only the Middle or Handwork is attained, but that the Openings shall be minded, from lessons thereon to note taking, and going forward I shall not leave my written lessons behind me to be forgotten.</p>
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| <p>Now we will visualise a man in four quarters or parts, Above and Below and on both the Right and the Left. Beyond this and how you view yourself, I dare not describe further, but if you care to look, you see that humans are arranged in high and low and right and left parts. In order to better understand my meaning, examine the figure on the right side of the picture above.</p>
 
| <p>Now we will visualise a man in four quarters or parts, Above and Below and on both the Right and the Left. Beyond this and how you view yourself, I dare not describe further, but if you care to look, you see that humans are arranged in high and low and right and left parts. In order to better understand my meaning, examine the figure on the right side of the picture above.</p>
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| <p>And if these four parts weren’t already addressed enough for one, against them the Ancient German Fencer will need to strike with the various strikes as they are known among us Germans at this time, so special in their Handywork with the Winding, these will fight the furthest and against the Greatest since all of humanity in common is divided in the above named four parts. We see how the the Upper Vertices meet, and Below how the Chin and Throat are relevant. Onward we see the Right and Left parts which are joined across the Ears, both sides are relevant, both right and Left ears will be addressed.</p>
 
| <p>And if these four parts weren’t already addressed enough for one, against them the Ancient German Fencer will need to strike with the various strikes as they are known among us Germans at this time, so special in their Handywork with the Winding, these will fight the furthest and against the Greatest since all of humanity in common is divided in the above named four parts. We see how the the Upper Vertices meet, and Below how the Chin and Throat are relevant. Onward we see the Right and Left parts which are joined across the Ears, both sides are relevant, both right and Left ears will be addressed.</p>
 
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<p>In addition my need is to know then how in all weapons such concepts can be understood in the short term and be shown and explained, and if not to be returned to, until the Person can explain the sections, so by them if the opposing fencer tries to mark one or another part, one knows with proper displacement how to smoothly move to secure themselves. Or if one or another intends to aim for an opening, he can also strive to undertake this strike correctly. Then each one shall probe to hit the four points, be met there, and have to guard against same, and thus must always be on Guard, ready to displace.</p>
 
<p>In addition my need is to know then how in all weapons such concepts can be understood in the short term and be shown and explained, and if not to be returned to, until the Person can explain the sections, so by them if the opposing fencer tries to mark one or another part, one knows with proper displacement how to smoothly move to secure themselves. Or if one or another intends to aim for an opening, he can also strive to undertake this strike correctly. Then each one shall probe to hit the four points, be met there, and have to guard against same, and thus must always be on Guard, ready to displace.</p>
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| <p>The means to learn what follows from the Stances, Strikes, and Targets is undertaken here more easily, in that these descriptions and presentations are enough for one to flow on.</p>
 
| <p>The means to learn what follows from the Stances, Strikes, and Targets is undertaken here more easily, in that these descriptions and presentations are enough for one to flow on.</p>
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<p>Now we will clarify this and why it is done in fencing, namely how one or another are like the parts of one’s body which one strikes away from in knightly fashion or accordingly defend them at need. Just like the parts of the human are quickly understood, so it’s again apparent from noting why and how certain relative parts of the sword work against others to bring success, and similarly how you should know these labels or overviews before you try yourself likewise, so thus onward from nothing else than your Sword shall you cause communication, and meanwhile have wisdom not in only one device, but also shortly know cuts with the short edge, then with the long, then with the strong, and with the weak, then will you charge on to success from the Sword’s necessities and from heeding this Art’s known elements also have something to say.</p>
 
<p>Now we will clarify this and why it is done in fencing, namely how one or another are like the parts of one’s body which one strikes away from in knightly fashion or accordingly defend them at need. Just like the parts of the human are quickly understood, so it’s again apparent from noting why and how certain relative parts of the sword work against others to bring success, and similarly how you should know these labels or overviews before you try yourself likewise, so thus onward from nothing else than your Sword shall you cause communication, and meanwhile have wisdom not in only one device, but also shortly know cuts with the short edge, then with the long, then with the strong, and with the weak, then will you charge on to success from the Sword’s necessities and from heeding this Art’s known elements also have something to say.</p>
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| <p>We define the form and figure of the Sword’s parts as its Pommel, Point, Cross or Hilt, Haft or Grip, and the Blade, about which, though without evaluation, we will now say several words.</p>
 
| <p>We define the form and figure of the Sword’s parts as its Pommel, Point, Cross or Hilt, Haft or Grip, and the Blade, about which, though without evaluation, we will now say several words.</p>
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| <p>The Blade has basically two underlying divisions, where the first is the Strong and Weak, the other the Short and Long edges, those being the forward and trailing edges.</p>
 
| <p>The Blade has basically two underlying divisions, where the first is the Strong and Weak, the other the Short and Long edges, those being the forward and trailing edges.</p>
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| <p>The Strong of the Sword is the name for the part running from the Cross or Hilt to the middle of the blade, the Weak is from the middle to and with the point or end itself, from which the Long and Short edges grow.</p>
 
| <p>The Strong of the Sword is the name for the part running from the Cross or Hilt to the middle of the blade, the Weak is from the middle to and with the point or end itself, from which the Long and Short edges grow.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/29|4|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/29|4|lbl=1.4vd}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 472: Line 469:
 
| <p>The Long Edge is the full length of edge from the fingers onward, directed against your opponent, the Short or half edge is the one nearest the thumb, between the thumb and index finger, first finger pointing at the fencer’s self, as if it is imitating the other’s weapon. We will speak as well of the spine of the sword, as shown in the previous illustration.</p>
 
| <p>The Long Edge is the full length of edge from the fingers onward, directed against your opponent, the Short or half edge is the one nearest the thumb, between the thumb and index finger, first finger pointing at the fencer’s self, as if it is imitating the other’s weapon. We will speak as well of the spine of the sword, as shown in the previous illustration.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/29|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/30|1|lbl=1.5r|p=1}}
+
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/29|5|lbl=1.4ve|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/30|1|lbl=1.5ra|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| <p>From the overlying parts of the sword springs forths the correct total view, which is very useful in fencing, namely that the Sword is outwardly grouped in four parts and divisions, as is seen in the previous illustration.</p>
 
| <p>From the overlying parts of the sword springs forths the correct total view, which is very useful in fencing, namely that the Sword is outwardly grouped in four parts and divisions, as is seen in the previous illustration.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/30|2|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/30|2|lbl=1.5rb}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p>The first to be named is the Bind or Haft, including Pommel and Cross, for charging, Wrenching, Grappling, Throwing, and of service in other work.</p>
 
| <p>The first to be named is the Bind or Haft, including Pommel and Cross, for charging, Wrenching, Grappling, Throwing, and of service in other work.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/30|3|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/30|3|lbl=1.5rc}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p>The second is the Strong, as was counted, used in Cutting, Winding, Impacting, and otherwise where the Strong is useful in fencing.</p>
 
| <p>The second is the Strong, as was counted, used in Cutting, Winding, Impacting, and otherwise where the Strong is useful in fencing.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/30|4|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/30|4|lbl=1.5rd}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p>The third part is the Middle, which lies between strong and weak on the halfway part and is used when needing to close in the changeful work, where it will be resorted to at every opportunity when needed.</p>
 
| <p>The third part is the Middle, which lies between strong and weak on the halfway part and is used when needing to close in the changeful work, where it will be resorted to at every opportunity when needed.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/30|5|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/30|5|lbl=1.5re}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p>The fourth is the Weak, through which Changing, Rushing, Slinging, and similar such will duly be used in fencing, of which in what follows there will be many examples and pieces.</p>
 
| <p>The fourth is the Weak, through which Changing, Rushing, Slinging, and similar such will duly be used in fencing, of which in what follows there will be many examples and pieces.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/30|6|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/30|6|lbl=1.5rf}}
  
  
Line 518: Line 515:
 
<p>Chapter 3</p>
 
<p>Chapter 3</p>
  
<p>At all times and in all fencing, when wanting more ability and understanding, and in furthering and learning more of this Knightly art, the proper and basic elements are required in order to advance. Basically this is done because in fencing, one must fence such that One becomes one with one’s Sword, and although this was already stated correctly and sufficiently in the two previous chapters, so here in the third chapter, in order to clarify, it will be examined further, from which onward all fencing shall be fully known and further examined in three parts: the Start, Middle, and End as above was already stated. Onward from the Start, two basic underlying principles shall and must be attained, namely how from the Stances one shall execute the strikes, which will be named and counted, and how one thus comes to success will be clarified. Though the Guards or Stances are delicate, they are still advantageous positions for warding one’s entire body with the Sword, in which the fencer, as is often seen, will come before his opponent with proper placement, position, and stance, and so be unfound and last through the rushing by waiting through to advance onward, and immediately react to what’s coming and with advantage and wisened speed attack and strike against your opponent’s own stances, that he can go on striking without harming you, yet must give away his openings as he works against yours, and so he must either withdraw or strike away from his intended target, and so have his advantage minimised, his blade withdrawn and retreating, and you can then strike in your own efforts. Since the Stances or Guards have the four sections of ones body as their obvious origin, in that one is divided into four quarters, Over, Under, Left and Right, so also one’s opponent is divided and thus shall be encountered, as four Targets, and relative to them there are the four Primary Stances or Guards, from which all others originate and spring forth, which are the Ox, Plough, Roof and Fool, from which one comes to understand the secondaries which, in due order, one comes to deploy, which are the Wrathful Guard, Long Point, Changer, Close Guard, Iron Door, Hanging Point, Key, and Unicorn.</p>
+
<p>At all times and in all fencing, when wanting more ability and understanding, and in furthering and learning more of this Knightly art, the proper and basic elements are required in order to advance. Basically this is done because in fencing, one must fence such that One becomes one with one’s Sword, and although this was already stated correctly and sufficiently in the two previous chapters, so here in the third chapter, in order to clarify, it will be examined further, from which onward all fencing shall be fully known and further examined in three parts: the Start, Middle, and End as above was already stated.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Onward from the Start, two basic underlying principles shall and must be attained, namely how from the Stances one shall execute the strikes, which will be named and counted, and how one thus comes to success will be clarified.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Though the Guards or Stances are delicate, they are still advantageous positions for warding one’s entire body with the Sword, in which the fencer, as is often seen, will come before his opponent with proper placement, position, and stance, and so be unfound and last through the rushing by waiting through to advance onward, and immediately react to what’s coming and with advantage and wisened speed attack and strike against your opponent’s own stances, that he can go on striking without harming you, yet must give away his openings as he works against yours, and so he must either withdraw or strike away from his intended target, and so have his advantage minimised, his blade withdrawn and retreating, and you can then strike in your own efforts.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Since the Stances or Guards have the four sections of ones body as their obvious origin, in that one is divided into four quarters, Over, Under, Left and Right, so also one’s opponent is divided and thus shall be encountered, as four Targets, and relative to them there are the four Primary Stances or Guards, from which all others originate and spring forth, which are the Ox, Plough, Roof and Fool, from which one comes to understand the secondaries which, in due order, one comes to deploy, which are the Wrathful Guard, Long Point, Changer, Close Guard, Iron Door, Hanging Point, Key, and Unicorn.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/30|7|lbl=1.5r|p=1}} '''[Vv]''' gefochten werde theils alhie mit dem Schwerdt / un aber bißher in den zweyen vorgehenden Capiteln / von beiden stucken gnusamer bericht geschehen / so erfordert alhie ferner die ordnug / das auch von dem dritten theil und stuck erklerung gethan werde / welches ist auff was weiß alles Fechten soll volbracht werden / das den fürnemlich beschicht durch drey stuck / den Anfang das Mittel und Endt wie oben angezeigt. Demnach aber der Anfang durch zweyerley underschiedlich stuck sol und muß gemacht werden / nemlich auß und von den Legern / als auß dem die häuw ihren anfang nemen / sagen / wie vil seind erzehlen / un wie sie volnbracht sollen werden / erkleren. Die Hut oder Leger aber seind ein zierlich / aber doch nothwendig / stellung und geberd des gantzen leibs mit dem Schwerdt / in welche sich der Fechter so er / wie offt geschicht / ehe den sein gegenpart zu ihm kompt auff den platz / stellet und Legert / damit er nit unversehens von im ubereilt un verletzt / sonder er in hierauß erwarten in acht haben / un alsbald er zu im kompt / mit vortheil un gewisser geschwindigkeit angreiffen un zuhauwen / und sich also gegen seinem widerpart Legern / das er ohn schaden zu ihm nit einhauwen köne / sondern entweders / so er nach seiner Blösse arbeitte / sich bloß geben müsse / un er ihm also die vermeinte zuhabne Blöß mit einem zu oder abtritt entziehen / oder ihm auff das wenigst so er auß seinem vortheil hiedurch gereitzet / sein Kling außnemen / in verhindern / und ihn in seiner arbeit stecken köne. Die Leger oder Huten aber / haben wie dan auch droben bemelt ihren ursprung auß der theilung des Mans / den wie der Man in vier quatier Ober / Under / Recht un Linck getheilt / so seind der Blössen auch vier darauff der gegenfechter fürnemlich zutreffen / und wie vier Blösse / also seind auch gleichfals viereley Hauptleger oder Hutten / darauß die andern alle herkommen und entspringen / als der Ochs / Pflug / Tag / un Olber / die andern aber so hierauß entstehn / seind Zornhut / Langort / Wechsel / Nebenhut / Eisenport / Hengetort / Schlüssel / Einhorn / davon denn ordenlich und kurtzlich soll gehandelt werden
+
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/30|7|lbl=1.5rg|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/31|1|lbl=1.5va|p=1}}
  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword B.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword B.jpg|center|400px]]
| '''Ox'''
+
| <p>'''Ox'''</p>
The high parts are guarded with the Ox, which is two moded, Right and Left, thus one can stand in the Ox in two modes, namely the Right and Left modes. The right Ox will first be described, stand with your Left Foot forward, holding the Sword with the hilt next to your head, high and on the right side, so that your forward point is directed against your opponent’s face. For the Left Ox reverse this, namely stand with your Right Foot forward, hold your hilt near your head on its Left Side as said above. Thus you have been told of both Ox Guards or Stances, which is being shown by the Left Figure of illustration B above.
+
 
| '''[VIrv] Ochs.'''
+
<p>The high parts are guarded with the Ox, which is two moded, Right and Left, thus one can stand in the Ox in two modes, namely the Right and Left modes.</p>
DEr Obertheil am Man wirt dem Ochsen zugetheilt / und wie dasselbige zwey quatier hat / das Rechte und Lincke / also kan man auch das Leger des Ochsens in zwey theil / nemlich den Rechten unnd Lincken abtheilen. Der rechte Ochs wirdt nun also gemacht / stehe mit deinem Lincken Fuß vor / halt das Schwerdt mit dem Hefft neben deinem Kopff / zur Rechten Seiten in der höhe / das dein vorder ort dem Man gegen dem gesicht stehe. Zum Lincken Ochsen schick dich disem zugegen / nemlich trit mit dem Rechten Fuß vor / halt dein Schwerdt mit dem Hefft neben deinem Kopff zur Lincken Seiten wie oben gemeld / so hast du beider Ochsen Hut oder Leger / welches Leger in der Figur so mit dem Buchstaben B verzeichnet ist / zur Lincken furgebildet.
+
 
 +
<p>The right Ox will first be described, stand with your Left Foot forward, holding the Sword with the hilt next to your head, high and on the right side, so that your forward point is directed against your opponent’s face. For the Left Ox reverse this, namely stand with your Right Foot forward, hold your hilt near your head on its Left Side as said above.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Thus you have been told of both Ox Guards or Stances, which is being shown by the Left Figure of illustration B above.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/33|1|lbl=1.6va}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| '''Plough'''
+
| <p>'''Plough'''</p>
The low parts are guarded with the Plough, whose two modes are similar figures for two sides, the Right and the Left, and so are named the Right and Left Plough, and both will become for you nothing else than stabs outward from below. The Right Plough is described as follows, stand with your right foot forward, hold your weapon with the hilt near your forward knee and your point pointing in your opponent’s face, as if you intend to stab him from below. While you are in the Right Plough, step forward with the Left foot and stand similarly to be in the Left Plough. The Right Plough is shown by the figure on the Right of the above illustration.
+
 
| '''Pflug.'''
+
<p>The low parts are guarded with the Plough, whose two modes are similar figures for two sides, the Right and the Left, and so are named the Right and Left Plough, and both will become for you nothing else than stabs outward from below.</p>
DEr undertheil des Mans wirt dem Pflug zugeeignet / un gleicher gestalt wie dieselbige zwey quatier oder zwo seiten die Rechte un Lincke hat / also wird auch daher der Pflug der Rechte und der Lincke geheissen / seind beide an sich selbst nichts anders / dan ein stich von unden auff / den rechten Pflug volbring wie folget. Steh mit deinem rechten Fuß vor / halt deine Wehr mit dem Hefft neben deinem vorgesetzten Knie wende die spitzen oder den ort dem Man ins gesicht / als wolstu in von unden auff stechen / so bistu im Rechten Pflug / tritestu mit dem Lincken fuß fur / und thust im des gleichen / so ligestu im Lincken / unnd ist also der Recht Pflug in obgedachter Figur zur Rechten auch furgebildet.
+
 
 +
<p>The Right Plough is described as follows, stand with your right foot forward, hold your weapon with the hilt near your forward knee and your point pointing in your opponent’s face, as if you intend to stab him from below. While you are in the Right Plough, step forward with the Left foot and stand similarly to be in the Left Plough.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>The Right Plough is shown by the figure on the Right of the above illustration.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/33|2|lbl=1.6vb}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword C.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword C.jpg|center|400px]]
| '''Roof'''
+
| <p>'''Roof'''</p>
The Guard of the Roof, which is also known as the High Guard, is explained as follows. Stand with your Left Foot forward, hold your Sword high over your head so its point is directly above, consider the figure on the left of the image above, illustration C, which indicates how one can operate from above, that all strikes can be fenced from the Roof or High Guard, which is why this Guard is named the Roof.
+
 
| '''Tag.'''
+
<p>The Guard of the Roof, which is also known as the High Guard, is explained as follows. Stand with your Left Foot forward, hold your Sword high over your head so its point is directly above, consider the figure on the left of the image above, illustration C, which indicates how one can operate from above, that all strikes can be fenced from the Roof or High Guard, which is why this Guard is named the Roof.</p>
DIe Hut des Tags / welche man auch sunsten die Oberhut nennet / wirt auff volgende weiß volbracht. Stehe mit deinem Linckest Fuß vor / halt dein Schwerdt hoch uber deinem Haubt / das das ort gerad ubers stehe / aller ding wie dich das Bilde zur Lincken / in der Figur welche mit dem Buchstaben C. gezeich'''[VIIrv]'''netlehre / was dann also von oben herein gearbet wirdt / heißt alles auß dem Tag oder Oberhut gefochten / darumb solch Leger der Tag genennet.
+
|  
 +
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/33|3|lbl=1.6vc|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/35|1|lbl=1.7ra|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| '''Fool'''
+
| <p>'''Fool'''</p>
Fool is my adaptation of the word Jester, a name which leaves so much to be desired, in that from this Stance no successful finishing strikes can be made, one just uses them to gain an opening against the opponent through displacements to block strikes, which can be used to measure a Foolish and naive person who is not ready for counterstrikes to be struck against them. This will now be described. Stand with the Left leg forward, hold your Sword with the Point stretched out in front of you aimed at the ground in front of your forward foot, with the short edge above, the long edge below. Thus you stand in this Guard rightly, as you can see in the illustrated figure above on the right.
+
 
| '''Olber.'''
+
<p>Fool is my adaptation of the word Jester, a name which leaves so much to be desired, in that from this Stance no successful finishing strikes can be made, one just uses them to gain an opening against the opponent through displacements to block strikes, which can be used to measure a Foolish and naive person who is not ready for counterstrikes to be struck against them.</p>
DEr Olber wirt meines erachtens von dem wort Alber / welches ist so vil als einfeltig genennet / sintemal auß disem Leger kein volkomlicher fertiger streich mag erlanget werden / man erhole sich dan nach des widerparts durch einen absatz entpfangenen streichs / eines neuwen / welches fürwar einem Albern und einfeltigen menschen zu zumessen / ohne bereidten gegenstreich auff sich schlagen zulassen. Diser wirt also formiert / stehe mit dem Lincken fuß vor / halt dein Schwerdt mit dem ort vor dir außgestreckt auff die Erden / fur deinen vorgesezten fuß / das die kurtze schneid oben / die Lange unden stehe / so ligst du in diser Hut recht / wie du solchers in gedachter Figur zur Rechten sehen kanst.
+
 
 +
<p>This will now be described. Stand with the Left leg forward, hold your Sword with the Point stretched out in front of you aimed at the ground in front of your forward foot, with the short edge above, the long edge below. Thus you stand in this Guard rightly, as you can see in the illustrated figure above on the right.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/35|2|lbl=1.7rb}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword E.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword E.jpg|center|400px]]
| '''Wrathful Guard'''
+
| <p>'''Wrathful Guard'''</p>
The Wrathful Guard is known as such since the stance has a wrathful bearing, as will be shown. Stand with your left foot forward, hold your sword out from your right shoulder, so that the blade hangs behind you to threaten forward strikes, and mark this well, that all strikes out from the Guard of the Ox can be intercepted from the Wrathful stance, indeed leading from this stance shows unequal bearing from which One can entice onward, whereupon one can move quickly against the other as needed, as is shown by the Figure in illustration E (on the left).
+
 
| '''Zornhut.'''
+
<p>The Wrathful Guard is known as such since the stance has a wrathful bearing, as will be shown. Stand with your left foot forward, hold your sword out from your right shoulder, so that the blade hangs behind you to threaten forward strikes, and mark this well, that all strikes out from the Guard of the Ox can be intercepted from the Wrathful stance, indeed leading from this stance shows unequal bearing from which One can entice onward, whereupon one can move quickly against the other as needed, as is shown by the Figure in illustration E (on the left).</p>
DIe Zornhut ist also genant das solch Leger zornig geberd erzeiget / wirt also gemacht. Stehe mit deinem Lincken fuß vor / halt dein Schwerdt auff der rechten Achsel / also das die Kling hindersich herab zum gefaßten streich hanget / uu ist alhier zumercken / das alle stuck die auß der Hut des Ochsens gebracht / auch auß dem Zornleger gefochten werden können / allein das ungleiche geberde zu verführung des Mans in disem Quatier sich erzeigen / und jetzt dise / bald die andern gebraucht werden könen / besihe hievon die Figur so mit dem Buchstaben E. verzeichnet.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/35|3|lbl=1.7rc}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword A.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword A.jpg|center|400px]]
| '''Long Point'''
+
| <p>'''Long Point'''</p>
Stand with your Left foot forward, hold your Weapon with outstretched arms out in front of your face, so that you stand and point forward at your opponent’s face, and thus you stand in the Guard of the Long Point, which you can see in the picture in illustration A.
+
 
| '''Langort.'''
+
<p>Stand with your Left foot forward, hold your Weapon with outstretched arms out in front of your face, so that you stand and point forward at your opponent’s face, and thus you stand in the Guard of the Long Point, which you can see in the picture in illustration A.</p>
STeh mit deinem Lincken fuß vor / halt dein Wehr mit außgestrecken Armen / lang for deinem gesicht / das dein forder ort dem widerpart gegen seinem gesicht stehe / so ligstu in der Hut des Langen orts / wie dich das Bild in der Figur so mit dem A verzeichnet lehret.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/35|4|lbl=1.7rd}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword D.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword D.jpg|center|400px]]
| '''Changer'''
+
| <p>'''Changer'''</p>
This Guard shall now be fully described, stand with your Right foot forward, hold your weapon with the point or Weak stretched out from close at your side aimed at the ground, so that the short edge stands toward your opponent, such as can be seen from the right figure in illustration D above.
+
 
| '''[VIIIrv] Wechsel.'''
+
<p>This Guard shall now be fully described, stand with your Right foot forward, hold your weapon with the point or Weak stretched out from close at your side aimed at the ground, so that the short edge stands toward your opponent, such as can be seen from the right figure in illustration D above.</p>
DIse Hut wirt also volbracht / stehe mit deinem Rechten fuß vor / halt deine Wehr mit dem ort oder Schwech auff der Erden neben dir zur seiten außgestreckt / das die kurtze schneid gegen dem Man stehet / wie du solches an dem Bild in der Figur so mit dem D. vermerckt sehen kanst.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/36|1|lbl=1.7va}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Close Guard'''
+
| <p>'''Close Guard'''</p>
To put yourself into this guard, stand with your Left foot forward, hold your sword close to your right with the point to the ground and the pommel above, and with the short edge against you.
+
 
| '''Nebenhut.'''
+
<p>To put yourself into this guard, stand with your Left foot forward, hold your sword close to your right with the point to the ground and the pommel above, and with the short edge against you.</p>
IN dise Hut schick dich also / Stehe mit dem Lincken fuß vor / halt dein Schwerde neben der Rechten / mit der Spitzen auff der Erden / das der Knopff ubersich / und die kurtze schneid gegen dir stehe.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/36|2|lbl=1.7vb}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Iron Door'''
+
| <p>'''Iron Door'''</p>
What the right Iron Door is, which you will find out should you go farther onto Rapier Fencing, that while it is used in stabbing with the Sword as by us Germans, this guard is also easily deflected and sent to the ground. Although at this time it is used by the Italians and other nations, it covers like the Barrier Guard, and so of the Iron Door no further report is therefore required.
+
 
| '''Eisenport.'''
+
<p>What the right Iron Door is, which you will find out should you go farther onto Rapier Fencing, that while it is used in stabbing with the Sword as by us Germans, this guard is also easily deflected and sent to the ground. Although at this time it is used by the Italians and other nations, it covers like the Barrier Guard, and so of the Iron Door no further report is therefore required.</p>
WAs die recht Eysenport ist / wirstu hieunder im Rapier Fechten weitläuffgern bericht finden / Dan dieweil das stchen mit dem Schwerdt bey uns Teutschen auffgehaben / ist auch dise Hut gentzlich abkommen und zu grundt gangen / brauchen es aber Heutigs tags die Italianer und andere Nationen / ist jetz im grund die Schranckhut / und wird von den unerfarnen als die von der Eisenport keinen bericht haben dafür gebrauchet.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/36|3|lbl=1.7vc}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| There is a basic underlying division, and here I will shortly clarify both, and so will now describe the Iron Door. Stand with your right foot forward, hold your sword with the grip in front of the knee, with straightly hanging arms, that your point stands upward out at your opponent’s face. In addition, keep your Sword in front of you to shut like an iron door, and when you stand with feet wide and so come to lower your body, you can clear all strikes and stabs out and away from you.
+
| <p>There is a basic underlying division, and here I will shortly clarify both, and so will now describe the Iron Door. Stand with your right foot forward, hold your sword with the grip in front of the knee, with straightly hanging arms, that your point stands upward out at your opponent’s face. In addition, keep your Sword in front of you to shut like an iron door, and when you stand with feet wide and so come to lower your body, you can clear all strikes and stabs out and away from you.</p>
| Dieweil aber gleichwol ein underscheid darunder / hab ich die alle beide alhie kürtzlich erkleren wollen / und wirt die Eisenport also gemacht / stehe mit deinem rechten Fuß vor / halt dein Schwerdt mit dem Hefft vor deinem Knie / mit stracken hangenden Armen / das dein orth ubersich auß dem Mane gegen seinem gesicht stehe / hat also dein Schwerdt vor dir zum schutz / wie eine Eisene thur / dan wan du mit den füssen weit stehest / also das der Leib under sich kompt / so kanstu alle häuw und stich darauß von dir abtragen.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/36|4|lbl=1.7vd}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword F.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword F.jpg|center|400px]]
| However, the Barrier Guard is when you hold your Sword with crossed hands in front of you with the point at the ground, which is seen from the figure in illustration F.
+
| <p>However, the Barrier Guard is when you hold your Sword with crossed hands in front of you with the point at the ground, which is seen from the figure in illustration F.</p>
| Die Schranckhut aber ist / wann du dein Schwerdt mit geschrenckten henden vor dir mit dem ort auff der Erden heltest / wie in volgender Figur deren Buchstaben das F. ist / augenscheinlich zuersehen.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/36|5|lbl=1.7ve}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| '''Hanging Point'''
+
| <p>'''Hanging Point'''</p>
Since you’ll need to be in the correct Hanging Point during the work, look at the figure to the right of the above illustration. Even if the arms needn’t be as stretched as here will be shown, still put yourself into the named Guard. Stand with the right foot forward, hold your weapon with outstretched arms before you, so that the blade hangs somewhat toward the earth, this stance is very close to the Ox in similar form, only different in that in the Ox your arms are strongly held in high mode, but here shall be directly outstretched before your face, letting the Sword hang toward the Earth, therefore it is named Hanging Point.
+
 
| '''[IXr] Hangetort.'''
+
<p>Since you’ll need to be in the correct Hanging Point during the work, look at the figure to the right of the above illustration. Even if the arms needn’t be as stretched as here will be shown, still put yourself into the named Guard. Stand with the right foot forward, hold your weapon with outstretched arms before you, so that the blade hangs somewhat toward the earth.</p>
WIe du das Hangetort in das werck richten solt / lehrt dich das Bild zur Rechten in obgedachter Figur / allein das darinen die Arm nit gnügsam gestreckt hie angezeigt wirt / Derwegen schicke dich In gemelde Hut also / stehe mit dem rechten Fuß vor / halt deine Wehr mit außgestreckten Armen vor dir / das die Klingen etwas undersich gegen der Erden hange / diß Leger ist durchauß fast dem Ochsen gleichförmig / allein das du im Ochsen die Arm strack in die höhe empor heltest / hie aber gerad vor deinem Gsicht außgestreckt sein sollen / unnd das Schwerdt gegen der Erden hangen lassest / darumb es denn auch das hengetort geheissen.
+
 
 +
<p>This stance is very close to the Ox in similar form, only different in that in the Ox your arms are strongly held in high mode, but here shall be directly outstretched before your face, letting the Sword hang toward the Earth, therefore it is named Hanging Point.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/38|1|lbl=1.8va}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword D.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword D.jpg|center|400px]]
| '''Key'''
+
| <p>'''Key'''</p>
The Key is shown by the left figure in illustration D, stand with your Left foot forward, and hold your Sword with the haft and crossed arms in front of your chest, so that the short edge lies on your Left Arm, and the point is aimed at your opponent’s face. Thus is this stance or guard rightly made.
+
 
| '''Schlüssel.'''
+
<p>The Key is shown by the left figure in illustration D, stand with your Left foot forward, and hold your Sword with the haft and crossed arms in front of your chest, so that the short edge lies on your Left Arm, and the point is aimed at your opponent’s face. Thus is this stance or guard rightly made.</p>
DEr Schlüssel ist in der Figur welche mit dem Buchstaben D. verzeichnet / also fürgebildet / stehestu mit deinem Lincken fuß vor / und haltest dein Schwerdt mit dem Hefft und gecreutzigten henden vor deiner Brust / das die kurtze schneide auff dem Lincken Arm lige / und das ort gegen des Mans gesicht stehe / so wirt diß Leger oder Hut recht gemacht.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/38|2|lbl=1.8vb}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword E.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword E.jpg|center|400px]]
| '''Unicorn'''
+
| <p>'''Unicorn'''</p>
Come into pre-fencing with your Left foot forward, wings out from both sides, as if you would stand in the forenamed Key guard, drive with crossed hands overhead on your Right, so that the point is aimed high above and outward, thus it is named Unicorn, and stand as shown by the figure on the Right of illustration E.
+
 
| '''Eynhorn.'''
+
<p>Come into pre-fencing with your Left foot forward, wings out from both sides, as if you would stand in the forenamed Key guard, drive with crossed hands overhead on your Right, so that the point is aimed high above and outward, thus it is named Unicorn, and stand as shown by the figure on the Right of illustration E.</p>
KOmm im zufechten mit dem Lincken Fuß vor / flügel von beiden seiten auff / als wollestu dich in vorgenanten Schlüssel Legern / fahre mit geschrenckten henden ubersich zu deiner Rechten / das die spitz in der höhe obersich her auß sehe / so heist es im Einhorn / unnd stehest wie du in der Figur hie gegen mit dem E. gezeichnet am bildt zur Rechten sehen kanst.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/38|3|lbl=1.8vc}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| And thus are named the count of the Stances or Guards, and now all in the work phase will be fully and shortly examined. After this point in all fencing, you will Strike, Strive, Displace, or float to work for what you wish, and not remain in a stance, but always drive from one to the other, as one or the other must soon become afflicted, thus you especially must move on to keep the working initiative, and will lead out from one to another of the above cited stances, which I will clarify with a few words about the strikes through the lines or pathways.
+
| <p>And thus are named the count of the Stances or Guards, and now all in the work phase will be fully and shortly examined. After this point in all fencing, you will Strike, Strive, Displace, or float to work for what you wish, and not remain in a stance, but always drive from one to the other, as one or the other must soon become afflicted, thus you especially must move on to keep the working initiative, and will lead out from one to another of the above cited stances, which I will clarify with a few words about the strikes through the lines or pathways.</p>
| '''[IXv]''' UNd diß sey von den Namen der anzal der Leger oder Huten / un wie ein jedes ins werck gesetzt oder volbracht wird / kürtzlich vermeldet. Nach dem aber in allem Fechten / du Hauwest / Arbeitest / Versetzest / oder treibest für arbeit was du wollest / nicht in einem Leger verharren / sonder alweg auß einem in das ander verfahren / unnd eines in das ander verwandlen must / wil dir in sonderheit gebüren ein gut fleissigs auffmercken zu haben / wie oberzeiten Leger eins auß dem andern ervolgen / welches ich dañ mit den Hauwen durch die Linien oder strassen etlicher massen mit wenig worten will erkleren.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/39|1|lbl=1.9ra}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword Cuts.jpg|center|400px]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword Cuts.jpg|center]]
| Firstly if you will execute the high or Vertex Strike, you will find yourself in three Stances, first in the start you will stand in the Roof, in the Middle in the Long Point, and end up in the Fool, so you have moved directly from above through the Line from A to E via three Guards or Stances. If you then drive farther on upward from below to displace with crossed hands, you will find yourself in three more Stances, at the start in the Iron Door, in the Middle the Hanging Point, and in the end full above you in the Unicorn, then grip your Sword with the haft before your chest, so that the half edge lies on your left arm. Now you stand in the Key, and thus you come have onward and drove on along Line A and E from one stance into the other.
+
| <p>Firstly if you will execute the high or Vertex Strike, you will find yourself in three Stances, first in the start you will stand in the Roof, in the Middle in the Long Point, and end up in the Fool, so you have moved directly from above through the Line from A to E via three Guards or Stances. If you then drive farther on upward from below to displace with crossed hands, you will find yourself in three more Stances, at the start in the Iron Door, in the Middle the Hanging Point, and in the end full above you in the Unicorn, then grip your Sword with the haft before your chest, so that the half edge lies on your left arm. Now you stand in the Key, and thus you come have onward and drove on along Line A and E from one stance into the other.</p>
| Erstlich so du den odern oder Scheitelhauw thust findestu drey Leger / dann im anfang ligstu im Tag / im Mittel im Langenort / am endt im Olber / also hastu in der geraden Lini von ober herab von A und E drey Huten oder Leger / fehrestu widerumb von unden herauff mit geschrenckten händen zur versatzung / befindestu abermals drey Leger / Nemlich im anfang die Eysenport / im mittel das Hangentort / im endt ubersich in voller höh das Einhorn / ziehest du dein Schwerdt mit dem hefft vor die Brust / das die halbe schneide auff deinem Lincken Arm ligt / so stehestu im Schlüssel / also kommestu im auff und abfahren in der Lini A. und E. auß einem Leger in das ander.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/39|2|lbl=1.9rb}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| The other lines to consider are on the right where we will now examine two strikes. One is from the right Ox striking the high quarter, with the H - D line being addressed, the other is from the Left high part going to the right lower part, along the B - F line. How you will strike through these will be further described here, and then I will soon take you farther through all Strikes and Stances on both sides, both Right and Left, which will be fully described, and of this I will disclose all favourable methods shortly but will start by describing only one method. Firstly or initially move into the Wrathful Guard, from which also comes the strike’s name, that is the Wrathful Strike, which is named for its wrathful bearing and intent, then midway through the strike move into the Long Point, and at the end move into the Changer. Should you strike onward from here with the Long edge, you will then go farther through three more Stances, which start with the Low Guard, onward through the middle with the Long Point, and end above you in the Unicorn, striking through the Line cited above. Thus from either side as you wish, you will start from the Changer and go through the Long Point into the Wrathful Guard. You can similarly strike out with your Sword from the Hanging Point, from which you drive over in front of you to move into the Guard of the Ox. Thus you find always, when taking the indicated Lines, one moves through them via at least three stances.
+
| <p>The other lines to consider are on the right where we will now examine two strikes. One is from the right Ox striking the high quarter, with the H - D line being addressed, the other is from the Left high part going to the right lower part, along the B - F line. How you will strike through these will be further described here, and then I will soon take you farther through all Strikes and Stances on both sides, both Right and Left, which will be fully described, and of this I will disclose all favourable methods shortly but will start by describing only one method.</p>
| Der andern Linien so Schlim durch die rechte Lini herabwerts streichen seind zwo / eine die von dem rechten Ober quatier streichet / mit H. und D. bedeutet / die ander die von dem Lincken Obertheil zu dem Rechten undertheil geht / im B. F. gezeichnet / Du hauwest nun durch welche du wilst / dan hieroben gemelten und alhier ichs kurtzlich widerholet haben wil / das alle Häuw und Leger auff alle beide seiten / Recht und Lincks volbracht werden können / ob gleich umb geliebter kürtze willen zum mehrerm theil dieselb nur auff eine art beschrieben / so kommestu erstlich oder anfangs in die Zornhut / von welcher auch der Hauw den Namen bekommet / das er [Xr] der Zornhauw / umb zornigs geberdt willen genennet / auff halben weg des Hauwes ins Langort / und am endt in den Wechsel. Zeihestu von dasien den streich wider herauff mit Langer schneid / so gehestu wider durch drey Leger / als im anfang gibt es die Nebenhut / in der mit widerumb das Langort / unnd im endt ubersich das Einhorn / Streichestu durch obermelten Lini eine / sey von welcher seiten es wolle / so kommestu auß dem Wechsel durch das Langort in die Zornhut / auch kanstu im auffstreichen dein Schwerdt verwenden in das Hangentort / auß welchem so du ferner ubersich fahrest kommestu in die Hut des Ochsens / also findestu alweg so offt du der gezeichneten Lini eine durchferest auff das wenigste drey Leger.
+
 
 +
<p>Firstly or initially move into the Wrathful Guard, from which also comes the strike’s name, that is the Wrathful Strike, which is named for its wrathful bearing and intent, then midway through the strike move into the Long Point, and at the end move into the Changer. Should you strike onward from here with the Long edge, you will then go farther through three more Stances, which start with the Low Guard, onward through the middle with the Long Point, and end above you in the Unicorn, striking through the Line cited above.Thus from either side as you wish, you will start from the Changer and go through the Long Point into the Wrathful Guard.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>You can similarly strike out with your Sword from the Hanging Point, from which you drive over in front of you to move into the Guard of the Ox. Thus you find always, when taking the indicated Lines, one moves through them via at least three stances.</p>
 +
|  
 +
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/39|3|lbl=1.9rc|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/40|1|lbl=1.9va|p=1}}
  
 
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|  
 
|  
| However it shall be a good Fencer who does not rush and who waits longer in his Stances, so that as soon as he can reach his opponent to attack, he can Fence onward to take the pre-named paths, as waiting longer allows many displacements from which one eventually can come to strike, as will be described below.
+
| <p>However it shall be a good Fencer who does not rush and who waits longer in his Stances, so that as soon as he can reach his opponent to attack, he can Fence onward to take the pre-named paths, as waiting longer allows many displacements from which one eventually can come to strike, as will be described below.</p>
| Es sol sich aber ein guter Fechter nicht gewehnen / in seinem Legern lang zu warten / sondern alßbald er seinen gegenman kan erlangen / denselben angreiffen / und sen vorgenommen stuck außFechten / Dann lang warten bedarff vil versetzens / auß welchem man langsam zu streichen kan kommen / wie unden vom versetzen weiter gesagt.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/40|2|lbl=1.9vb}}
  
 
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|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| The Stances are also very useful towards the divisions and openings, thus if one comes into a Stance without danger before Striking, he can soon be mindful of what path to take from pre-fencing. These then serve not just for careful and sensible changes from one Stance to the other, but also to entice the opponent, such that he will be made unable to know what you shall Fence with. Lastly this is also good and useful for all from here on, in that you will easily know and recognise your opponent’s part, and what he can safely fence with, and so thus oppose him more sensibly.
+
| <p>The Stances are also very useful towards the divisions and openings, thus if one comes into a Stance without danger before Striking, he can soon be mindful of what path to take from pre-fencing. These then serve not just for careful and sensible changes from one Stance to the other, but also to entice the opponent, such that he will be made unable to know what you shall Fence with. Lastly this is also good and useful for all from here on, in that you will easily know and recognise your opponent’s part, and what he can safely fence with, and so thus oppose him more sensibly.</p>
| Es sein auch die Leger sehr nutz / zu der stuck abtheilung / dann ob einer im Vorhauwen ohne gefehr in ein Leger kommet / kan er sich alßbald darauß erinnern / was für stuck darauß zuFechten. Als denn dienen sie nit allein zum zierlichen und füglichen abwechseln / auß einem Leger in das ander / sonder auch zur verfuerung des Mans / und das er jrr gemacht wirdt / nicht wissen mag / was er auff dich Fechten soll / und letzlichen ist auch diß hierauß nutzliche~ und gut / das du deines gegenparts stuck leichtlich ersehen und kenen kanst / was er ungefehrlich auff dich Fechten wirt oder kan / und im also desto füglicher begegnen.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/40|3|lbl=1.9vc}}
  
 
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|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Now much has been said about this art’s start, namely the pre-fencing against your opponent, which faces off through the Stances to the Strikes. Now the rest of the art will follow and we will move onto other parts, and in due form onto the next chapter, which is Of The Strikes.
+
| <p>Now much has been said about this art’s start, namely the pre-fencing against your opponent, which faces off through the Stances to the Strikes. Now the rest of the art will follow and we will move onto other parts, and in due form onto the next chapter, which is Of The Strikes.</p>
| So viel sey gesagt von diser kunst anfang nemlich / dem zufechten gegen dem Man / welches geschicht mit den häuwen durch die Leger. Jetzt volgt der gantzen kunst anderer Theil / so zu dem ersten noch gehörig / welches ist von den Häuwen.
+
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Revision as of 18:44, 18 October 2018

Joachim Meyer
Born ca. 1537
Basel, Germany
Died 24 February 1571 (aged 34)
Schwerin, Germany
Spouse(s) Appolonia Ruhlman
Occupation
Citizenship Strasbourg
Patron
  • Johann Albrecht (?)
  • Johann Casimir
Movement Freifechter
Influences
Influenced
Genres Fencing manual
Language Early New High German
Notable work(s) Gründtliche Beschreibung der
Kunst des Fechtens
(1570)
Manuscript(s)
First printed
english edition
Forgeng, 2006
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations
Signature Joachim Meyer sig.jpg

Joachim Meyer (ca. 1537 - 1571)[1] was a 16th century German Freifechter and fencing master. He was the last major figure in the tradition of the German grand master Johannes Liechtenauer, and in the last years of his life he devised at least three distinct and quite extensive fencing manuals. Meyer's writings incorporate both the traditional Germanic technical syllabus and contemporary systems that he encountered in his travels, including the Italian school of side sword fencing.[2] In addition to his fencing practice, Meyer was a Burgher and a master cutler.[3]

Meyer was born in Basel,[4] where he presumably apprenticed as a cutler. He writes in his books that he traveled widely in his youth, most likely a reference to the traditional Walz that journeyman craftsmen were required to take before being eligible for mastery and membership in a guild. Journeymen were often sent to stand watch and participate in town and city militias (a responsibility that would have been amplified for the warlike cutlers' guild), and Meyer learned a great deal about foreign fencing systems during his travels. It's been speculated by some fencing historians that he trained specifically in the Bolognese school of fencing, but this doesn't stand up to closer analysis.[5]

Records show that by 4 June 1560 he had settled in Strasbourg, where he married Appolonia Ruhlman (Ruelman)[1] and joined the Cutler's Guild. His interests had already moved beyond knife-smithing, however, and in 1561, Meyer petitioned the City Council of Strasbourg for the right to hold a Fechtschule (fencing competition). He would repeat this in 1563, 1566, 1567 and 1568;[6] the 1568 petition is the first extant record in which he identifies himself as a fencing master.

Meyer probably wrote his first manuscript (MS A.4º.2) in either 1560 or 1568 for Otto Count von Sulms, Minzenberg, and Sonnenwaldt.[7] Its contents seem to be a series of lessons on training with long sword, dussack, and rapier. His second manuscript (MS Var.82), written between 1563 and 1570 for Heinrich Graf von Eberst, is of a decidedly different nature. Like many fencing manuscripts from the previous century, it is an anthology of treatises by a number of prominent German masters including Sigmund ain Ringeck, pseudo-Peter von Danzig, and Martin Syber, and also includes a brief outline by Meyer himself on a system of rapier fencing based on German Messer teachings. Finally, on 24 February 1570 Meyer completed (and soon thereafter published) an enormous multi-weapon treatise entitled Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens ("A Thorough Description of the Art of Combat"); it was dedicated to Johann Casimir, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and illustrated at the workshop of Tobias Stimmer.[8]

Unfortunately, Meyer's writing and publication efforts incurred significant debts (about 1300 crowns), which Meyer pledged to repay by Christmas of 1571.[1] Late in 1570, Meyer accepted the position of Fechtmeister to Duke Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg at his court in Schwerin. There Meyer hoped to sell his book for a better price than was offered locally (30 florins). Meyer sent his books ahead to Schwerin, and left from Strasbourg on 4 January 1571 after receiving his pay. He traveled the 500 miles to Schwerin in the middle of a harsh winter, arriving at the court on 10 February 1571. Two weeks later, on 24 February, Joachim Meyer died. The cause of his death is unknown, possibly disease or pneumonia.[6]

Antoni Rulman, Appolonia’s brother, became her legal guardian after Joachim’s death. On 15 May 1571, he had a letter written by the secretary of the Strasbourg city chamber and sent to the Duke of Mecklenburg stating that Antoni was now the widow Meyer’s guardian; it politely reminded the Duke who Joachim Meyer was, Meyer’s publishing efforts and considerable debt, requested that the Duke send Meyer’s personal affects and his books to Appolonia, and attempted to sell some (if not all) of the books to the Duke.[1]

Appolonia remarried in April 1572 to another cutler named Hans Kuele, bestowing upon him the status of Burgher and Meyer's substantial debts. Joachim Meyer and Hans Kuele are both mentioned in the minutes of Cutlers' Guild archives; Kuele may have made an impression if we can judge that fact by the number of times he is mentioned. It is believed that Appolonia and either her husband or her brother were involved with the second printing of his book in 1600. According to other sources, it was reprinted yet again in 1610 and in 1660.[9][10]

Treatises

Joachim Meyer's writings are preserved in two manuscripts prepared in the 1560s, the MS A.4º.2 (Lund) and the MS Var 82 (Rostock); a third manuscript from 1561 has been lost since at least the mid-20th century, and its contents are unknown.[11] Dwarfing these works is the massive book he published in 1570 entitled "A Thorough Description of the Free, Chivalric, and Noble Art of Fencing, Showing Various Customary Defenses, Affected and Put Forth with Many Handsome and Useful Drawings". Meyer's writings purport to teach the entire art of fencing, something that he claimed had never been done before, and encompass a wide variety of teachings from disparate sources and traditions. In keeping with this goal, Meyer seems to have constructed his treatises to present a method for training to fence, a significant departure from the earlier works in the tradition which explain the system of fencing directly. In keeping with this, he illustrated the techniques with depictions of fencers in courtyards using training weapons such as two-handed fencing swords, wooden dussacks, and rapiers with ball tips.

The first part of Meyer's treatise is devoted to the long sword (the sword in two hands), which he presents as the foundational weapon of his system, and this section devotes the most space to fundamentals like stance and footwork. His long sword system draws upon the teachings of Freifechter Andre Paurñfeyndt (via Christian Egenolff's reprint) and Liechtenauer glossators Sigmund ain Ringeck and pseudo-Peter von Danzig, as well as using terminology otherwise unique to the brief Recital of Martin Syber. Not content merely to compile these teachings as his contemporary Paulus Hector Mair was doing, Meyer sought to update—even reinvent—them in various ways to fit the martial climate of the late sixteenth century, including adapting many techniques to accommodate the increased momentum of a greatsword and modifying others to use beats with the flat and winding slices in place of thrusts to comply with street-fighting laws in German cities (and the rules of the Fechtschule).

The second part of Meyer's treatises is designed to address new weapons gaining traction in German lands, the dussack and the rapier, and thereby find places for them in the German tradition. His early Lund manuscript presents a more summarized syllabus of techniques for these weapons, while his printed book goes into greater depth and is structured more in the fashion of lesson plans.[12] Meyer's dussack system, designed for the broad proto-sabers that spread into German lands from Eastern Europe in the 16th century,[13] combines the old Messer teachings of Johannes Lecküchner and the dussack teachings of Andre Paurñfeyndt with other unknown systems (some have speculated that they might include early Polish or Hungarian saber systems). His rapier system, designed for the lighter single-hand swords spreading north from Iberian and Italian lands, seems again to be a hybrid creation, integrating both the core teachings of the 15th century Liechtenauer tradition as well as components that are characteristic of the various regional Mediterranean fencing systems (including, perhaps, teachings derived from the treatise of Achille Marozzo). Interestingly, Meyer's rapier teachings in the Rostock seem to represent an attempt to unify these two weapon system, outlining a method for rapier fencing that includes key elements of his dussack teachings; it is unclear why this method did not appear in his book, but given the dates it may be that they represent his last musings on the weapon, written in the time between the completion of his book in 1570 and his death a year later.

The third part of Meyer's treatise only appears in his published book and covers dagger, wrestling, and various pole weapons. His dagger teachings, designed primarily for urban self-defense, seem to be based in part on the writings of Bolognese master Achille Marozzo[14] and the anonymous teachings in Egenolff, but also include much unique content of unknown origin (perhaps the anonymous dagger teachings in his Rostock manuscript). His staff material makes up the bulk of this section, beginning with the short staff, which, like Paurñfeyndt, he uses as a training tool for various pole weapons (and possibly also the greatsword), and then moving on to the halberd before ending with the long staff (representing the pike). As with the dagger, the sources Meyer based his staff teachings on are largely unknown.

Additional Resources

  • Kiermayer, Alex. Joachim Meyers Kunst Des Fechtens. Gründtliche Beschreibung des Fechtens, 1570. Arts of Mars Books, 2012. ISBN 978-3981162738
  • Meyer, Joachim. Joachim Meyer 1600: Transkription des Fechtbuchs 'Gründtliche Beschreibung der freyen Ritterlichen und Adelichen kunst des Fechtens’. TAT. Wolfgang Landwehr, 2011. ISBN 978-3932077371
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Combat: A German Martial Arts Treatise of 1570. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng.
    • 1st Edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. ISBN 978-1-4039-7092-0
    • 2nd edition. London: Frontline Books, 2014. ISBN 978-1-84832-778-8
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Sword Combat: A 1568 German Treatise on Swordmanship. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng. London: Frontline Books, 2016. ISBN 9781473876750

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Dupuis, Olivier. Joachim Meyer, escrimeur libre, bourgeois de Strasbourg (1537 ? - 1571). In Maîtres et techniques de combat. Dijon: AEDEH, 2006.
  2. Castle, Egerton. Schools and Masters of Fencing: From the Middle Ages to the Eighteenth Century. London: George Bell and Sons, 1885. pp 74 - 76.
  3. Naumann, Robert. Serapeum. Vol. 5. T.O. Weigel, 1844. pp 53-59.
  4. According to his wedding certificate.
  5. His dagger teachings do, however, show some evidence of influence by Achilles Marozzo's printed treatise.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Van Slambrouck, Christopher. "The Life and Work of Joachim Meyer". Meyer Frei Fechter Guild, 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
  7. Norling, Roger. "The history of Joachim Meyer’s fencing treatise to Otto von Solms". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  8. Whose members included Christoph Maurer and Hans Christoffel Stimmer.
  9. Schaer, Alfred. Die altdeutschen fechter und spielleute: Ein beitrag zur deutschen culturgeschichte. K.J. Trübner, 1901. p 76.
  10. Pollock, W. H., Grove, F. C., and Prévost, C. Fencing. London and Bombay: Longmans, Green, and co, 1897. pp 267-268.
  11. Jens P. Kleinau. "1561 Joachim Meyer dedicated a fencing book to the Pfalzgrafen of Pfalz-Veldenz". Hans Talhoffer ~ as seen by Jens P. Kleinau. 04 July 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  12. Roberts, James. "System vs Syllabus: Meyer’s 1560 and 1570 sidesword texts". Hroarr.com, 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  13. Roger Norling. "The Dussack - a weapon of war". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  14. Norling, Roger. "Meyer and Marozzo dagger comparison". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2015.