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Note in the Zufechten, come into the right Change; from there, slash up through his face, so that your sword runs around your head above in a loop. Step with your left foot well to his right and strike with the outside flat from your left against his right athwart to his ear, with this, take your head well out of the way how it is previously stated here and when it clashes, then thrust your pommel through under your right arm and wind with the inside flat, in a flick, up from below again to his right ear. In this winding around remain hard on his shield and press hard from you. If he resists then let your sword go away and pull around your head, strike with the outside flat a strong Clashing Cut over your hand Wind through with the pommel back under your arm and flick from inside behind his blade at his head. Remain hard on his shield and wind rapidly back out, thus you stand back in the Clashing Cut as before. Work further as you will to the four openings, such as the need be and is previously taught here.
 
Note in the Zufechten, come into the right Change; from there, slash up through his face, so that your sword runs around your head above in a loop. Step with your left foot well to his right and strike with the outside flat from your left against his right athwart to his ear, with this, take your head well out of the way how it is previously stated here and when it clashes, then thrust your pommel through under your right arm and wind with the inside flat, in a flick, up from below again to his right ear. In this winding around remain hard on his shield and press hard from you. If he resists then let your sword go away and pull around your head, strike with the outside flat a strong Clashing Cut over your hand Wind through with the pommel back under your arm and flick from inside behind his blade at his head. Remain hard on his shield and wind rapidly back out, thus you stand back in the Clashing Cut as before. Work further as you will to the four openings, such as the need be and is previously taught here.
 
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/122|3|lbl=Ⅰ.51r.3|p=1}} '''[LIv]''' inwendiger flech in einem schnall / von unden auff wider zu seinem rechten Ohr / in solchem winden bleib hart an seim Schilt mit deinem Schwerdt / und truck zugleich hart von dir / helt er wider / so laß dein Schwerdt leiß auß / und zuck umb den Kopff / schlag also mit außwendiger flech zu seinem Lincken / ein starcken Gliitzhauw uber dein hand / das dein knopff wol ubersich gang / so gehet der Hauw dester dieffer / windt mit dem knopffwider under deinem Arm durch / und schnell von inwendig hinder seiner klingen zum Kopff / bleib alwegen hart an seinem schilt unnd windt in eyl wider herauß / so stehestu wider im Gliitzhauw wie vor / arbeit weiter waß du wilt / nach den vier Blössen.
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| '''Item''' If one again cuts a High Cut at you from his right then likewise cut a High Cut in against his at the same time. When it clashes, then rapidly thrust your pommel through under your arm and flick back inward to his head, before it rightly connects pull both your arms crossed upwards to your left and wrench upward around on his blade, flick back around at his left ear from below, thus again with the outside flat, how it is presented above, this double flicking shall happen quickly because it is a particularly nimble technique I have thus properly given to you. For when you bind from one side on his sword and remain hard on it and wind at him inwards and outwards in a flick, doubly on one side to the upper and lower part of his head, then when he parries the flicks, you will surely have an opening on the other side that you may connect with a Circle or by flicking around in a single motion.
 
| '''Item''' If one again cuts a High Cut at you from his right then likewise cut a High Cut in against his at the same time. When it clashes, then rapidly thrust your pommel through under your arm and flick back inward to his head, before it rightly connects pull both your arms crossed upwards to your left and wrench upward around on his blade, flick back around at his left ear from below, thus again with the outside flat, how it is presented above, this double flicking shall happen quickly because it is a particularly nimble technique I have thus properly given to you. For when you bind from one side on his sword and remain hard on it and wind at him inwards and outwards in a flick, doubly on one side to the upper and lower part of his head, then when he parries the flicks, you will surely have an opening on the other side that you may connect with a Circle or by flicking around in a single motion.
| Item Hauwet einer ein Oberhauw auff dich von seiner Rechten / so Hauw auch ein Oberhauw / gegen seinem zugleich mit jhm hinein / in dem es gliitz / so stoß in eil dein knopff under deinem arm durch / und schnell also wider einwerts zum Kopff / ehe das recht rühret zuck deine beid Arm also geschrenckt ubersich gegen deiner Lincken / und reiss an seiner klingen ubersich umb / schnell also wider mit außwendiger oder letzer flech zu seinem Lincken ohr von Unden / wie nechst hie oben / Diß zwifach schnellen soll behendt zugohn / und weil es ein sonderlich behendt stuck ist / hab ich dirs also eigentlichen dargeben / dann gewiß ist / wann du von einer seiten ihm an sein Schwerdt bindest / und bleibest hart daran / windest jhm also hinein unnd außwerts in einem schnall / auff einer seiten Doppel zu dem Obern und Undern theil seines Haupts / so hastu auff der andern seiten / wann er die schnellen versetzt / ein Blöß welche du rühren magst mit einem Zirckel / oder umbschnall in einem flug / hierauß kanstu meins erachtens die winden wol merkcen und lehren.
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That is when an opponent would defend off your double flicks and sets you off, thus catch his shield with yours and shove out; away from you sideways, Indes let your short edge snap around deep at his other opposite opening.
 
That is when an opponent would defend off your double flicks and sets you off, thus catch his shield with yours and shove out; away from you sideways, Indes let your short edge snap around deep at his other opposite opening.
| '''Auch jhenes Schilt mit sterck verwindt /<br/>In des abstoß und schlag geschwindt.'''
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Das ist / wann dir einer das doppel Schnellen wehren wolt / und setzet dir ab / so fasse mit deinem schilt den seinen / gleich wie das kleiner Bild zur Rechten in der Figur so mit dem I. verzeichnet / dem andern die Arm gefaßt hat / doch auff solche weiß das du die Linck hand nit vom hefft lassest / unnd ruck jhm das Schwerdt in einem stoß von dir beseitz auß / laß in des die kurtz schneide umbschnappen / dieff zu seiner andern Blöß gegen uber.
 
 
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<p>Therefore note when a Roof guard Buffel is coming for you, then see that you parry once or twice, until you see the opportunity; that he has driven up the furthest for a stroke. Then drive his strike away from under on his arms and step well under him, thus he strikes his own arms on your blade.</p>
 
<p>Therefore note when a Roof guard Buffel is coming for you, then see that you parry once or twice, until you see the opportunity; that he has driven up the furthest for a stroke. Then drive his strike away from under on his arms and step well under him, thus he strikes his own arms on your blade.</p>
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<p>There are three Squinters, namely two Squinting Cuts; one from the right, the second from your left with crossed hands not unlike the Crooked Cut, how I have reported above concerning the Crooked Cuts. The third is a Squinter with the face, when I focus on a point and act as if I intended to strike there but I do not do this to him, rather I cut in elsewhere.</p>
 
<p>There are three Squinters, namely two Squinting Cuts; one from the right, the second from your left with crossed hands not unlike the Crooked Cut, how I have reported above concerning the Crooked Cuts. The third is a Squinter with the face, when I focus on a point and act as if I intended to strike there but I do not do this to him, rather I cut in elsewhere.</p>
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| <p>The First Squinter goes thus; when you are in the Zufechten, then note as soon as he goes out to strike to your left, then position yourself as if you would strike at the same time to him, do not complete this, but rather turn your Sword in the air so that your hand comes crosswise, and then cut in from above to his right with the short edge and crossed arms, at the same time as him, so that his Blade comes also to his right, or falls by your Right, however, step well with the left foot to his right side.</p>
 
| <p>The First Squinter goes thus; when you are in the Zufechten, then note as soon as he goes out to strike to your left, then position yourself as if you would strike at the same time to him, do not complete this, but rather turn your Sword in the air so that your hand comes crosswise, and then cut in from above to his right with the short edge and crossed arms, at the same time as him, so that his Blade comes also to his right, or falls by your Right, however, step well with the left foot to his right side.</p>
 
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| <p>The Second is the Old Squinter cut, that goes thus; In the Zufechten send yourself into the right Wrath guard, if he cuts then at your head from above, thus step from your right and strike to his cut by turning the short edge over his sword in to his head with outstretched arms, how the figures hereafter show.</p>
 
| <p>The Second is the Old Squinter cut, that goes thus; In the Zufechten send yourself into the right Wrath guard, if he cuts then at your head from above, thus step from your right and strike to his cut by turning the short edge over his sword in to his head with outstretched arms, how the figures hereafter show.</p>
 
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<p>'''Note''' When one does a Squinting Cut against your long cut, thus he opens his right side, therefore do not allow him to come onto your sword but rather change through below and cut him to his right long in from your left after driving through.</p>
 
<p>'''Note''' When one does a Squinting Cut against your long cut, thus he opens his right side, therefore do not allow him to come onto your sword but rather change through below and cut him to his right long in from your left after driving through.</p>
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'''Item''' If one changes through under your Squinting Cut to your right side, then remain nevertheless with the point right before his face and turn the long edge against his blade, allow Indes your pommel to go through under your right arm and step with your left foot well to his right side. Thus he has changed through in vain, for you come at his head with the first Squinting Cut and crossed hands, At once allow it to run off by his right side using the Circle and Thwart to his left.
 
'''Item''' If one changes through under your Squinting Cut to your right side, then remain nevertheless with the point right before his face and turn the long edge against his blade, allow Indes your pommel to go through under your right arm and step with your left foot well to his right side. Thus he has changed through in vain, for you come at his head with the first Squinting Cut and crossed hands, At once allow it to run off by his right side using the Circle and Thwart to his left.
| '''[LIIIr] Bruch.'''
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ITem Wechselt dir einer under deinem Schielhauw durch / zu deiner Rechten seiten / so bleib gleichwol mit dem ort gerichts vor seinem gesicht / und wende die Lange schneide gegen seiner klingen / laß in des dein knopff under dein Rechten arm durchgehen / und trit mit dem Lincken fuß wol auff sein Rechte seiten / so hat er vergebens durchgewechselt / dann du kommest jhm mit dem andern Schielhauw und geschrenckten henden auff den Kopff / laß als bald durch den Zirckel neben seinem Rechten ablauffen / und Zwirch zu seinem Lincken ohr.
 
 
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Note when an opponent comes before you in the guard of the Plow, then attack happily with the Squinting Cut, As soon as he drives out, then work to his lower openings and further to all four openings.
 
Note when an opponent comes before you in the guard of the Plow, then attack happily with the Squinting Cut, As soon as he drives out, then work to his lower openings and further to all four openings.
| '''Bruch auff den Pflug.'''
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MErck wann dir einer fürkompt in der Hut des Pfluges / so greiff jn frölich an mit dem Schielhauw / so bald er aufffehrt / so arbeit jhm zu den undern Blössen / und fürter zu allen vier enden.
 
 
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Item if one stands before you in the Long Point, thus position yourself with the gesture that you would cut in with a long High cut to his left ear, do not do this, but rather turn in the air and cut a strong Squinter cut to his sword, when it clashes, then slice the point forward into his face so that he must displace. When he drives upwards then pull your sword around your head in a flight and cut with the short edge and crossed hands; athwart to his right ear, allow the left hand to go well out and thus the short edge goes deep. Pull again around your head and wrench out his blade with the flat from your right athwart to his left, so that your sword again flies around above your head and allow the short edge to shoot in deep to his left ear, at once cut two undercuts to his right and left, Indes cut away.
 
Item if one stands before you in the Long Point, thus position yourself with the gesture that you would cut in with a long High cut to his left ear, do not do this, but rather turn in the air and cut a strong Squinter cut to his sword, when it clashes, then slice the point forward into his face so that he must displace. When he drives upwards then pull your sword around your head in a flight and cut with the short edge and crossed hands; athwart to his right ear, allow the left hand to go well out and thus the short edge goes deep. Pull again around your head and wrench out his blade with the flat from your right athwart to his left, so that your sword again flies around above your head and allow the short edge to shoot in deep to his left ear, at once cut two undercuts to his right and left, Indes cut away.
| '''Bruch auff das Lang ort.'''
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Item stehet einer vor dir in das Langort / so stelle dich mit geberden sam du ein langen Oberhauw wolltest zu seinem Lincken ohr Hauwen / thu es nit / sonder verwende in der lufft / unnd Hauwe ein starcken Schielhauw auff sein Schwerdt / in dem es gliitzt / so schieb den ort für dir hin zu seinem gesicht / das muß er versetzen / in dem er ubersich fehrt / so zucke dein Schwerdt in einem fluge umb dein Kopff / Hauwe mit gekreutzigten henden / die kurtz schneid uberzwerch zu seinem Rechten ohr / disen nenne ich den andern Schieler / laß die Linck hand wol under deinem rechten Arm ubersich gehen / so gehet die kurtz schneide dieff / zuck wider umb dein Kopff / unnd reiß jhm sein kling von deiner Rechten uberzwerch gegen seiner Lincken / mit der flech auß / das dein Schwerdt ober deinem Haupt widerumb fleuget / und laß jhm die kurtz schneide dieff einschiessen zu seinem Lincken ohr / als bald Hauw zwen Underhäuw zu seiner Rechten und Lincken / in des Hauwe dich wegk.
 
 
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Revision as of 21:43, 23 April 2021

Joachim Meyer
Born ca. 1537
Basel, Germany
Died 24 February 1571 (aged 34)
Schwerin, Germany
Spouse(s) Appolonia Ruhlman
Occupation
Citizenship Strasbourg
Patron
  • Johann Albrecht (?)
  • Johann Casimir
Movement Freifechter
Influences
Influenced
Genres Fencing manual
Language Early New High German
Notable work(s) Gründtliche Beschreibung der
Kunst des Fechtens
(1570)
Manuscript(s)
First printed
english edition
Forgeng, 2006
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations
Signature Joachim Meyer sig.jpg

Joachim Meyer (ca. 1537 - 1571)[1] was a 16th century German Freifechter and fencing master. He was the last major figure in the tradition of the German grand master Johannes Liechtenauer, and in the last years of his life he devised at least three distinct and quite extensive fencing manuals. Meyer's writings incorporate both the traditional Germanic technical syllabus and contemporary systems that he encountered in his travels, including Italian rapier fencing.[2] In addition to his fencing practice, Meyer was a Burgher and a master cutler.[3]

Meyer was born in Basel,[4] where he presumably apprenticed as a cutler. He writes in his books that he traveled widely in his youth, most likely a reference to the traditional Walz that journeyman craftsmen were required to take before being eligible for mastery and membership in a guild. Journeymen were often sent to stand watch and participate in town and city militias (a responsibility that would have been amplified for the warlike cutlers' guild), and Meyer learned a great deal about foreign fencing systems during his travels. It's been speculated by some fencing historians that he trained specifically in the Bolognese school of fencing, but this doesn't stand up to closer analysis.[5]

Records show that by 4 June 1560 he had settled in Strasbourg, where he married Appolonia Ruhlman (Ruelman)[1] and was granted the rank of master cutler. His interests had already moved beyond smithing, however, and in 1561, Meyer petitioned the City Council of Strasbourg for the right to hold a Fechtschule (fencing competition). He would repeat this in 1563, 1566, 1567 and 1568;[6] the 1568 petition is the first extant record in which he identifies himself as a fencing master.

Meyer probably wrote his first manuscript (MS A.4º.2) in either 1560 or 1568 for Otto Count von Sulms, Minzenberg, and Sonnenwaldt.[7] Its contents seem to be a series of lessons on training with long sword, dussack, and rapier. His second manuscript (MS Var.82), written between 1563 and 1570 for Heinrich Graf von Eberst, is of a decidedly different nature. Like many fencing manuscripts from the previous century, it is an anthology of treatises by a number of prominent German masters including Sigmund ain Ringeck, pseudo-Peter von Danzig, and Martin Syber, and also includes a brief outline by Meyer himself on a system of rapier fencing based on German Messer teachings. Finally, on 24 February 1570 Meyer completed (and soon thereafter published) an enormous multi-weapon treatise entitled Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens ("A Thorough Description of the Art of Combat"); it was dedicated to Johann Casimir, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and illustrated at the workshop of Tobias Stimmer.[8]

Unfortunately, Meyer's writing and publication efforts incurred significant debts (about 1300 crowns), which Meyer pledged to repay by Christmas of 1571.[1] Late in 1570, Meyer accepted the position of Fechtmeister to Duke Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg at his court in Schwerin. There Meyer hoped to sell his book for a better price than was offered locally (30 florins). Meyer sent his books ahead to Schwerin, and left from Strasbourg on 4 January 1571 after receiving his pay. He traveled the 800 miles to Schwerin in the middle of a harsh winter, arriving at the court on 10 February 1571. Two weeks later, on 24 February, Joachim Meyer died. The cause of his death is unknown, possibly disease or pneumonia.[6]

Antoni Rulman, Appolonia’s brother, became her legal guardian after Joachim’s death. On 15 May 1571, he had a letter written by the secretary of the Strasbourg city chamber and sent to the Duke of Mecklenburg stating that Antoni was now the widow Meyer’s guardian; it politely reminded the Duke who Joachim Meyer was, Meyer’s publishing efforts and considerable debt, requested that the Duke send Meyer’s personal affects and his books to Appolonia, and attempted to sell some (if not all) of the books to the Duke.[1]

Appolonia remarried in April 1572 to another cutler named Hans Kuele, bestowing upon him the status of Burgher and Meyer's substantial debts. Joachim Meyer and Hans Kuele are both mentioned in the minutes of Cutlers' Guild archives; Kuele may have made an impression if we can judge that fact by the number of times he is mentioned. It is believed that Appolonia and either her husband or her brother were involved with the second printing of his book in 1600. According to other sources, it was reprinted yet again in 1610 and in 1660.[9][10]

Treatises

Joachim Meyer's writings are preserved in two manuscripts prepared in the 1560s, the MS A.4º.2 (Lund) and the MS Var 82 (Rostock); a third manuscript from 1561 has been lost since at least the mid-20th century, and its contents are unknown.[11] Dwarfing these works is the massive book he published in 1570 entitled "A Thorough Description of the Free, Chivalric, and Noble Art of Fencing, Showing Various Customary Defenses, Affected and Put Forth with Many Handsome and Useful Drawings". Meyer's writings purport to teach the entire art of fencing, something that he claimed had never been done before, and encompass a wide variety of teachings from disparate sources and traditions. To achieve this goal, Meyer seems to have constructed his treatises as a series of progressive lessons, describing a process for learning to fence rather than merely outlining the underlying theory or listing the techniques. In keeping with this, he illustrates his techniques with depictions of fencers in courtyards using training weapons such as two-handed foils, wooden dussacks, and rapiers with ball tips.

The first part of Meyer's treatise is devoted to the long sword (the sword in two hands), which he presents as the foundational weapon of his system, and this section devotes the most space to fundamentals like stance and footwork. His long sword system draws upon the teachings of Freifechter Andre Paurñfeyndt (via Christian Egenolff's reprint) and Liechtenauer glossators Sigmund ain Ringeck and Lew, as well as using terminology otherwise unique to the brief Recital of Martin Syber. Not content merely to compile these teachings as his contemporary Paulus Hector Mair was doing, Meyer sought to update—even reinvent—them in various ways to fit the martial climate of the late sixteenth century, including adapting many techniques to accommodate the increased momentum of a greatsword and modifying others to use beats with the flat and winding slices in place of thrusts to comply with street-fighting laws in German cities (and the rules of the Fechtschule).

The second part of Meyer's treatises is designed to address new weapons gaining traction in German lands, the dussack and the rapier, and thereby find places for them in the German tradition. His early Lund manuscript presents a more summarized syllabus of techniques for these weapons, while his printed book goes into greater depth and is structured more in the fashion of lesson plans.[12] Meyer's dussack system, designed for the broad proto-sabers that spread into German lands from Eastern Europe in the 16th century,[13] combines the old Messer teachings of Johannes Lecküchner and the dussack teachings of Andre Paurñfeyndt with other unknown systems (some have speculated that they might include early Polish or Hungarian saber systems). His rapier system, designed for the lighter single-hand swords spreading north from Iberian and Italian lands, seems again to be a hybrid creation, integrating both the core teachings of the 15th century Liechtenauer tradition as well as components that are characteristic of the various regional Mediterranean fencing systems (including, perhaps, teachings derived from the treatise of Achille Marozzo). Interestingly, Meyer's rapier teachings in the Rostock seem to represent an attempt to unify these two weapon system, outlining a method for rapier fencing that includes key elements of his dussack teachings; it is unclear why this method did not appear in his book, but given the dates it may be that they represent his last musings on the weapon, written in the time between the completion of his book in 1570 and his death a year later.

The third part of Meyer's treatise only appears in his published book and covers dagger, wrestling, and various pole weapons. His dagger teachings, designed primarily for urban self-defense, seem to be based in part on the writings of Bolognese master Achille Marozzo[14] and the anonymous teachings in Egenolff, but also include much unique content of unknown origin (perhaps the anonymous dagger teachings in his Rostock manuscript). His staff material makes up the bulk of this section, beginning with the short staff, which, like Paurñfeyndt, he uses as a training tool for various pole weapons (and possibly also the greatsword), and then moving on to the halberd before ending with the long staff (representing the pike). As with the dagger, the sources Meyer based his staff teachings on are largely unknown.

Additional Resources

  • Kiermayer, Alex. Joachim Meyers Kunst Des Fechtens. Gründtliche Beschreibung des Fechtens, 1570. Arts of Mars Books, 2012. ISBN 978-3981162738
  • Meyer, Joachim. Joachim Meyer 1600: Transkription des Fechtbuchs 'Gründtliche Beschreibung der freyen Ritterlichen und Adelichen kunst des Fechtens’. TAT. Wolfgang Landwehr, 2011. ISBN 978-3932077371
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Combat: A German Martial Arts Treatise of 1570. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng.
    • 1st edition. London: Greenhill Books, 2006. ISBN 978-1-85367-643-7
    • 1st edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. ISBN 1-4039-7092-0
    • 2nd edition. London: Frontline Books, 2014. ISBN 978-1-84832-778-8
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Sword Combat: A 1568 German Treatise on Swordmanship. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng. London: Frontline Books, 2016. ISBN 9781473876750

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Dupuis, Olivier. Joachim Meyer, escrimeur libre, bourgeois de Strasbourg (1537 ? - 1571). In Maîtres et techniques de combat. Dijon: AEDEH, 2006.
  2. Castle, Egerton. Schools and Masters of Fencing: From the Middle Ages to the Eighteenth Century. London: George Bell and Sons, 1885. pp 74 - 76.
  3. Naumann, Robert. Serapeum. Vol. 5. T.O. Weigel, 1844. pp 53-59.
  4. According to his wedding certificate.
  5. His dagger teachings do, however, show some evidence of influence by Achilles Marozzo's printed treatise.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Van Slambrouck, Christopher. "The Life and Work of Joachim Meyer". Meyer Frei Fechter Guild, 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
  7. Norling, Roger. "The history of Joachim Meyer’s fencing treatise to Otto von Solms". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  8. Whose members included Christoph Maurer and Hans Christoffel Stimmer.
  9. Schaer, Alfred. Die altdeutschen fechter und spielleute: Ein beitrag zur deutschen culturgeschichte. K.J. Trübner, 1901. p 76.
  10. Pollock, W. H., Grove, F. C., and Prévost, C. Fencing. London and Bombay: Longmans, Green, and co, 1897. pp 267-268.
  11. Jens P. Kleinau. "1561 Joachim Meyer dedicated a fencing book to the Pfalzgrafen of Pfalz-Veldenz". Hans Talhoffer ~ as seen by Jens P. Kleinau. 04 July 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  12. Roberts, James. "System vs Syllabus: Meyer’s 1560 and 1570 sidesword texts". Hroarr.com, 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  13. Roger Norling. "The Dussack - a weapon of war". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  14. Norling, Roger. "Meyer and Marozzo dagger comparison". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  15. "st" ligature inverted.
  16. Typo: wolt, könne.
  17. "t" is upside down.
  18. 18.00 18.01 18.02 18.03 18.04 18.05 18.06 18.07 18.08 18.09 18.10 18.11 18.12 18.13 18.14 18.15 18.16 18.17 18.18 18.19 18.20 18.21 18.22 18.23 18.24 18.25 18.26 18.27 18.28 18.29 18.30 18.31 indes
  19. palm up
  20. Illegible deletion.
  21. oberhauw
  22. ‘right’ is originally written, ‘left’ is written above it
  23. short edge
  24. “Degen”, lit. dagger, could either refer to a sword or dagger.
  25. short edge
  26. Unleserliche Streichung. Illegible deletion.
  27. Unleserliche gestrichen Einfügung oberhalb der Zeile. Crossed out illegible insertion above the line.
  28. Die Schlaufe des »h« trägt ein Diärese. The loop of the “h” carries a diaeresis.
  29. Korrigiert aus »mitelhauw«. Corrected from “mitelhauw”.
  30. Leicht unleserlich. Slightly illegible.
  31. Überschriebens »vom«. Overwritten “vom”.
  32. Inserted by means of a special mark.
  33. Word inserted next to the text.
  34. Inserted nest to the text.
  35. Zwei Worte am Seitenrand nachgetragen. Two words inserted at the margin.
  36. Wort am Seitenrand nachgetragen. Word inserted at the margin.