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| '''Allow the Circle to connect to the right<br/>Hold your hands high, you will deceive him'''
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| <p>Allow the Circle to connect to the right<br/>Hold your hands high, you will deceive him</p>
  
The Circle also comes from the Crooked Cuts and is a particularly good technique for deception, compared to others, because it does not just run off, unlike other deceptive techniques, like ablauffen and the like, but rather when one does it correctly and strikes the Circle very hard with the short edge in running by.
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<p>The Circle also comes from the Crooked Cuts and is a particularly good technique for deception, compared to others, because it does not just run off, unlike other deceptive techniques, like ablauffen and the like, but rather when one does it correctly and strikes the Circle very hard with the short edge in running by.</p>
  
This Stück goes thus, (after you have come under his sword in the attack) when your stay in the bind, and drive your sword over the head, as soon as he gives a little room, so that he is not binding on the sword, but rather drives his sword then high above you, then cross your hands in the air, and cut from above with the short edge thus put crosswise, down to his right ear, so that whether your Blade hits or not, it runs around in a circle by his right arm, and in this keep your hands high above your head, as soon as he slips after the Circle, then step with your left foot well on to his right side, and cut in at his head with the Long edge, over his right arm, behind his blade, take your body and head well away from his strike with a step to your left side.
+
<p>This Stück goes thus, (after you have come under his sword in the attack) when your stay in the bind, and drive your sword over the head, as soon as he gives a little room, so that he is not binding on the sword, but rather drives his sword then high above you, then cross your hands in the air, and cut from above with the short edge thus put crosswise, down to his right ear, so that whether your Blade hits or not, it runs around in a circle by his right arm, and in this keep your hands high above your head, as soon as he slips after the Circle, then step with your left foot well on to his right side, and cut in at his head with the Long edge, over his right arm, behind his blade, take your body and head well away from his strike with a step to your left side.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/115|2|lbl=Ⅰ.47v.2}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/115|2|lbl=Ⅰ.47v.2}}
 
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword K.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword K.jpg|center|400px]]
| '''A good Stück from the Circle'''
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| <p>'''A good Stück from the Circle'''</p>
  
When you stand before one in this same work, how you have previously been taught, thus pay attention when your advantage will come, then step aside at once with your left foot out to your left side, and cut with a circle to his right while you are stepping but that in running past to the right, it grazes, and also with this Circle, step through with your right foot between you and him, in to his right side, with this stepping through, cut a Zwerchhau from your right to his left, forwards to the face Indes spring well out to his right and cut him long after to his head.
+
<p>When you stand before one in this same work, how you have previously been taught, thus pay attention when your advantage will come, then step aside at once with your left foot out to your left side, and cut with a circle to his right while you are stepping but that in running past to the right, it grazes, and also with this Circle, step through with your right foot between you and him, in to his right side, with this stepping through, cut a Zwerchhau from your right to his left, forwards to the face Indes spring well out to his right and cut him long after to his head.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/115|3|lbl=Ⅰ.47v.3}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/115|3|lbl=Ⅰ.47v.3}}
 
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| [[File:MS A.4º.2 14r.jpg|400px|center]]
| '''With the Crooked step well if you want to displace<br/>The crossing over, does him harm'''
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| <p>With the Crooked step well if you want to displace<br/>The crossing over, does him harm</p>
  
This is when you cut in Crooked at the same time as him, with your strike you should step well out from his strike, so that you have your head behind your blade, well from his strike. The second part teaches you that when you have bound on his sword with a Crooked cut, that you nimbly cross over where you have the opportunity and then snap around or wind the quick snap to his head, or wrench out, allow it to overrun.
+
<p>This is when you cut in Crooked at the same time as him, with your strike you should step well out from his strike, so that you have your head behind your blade, well from his strike. The second part teaches you that when you have bound on his sword with a Crooked cut, that you nimbly cross over where you have the opportunity and then snap around or wind the quick snap to his head, or wrench out, allow it to overrun.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/117|1|lbl=Ⅰ.48v.1}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/117|1|lbl=Ⅰ.48v.1}}
 
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword O.jpg|center|400px]]
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| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword O.jpg|center|400px]]
| '''A Stück from the Reversing'''
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| <p>'''A Stück from the Reversing'''</p>
  
Note in Zufechten that you pay attention when he goes up before you, then step and cut a Crooked from your left to or above his right arm, with this Crooked cut step well to him, and reverse your sword and wrench downwards and out to your right side If he may work further, thus drive with the pommel from inside, between both of his arms, allow your left hand to release from the grip and grab your sword blade and wrench out upwards, how this figure shows.
+
<p>Note in Zufechten that you pay attention when he goes up before you, then step and cut a Crooked from your left to or above his right arm, with this Crooked cut step well to him, and reverse your sword and wrench downwards and out to your right side If he may work further, thus drive with the pommel from inside, between both of his arms, allow your left hand to release from the grip and grab your sword blade and wrench out upwards, how this figure shows.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/117|2|lbl=Ⅰ.48v.2}}
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'''Counter''' - let go the left hand, and allow him to wrench without avail, Indes drive after his upwards pressing, with your slice to his arms, do not allow him to come to any further work, nor to cut freely, when you see your advantage, at once, allow your sword to fly to the next opening.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/117|2|lbl=Ⅰ.48v.2}}
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| <p>'''Counter''' - Let go the left hand, and allow him to wrench without avail, Indes drive after his upwards pressing, with your slice to his arms, do not allow him to come to any further work, nor to cut freely, when you see your advantage, at once, allow your sword to fly to the next opening.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/117|3|lbl=Ⅰ.48v.3}}
 
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| [[File:MS A.4º.2 15r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS A.4º.2 15r.jpg|400px|center]]
| '''Cut Crooked to his Flat<br/>And you will Weaken the Master'''
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| <p>Cut Crooked to his Flat<br/>And you will Weaken the Master</p>
  
This is a lesson how you shall weaken one's incoming strike, and goes thus, In Zufechten pay attention when he cuts in at you from his right, then step well out from his strike and cut with crossed hands and the Long edge onto the strong of his sword's blade, on the Flat, thereby you weaken him, so that he can barely recover for another strike, then before he recovers you are on his head with winding and flicking.
+
<p>This is a lesson how you shall weaken one's incoming strike, and goes thus, In Zufechten pay attention when he cuts in at you from his right, then step well out from his strike and cut with crossed hands and the Long edge onto the strong of his sword's blade, on the Flat, thereby you weaken him, so that he can barely recover for another strike, then before he recovers you are on his head with winding and flicking.</p>
  
The Counter you should mark that when one meets you with a crooked cut, to your on coming strike, to weaken you, then change through nimbly under his blade and work to his side from which he sent his Crooked cut.
+
<p>The Counter you should mark that when one meets you with a crooked cut, to your on coming strike, to weaken you, then change through nimbly under his blade and work to his side from which he sent his Crooked cut.</p>
 
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/117|3|lbl=Ⅰ.48v.3|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/119|1|lbl=Ⅰ.49v.1|p=1}}
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/117|4|lbl=Ⅰ.48v.4|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/119|1|lbl=Ⅰ.49v.1|p=1}}
 
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| '''When first they connect and clash above<br/>Pull away to the openings you will confuse him'''
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| <p>When first they connect and clash above<br/>Pull away to the openings you will confuse him</p>
  
This is a very good rhyme that admonishes you earnestly to pay attention to the openings that fall before you. For it is known that you go at him correctly in the After, thus you have very often whenever the swords connect or two strike and clash together above, there is an opening below. You will not fail to note this through several Stück.
+
<p>This is a very good rhyme that admonishes you earnestly to pay attention to the openings that fall before you. For it is known that you go at him correctly in the After, thus you have very often whenever the swords connect or two strike and clash together above, there is an opening below. You will not fail to note this through several Stück.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/119|2|lbl=Ⅰ.49v.2}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/119|2|lbl=Ⅰ.49v.2}}
 
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| Note in Zufechten send yourself into the Wrath Guard, as soon as you can get him, then step and cut in with him from your right a powerful high cut, when this clashes, then strike around nimbly with a Thwart to his left ear, with a back-step of your left foot, behind your right, thus you likewise hit twice, or complete two strikes before he completes one.
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| <p>Note in Zufechten send yourself into the Wrath Guard, as soon as you can get him, then step and cut in with him from your right a powerful high cut, when this clashes, then strike around nimbly with a Thwart to his left ear, with a back-step of your left foot, behind your right, thus you likewise hit twice, or complete two strikes before he completes one.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/119|3|lbl=Ⅰ.49v.3}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/119|3|lbl=Ⅰ.49v.3}}
 
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| '''Item''' If one cuts at you from above like before, then cut from your lower left against his strike, so that you catch his High cut up in the air, as soon as it connects then cut with the forward short edge and crossed hands in a Circle, to his right ear and that you swiftly go almost at the same time, namely that when the blades connect together, thus you shall hit down from above with the short edge.
+
| <p>'''Item''' If one cuts at you from above like before, then cut from your lower left against his strike, so that you catch his High cut up in the air, as soon as it connects then cut with the forward short edge and crossed hands in a Circle, to his right ear and that you swiftly go almost at the same time, namely that when the blades connect together, thus you shall hit down from above with the short edge.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/119|4|lbl=Ⅰ.49v.4}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/119|4|lbl=Ⅰ.49v.4}}
 
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| '''Item''' In the Onset act as if you would cut from above; but as soon as you note that he slips upwards against your cut, at once turn your High Cut into a Low Cut before it actually connects above, this is the Simultaneous Failer.
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| <p>'''Item''' In the Onset act as if you would cut from above; but as soon as you note that he slips upwards against your cut, at once turn your High Cut into a Low Cut before it actually connects above, this is the Simultaneous Failer.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/119|5|lbl=Ⅰ.49v.5}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/119|5|lbl=Ⅰ.49v.5}}
 
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| '''Item''' If he cuts from below, thus fall on it with your long edge from above when it clashes, then pull back nimbly and strike to the next opening in one motion, or strike around from his sword with the flat in a winding flick to the next opening.
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| <p>'''Item''' If he cuts from below, thus fall on it with your long edge from above when it clashes, then pull back nimbly and strike to the next opening in one motion, or strike around from his sword with the flat in a winding flick to the next opening.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/119|6|lbl=Ⅰ.49v.6}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/119|6|lbl=Ⅰ.49v.6}}
 
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| [[File:MS A.4º.2 16v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS A.4º.2 16v.jpg|400px|center]]
| rowspan="2" | '''When you cut crooked at his strong<br/>Be sure to wind through and overrun with it'''
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| rowspan="2" | <p>When you cut crooked at his strong<br/>Be sure to wind through and overrun with it</p>
 
 
This is when you cut a Crooked cut at one, and he holds off hard so that you cannot cross over, or have other work from above, thus wind under and through with the pommel, and cast the pommel to the other side over his blade or arm from the outside, and wrench downwards and strike in with the long edge deep to his head, or cast the pommel in between both of his hands, how this figure reveals.
 
 
 
  
 +
<p>This is when you cut a Crooked cut at one, and he holds off hard so that you cannot cross over, or have other work from above, thus wind under and through with the pommel, and cast the pommel to the other side over his blade or arm from the outside, and wrench downwards and strike in with the long edge deep to his head, or cast the pommel in between both of his hands, how this figure reveals.</p>
 
| rowspan="2" | {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/120|1|lbl=Ⅰ.50r.1}}
 
| rowspan="2" | {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/120|1|lbl=Ⅰ.50r.1}}
 
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| '''The Pommel deception, you shall remember<br/>With Flicking and Quickening you will vex him'''
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| <p>The Pommel deception, you shall remember<br/>With Flicking and Quickening you will vex him</p>
  
This is when you cut in with a Crooked Cut to his strong, if he opposes or displaces high, then wind through below with the pommel, and act as if you would grab over with the pommel, as I have already taught; and before he realizes it, then quickly flick the short edge back in at him, again on the same line, to whichever side you first did the Crooked Cut.
+
<p>This is when you cut in with a Crooked Cut to his strong, if he opposes or displaces high, then wind through below with the pommel, and act as if you would grab over with the pommel, as I have already taught; and before he realizes it, then quickly flick the short edge back in at him, again on the same line, to whichever side you first did the Crooked Cut.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/120|3|lbl=Ⅰ.50r.3}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/120|3|lbl=Ⅰ.50r.3}}
 
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| '''Item''' In the Zufechten, lay on against your opponent with a powerful horizontal Middle Cut strongly at his left ear. Quickly pull your pommel around your head, and threaten him with it as if you would thrust at his other side with the pommel, and if he wishes to slip after and displace the thrust then flick back at his left ear with the short edge, and in flicking, step with your left foot back behind your right.
+
| <p>'''Item''' In the Zufechten, lay on against your opponent with a powerful horizontal Middle Cut strongly at his left ear. Quickly pull your pommel around your head, and threaten him with it as if you would thrust at his other side with the pommel, and if he wishes to slip after and displace the thrust then flick back at his left ear with the short edge, and in flicking, step with your left foot back behind your right.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/120|4|lbl=Ⅰ.50r.4}}
 
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| '''Also you will then correctly shoot through<br/>Crooked, Short, change through on his shield'''
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| <p>Also you will then correctly shoot through<br/>Crooked, Short, change through on his shield</p>
  
This is a proper master's technique, when you are in the Zufechten, then send yourself into the right Wrath; as soon as he brings his sword in the air, then strike a free High Cut at him, and in the air, cross your hands so that the right hand comes crosswise over the left, and cut then through crooked with the short edge against his cut, in this, step with a double step well out to his right, and cut with the long edge at his right ear, or use changing through to come onto his shield against his right; then work with winding, slicing, and whatever other work arises for you.
+
<p>This is a proper master's technique, when you are in the Zufechten, then send yourself into the right Wrath; as soon as he brings his sword in the air, then strike a free High Cut at him, and in the air, cross your hands so that the right hand comes crosswise over the left, and cut then through crooked with the short edge against his cut, in this, step with a double step well out to his right, and cut with the long edge at his right ear, or use changing through to come onto his shield against his right; then work with winding, slicing, and whatever other work arises for you.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/121|1|lbl=Ⅰ.50v.1}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/121|1|lbl=Ⅰ.50v.1}}
 
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| '''A free running Stuck from the Shooting through'''
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| <p>'''A free running Stuck from the Shooting through'''</p>
  
Take heed in the Zufechten of he who pulls up his sword to strike, thus cut through quickly and freely before him how it is taught above, so that you come to his right on to his shield. And as soon as it connects, then wind again with the short edge in at his head, and in this winding, jerk your pommel well upward, so that your blade again snaps around, so that in your cut, your right hand comes back over your left, hit then with crossed hands, and thus in snapping around, wind in below to his right ear, and step at the same time, quickly with your left foot well out to his right. Then at once Thwart to his left ear with a step out, deeply wind your short edge inwards and again outwards to his left ear, and then cut away from him.
+
<p>Take heed in the Zufechten of he who pulls up his sword to strike, thus cut through quickly and freely before him how it is taught above, so that you come to his right on to his shield. And as soon as it connects, then wind again with the short edge in at his head, and in this winding, jerk your pommel well upward, so that your blade again snaps around, so that in your cut, your right hand comes back over your left, hit then with crossed hands, and thus in snapping around, wind in below to his right ear, and step at the same time, quickly with your left foot well out to his right. Then at once Thwart to his left ear with a step out, deeply wind your short edge inwards and again outwards to his left ear, and then cut away from him.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/121|2|lbl=Ⅰ.50v.2}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/121|2|lbl=Ⅰ.50v.2}}
 
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| '''Note when he would confuse you with the Crooked,<br/>Remain rightly on the sword; carry out the Krieg<br/>With winding, slicing, and what’s more;<br/>With flitting let yourself not go too far.'''
+
| <p>Note when he would confuse you with the Crooked,<br/>Remain rightly on the sword; carry out the Krieg<br/>With winding, slicing, and what’s more;<br/>With flitting let yourself not go too far.</p>
  
In these rhymes you learn how you should hold yourself against one who binds crooked on your sword, and reports to you, as well, two techniques. Namely the remaining and the War, this is when one binds you crooked on your sword, thus you should not pull away at once, but remain and feel what kind of work you will need, like for example, if he withdraws you chase after;
+
<p>In these rhymes you learn how you should hold yourself against one who binds crooked on your sword, and reports to you, as well, two techniques. Namely the remaining and the War, this is when one binds you crooked on your sword, thus you should not pull away at once, but remain and feel what kind of work you will need, like for example, if he withdraws you chase after;</p>
  
 
'''Item''' If he remains, then you wind. For winding, slicing, wrenching out, and reversing is called the War, through which one to the other always counters the opponent's devices. And one counter follows one from another, for if he wards off one, then with this he gives you occasion or helps you to another technique that conveniently follows after it, thus you both make War. Also this same you should note, when an opponent lays on against you with a Crooked Cut, that you shall not fly around from one opening to another, for as soon as you go away from the Crooked Cut, then you are totally open to him, where he will correctly step.
 
'''Item''' If he remains, then you wind. For winding, slicing, wrenching out, and reversing is called the War, through which one to the other always counters the opponent's devices. And one counter follows one from another, for if he wards off one, then with this he gives you occasion or helps you to another technique that conveniently follows after it, thus you both make War. Also this same you should note, when an opponent lays on against you with a Crooked Cut, that you shall not fly around from one opening to another, for as soon as you go away from the Crooked Cut, then you are totally open to him, where he will correctly step.
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| '''Quickly flick the weak to the right,<br/>Double flick, protect yourself with the shield'''
+
| <p>Quickly flick the weak to the right,<br/>Double flick, protect yourself with the shield</p>
  
Note in the Zufechten, come into the right Change; from there, slash up through his face, so that your sword runs around your head above in a loop. Step with your left foot well to his right and strike with the outside flat from your left against his right athwart to his ear, with this, take your head well out of the way how it is previously stated here and when it clashes, then thrust your pommel through under your right arm and wind with the inside flat, in a flick, up from below again to his right ear. In this winding around remain hard on his shield and press hard from you. If he resists then let your sword go away and pull around your head, strike with the outside flat a strong Clashing Cut over your hand Wind through with the pommel back under your arm and flick from inside behind his blade at his head. Remain hard on his shield and wind rapidly back out, thus you stand back in the Clashing Cut as before. Work further as you will to the four openings, such as the need be and is previously taught here.
+
<p>Note in the Zufechten, come into the right Change; from there, slash up through his face, so that your sword runs around your head above in a loop. Step with your left foot well to his right and strike with the outside flat from your left against his right athwart to his ear, with this, take your head well out of the way how it is previously stated here and when it clashes, then thrust your pommel through under your right arm and wind with the inside flat, in a flick, up from below again to his right ear. In this winding around remain hard on his shield and press hard from you. If he resists then let your sword go away and pull around your head, strike with the outside flat a strong Clashing Cut over your hand Wind through with the pommel back under your arm and flick from inside behind his blade at his head. Remain hard on his shield and wind rapidly back out, thus you stand back in the Clashing Cut as before. Work further as you will to the four openings, such as the need be and is previously taught here.</p>
 
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/122|3|lbl=Ⅰ.51r.3|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/123|1|lbl=Ⅰ.51v.1|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/122|3|lbl=Ⅰ.51r.3|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/123|1|lbl=Ⅰ.51v.1|p=1}}
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| '''Item''' If one again cuts a High Cut at you from his right then likewise cut a High Cut in against his at the same time. When it clashes, then rapidly thrust your pommel through under your arm and flick back inward to his head, before it rightly connects pull both your arms crossed upwards to your left and wrench upward around on his blade, flick back around at his left ear from below, thus again with the outside flat, how it is presented above, this double flicking shall happen quickly because it is a particularly nimble technique I have thus properly given to you. For when you bind from one side on his sword and remain hard on it and wind at him inwards and outwards in a flick, doubly on one side to the upper and lower part of his head, then when he parries the flicks, you will surely have an opening on the other side that you may connect with a Circle or by flicking around in a single motion.
+
| <p>'''Item''' If one again cuts a High Cut at you from his right then likewise cut a High Cut in against his at the same time. When it clashes, then rapidly thrust your pommel through under your arm and flick back inward to his head, before it rightly connects pull both your arms crossed upwards to your left and wrench upward around on his blade, flick back around at his left ear from below, thus again with the outside flat, how it is presented above, this double flicking shall happen quickly because it is a particularly nimble technique I have thus properly given to you. For when you bind from one side on his sword and remain hard on it and wind at him inwards and outwards in a flick, doubly on one side to the upper and lower part of his head, then when he parries the flicks, you will surely have an opening on the other side that you may connect with a Circle or by flicking around in a single motion.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/123|2|lbl=Ⅰ.51v.2}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/123|2|lbl=Ⅰ.51v.2}}
 
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword I.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword I.jpg|center|400px]]
| '''Also wind forcefully against his shield,<br/>Instantly shove him away and strike swiftly.'''
+
| <p>Also wind forcefully against his shield,<br/>Instantly shove him away and strike swiftly.</p>
  
That is when an opponent would defend off your double flicks and sets you off, thus catch his shield with yours and shove out; away from you sideways, Indes let your short edge snap around deep at his other opposite opening.
+
<p>That is when an opponent would defend off your double flicks and sets you off, thus catch his shield with yours and shove out; away from you sideways, Indes let your short edge snap around deep at his other opposite opening.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/123|3|lbl=Ⅰ.51v.3}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/123|3|lbl=Ⅰ.51v.3}}
 
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| <p>'''The Squinter cut you shall do wisely<br/>With winding you can also double him'''</p>
+
| <p>The Squinter cut you shall do wisely<br/>With winding you can also double him</p>
  
 
<p>There are three Squinters, namely two Squinting Cuts; one from the right, the second from your left with crossed hands not unlike the Crooked Cut, how I have reported above concerning the Crooked Cuts. The third is a Squinter with the face, when I focus on a point and act as if I intended to strike there but I do not do this to him, rather I cut in elsewhere.</p>
 
<p>There are three Squinters, namely two Squinting Cuts; one from the right, the second from your left with crossed hands not unlike the Crooked Cut, how I have reported above concerning the Crooked Cuts. The third is a Squinter with the face, when I focus on a point and act as if I intended to strike there but I do not do this to him, rather I cut in elsewhere.</p>
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| <p><br/></p>
  
'''Item''' If one changes through under your Squinting Cut to your right side, then remain nevertheless with the point right before his face and turn the long edge against his blade, allow Indes your pommel to go through under your right arm and step with your left foot well to his right side. Thus he has changed through in vain, for you come at his head with the first Squinting Cut and crossed hands, At once allow it to run off by his right side using the Circle and Thwart to his left.
+
<p>'''Item''' If one changes through under your Squinting Cut to your right side, then remain nevertheless with the point right before his face and turn the long edge against his blade, allow Indes your pommel to go through under your right arm and step with your left foot well to his right side. Thus he has changed through in vain, for you come at his head with the first Squinting Cut and crossed hands, At once allow it to run off by his right side using the Circle and Thwart to his left.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/126|1|lbl=Ⅰ.53r.1}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/126|1|lbl=Ⅰ.53r.1}}
 
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| '''Counter to the Plow'''
+
| <p>'''Counter to the Plow'''</p>
  
Note when an opponent comes before you in the guard of the Plow, then attack happily with the Squinting Cut, As soon as he drives out, then work to his lower openings and further to all four openings.
+
<p>Note when an opponent comes before you in the guard of the Plow, then attack happily with the Squinting Cut, As soon as he drives out, then work to his lower openings and further to all four openings.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/126|2|lbl=Ⅰ.53r.2}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/126|2|lbl=Ⅰ.53r.2}}
 
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| [[File:MS A.4º.2 22v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS A.4º.2 22v.jpg|400px|center]]
| '''Counter to the Long Point'''
+
| <p>'''Counter to the Long Point'''</p>
  
Item if one stands before you in the Long Point, thus position yourself with the gesture that you would cut in with a long High cut to his left ear, do not do this, but rather turn in the air and cut a strong Squinter cut to his sword, when it clashes, then slice the point forward into his face so that he must displace. When he drives upwards then pull your sword around your head in a flight and cut with the short edge and crossed hands; athwart to his right ear, allow the left hand to go well out and thus the short edge goes deep. Pull again around your head and wrench out his blade with the flat from your right athwart to his left, so that your sword again flies around above your head and allow the short edge to shoot in deep to his left ear, at once cut two undercuts to his right and left, Indes cut away.
+
<p>Item if one stands before you in the Long Point, thus position yourself with the gesture that you would cut in with a long High cut to his left ear, do not do this, but rather turn in the air and cut a strong Squinter cut to his sword, when it clashes, then slice the point forward into his face so that he must displace. When he drives upwards then pull your sword around your head in a flight and cut with the short edge and crossed hands; athwart to his right ear, allow the left hand to go well out and thus the short edge goes deep. Pull again around your head and wrench out his blade with the flat from your right athwart to his left, so that your sword again flies around above your head and allow the short edge to shoot in deep to his left ear, at once cut two undercuts to his right and left, Indes cut away.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/126|3|lbl=Ⅰ.53r.3}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/126|3|lbl=Ⅰ.53r.3}}
 
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| <p><br/></p>
  
Item If an opponent comes before you who will gladly bind long on to you from above or sends his first stroke long at you from the Roof, then when you are near to him or have come to him, slash through before him, up and out to your left, so that your sword's blade shoots around over your head in the Plunge to his left, Indes allow your sword to snap around back over your head, the right hand over the left and strike in at his right ear with the short edge at the same time as his strike, how it is taught above, do this correctly and step well there to him thus you will hit. So then this Stück is only on going, if he displaces however and drives out how he then (when he will displace) must drive out, at once pull around your head and cut him with the Long Edge from below athwart to his Left radial forearm, close to his pommel to the wrist. Of these two openings, one will be apparent to you, Pull your Hilt again upwards around your head and cut long with a strong cut to his upper left head, in these three strikes, step well with both your feet, in a double, step around his left side, thus the cuts go on well, this a good and earnest Stück, when you will seek to send it home.
+
<p>Item If an opponent comes before you who will gladly bind long on to you from above or sends his first stroke long at you from the Roof, then when you are near to him or have come to him, slash through before him, up and out to your left, so that your sword's blade shoots around over your head in the Plunge to his left, Indes allow your sword to snap around back over your head, the right hand over the left and strike in at his right ear with the short edge at the same time as his strike, how it is taught above, do this correctly and step well there to him thus you will hit. So then this Stück is only on going, if he displaces however and drives out how he then (when he will displace) must drive out, at once pull around your head and cut him with the Long Edge from below athwart to his Left radial forearm, close to his pommel to the wrist. Of these two openings, one will be apparent to you, Pull your Hilt again upwards around your head and cut long with a strong cut to his upper left head, in these three strikes, step well with both your feet, in a double, step around his left side, thus the cuts go on well, this a good and earnest Stück, when you will seek to send it home.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/127|1|lbl=Ⅰ.53v.1}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/127|1|lbl=Ⅰ.53v.1}}
 
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| '''Another Stück from the Squinter cut'''
+
| <p>'''Another Stück from the Squinter cut'''</p>
  
In Zufechten, when you come close to him, then position yourself as if you would cut a long High cut at him, when he drives out to meet you, thus turn the short edge from your right, in the air, against his left and jerk your pommel upwards, cut him with the short edge over his arm or hand, step well to his left side, allow this to run forth over in a circle and cut long after to the next opening, or fight to him with the under cuts.
+
<p>In Zufechten, when you come close to him, then position yourself as if you would cut a long High cut at him, when he drives out to meet you, thus turn the short edge from your right, in the air, against his left and jerk your pommel upwards, cut him with the short edge over his arm or hand, step well to his left side, allow this to run forth over in a circle and cut long after to the next opening, or fight to him with the under cuts.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/127|2|lbl=Ⅰ.53v.2}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/127|2|lbl=Ⅰ.53v.2}}
 
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| '''The Double Squinter'''
+
| <p>'''The Double Squinter'''</p>
  
Item At the Start, thus cut against his cut from your right, with a Squinter to his sword, when this clashes, then reverse your sword on his blade and slide off to your left, step out with the right, continuing towards his left side, allow your blade to drive around your head and cut the next Squinter to his head, also from your right above and in deep to his left. Then cut a double squinter, nimbly, one into the other, stepping to his left, this is a very swift Stück against slow fencers who fight with their arms far from themselves.
+
<p>Item At the Start, thus cut against his cut from your right, with a Squinter to his sword, when this clashes, then reverse your sword on his blade and slide off to your left, step out with the right, continuing towards his left side, allow your blade to drive around your head and cut the next Squinter to his head, also from your right above and in deep to his left. Then cut a double squinter, nimbly, one into the other, stepping to his left, this is a very swift Stück against slow fencers who fight with their arms far from themselves.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/128|1|lbl=Ⅰ.54r.1}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/128|1|lbl=Ⅰ.54r.1}}
 
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| '''The Third Squinter is a deceiving with the Face'''
+
| <p>'''The Third Squinter is a deceiving with the Face'''</p>
  
In Zufechten slash up so that you come into the Guard of the Roof, as soon as you can reach him, at once wind the short edge to him, while its still in the air, squint with your face as if you would cut to his left with the Squinter cut, don't do this, but rather allow the Squinter to fall past by his left and work to his right, or work him to the right and cut quickly again to his left, take your body well after with it, for this is a fine and good work that can't be written as well as it can be shown with the living body.
+
<p>In Zufechten slash up so that you come into the Guard of the Roof, as soon as you can reach him, at once wind the short edge to him, while its still in the air, squint with your face as if you would cut to his left with the Squinter cut, don't do this, but rather allow the Squinter to fall past by his left and work to his right, or work him to the right and cut quickly again to his left, take your body well after with it, for this is a fine and good work that can't be written as well as it can be shown with the living body.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/128|3|lbl=Ⅰ.54r.3}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/128|3|lbl=Ⅰ.54r.3}}
 
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword G.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword G.jpg|center|400px]]
| '''Note a swift Stück from the Squinter'''
+
| <p>'''Note a swift Stück from the Squinter'''</p>
  
When you come close to him, then Wing up by him, so that you come with crossed hands into the Unicorn. In this Winging up, lift your left foot somewhat upwards, after you come through the Unicorn with crossed hands, thus you stand as if you would shoot through, as soon as he extends his sword out, thus cut then with crossed hands and the short edge from above again to his right, on to the forward portion of his sword's blade and before it connects, turn your short edge around and cut with the Squinter, that is with the short edge from your right to his left side, to his arm or face, not with crossed hands and with a step of your right foot, towards his left, in hitting, allow your blade to run off from his left only slightly besides and along with this, thrust through at once with your pommel, under your right arm, then cross your hands so that your short edge snaps around again to his left, over to his head or arm thus with crossed hand from your right to your left or bar him over both of his arms, if he holds you again so that you cannot wrench out or suppress from above, then allow the pommel to run through below and grab him over his right arm, drive the wrestling to him.
+
<p>When you come close to him, then Wing up by him, so that you come with crossed hands into the Unicorn. In this Winging up, lift your left foot somewhat upwards, after you come through the Unicorn with crossed hands, thus you stand as if you would shoot through, as soon as he extends his sword out, thus cut then with crossed hands and the short edge from above again to his right, on to the forward portion of his sword's blade and before it connects, turn your short edge around and cut with the Squinter, that is with the short edge from your right to his left side, to his arm or face, not with crossed hands and with a step of your right foot, towards his left, in hitting, allow your blade to run off from his left only slightly besides and along with this, thrust through at once with your pommel, under your right arm, then cross your hands so that your short edge snaps around again to his left, over to his head or arm thus with crossed hand from your right to your left or bar him over both of his arms, if he holds you again so that you cannot wrench out or suppress from above, then allow the pommel to run through below and grab him over his right arm, drive the wrestling to him.</p>
 
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/128|4|lbl=Ⅰ.54r.4|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/129|1|lbl=Ⅰ.54v.1|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/128|4|lbl=Ⅰ.54r.4|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/129|1|lbl=Ⅰ.54v.1|p=1}}
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| [[File:MS A.4º.2 25r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS A.4º.2 25r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <br/>
+
| <p><br/></p>
  
Changing through is useful against those who fight with the Squinter or Crooked Cuts. Note this also, if he does not extend his hands far from him in his cuts but rather holds them close by himself in fighting, you may readily change through far from him.
+
<p>Changing through is useful against those who fight with the Squinter or Crooked Cuts. Note this also, if he does not extend his hands far from him in his cuts but rather holds them close by himself in fighting, you may readily change through far from him.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/129|2|lbl=Ⅰ.54v.2}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/129|2|lbl=Ⅰ.54v.2}}
 
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| '''Item''' If he fights with winding, reversing, Crooked Cuts, Squinting Cuts or any other Stück with it he shortens his strike or cannot fight long from himself, how it then goes in such Stücken in which you shall also (before they bring their technique to the halfway) change through against him, to the other side which he opens with this shortening, thus you force him to displace and he allows the Vor to pass to you.
+
| <p>'''Item''' If he fights with winding, reversing, Crooked Cuts, Squinting Cuts or any other Stück with it he shortens his strike or cannot fight long from himself, how it then goes in such Stücken in which you shall also (before they bring their technique to the halfway) change through against him, to the other side which he opens with this shortening, thus you force him to displace and he allows the Vor to pass to you.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/129|3|lbl=Ⅰ.54v.3}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/129|3|lbl=Ⅰ.54v.3}}
 
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| '''Item''' If one fights far and long from himself with the long edge, however more to your sword than body, then you shall change through to the next opening and allow him to fall through with his cuts. So then be diligent with how you fence, that is with the short or long edge, that you namely cut him to the opening, that is, you cut him to the body and if it does not always happen that you may cut him to the body, thus when he changes through, you quickly fall in after his Sword to the opening.
+
| <p>'''Item''' If one fights far and long from himself with the long edge, however more to your sword than body, then you shall change through to the next opening and allow him to fall through with his cuts. So then be diligent with how you fence, that is with the short or long edge, that you namely cut him to the opening, that is, you cut him to the body and if it does not always happen that you may cut him to the body, thus when he changes through, you quickly fall in after his Sword to the opening.</p>
  
Also thus note this Rule in all cutting, when you connect or catch his blade with your strong, in the bind, as soon as it clashes, you shall cut at once with the weak (that is with the forward part) to the body or next opening cut at, so that then your sword cuts likewise at his blade and body, or as soon as your strong connects with his sword, then as they clash together you shall turn the weak to the nearest opening with flicking, snapping and winding.
+
<p>Also thus note this Rule in all cutting, when you connect or catch his blade with your strong, in the bind, as soon as it clashes, you shall cut at once with the weak (that is with the forward part) to the body or next opening cut at, so that then your sword cuts likewise at his blade and body, or as soon as your strong connects with his sword, then as they clash together you shall turn the weak to the nearest opening with flicking, snapping and winding.</p>
 
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/129|4|lbl=Ⅰ.54v.4|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/130|1|lbl=Ⅰ.55r.1|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/129|4|lbl=Ⅰ.54v.4|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/130|1|lbl=Ⅰ.55r.1|p=1}}
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| Further you should take from these lessons, when you will execute these techniques against someone who knows how to change through against you, for example when you send your sword into the air for a Squinting Cut or Crooked Cut.
+
| <p>Further you should take from these lessons, when you will execute these techniques against someone who knows how to change through against you, for example when you send your sword into the air for a Squinting Cut or Crooked Cut.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/130|2|lbl=Ⅰ.55r.2}}
 +
|
  
'''Item''' To the Crossing over, Falling and others which are similar, as soon as you realize that he will change through, then fall from such work into the Long Slice, to the opening that he gives you by changing through. For often when he changes through he opens himself, And when you travel after to his opening, then watch for his sword with the long edge, if it would come too near to you, that you turn the strong against him and at the same time, remain on his opening with the short edge, as soon as you have connected, then remain no longer but rather let it quickly fly away from one opening to another.
+
|-
| Ferner hald dich auch diser lehr / wann du solche stuck Fechten wilt gegen denen er dir durchwechseln kann / als nemlich dieweil du dein Schwerdt in der lufft führest / zu einem Schielhauw oder Krumphauw. Item zum verschrencken / verfellen und was dergleichen ist / so bald du gewar wirst das er durchwechseln will / so verfall auß solcher arbeit in den langen schnit / das ist in das Langort der Blöße zu / die er dir geben wirt im durchwechseln / dann so offt er durchwechselt blöst er sich / unnd in dem du ihme zur Blöß durchreissest / so wardt mit der Langen schneide seines schwerdts / wo es dir zu nahe komen wolt / das du mit der sterck gegen ihme wendest / unn gleich wol mit der kurtze schneide auff seiner Blöse bleibest / als bald du gerühret hast / so verharr nicht lenger / sondern laß behendt abfliegen von einer Blöß zur andern.
+
|
 +
| <p>'''Item''' To the Crossing over, Falling and others which are similar, as soon as you realize that he will change through, then fall from such work into the Long Slice, to the opening that he gives you by changing through. For often when he changes through he opens himself, And when you travel after to his opening, then watch for his sword with the long edge, if it would come too near to you, that you turn the strong against him and at the same time, remain on his opening with the short edge, as soon as you have connected, then remain no longer but rather let it quickly fly away from one opening to another.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/130|3|lbl=Ⅰ.55r.3}}
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''The Thwart you shall also consider valuable,<br/>With it your skill in the sword becomes great.'''
+
| <p>The Thwart you shall also consider valuable,<br/>With it your skill in the sword becomes great.</p>
 
 
The Thwart is one of the chief master techniques with the sword. For you should know, if the Thwart did not exist, then it would be like "half fencing", especially when you are under the opponent’s sword and therein you can no longer attack with long cuts through the Cross, and if I have already written enough about the Thwart such that if someone knows how to fight, he could have a sufficient understanding from it, but meanwhile I write not great of great Fencers or Artists, also I have not intended to write historically of fencing, as the art is drawn from memory. But rather solely, I've attempted to write an instruction book, therefore I will not only repeat the Thwart here, but also write more fully about it, for the instruction of those that love such art.
 
| '''Die Zwirch soltu auch halten werdt /<br/>Damit ganz wirdt dein kunst im Schwerdt.'''
 
  
Die Zwiirch ist auch der fürnemen Meisterstuck eins im Schwerdt / dann du solt wissen / wann die Zwirch nit wehre wie jetziger zeit im brauch ist / were es umb das halb Fechten geschehen / sonderlich wann du under des Mannes Schwerdt darinnen bist / da du nicht mehr mit langen Häuwen durch kreutz Fechten kanst / ob ich schon vornen auch von den Zwirchen geschriben / sovil das wo einer Fechten kan / gnugsam verstand darauß fassen köndte / aber dierweil vil an der Zwirch (wie gesagt) gelegen / zu den ich auch grossen Meistern / sonder vil mehr den lehrnenden zuschreiben mir fürgenomen / Derhalben ich die Zwirch hie nicht allein wider holen / sonder auch weitläuffiger davon schreiben / zur lehr denen die solche kunst lieben.
+
<p>The Thwart is one of the chief master techniques with the sword. For you should know, if the Thwart did not exist, then it would be like "half fencing", especially when you are under the opponent’s sword and therein you can no longer attack with long cuts through the Cross, and if I have already written enough about the Thwart such that if someone knows how to fight, he could have a sufficient understanding from it, but meanwhile I write not great of great Fencers or Artists, also I have not intended to write historically of fencing, as the art is drawn from memory. But rather solely, I've attempted to write an instruction book, therefore I will not only repeat the Thwart here, but also write more fully about it, for the instruction of those that love such art.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/130|4|lbl=Ⅰ.55r.4}}
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| In Zufechten take note if your opponent will attack at you from the Day, (that is from above) then slash up from the right Change toward your opponent's face, when he will strike or cut, then let your blade drive towards your left and around your head, so that your flat stands upward and your thumb is underneath on your shield, step with your right foot well around his left side toward him, simultaneous with the step, cut with the short edge from your right to his left ear, so that together your hilt and with the thumb underneath, stands high above your head to the displacing, so then if he strikes, you will catch his stroke on the strong of your sword and at the same time with the forward short, you cut athwart from below to his left ear, how the second figure shows, as soon as the swords connect together or clash, then strike with the long Thwart deep at his right ear, such that your thumb remains underneath, perpendicular.
+
| <p>In Zufechten take note if your opponent will attack at you from the Day, (that is from above) then slash up from the right Change toward your opponent's face, when he will strike or cut, then let your blade drive towards your left and around your head, so that your flat stands upward and your thumb is underneath on your shield, step with your right foot well around his left side toward him, simultaneous with the step, cut with the short edge from your right to his left ear, so that together your hilt and with the thumb underneath, stands high above your head to the displacing, so then if he strikes, you will catch his stroke on the strong of your sword and at the same time with the forward short, you cut athwart from below to his left ear, how the second figure shows, as soon as the swords connect together or clash, then strike with the long Thwart deep at his right ear, such that your thumb remains underneath, perpendicular.</p>
| Im zufechten hab acht / ob der Mann auff dich von Tag / das ist von Oben angreiffen wil / so streich von dem rechten Wechsel auff / gegen des Manns gesicht / in dem er schlagen oder Hauwen will / so laß dein kling neben deiner Linken umb den Kopff fahren / das dein flech ubersich stehe / und dein Daumen undersich auff deinem Schilt / oder der Schilt auff deinem Daumen lige / trit mit dem Rechten fuß wol umb sein Lincke seiten zu jhm / gleich mit '''[LVv]''' dem trit / Hauwe mit halber schneide von deiner Rechten seiten / gegen seinem Lincken ohr / das dein gehiltz sampt dem Daumen unden hoch uber dem Haupt stehe zur versatzung / also das wo er schlüge / du im sein streich auff die stercke deines Schwerdts empfangest / unn zugleich mit der eussern kurtzen schneid zwerch von unden zu seinem Lincken ohr treffest / so bald die Schwerdter zusamen rühren oder glützen / so schlag mit der langen Zwirch / das dein Daumen unden bleib / ubereck zu seinem rechten Ohr tieff.
+
|
 +
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/130|5|lbl=Ⅰ.55r.5|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/131|1|lbl=Ⅰ.55v.1|p=1}}
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Secondly, Note when you strike in with a Thwart at the same time as him, or bind on, then from this same, at once search above and below for the openings, with reversing, snapping around again, or Thwarts, fearless Traveling after, then as soon as One will cut from above at you, thus displace him with the Thwart, so that with this, the swords clash together, then reverse, set off upwards, seek the openings and fight with the types of works that have been reported here previously. Wherein Liechtenauer speaks correctly in his cryptic verses,<br/><br/>
+
| <p>Secondly, Note when you strike in with a Thwart at the same time as him, or bind on, then from this same, at once search above and below for the openings, with reversing, snapping around again, or Thwarts, fearless Traveling after, then as soon as One will cut from above at you, thus displace him with the Thwart, so that with this, the swords clash together, then reverse, set off upwards, seek the openings and fight with the types of works that have been reported here previously. Wherein Liechtenauer speaks correctly in his cryptic verses,</p>
  
 
:''The Thwart takes<br/>All that come from above,<br/>Thwart with the strong<br/>Mark your work with it''
 
:''The Thwart takes<br/>All that come from above,<br/>Thwart with the strong<br/>Mark your work with it''
  
that is; all high strikes, displace with the Thwart, or how I have here set forth with my Rhymes:
+
<p>that is; all high strikes, displace with the Thwart, or how I have here set forth with my Rhymes:</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/131|2|lbl=Ⅰ.55v.2}}
 +
|
  
:''For everything that comes from the Roof<br/>The thwart may displace this<br/>In the Onset drive the Failer strongly<br/>Note also you Reverse and Fail with it''
+
|-
 
+
|
If one cuts at you from above, thus Thwart strongly against his strike, you force him to fall so much lower with his cut, when it connects you must then thrust your pommel through under your right, reverse, press downwards, let the blade snap around again with the short edge in his face, yet such that in the reversing and snapping around you remain with the slice on his arms.
+
| <p>For everything that comes from the Roof<br/>The thwart may displace this<br/>In the Onset drive the Failer strongly<br/>Note also you Reverse and Fail with it</p>
| Zum andern merck / wann du mit einem Zwirchschlag zugleich mit jme einhauwest oder anbindest / so bald such Oben und Unden auff derselben seiten die Blöß / mit verkeren und wider umbschnappen / oder Zwirchen Uberschrencken / Nachreisen / Schneiden / Hend trucken / Außreissen / dann als bald dir einer von Oben zuhauwet / so versetz ihm mit der Zwirch / in dem die Schwerdter zusamen glitzen oder rühren / so verkehr schrenck ubersich die Blöß / unnd ficht was dir für arbeit hie neben gemelt zu erst werden mag / Darumb spricht Lichtenawer recht in seinen verborgenen Reimen /
 
 
 
:''Zwirch benimbt /<br/>Was von oben kümpt.<br/>Item Zwirch mit der sterck /<br/>Dein arbeit damit merck.''
 
 
 
Das ist alle Tach streich versetz mit Zwirch / oder wie ich sie hie meinen Reimen gesetzet.
 
 
 
:''Dann alles was da kompt von tag/<br/>Die Zwirch solches versetzen mag.<br/>Im angriff treib die Zwirch mit Sterck/<br/>Verkehren / fehlen auch mit merck.''
 
  
Hauwet einer auff dich von Tag / so Zwirch gegen seinem streich mit sterck / damit zwingestu ihn das er dester dieffer mit seinen Hauw zu thal fallen muß / in dem es glitzt so stoß dein knopff under deinem rechten Arm durch / verkehr also unn truck undersich / laß die kling als bald wider umschnappen / die kurtz schneide in sein gesicht / doch das du im verkeren und umbschnappen mit dem Schnit auff sein Armen bleibest
+
<p>If one cuts at you from above, thus Thwart strongly against his strike, you force him to fall so much lower with his cut, when it connects you must then thrust your pommel through under your right, reverse, press downwards, let the blade snap around again with the short edge in his face, yet such that in the reversing and snapping around you remain with the slice on his arms.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/131|3|lbl=Ⅰ.55v.3|p=1}}
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword I.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword I.jpg|center|400px]]
| This stuck goes well when you do it quickly. However, if he escapes you upward too quickly with his arms, then allow your blade drive around your head, so that your long edge comes forward on his arms, athwart through with an under cut, how the figure here after shows, however do not let go with your left hand from the hilt, rather thrust him from you with crossed hands.
+
| <p>This stuck goes well when you do it quickly. However, if he escapes you upward too quickly with his arms, then allow your blade drive around your head, so that your long edge comes forward on his arms, athwart through with an under cut, how the figure here after shows, however do not let go with your left hand from the hilt, rather thrust him from you with crossed hands.</p>
| Diß stuck gehet wol an wann du es in einer geschwinde machest / wischet er dir aber mit den Armen zubehendt ubersich / so laß dein klingen umbfahren umb dein Kopff / das dein Lange schneid / vornen an sein Arm kome uberzwerch durch einen Underhauw / wie das kleiner Bild in der Figur I. zur lincken hand außweist / aber laß die lincke hand nit vom Hefft / sonder stoß jhn von dir mit geschrenkten Henden.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/131|4|lbl=Ⅰ.55v.4}}
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''To Plow and ox you are quick<br/>Threaten the cut at once against the target'''
+
| <p>To Plow and ox you are quick<br/>Threaten the cut at once against the target</p>
  
This verse is very clear, how the others also are, namely that you should quickly cut the Thwart to the Ox and Plow, to the lower and upper opening, to the left and right, nimbly crosswise, diagonally opposite to all four parts, how with other names, thus you will see the four openings, further reported hereafter, extensively.
+
<p>This verse is very clear, how the others also are, namely that you should quickly cut the Thwart to the Ox and Plow, to the lower and upper opening, to the left and right, nimbly crosswise, diagonally opposite to all four parts, how with other names, thus you will see the four openings, further reported hereafter, extensively.</p>
| '''[LVIrv] Zum Pflug und Ochssen bist behendt /<br/>Ihm trauw den Hauw bald wider endt.'''
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/133|1|lbl=Ⅰ.56v.1}}
 
 
Der Reimen ist an im selber auch gar deutlich / wie auch die andern / Nemlich das du zu dem Ochssen und Pflug / das ist zur undern und obern Blöß / zu Linck und Recht / behendiglich kreutzweiß und ubereck Zwirchen solt / zu allen vier theilen / wie mit andern Häuwen / so in den vier Blössen hievor weitleuffiger gelehrt.
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Next you will learn from the rhyme, how with the high cuts you shall deceive, thus you step forth, then position yourself with comportment and cut a powerful Thwart to his left, if he would go against your sword, whether from above or below, do not allow it to connect, but pull away again and Thwart cut to his right, against his head, you may also threaten him with the thwart to his lower left, then thwart from above.
+
| <p>Next you will learn from the rhyme, how with the high cuts you shall deceive, thus you step forth, then position yourself with comportment and cut a powerful Thwart to his left, if he would go against your sword, whether from above or below, do not allow it to connect, but pull away again and Thwart cut to his right, against his head, you may also threaten him with the thwart to his lower left, then thwart from above.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,438: Line 2,436:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Item''' Threaten to the lower right, and cut to the lower left with this Thwart, thus you can also note that then when you go at his left with the Thwart, then at once to the right threaten but strike back to the left, where you firstly intended, from this knowledge you can pull the Thwart to both sides, crosswise and diagonally opposite. Threaten, then strike after your advantage how it pleases you and in the rough Zufechten there is no cut as safe as the Thwart.
+
| <p>'''Item''' Threaten to the lower right, and cut to the lower left with this Thwart, thus you can also note that then when you go at his left with the Thwart, then at once to the right threaten but strike back to the left, where you firstly intended, from this knowledge you can pull the Thwart to both sides, crosswise and diagonally opposite. Threaten, then strike after your advantage how it pleases you and in the rough Zufechten there is no cut as safe as the Thwart.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,444: Line 2,442:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Note when the Thwart is executed with a spring,<br/>And you execute failing with it, it connects at your will'''
+
| <p>Note when the Thwart is executed with a spring,<br/>And you execute failing with it, it connects at your will</p>
  
Note in the Onset when you will deliver a Thwart to the upper left opening, then spring well out with it and also let your pommel go well upward, thus the Thwart goes deep at his head, especially when you disguise the gesture, you can also when he likewise does not perceive the spring until it has happened, and the Thwart has hit, but if he sees it and defends or parries you, then you shall cut to the lower and opposite corner.
+
<p>Note in the Onset when you will deliver a Thwart to the upper left opening, then spring well out with it and also let your pommel go well upward, thus the Thwart goes deep at his head, especially when you disguise the gesture, you can also when he likewise does not perceive the spring until it has happened, and the Thwart has hit, but if he sees it and defends or parries you, then you shall cut to the lower and opposite corner.</p>
| '''Merck was für Zwürch mit springen wirdt geführt /<br/>Auch fehlest mit / nach wüntschen rührt.'''
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/133|2|lbl=Ⅰ.56v.2}}
 
 
Merck im zufechten / wann du zur Lincken obern Blöß zwirchen wilt / so spring zu solcher wol auff/ und laß auch den knopff wol ubersich gehen / so gehet die Zwirch tieff zum Kopff / sonderlich wann du die geberdt also verstellen kanst / auch gleich unversehens mit der Zwirch daher gesprungen bist / das er des sprungs nicht gewahr nimpt biß er geschehen / und die Zwirch getroffen hat ersicht ers aber unnd wehret oder versetzet solches / so trit eilents mit dem Lincken fuß gegen seiner Rechten seiten / unnd Zwirche ihm von deiner Lincken / mit gesenktem Leib zu seiner Rechten undern blöß / die hast du (wo er die erste zwirch versetzt hat) gewiß.
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Item''' When you thus strike with the Thwart high at your opponent with a spring, and however you do not let it hit, but rather fail and run off beside his left and you strike in rapidly with the Thwart at another opening, then you will hit at your will. For before he thinks to parry the Thwart, you have hit elsewhere.
+
| <p>'''Item''' When you thus strike with the Thwart high at your opponent with a spring, and however you do not let it hit, but rather fail and run off beside his left and you strike in rapidly with the Thwart at another opening, then you will hit at your will. For before he thinks to parry the Thwart, you have hit elsewhere.</p>
| Item wann du also dem Mann in einem sprung hoch und tieff zuschlechst / mit der zwirch oder sonst einer flech / und last es aber nicht treffen / sonder neben seiner Lincken fehl lauffen / schlechst also in eil mit der Zwirch einer andern Blöß / so triffestu nach wunsch / dann ehe er sich besinnet die Zwirch zuversetzen / so hastu anderst wo getroffen / wo du anders solches mit gantzen Leib führest / das ist die geberdt zu solchem stuck recht brauchest.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/133|3|lbl=Ⅰ.56v.3}}
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS A.4º.2 28r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS A.4º.2 28r.jpg|400px|center]]
| '''Double shall your Failer be done<br/>Likewise double the step and slice'''
+
| <p>Double shall your Failer be done<br/>Likewise double the step and slice</p>
  
The Failer is a good technique against the fencers who will gladly displace like in the previous Stück concerning the Thwart, then when you cut to an opening and note that he wishes to parry after, then allow your cut to fail and go by, and cut diagonal to another opening, Double failing is an artful technique and requires an experienced fighter as well, however I will present and describe here to you several double and single techniques from which you can learn many kinds of Failers.
+
<p>The Failer is a good technique against the fencers who will gladly displace like in the previous Stück concerning the Thwart, then when you cut to an opening and note that he wishes to parry after, then allow your cut to fail and go by, and cut diagonal to another opening, Double failing is an artful technique and requires an experienced fighter as well, however I will present and describe here to you several double and single techniques from which you can learn many kinds of Failers.</p>
| '''Doppel solt du den Fehler machen /<br/>Deß gleichen Trit und Schnit zwifachen.'''
+
|
 
+
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/133|4|lbl=Ⅰ.56v.4|p=1}} '''[LVIIr]''' lauffen / und schlechst einer andern Blöß zu / Doppel fehlen ist ein kunstreich stuck / unnd gehöret ein geübter Fechter darzu / aber ich will dir etliche stuck doppel unnd einfach hieher setzen und beschreiben / darauß du allerley fehler wol lernen kanst.
Der Fehler ist ein gut stuck gegen den Fechtern die gern versetzen / wie auch die vorige stuck auß der Zwirch / als wann du einer Blöß zuhauwest / und merckest das er dem Hauwe nach / versetzen / so laß du den Hauw fehl fürüber '''[LVIIr]''' lauffen / und schlechst einer andern Blöß zu / Doppel fehlen ist ein kunstreich stuck / unnd gehöret ein geübter Fechter darzu / aber ich will dir etliche stuck doppel unnd einfach hieher setzen und beschreiben / darauß du allerley fehler wol lernen kanst.
 
 
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Revision as of 16:24, 25 April 2021

Joachim Meyer
Born ca. 1537
Basel, Germany
Died 24 February 1571 (aged 34)
Schwerin, Germany
Spouse(s) Appolonia Ruhlman
Occupation
Citizenship Strasbourg
Patron
  • Johann Albrecht (?)
  • Johann Casimir
Movement Freifechter
Influences
Influenced
Genres Fencing manual
Language Early New High German
Notable work(s) Gründtliche Beschreibung der
Kunst des Fechtens
(1570)
Manuscript(s)
First printed
english edition
Forgeng, 2006
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations
Signature Joachim Meyer sig.jpg

Joachim Meyer (ca. 1537 - 1571)[1] was a 16th century German Freifechter and fencing master. He was the last major figure in the tradition of the German grand master Johannes Liechtenauer, and in the last years of his life he devised at least three distinct and quite extensive fencing manuals. Meyer's writings incorporate both the traditional Germanic technical syllabus and contemporary systems that he encountered in his travels, including Italian rapier fencing.[2] In addition to his fencing practice, Meyer was a Burgher and a master cutler.[3]

Meyer was born in Basel,[4] where he presumably apprenticed as a cutler. He writes in his books that he traveled widely in his youth, most likely a reference to the traditional Walz that journeyman craftsmen were required to take before being eligible for mastery and membership in a guild. Journeymen were often sent to stand watch and participate in town and city militias (a responsibility that would have been amplified for the warlike cutlers' guild), and Meyer learned a great deal about foreign fencing systems during his travels. It's been speculated by some fencing historians that he trained specifically in the Bolognese school of fencing, but this doesn't stand up to closer analysis.[5]

Records show that by 4 June 1560 he had settled in Strasbourg, where he married Appolonia Ruhlman (Ruelman)[1] and was granted the rank of master cutler. His interests had already moved beyond smithing, however, and in 1561, Meyer petitioned the City Council of Strasbourg for the right to hold a Fechtschule (fencing competition). He would repeat this in 1563, 1566, 1567 and 1568;[6] the 1568 petition is the first extant record in which he identifies himself as a fencing master.

Meyer probably wrote his first manuscript (MS A.4º.2) in either 1560 or 1568 for Otto Count von Sulms, Minzenberg, and Sonnenwaldt.[7] Its contents seem to be a series of lessons on training with long sword, dussack, and rapier. His second manuscript (MS Var.82), written between 1563 and 1570 for Heinrich Graf von Eberst, is of a decidedly different nature. Like many fencing manuscripts from the previous century, it is an anthology of treatises by a number of prominent German masters including Sigmund ain Ringeck, pseudo-Peter von Danzig, and Martin Syber, and also includes a brief outline by Meyer himself on a system of rapier fencing based on German Messer teachings. Finally, on 24 February 1570 Meyer completed (and soon thereafter published) an enormous multi-weapon treatise entitled Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens ("A Thorough Description of the Art of Combat"); it was dedicated to Johann Casimir, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and illustrated at the workshop of Tobias Stimmer.[8]

Unfortunately, Meyer's writing and publication efforts incurred significant debts (about 1300 crowns), which Meyer pledged to repay by Christmas of 1571.[1] Late in 1570, Meyer accepted the position of Fechtmeister to Duke Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg at his court in Schwerin. There Meyer hoped to sell his book for a better price than was offered locally (30 florins). Meyer sent his books ahead to Schwerin, and left from Strasbourg on 4 January 1571 after receiving his pay. He traveled the 800 miles to Schwerin in the middle of a harsh winter, arriving at the court on 10 February 1571. Two weeks later, on 24 February, Joachim Meyer died. The cause of his death is unknown, possibly disease or pneumonia.[6]

Antoni Rulman, Appolonia’s brother, became her legal guardian after Joachim’s death. On 15 May 1571, he had a letter written by the secretary of the Strasbourg city chamber and sent to the Duke of Mecklenburg stating that Antoni was now the widow Meyer’s guardian; it politely reminded the Duke who Joachim Meyer was, Meyer’s publishing efforts and considerable debt, requested that the Duke send Meyer’s personal affects and his books to Appolonia, and attempted to sell some (if not all) of the books to the Duke.[1]

Appolonia remarried in April 1572 to another cutler named Hans Kuele, bestowing upon him the status of Burgher and Meyer's substantial debts. Joachim Meyer and Hans Kuele are both mentioned in the minutes of Cutlers' Guild archives; Kuele may have made an impression if we can judge that fact by the number of times he is mentioned. It is believed that Appolonia and either her husband or her brother were involved with the second printing of his book in 1600. According to other sources, it was reprinted yet again in 1610 and in 1660.[9][10]

Treatises

Joachim Meyer's writings are preserved in two manuscripts prepared in the 1560s, the MS A.4º.2 (Lund) and the MS Var 82 (Rostock); a third manuscript from 1561 has been lost since at least the mid-20th century, and its contents are unknown.[11] Dwarfing these works is the massive book he published in 1570 entitled "A Thorough Description of the Free, Chivalric, and Noble Art of Fencing, Showing Various Customary Defenses, Affected and Put Forth with Many Handsome and Useful Drawings". Meyer's writings purport to teach the entire art of fencing, something that he claimed had never been done before, and encompass a wide variety of teachings from disparate sources and traditions. To achieve this goal, Meyer seems to have constructed his treatises as a series of progressive lessons, describing a process for learning to fence rather than merely outlining the underlying theory or listing the techniques. In keeping with this, he illustrates his techniques with depictions of fencers in courtyards using training weapons such as two-handed foils, wooden dussacks, and rapiers with ball tips.

The first part of Meyer's treatise is devoted to the long sword (the sword in two hands), which he presents as the foundational weapon of his system, and this section devotes the most space to fundamentals like stance and footwork. His long sword system draws upon the teachings of Freifechter Andre Paurñfeyndt (via Christian Egenolff's reprint) and Liechtenauer glossators Sigmund ain Ringeck and Lew, as well as using terminology otherwise unique to the brief Recital of Martin Syber. Not content merely to compile these teachings as his contemporary Paulus Hector Mair was doing, Meyer sought to update—even reinvent—them in various ways to fit the martial climate of the late sixteenth century, including adapting many techniques to accommodate the increased momentum of a greatsword and modifying others to use beats with the flat and winding slices in place of thrusts to comply with street-fighting laws in German cities (and the rules of the Fechtschule).

The second part of Meyer's treatises is designed to address new weapons gaining traction in German lands, the dussack and the rapier, and thereby find places for them in the German tradition. His early Lund manuscript presents a more summarized syllabus of techniques for these weapons, while his printed book goes into greater depth and is structured more in the fashion of lesson plans.[12] Meyer's dussack system, designed for the broad proto-sabers that spread into German lands from Eastern Europe in the 16th century,[13] combines the old Messer teachings of Johannes Lecküchner and the dussack teachings of Andre Paurñfeyndt with other unknown systems (some have speculated that they might include early Polish or Hungarian saber systems). His rapier system, designed for the lighter single-hand swords spreading north from Iberian and Italian lands, seems again to be a hybrid creation, integrating both the core teachings of the 15th century Liechtenauer tradition as well as components that are characteristic of the various regional Mediterranean fencing systems (including, perhaps, teachings derived from the treatise of Achille Marozzo). Interestingly, Meyer's rapier teachings in the Rostock seem to represent an attempt to unify these two weapon system, outlining a method for rapier fencing that includes key elements of his dussack teachings; it is unclear why this method did not appear in his book, but given the dates it may be that they represent his last musings on the weapon, written in the time between the completion of his book in 1570 and his death a year later.

The third part of Meyer's treatise only appears in his published book and covers dagger, wrestling, and various pole weapons. His dagger teachings, designed primarily for urban self-defense, seem to be based in part on the writings of Bolognese master Achille Marozzo[14] and the anonymous teachings in Egenolff, but also include much unique content of unknown origin (perhaps the anonymous dagger teachings in his Rostock manuscript). His staff material makes up the bulk of this section, beginning with the short staff, which, like Paurñfeyndt, he uses as a training tool for various pole weapons (and possibly also the greatsword), and then moving on to the halberd before ending with the long staff (representing the pike). As with the dagger, the sources Meyer based his staff teachings on are largely unknown.