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Difference between revisions of "Joachim Meyer"

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Item If an opponent comes before you who will gladly bind long on to you from above or sends his first stroke long at you from the Roof, then when you are near to him or have come to him, slash through before him, up and out to your left, so that your sword's blade shoots around over your head in the Plunge to his left, Indes allow your sword to snap around back over your head, the right hand over the left and strike in at his right ear with the short edge at the same time as his strike, how it is taught above, do this correctly and step well there to him thus you will hit. So then this Stück is only on going, if he displaces however and drives out how he then (when he will displace) must drive out, at once pull around your head and cut him with the Long Edge from below athwart to his Left radial forearm, close to his pommel to the wrist. Of these two openings, one will be apparent to you, Pull your Hilt again upwards around your head and cut long with a strong cut to his upper left head, in these three strikes, step well with both your feet, in a double, step around his left side, thus the cuts go on well, this a good and earnest Stück, when you will seek to send it home.
 
Item If an opponent comes before you who will gladly bind long on to you from above or sends his first stroke long at you from the Roof, then when you are near to him or have come to him, slash through before him, up and out to your left, so that your sword's blade shoots around over your head in the Plunge to his left, Indes allow your sword to snap around back over your head, the right hand over the left and strike in at his right ear with the short edge at the same time as his strike, how it is taught above, do this correctly and step well there to him thus you will hit. So then this Stück is only on going, if he displaces however and drives out how he then (when he will displace) must drive out, at once pull around your head and cut him with the Long Edge from below athwart to his Left radial forearm, close to his pommel to the wrist. Of these two openings, one will be apparent to you, Pull your Hilt again upwards around your head and cut long with a strong cut to his upper left head, in these three strikes, step well with both your feet, in a double, step around his left side, thus the cuts go on well, this a good and earnest Stück, when you will seek to send it home.
| '''[LIIIv] Ein anders.'''
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ITem kompt dir einer für / der gern von Oben lang auff dich bindet / oder seinen ersten streich lang von Tag auff dich führet / wann du dann nahte zu jhm kompst / so streich vor jhm durch / ubersich auff gegen deiner Lincken / das dein Schwerdt kling im sturtz uber deinem Haupt umbschiesse / gegen seiner Lincken / trauwe jhm als woltestu also gegen seiner Lincken schlagen / so wirt er ohn zweiffel fertig sein und herhauwen / derhalben so laß in des dein Schwerdt ober deinem Haupt wider umbschnappen / die recht handt uber die Linck / unnd schlag also mit kurtzer schneid zugleich mit seinem streich hinein zu seinem Rechten ohr / wie oben gelehret / machstu das recht unnd triffst wol darzu / so triffstu gewis / versetzet ers aber und fehrt auff / wie dann so erß versetzen will aufffahren muß als bald zucke umb dein Kopff / und Hauwe jhme mit Langer schneide von Unden uberzwerch zu seiner lincken Spindel / nahet under seinem knopff hinein zum knochel / under disen zweien Blössen wirt dir eine werden / entweder das rechte ohr oder die Spindel / zuck dein gefeß wider ubersich umb dein Kopff / unn Hauwe ein starcken Langen hauw zu seiner Lincken zu seinem Kopff / in disem dritten streich trit wol mit deinen beiden füssen in einem zwifachen trit / umb sein Lincke seiten / so gehet der Hauw wol an / das ist ein gut ernst stuck / so du einen daheim suchen wilt.  
 
 
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In Zufechten, when you come close to him, then position yourself as if you would cut a long High cut at him, when he drives out to meet you, thus turn the short edge from your right, in the air, against his left and jerk your pommel upwards, cut him with the short edge over his arm or hand, step well to his left side, allow this to run forth over in a circle and cut long after to the next opening, or fight to him with the under cuts.
 
In Zufechten, when you come close to him, then position yourself as if you would cut a long High cut at him, when he drives out to meet you, thus turn the short edge from your right, in the air, against his left and jerk your pommel upwards, cut him with the short edge over his arm or hand, step well to his left side, allow this to run forth over in a circle and cut long after to the next opening, or fight to him with the under cuts.
| '''Ein ander stuck auß dem Schielhauw.'''
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IM zufechten wann du schier bey jhn kommest / so stell dich sam du ein langen starcken Oberhauw thun wollest / in dem er aufffehrt dir zu begegnen / so verwende in der lufft die kurtze schneide von deiner Rechten gegen seiner Lincken / und rucke dein knopff ubersich / schlag jhn mit der kurtzen schneid uber sein Arm oder hendt / trit wol auff sein lincke seiten / laß also in einem Zürckel furuber umblauffen / unnd Hauwe lang nach zur nechsten Blöß / oder ficht auß den Underhäuwen zu jhm.
 
 
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Item At the Start, thus cut against his cut from your right, with a Squinter to his sword, when this clashes, then reverse your sword on his blade and slide off to your left, step out with the right, continuing towards his left side, allow your blade to drive around your head and cut the next Squinter to his head, also from your right above and in deep to his left. Then cut a double squinter, nimbly, one into the other, stepping to his left, this is a very swift Stück against slow fencers who fight with their arms far from themselves.
 
Item At the Start, thus cut against his cut from your right, with a Squinter to his sword, when this clashes, then reverse your sword on his blade and slide off to your left, step out with the right, continuing towards his left side, allow your blade to drive around your head and cut the next Squinter to his head, also from your right above and in deep to his left. Then cut a double squinter, nimbly, one into the other, stepping to his left, this is a very swift Stück against slow fencers who fight with their arms far from themselves.
| '''[LIIIIr] Den Schieler zwifachen.'''
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ITem im antrit / so Hauwe gegen seinem hauw ein Schielhauw auff sein Schwerdt / von deiner Rechten / in dem es gliitzt / so verkehr dein Schwerdt an seiner kling / und ritsch also auff seiner kling gegen deiner lincken seiten auß / trit mit deinem Rechten fürbas nach auch gegen seiner Lincken / laß dein kling umb den Kopff fahren / unn Hauwe den andern Schielhauw auch von deiner Rechten / dieff oben hinein hinder seiner klingen einen wie den andern behendt auff einander / hinein mit einem zwifachen trit / zwyfach zu seiner Lincken / das ist ein geschwindt stuck auff die langsamen Fechter / die doch die Arm weit von sich führen.
 
 
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| Oder so du den ersten Schielhauw volbracht / und also den andern auch herführen wilt / so schieb dein knopff in eil (dieweil du dein Schwerdt in der lufft fürest) under deinem rechten Arm durch / unnd Hauwe den andern mit geschrenckten henden auch zu seiner Lincken gleich wie vor / und nim dein Kopff wol gegen deiner Rechten.
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In Zufechten slash up so that you come into the Guard of the Roof, as soon as you can reach him, at once wind the short edge to him, while its still in the air, squint with your face as if you would cut to his left with the Squinter cut, don't do this, but rather allow the Squinter to fall past by his left and work to his right, or work him to the right and cut quickly again to his left, take your body well after with it, for this is a fine and good work that can't be written as well as it can be shown with the living body.
 
In Zufechten slash up so that you come into the Guard of the Roof, as soon as you can reach him, at once wind the short edge to him, while its still in the air, squint with your face as if you would cut to his left with the Squinter cut, don't do this, but rather allow the Squinter to fall past by his left and work to his right, or work him to the right and cut quickly again to his left, take your body well after with it, for this is a fine and good work that can't be written as well as it can be shown with the living body.
| '''Der drit Schieler ist ein verführung mit dem gesicht.'''
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IM zufechten kom im auff streichen in die Hut des Tags / so bald du jhn erlangen kanst / als bald wendt die kurtz schneid noch also in der lufft gegen jhm / stell dich mit deinem gesicht sam du mit dem Schielhauw zu seiner Lincken wolltest einhauwen / thu es nit / sonder laß den Schieler fehl neben seiner Lincken füruber lauffen / unnd arbeite jhm zu seiner Rechten / oder wincke jhm zu der Rechten / und schlag behendt wider zu seiner Lincken hinein / nim den leib wol mit / es ist schöne unnd geschwinde arbeit / die sich nicht lest schreiben als mit lebendigem leib erzeigen.
 
 
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When you come close to him, then Wing up by him, so that you come with crossed hands into the Unicorn. In this Winging up, lift your left foot somewhat upwards, after you come through the Unicorn with crossed hands, thus you stand as if you would shoot through, as soon as he extends his sword out, thus cut then with crossed hands and the short edge from above again to his right, on to the forward portion of his sword's blade and before it connects, turn your short edge around and cut with the Squinter, that is with the short edge from your right to his left side, to his arm or face, not with crossed hands and with a step of your right foot, towards his left, in hitting, allow your blade to run off from his left only slightly besides and along with this, thrust through at once with your pommel, under your right arm, then cross your hands so that your short edge snaps around again to his left, over to his head or arm thus with crossed hand from your right to your left or bar him over both of his arms, if he holds you again so that you cannot wrench out or suppress from above, then allow the pommel to run through below and grab him over his right arm, drive the wrestling to him.
 
When you come close to him, then Wing up by him, so that you come with crossed hands into the Unicorn. In this Winging up, lift your left foot somewhat upwards, after you come through the Unicorn with crossed hands, thus you stand as if you would shoot through, as soon as he extends his sword out, thus cut then with crossed hands and the short edge from above again to his right, on to the forward portion of his sword's blade and before it connects, turn your short edge around and cut with the Squinter, that is with the short edge from your right to his left side, to his arm or face, not with crossed hands and with a step of your right foot, towards his left, in hitting, allow your blade to run off from his left only slightly besides and along with this, thrust through at once with your pommel, under your right arm, then cross your hands so that your short edge snaps around again to his left, over to his head or arm thus with crossed hand from your right to your left or bar him over both of his arms, if he holds you again so that you cannot wrench out or suppress from above, then allow the pommel to run through below and grab him over his right arm, drive the wrestling to him.
| '''Merck ein geschwindt stuck auß dem Schieler.'''
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/128|4|lbl=Ⅰ.54r.4|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/129|1|lbl=Ⅰ.54v.1|p=1}}
IN dem du schier zu jhm kommest / so flügele vor jhm auff / das du mit geschrenckten henden in das Einhorn kommest / im aufflügeln erhebe dein lincken Fuß etwas ubersich / dem gewicht nach / das du mit geschrenckten henden hoch durch das Einhorn kommest / so stehest du als woltestu durch schiessen / als bald er sein Schwerdt auß '''[LIIIIv]''' streckt / so Hauwe also mit geschrenckten henden / und kurtzer schneide von Oben nider gegen seiner Rechten / biß an das eussertheil seiner Schwerdts klingen / und ehe es rührt / wende dein kurtz schneid umb / und schlag mit dem Schielhauw / das ist mit kurtzer schneid von deiner Rechten zu seinem lincken ohr / Arm oder gesicht / mit einem zutrit deines rechten Fuses gegen seiner Lincken / so triffestu wie dich das grösser Bild gegen der Lincken handt in der Figur G. lehrt / und im treffen laß dein kling von seiner Lincken / ein wenig beiseits außlauffen / und stoß gleich auch mit dein Knopff under deinem rechten Arm durch / verschrencke also dein hendt / das dein halb schneide vor jhm wider umb schnap / gegen seiner Lincken uber sein Kopff oder Arm / reiß also mit geschrenckten henden von deiner Rechten gegen deiner Lincken sein Schwerdt auß / oder schrenck jhm uber sein beide Arm / helt er wider das du nicht außreissen noch uberschrencken kanst / so laß unden durchlauffen mit dem knopff / und greiff jhm uber sein rechten Arm / threib die ringen gegen jhm.
 
 
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Changing through is useful against those who fight with the Squinter or Crooked Cuts. Note this also, if he does not extend his hands far from him in his cuts but rather holds them close by himself in fighting, you may readily change through far from him.
 
Changing through is useful against those who fight with the Squinter or Crooked Cuts. Note this also, if he does not extend his hands far from him in his cuts but rather holds them close by himself in fighting, you may readily change through far from him.
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'''Item''' If he fights with winding, reversing, Crooked Cuts, Squinting Cuts or any other Stück with it he shortens his strike or cannot fight long from himself, how it then goes in such Stücken in which you shall also (before they bring their technique to the halfway) change through against him, to the other side which he opens with this shortening, thus you force him to displace and he allows the Vor to pass to you.
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| '''Item''' If he fights with winding, reversing, Crooked Cuts, Squinting Cuts or any other Stück with it he shortens his strike or cannot fight long from himself, how it then goes in such Stücken in which you shall also (before they bring their technique to the halfway) change through against him, to the other side which he opens with this shortening, thus you force him to displace and he allows the Vor to pass to you.
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'''Item''' If one fights far and long from himself with the long edge, however more to your sword than body, then you shall change through to the next opening and allow him to fall through with his cuts. So then be diligent with how you fence, that is with the short or long edge, that you namely cut him to the opening, that is, you cut him to the body and if it does not always happen that you may cut him to the body, thus when he changes through, you quickly fall in after his Sword to the opening.
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| '''Item''' If one fights far and long from himself with the long edge, however more to your sword than body, then you shall change through to the next opening and allow him to fall through with his cuts. So then be diligent with how you fence, that is with the short or long edge, that you namely cut him to the opening, that is, you cut him to the body and if it does not always happen that you may cut him to the body, thus when he changes through, you quickly fall in after his Sword to the opening.
  
 
Also thus note this Rule in all cutting, when you connect or catch his blade with your strong, in the bind, as soon as it clashes, you shall cut at once with the weak (that is with the forward part) to the body or next opening cut at, so that then your sword cuts likewise at his blade and body, or as soon as your strong connects with his sword, then as they clash together you shall turn the weak to the nearest opening with flicking, snapping and winding.
 
Also thus note this Rule in all cutting, when you connect or catch his blade with your strong, in the bind, as soon as it clashes, you shall cut at once with the weak (that is with the forward part) to the body or next opening cut at, so that then your sword cuts likewise at his blade and body, or as soon as your strong connects with his sword, then as they clash together you shall turn the weak to the nearest opening with flicking, snapping and winding.
| '''Vom durchwechseln.'''
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DUrchwechseln gehört auff die / so also mit Schieler oder Krumphäuwen fechten / das merck also / streckt er sein hende nicht lang von jhm in seinen Häuwen / sonder behalt die im Fechten nahe bey sich / dem magstu frölich durchwechseln in der weite. Item ficht er auß dem Winden / Verkehren / Krumphäuw / Schielhäuwen / oder was der stuck mehr seindt / damit er sein streich verkürtzet / oder nicht lang von sich kan Fechten / wie es dann in solchen stucken geschicht / denen soltu auch durchwechseln (ehe dann sie jhre stuck zum halben endt bringen) zur andern seiten / welche er mit solchen verkürtzen Blöst / damit zwingestu jhn zuversetzen / unnd das er dir das Vor lassen muß. Item ob schon einer weit und lang von sich ficht / mit Langer schneid / aber doch mehr zu deinem Schwerdt dann leib / dem soltu aber durchwechseln / zur nechsten Blöß / und jhn mit seinen Häuwen verfallen lassen / Derhalben so fleiß dich was du fichtest / es sey mit langer oder kurtzer schneid / das du jhme fürnemlich zur Blöß / das ist zum leibe Hauwest / und ob es schon nicht alwegen kan sein / das du jhme den nechsten zum leibe hauwen magst / so soltu doch so bald er durchwechselt seinem Schwerdt nach zur Blös einfallen / auch merck dise Regel in allen häuwen / so du mit der sterck deines Schwerdts sein kling rührest oder empfahest im band / als bald und gleich mit / in dem es noch glitzt / soltu zugleich auch mit der schwech deiner klingen / das ist mit dem eussern theil zum Leib oder '''[LVr]''' nechsten Blös inhauwen / das also dein Schwerdt sein kling unn leib zugleich trifft / oder so bald dein sterck sein Schwerdt rühret / so soltu noch also im zusamen glützen / die schwech zur nechsten Blöß wenden / mit Schnellen / schnappen und winden.
 
 
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Revision as of 03:09, 25 April 2021

Joachim Meyer
Born ca. 1537
Basel, Germany
Died 24 February 1571 (aged 34)
Schwerin, Germany
Spouse(s) Appolonia Ruhlman
Occupation
Citizenship Strasbourg
Patron
  • Johann Albrecht (?)
  • Johann Casimir
Movement Freifechter
Influences
Influenced
Genres Fencing manual
Language Early New High German
Notable work(s) Gründtliche Beschreibung der
Kunst des Fechtens
(1570)
Manuscript(s)
First printed
english edition
Forgeng, 2006
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations
Signature Joachim Meyer sig.jpg

Joachim Meyer (ca. 1537 - 1571)[1] was a 16th century German Freifechter and fencing master. He was the last major figure in the tradition of the German grand master Johannes Liechtenauer, and in the last years of his life he devised at least three distinct and quite extensive fencing manuals. Meyer's writings incorporate both the traditional Germanic technical syllabus and contemporary systems that he encountered in his travels, including Italian rapier fencing.[2] In addition to his fencing practice, Meyer was a Burgher and a master cutler.[3]

Meyer was born in Basel,[4] where he presumably apprenticed as a cutler. He writes in his books that he traveled widely in his youth, most likely a reference to the traditional Walz that journeyman craftsmen were required to take before being eligible for mastery and membership in a guild. Journeymen were often sent to stand watch and participate in town and city militias (a responsibility that would have been amplified for the warlike cutlers' guild), and Meyer learned a great deal about foreign fencing systems during his travels. It's been speculated by some fencing historians that he trained specifically in the Bolognese school of fencing, but this doesn't stand up to closer analysis.[5]

Records show that by 4 June 1560 he had settled in Strasbourg, where he married Appolonia Ruhlman (Ruelman)[1] and was granted the rank of master cutler. His interests had already moved beyond smithing, however, and in 1561, Meyer petitioned the City Council of Strasbourg for the right to hold a Fechtschule (fencing competition). He would repeat this in 1563, 1566, 1567 and 1568;[6] the 1568 petition is the first extant record in which he identifies himself as a fencing master.

Meyer probably wrote his first manuscript (MS A.4º.2) in either 1560 or 1568 for Otto Count von Sulms, Minzenberg, and Sonnenwaldt.[7] Its contents seem to be a series of lessons on training with long sword, dussack, and rapier. His second manuscript (MS Var.82), written between 1563 and 1570 for Heinrich Graf von Eberst, is of a decidedly different nature. Like many fencing manuscripts from the previous century, it is an anthology of treatises by a number of prominent German masters including Sigmund ain Ringeck, pseudo-Peter von Danzig, and Martin Syber, and also includes a brief outline by Meyer himself on a system of rapier fencing based on German Messer teachings. Finally, on 24 February 1570 Meyer completed (and soon thereafter published) an enormous multi-weapon treatise entitled Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens ("A Thorough Description of the Art of Combat"); it was dedicated to Johann Casimir, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and illustrated at the workshop of Tobias Stimmer.[8]

Unfortunately, Meyer's writing and publication efforts incurred significant debts (about 1300 crowns), which Meyer pledged to repay by Christmas of 1571.[1] Late in 1570, Meyer accepted the position of Fechtmeister to Duke Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg at his court in Schwerin. There Meyer hoped to sell his book for a better price than was offered locally (30 florins). Meyer sent his books ahead to Schwerin, and left from Strasbourg on 4 January 1571 after receiving his pay. He traveled the 800 miles to Schwerin in the middle of a harsh winter, arriving at the court on 10 February 1571. Two weeks later, on 24 February, Joachim Meyer died. The cause of his death is unknown, possibly disease or pneumonia.[6]

Antoni Rulman, Appolonia’s brother, became her legal guardian after Joachim’s death. On 15 May 1571, he had a letter written by the secretary of the Strasbourg city chamber and sent to the Duke of Mecklenburg stating that Antoni was now the widow Meyer’s guardian; it politely reminded the Duke who Joachim Meyer was, Meyer’s publishing efforts and considerable debt, requested that the Duke send Meyer’s personal affects and his books to Appolonia, and attempted to sell some (if not all) of the books to the Duke.[1]

Appolonia remarried in April 1572 to another cutler named Hans Kuele, bestowing upon him the status of Burgher and Meyer's substantial debts. Joachim Meyer and Hans Kuele are both mentioned in the minutes of Cutlers' Guild archives; Kuele may have made an impression if we can judge that fact by the number of times he is mentioned. It is believed that Appolonia and either her husband or her brother were involved with the second printing of his book in 1600. According to other sources, it was reprinted yet again in 1610 and in 1660.[9][10]

Treatises

Joachim Meyer's writings are preserved in two manuscripts prepared in the 1560s, the MS A.4º.2 (Lund) and the MS Var 82 (Rostock); a third manuscript from 1561 has been lost since at least the mid-20th century, and its contents are unknown.[11] Dwarfing these works is the massive book he published in 1570 entitled "A Thorough Description of the Free, Chivalric, and Noble Art of Fencing, Showing Various Customary Defenses, Affected and Put Forth with Many Handsome and Useful Drawings". Meyer's writings purport to teach the entire art of fencing, something that he claimed had never been done before, and encompass a wide variety of teachings from disparate sources and traditions. To achieve this goal, Meyer seems to have constructed his treatises as a series of progressive lessons, describing a process for learning to fence rather than merely outlining the underlying theory or listing the techniques. In keeping with this, he illustrates his techniques with depictions of fencers in courtyards using training weapons such as two-handed foils, wooden dussacks, and rapiers with ball tips.

The first part of Meyer's treatise is devoted to the long sword (the sword in two hands), which he presents as the foundational weapon of his system, and this section devotes the most space to fundamentals like stance and footwork. His long sword system draws upon the teachings of Freifechter Andre Paurñfeyndt (via Christian Egenolff's reprint) and Liechtenauer glossators Sigmund ain Ringeck and Lew, as well as using terminology otherwise unique to the brief Recital of Martin Syber. Not content merely to compile these teachings as his contemporary Paulus Hector Mair was doing, Meyer sought to update—even reinvent—them in various ways to fit the martial climate of the late sixteenth century, including adapting many techniques to accommodate the increased momentum of a greatsword and modifying others to use beats with the flat and winding slices in place of thrusts to comply with street-fighting laws in German cities (and the rules of the Fechtschule).

The second part of Meyer's treatises is designed to address new weapons gaining traction in German lands, the dussack and the rapier, and thereby find places for them in the German tradition. His early Lund manuscript presents a more summarized syllabus of techniques for these weapons, while his printed book goes into greater depth and is structured more in the fashion of lesson plans.[12] Meyer's dussack system, designed for the broad proto-sabers that spread into German lands from Eastern Europe in the 16th century,[13] combines the old Messer teachings of Johannes Lecküchner and the dussack teachings of Andre Paurñfeyndt with other unknown systems (some have speculated that they might include early Polish or Hungarian saber systems). His rapier system, designed for the lighter single-hand swords spreading north from Iberian and Italian lands, seems again to be a hybrid creation, integrating both the core teachings of the 15th century Liechtenauer tradition as well as components that are characteristic of the various regional Mediterranean fencing systems (including, perhaps, teachings derived from the treatise of Achille Marozzo). Interestingly, Meyer's rapier teachings in the Rostock seem to represent an attempt to unify these two weapon system, outlining a method for rapier fencing that includes key elements of his dussack teachings; it is unclear why this method did not appear in his book, but given the dates it may be that they represent his last musings on the weapon, written in the time between the completion of his book in 1570 and his death a year later.

The third part of Meyer's treatise only appears in his published book and covers dagger, wrestling, and various pole weapons. His dagger teachings, designed primarily for urban self-defense, seem to be based in part on the writings of Bolognese master Achille Marozzo[14] and the anonymous teachings in Egenolff, but also include much unique content of unknown origin (perhaps the anonymous dagger teachings in his Rostock manuscript). His staff material makes up the bulk of this section, beginning with the short staff, which, like Paurñfeyndt, he uses as a training tool for various pole weapons (and possibly also the greatsword), and then moving on to the halberd before ending with the long staff (representing the pike). As with the dagger, the sources Meyer based his staff teachings on are largely unknown.

Additional Resources

  • Kiermayer, Alex. Joachim Meyers Kunst Des Fechtens. Gründtliche Beschreibung des Fechtens, 1570. Arts of Mars Books, 2012. ISBN 978-3981162738
  • Meyer, Joachim. Joachim Meyer 1600: Transkription des Fechtbuchs 'Gründtliche Beschreibung der freyen Ritterlichen und Adelichen kunst des Fechtens’. TAT. Wolfgang Landwehr, 2011. ISBN 978-3932077371
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Combat: A German Martial Arts Treatise of 1570. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng.
    • 1st edition. London: Greenhill Books, 2006. ISBN 978-1-85367-643-7
    • 1st edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. ISBN 1-4039-7092-0
    • 2nd edition. London: Frontline Books, 2014. ISBN 978-1-84832-778-8
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Sword Combat: A 1568 German Treatise on Swordmanship. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng. London: Frontline Books, 2016. ISBN 9781473876750

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Dupuis, Olivier. Joachim Meyer, escrimeur libre, bourgeois de Strasbourg (1537 ? - 1571). In Maîtres et techniques de combat. Dijon: AEDEH, 2006.
  2. Castle, Egerton. Schools and Masters of Fencing: From the Middle Ages to the Eighteenth Century. London: George Bell and Sons, 1885. pp 74 - 76.
  3. Naumann, Robert. Serapeum. Vol. 5. T.O. Weigel, 1844. pp 53-59.
  4. According to his wedding certificate.
  5. His dagger teachings do, however, show some evidence of influence by Achilles Marozzo's printed treatise.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Van Slambrouck, Christopher. "The Life and Work of Joachim Meyer". Meyer Frei Fechter Guild, 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
  7. Norling, Roger. "The history of Joachim Meyer’s fencing treatise to Otto von Solms". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  8. Whose members included Christoph Maurer and Hans Christoffel Stimmer.
  9. Schaer, Alfred. Die altdeutschen fechter und spielleute: Ein beitrag zur deutschen culturgeschichte. K.J. Trübner, 1901. p 76.
  10. Pollock, W. H., Grove, F. C., and Prévost, C. Fencing. London and Bombay: Longmans, Green, and co, 1897. pp 267-268.
  11. Jens P. Kleinau. "1561 Joachim Meyer dedicated a fencing book to the Pfalzgrafen of Pfalz-Veldenz". Hans Talhoffer ~ as seen by Jens P. Kleinau. 04 July 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  12. Roberts, James. "System vs Syllabus: Meyer’s 1560 and 1570 sidesword texts". Hroarr.com, 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  13. Roger Norling. "The Dussack - a weapon of war". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  14. Norling, Roger. "Meyer and Marozzo dagger comparison". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  15. "st" ligature inverted.
  16. Typo: wolt, könne.
  17. "t" is upside down.
  18. 18.00 18.01 18.02 18.03 18.04 18.05 18.06 18.07 18.08 18.09 18.10 18.11 18.12 18.13 18.14 18.15 18.16 18.17 18.18 18.19 18.20 18.21 18.22 18.23 18.24 18.25 18.26 18.27 18.28 18.29 18.30 18.31 indes
  19. palm up
  20. Illegible deletion.
  21. oberhauw
  22. ‘right’ is originally written, ‘left’ is written above it
  23. short edge
  24. “Degen”, lit. dagger, could either refer to a sword or dagger.
  25. short edge
  26. Unleserliche Streichung. Illegible deletion.
  27. Unleserliche gestrichen Einfügung oberhalb der Zeile. Crossed out illegible insertion above the line.
  28. Die Schlaufe des »h« trägt ein Diärese. The loop of the “h” carries a diaeresis.
  29. Korrigiert aus »mitelhauw«. Corrected from “mitelhauw”.
  30. Leicht unleserlich. Slightly illegible.
  31. Überschriebens »vom«. Overwritten “vom”.
  32. Inserted by means of a special mark.
  33. Word inserted next to the text.
  34. Inserted nest to the text.
  35. Zwei Worte am Seitenrand nachgetragen. Two words inserted at the margin.
  36. Wort am Seitenrand nachgetragen. Word inserted at the margin.