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! <p>Figures</p>
 
! <p>Figures</p>
! <p>{{rating|start|Draft Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
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! <p>{{rating|start|Incomplete Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
  
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! <p>Figures</p>
 
! <p>Figures</p>
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|C|Incomplete Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
  
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|-  
 
! <p>Figures</p>
 
! <p>Figures</p>
! <p>{{rating|start|Draft Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|start|Incomplete Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
  
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 +
| <p>'''Sword Fencing'''</p>
 +
 +
<p>Firstly will each one of the actions in Fencing be divided into three parts which are particularly good to note. In the Sword this is namely attacking, followed by the withdrawal or other than to the first to reach it, send your attacks through the Guards and Hew like they follow afterwards here, however to the other parts and the middle work, this will be reprinted with the handworks, and a mixture of convenient cuts. Onwards to the last, or the withdrawal, how orderly each one will hereafter be diligently written and taught.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/109|1|lbl=Ⅰ.44v.1}}
 
 
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 +
| <p>Secondly one should note the Vor and Nach (Before and After), Weak and Strong. The Before is when you drive with your Stücken so that he cannot come to his senses, especially by positioning yourself close, and how he defends before your Stücken and these same would like to break and bar, with this, he runs off the Vor to you.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/109|2|lbl=Ⅰ.44v.2}}
 
 
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 +
| <p>The after is, when you have been rushed upon by your opponent how it is reported next and above. Thus you should respond Indes quickly with convenient work, with this, you are strongest on his Stücken, when you lay on with your work in the Vor, and in this you are crowded so that you must displace him after, thus is a constant changing with the Vor and Nach, now you have it, then he does, But he who does not pay attention to it, he will nonetheless never learn to fence.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/110|1|lbl=Ⅰ.45r.1}}
 
 
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|  
  
 
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|-  
 
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 +
| <p>'''Divisions of the sword to the Weak and Strong'''</p>
 +
 +
<p>The Sword is firstly divided in two parts, namely from the grip to the middle of the Blade which is known as the Strong, from the middle to the most forward, is the Weak furthermore is the sword divided in four parts how the figure below this shows.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/110|2|lbl=Ⅰ.45r.2}}
 
 
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 +
| <p>With the inward part, that is the haft, and [with it] the work with the pommel and cross and haft will be understood, in the next part, thereafter will the work with cutting and pushing and what belongs to the Strong be understood, to the third part of the sword should be noted the alterable work of the Weak and Strong after opportunity and liking. Which alone is extremely weak for you to work properly to the Openings.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/111|1|lbl=Ⅰ.45v.1}}
 
 
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|-  
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+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS A.4º.2 06v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>'''Sword Fencing'''</p>
+
| <p>'''Hard and Soft'''</p>
  
<p>Firstly will each one of the actions in Fencing be divided into three parts which are particularly good to note. In the Sword this is namely attacking, followed by the withdrawal or other than to the first to reach it, send your attacks through the Guards and Hew like they follow afterwards here, however to the other parts and the middle work, this will be reprinted with the handworks, and a mixture of convenient cuts. Onwards to the last, or the withdrawal, how orderly each one will hereafter be diligently written and taught.</p>
+
<p>Thus you shall mark in the binding of the swords, as you shall feel if he has become hard or soft in the bind, with the cut.</p>
 
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|-  
|
+
| <p>Item If he is yet again, strong or weak, and is usually more watchful of the weak binding before the strong, how hereafter in the fencing it can be seen. With this however the Sword fencing and the following written stuck is more understandable thus as I explain my Zedel according to the rules, as I want the words to have understanding so I have named the order; the Beginning, Middle and End.</p>
| <p>Secondly one should note the Vor and Nach (Before and After), Weak and Strong. The Before is when you drive with your Stücken so that he cannot come to his senses, especially by positioning yourself close, and how he defends before your Stücken and these same would like to break and bar, with this, he runs off the Vor to you.</p>
 
 
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| <p>The after is, when you have been rushed upon by your opponent how it is reported next and above. Thus you should respond Indes quickly with convenient work, with this, you are strongest on his Stücken, when you lay on with your work in the Vor, and in this you are crowded so that you must displace him after, thus is a constant changing with the Vor and Nach, now you have it, then he does, But he who does not pay attention to it, he will nonetheless never learn to fence.</p>
+
| <p>'''Follow the Sword Zedel'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>'''The Four Main guards'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>From the Roof, Fool, Ox, Plow</p>
 
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Line 1,830: Line 1,835:
 
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| <p>'''Divisions of the sword to the Weak and Strong'''</p>
+
| <p>'''The Eight Secondary Guards'''</p>
  
<p>The Sword is firstly divided in two parts, namely from the grip to the middle of the Blade which is known as the Strong, from the middle to the most forward, is the Weak furthermore is the sword divided in four parts how the figure below this shows.</p>
+
<p>Long-point, Iron-door, Hanging Point, Speak-window, Key, Side Guard, Barrier Guard, Wrath Guard</p>
 
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| <p>With the inward part, that is the haft, and [with it] the work with the pommel and cross and haft will be understood, in the next part, thereafter will the work with cutting and pushing and what belongs to the Strong be understood, to the third part of the sword should be noted the alterable work of the Weak and Strong after opportunity and liking. Which alone is extremely weak for you to work properly to the Openings.</p>
+
| <p>'''The Five Master-Cuts'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Wrath Cut, Crooked cut, Thwart Cut, Squinter cut, Scalper</p>
 
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| <p>'''Hard and Soft'''</p>
+
| <p>'''The Six Covert Cuts'''</p>
  
<p>Thus you shall mark in the binding of the swords, as you shall feel if he has become hard or soft in the bind, with the cut.</p>
+
<p>Blinding cut, Bouncing cut, Short cut, Knuckle cut, Clashing cut, Wind cut</p>
 
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| <p>Item If he is yet again, strong or weak, and is usually more watchful of the weak binding before the strong, how hereafter in the fencing it can be seen. With this however the Sword fencing and the following written stuck is more understandable thus as I explain my Zedel according to the rules, as I want the words to have understanding so I have named the order; the Beginning, Middle and End.</p>
+
| <p>'''Handworks in the Sword'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Bind On, Remain, Cut, Strike Around, Travel After, Snap Around, Run Off, Doubling, Leading, Flying, Feeling, Circle, Looping, Winding, Winding Through, Reverse, Change Through, Run over, Set Off, Cut Off, Pull, Hand Press, Displace, Hanging, Blocking, Barring, Travel out, Grab over, Weak pushing</p>
 
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Line 1,858: Line 1,867:
 
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|-  
 
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| <p>'''Follow the Sword Zedel'''</p>
+
| <p>'''From the Four Openings and Divisions'''</p>
  
<p>'''The Four Main guards'''</p>
+
<p>Firstly will the opponent be divided in two sections, namely left and Right, how the Lines in the figure above is shown, thereafter in two more divisions namely under and over, the above two openings would be the Ox, to divide the under two, the Plow.</p>
 
+
|  
<p>From the Roof, Fool, Ox, Plow</p>
 
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|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
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|  
| <p>'''The Eight Secondary Guards'''</p>
+
| <p>Whose use should one should thus firstly note, in which division he leads his sword under or above, to the right or the Left/ when you have seen that, thus attack against him at once from above, it is about the location, otherwise, take a general example of this:</p>
 
 
<p>Long-point, Iron-door, Hanging Point, Speak-window, Key, Side Guard, Barrier Guard, Wrath Guard</p>
 
 
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Line 1,876: Line 1,881:
 
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| <p>'''The Five Master-Cuts'''</p>
+
| <p>In Zufechten, thus both of you have come together, and you see that he leads his sword to his right in the high opening, in Ox or Wrath-guard, thus attack in to his lower left opening, if not, then it is much more important that you provoke him to meet you. As soon as this clashes, or will, thus pull around your head and strike him high to the opening from which he came. This is namely to his right ear, with the half edge and crossed hands. This is the correct Squinter cut.</p>
 
 
<p>Wrath Cut, Crooked cut, Thwart Cut, Squinter cut, Scalper</p>
 
 
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Line 1,884: Line 1,887:
 
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|-  
 
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| <p>'''The Six Covert Cuts'''</p>
+
| <p>'''Another'''</p>
  
<p>Blinding cut, Bouncing cut, Short cut, Knuckle cut, Clashing cut, Wind cut</p>
+
<p>Thus when one holds his Sword to the left in Zufechten, then go through before him from your right and hew with strength to his right, as soon as he swipes after to the strike thus pull a looping to the left opening, if he swipes after this, however, thus allow it to fly around again, thus drive each opening to the other, crosswise and against one another after your opportunity.</p>
 
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Line 1,892: Line 1,895:
 
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| <p>'''Handworks in the Sword'''</p>
+
| <p>It is every fencer's [desire] that he quickly knows from all strikes, to which opening the cut is coming, Indes quickly there and follow after, if I however can decide, then I want to instruct about the displacing upwards in hanging.</p>
 
 
<p>Bind On, Remain, Cut, Strike Around, Travel After, Snap Around, Run Off, Doubling, Leading, Flying, Feeling, Circle, Looping, Winding, Winding Through, Reverse, Change Through, Run over, Set Off, Cut Off, Pull, Hand Press, Displace, Hanging, Blocking, Barring, Travel out, Grab over, Weak pushing</p>
 
 
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Line 1,900: Line 1,901:
 
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| <p>'''From the Four Openings and Divisions'''</p>
+
| <p>It is stated in the ancient Verses, who often displaces, will often be injured.</p>
 
 
<p>Firstly will the opponent be divided in two sections, namely left and Right, how the Lines in the figure above is shown, thereafter in two more divisions namely under and over, the above two openings would be the Ox, to divide the under two, the Plow.</p>
 
 
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Line 1,908: Line 1,907:
 
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| <p>Whose use should one should thus firstly note, in which division he leads his sword under or above, to the right or the Left/ when you have seen that, thus attack against him at once from above, it is about the location, otherwise, take a general example of this:</p>
+
| <p>'''Item''' Liechtenauer said in his secret verses, that displacing hurts you, if you wish it on yourself, therefore shall every fencer know that he is to be the first with attacking and following, then to every fencer that is known to watch and wait on another, from this he shall come to no harm, or at the least, if he does not fight much.</p>
 
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| <p>In Zufechten, thus both of you have come together, and you see that he leads his sword to his right in the high opening, in Ox or Wrath-guard, thus attack in to his lower left opening, if not, then it is much more important that you provoke him to meet you. As soon as this clashes, or will, thus pull around your head and strike him high to the opening from which he came. This is namely to his right ear, with the half edge and crossed hands. This is the correct Squinter cut.</p>
+
| <p>A proper fencer, who does not displace much, will have the greatest advantage. Thus, when he strikes you also strike, when he thrusts you also thrust, when he steps you also step. Where two equal strikes come together, thus they bring you to displacing, when however one will cut from above, and then next he goes against with a Thwart, thus he sets off, and steps with one another, thus simultaneously should one have a step out, with the same cut and therein with advantage also pay attention to his openings. Thus should every fencer know that he is soon attentive how it is also shown above, that where two good fencers have come together, which I have attentively married together in the illustrations.</p>
 
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Line 1,920: Line 1,919:
 
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| <p>'''Another'''</p>
+
| <p>Thus have I put forth a short and summary knowledge of sword-fighting and all noteworthy devices and also the translations of which the divisions that are obscured, are clarified in measure and thereafter it enters and then next goes in three divisions, namely how it was previously reported, Onset or Attacking, Pressing After or the middle work, the last is to Withdraw or end and therefore so that one may better understand I will shortly reiterate.</p>
 
 
<p>Thus when one holds his Sword to the left in Zufechten, then go through before him from your right and hew with strength to his right, as soon as he swipes after to the strike thus pull a looping to the left opening, if he swipes after this, however, thus allow it to fly around again, thus drive each opening to the other, crosswise and against one another after your opportunity.</p>
 
 
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Line 1,928: Line 1,925:
 
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| <p>It is every fencer's [desire] that he quickly knows from all strikes, to which opening the cut is coming, Indes quickly there and follow after, if I however can decide, then I want to instruct about the displacing upwards in hanging.</p>
+
| <p>Thus, to the attacks have I put forth the Guards in which one should not delay, or wait in them, but rather as a result must your necessary courage with whose reported cuts, go once or twice to your opportunity, so that he must then engage and that the Vor has escaped Him, thus to another opening should one work after with various offensive handworks, beholding with the Vor, as such handworks are stated above as a three in one handwork, thus to crowd and close so that one may come to the withdraw without shame.</p>
 
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Line 1,934: Line 1,931:
 
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| <p>It is stated in the ancient Verses, who often displaces, will often be injured.</p>
+
| <p>'''Of this, I will give an example'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>If one fights against you in the Guard of the Roof, thus you come in Zufechten into the Side Guard, you must above all not wait in that long, then when he bears witness to the strike and as soon as he brings his sword into the air, thus lay on against him with a Thwart strike, instantly as it clashes, thus cut quickly again around with the long Thwart, to the other side of his sword, that is now attacking, if he strikes around, thus you cut after, if he displaces, then deceive him with the weak, so that you cut him in the after.</p>
 
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Line 1,940: Line 1,939:
 
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| <p>'''Item''' Liechtenauer said in his secret verses, that displacing hurts you, if you wish it on yourself, therefore shall every fencer know that he is to be the first with attacking and following, then to every fencer that is known to watch and wait on another, from this he shall come to no harm, or at the least, if he does not fight much.</p>
+
| <p>If he is hard thus you are soft<br/>If he cuts, so you counter,<br/>If he displaces, then you cut</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Thirdly; also have instant attention for your opportunity to Withdraw.</p>
 
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Line 1,946: Line 1,947:
 
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| <p>A proper fencer, who does not displace much, will have the greatest advantage. Thus, when he strikes you also strike, when he thrusts you also thrust, when he steps you also step. Where two equal strikes come together, thus they bring you to displacing, when however one will cut from above, and then next he goes against with a Thwart, thus he sets off, and steps with one another, thus simultaneously should one have a step out, with the same cut and therein with advantage also pay attention to his openings. Thus should every fencer know that he is soon attentive how it is also shown above, that where two good fencers have come together, which I have attentively married together in the illustrations.</p>
 
 
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|  
 +
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/109|1|lbl=Ⅰ.44v.1}}
 
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| <p>Thus have I put forth a short and summary knowledge of sword-fighting and all noteworthy devices and also the translations of which the divisions that are obscured, are clarified in measure and thereafter it enters and then next goes in three divisions, namely how it was previously reported, Onset or Attacking, Pressing After or the middle work, the last is to Withdraw or end and therefore so that one may better understand I will shortly reiterate.</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/109|2|lbl=Ⅰ.44v.2}}
 
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| <p>Thus, to the attacks have I put forth the Guards in which one should not delay, or wait in them, but rather as a result must your necessary courage with whose reported cuts, go once or twice to your opportunity, so that he must then engage and that the Vor has escaped Him, thus to another opening should one work after with various offensive handworks, beholding with the Vor, as such handworks are stated above as a three in one handwork, thus to crowd and close so that one may come to the withdraw without shame.</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/110|1|lbl=Ⅰ.45r.1}}
 
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|  
  
 
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| <p>'''Of this, I will give an example'''</p>
 
 
<p>If one fights against you in the Guard of the Roof, thus you come in Zufechten into the Side Guard, you must above all not wait in that long, then when he bears witness to the strike and as soon as he brings his sword into the air, thus lay on against him with a Thwart strike, instantly as it clashes, thus cut quickly again around with the long Thwart, to the other side of his sword, that is now attacking, if he strikes around, thus you cut after, if he displaces, then deceive him with the weak, so that you cut him in the after.</p>
 
 
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|  
 +
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/110|2|lbl=Ⅰ.45r.2}}
 
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| <p>If he is hard thus you are soft<br/>If he cuts, so you counter,<br/>If he displaces, then you cut</p>
+
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 +
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/111|1|lbl=Ⅰ.45v.1}}
 +
|
  
<p>Thirdly; also have instant attention for your opportunity to Withdraw.</p>
+
|-
 +
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 +
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/111|2|lbl=Ⅰ.45v.2}}
 
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Line 1,983: Line 1,986:
  
 
<p>Thus note that when you wish to fight with someone, then see that you are the first to be in place so that you can act in a timely manner in your intended Stück, then you shall forcefully continue against him with cuts that he cannot send himself into a guard or Stück But rather you shall show that you will rush over him with sudden stepping before he realizes it. How it is then further clarified by the following Rhyme.</p>
 
<p>Thus note that when you wish to fight with someone, then see that you are the first to be in place so that you can act in a timely manner in your intended Stück, then you shall forcefully continue against him with cuts that he cannot send himself into a guard or Stück But rather you shall show that you will rush over him with sudden stepping before he realizes it. How it is then further clarified by the following Rhyme.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/111|2|lbl=Ⅰ.45v.2}}
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/111|3|lbl=Ⅰ.45v.3}}
 
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Line 1,992: Line 1,995:
 
<p>This is when you are in the Zufechten and he is just about to you, then note when he acts as if he will adopt a posture, then do not allow him to rest or come to it, but rather always attack first, and as he is choosing a posture, lay on at once to the next opening, and position yourself as if you would to cut strongly, but do not do this, rather allow it to fail or flit to another opening, then as soon as you are at the midway part of your sword on his Sword, do not await, but rather, Thwart, Strike Around, Wrench Out, Slice, Wind, and what other types of work there may be.</p>
 
<p>This is when you are in the Zufechten and he is just about to you, then note when he acts as if he will adopt a posture, then do not allow him to rest or come to it, but rather always attack first, and as he is choosing a posture, lay on at once to the next opening, and position yourself as if you would to cut strongly, but do not do this, rather allow it to fail or flit to another opening, then as soon as you are at the midway part of your sword on his Sword, do not await, but rather, Thwart, Strike Around, Wrench Out, Slice, Wind, and what other types of work there may be.</p>
 
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/111|3|lbl=Ⅰ.45v.3|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/112|1|lbl=Ⅰ.46r.1|p=1}}
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| <p>And firstly when one will cut straight to your head, from his right, thus step with your right foot well out from his strike, to his left, so that you avoid his strike with a spring to his left and likewise cut from your right with crossed hands, against his cut, thus you come with your blade between his head and sword, on his short edge, which is facing him, and when it connects, then step further around to his left side with your right foot, and displace or transfer your sword's blade from his, onto his arm, between his head and sword, in this you will have seen the opening, to which the you may cut and see that you don't wait long but rather allow your cuts to fly quickly to the openings.</p>
 
| <p>And firstly when one will cut straight to your head, from his right, thus step with your right foot well out from his strike, to his left, so that you avoid his strike with a spring to his left and likewise cut from your right with crossed hands, against his cut, thus you come with your blade between his head and sword, on his short edge, which is facing him, and when it connects, then step further around to his left side with your right foot, and displace or transfer your sword's blade from his, onto his arm, between his head and sword, in this you will have seen the opening, to which the you may cut and see that you don't wait long but rather allow your cuts to fly quickly to the openings.</p>
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<p>Item Note when you approach him in the Zufechten, then see when he shows his arm will strike, thus cross your hands while in the air yet that they remain high, and throw the point at his hand or arms, that is the weak or the furthest part of the blade, and that should happen when he goes up to strike, and before he is ready, thus be on his blade, with a Thwart cut, for such techniques should fly and go quickly.</p>
 
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/114|4|lbl=Ⅰ.47r.4|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/115|1|lbl=Ⅰ.47v.1|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/114|4|lbl=Ⅰ.47r.4|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/115|1|lbl=Ⅰ.47v.1|p=1}}
 
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'''Item''' Note when you approach him in the Zufechten, then see when he shows his arm will strike, thus cross your hands while in the air yet that they remain high, and throw the point at his hand or arms, that is the weak or the furthest part of the blade, and that should happen when he goes up to strike, and before he is ready, thus be on his blade, with a Thwart cut, for such techniques should fly and go quickly.
 
| '''[XLVIIv] SEITENWECHSEL'''
 
magst nach gelegenheit / und solt dich hiemit so bald du die Blöß ersehen nicht lang saumen. Ferner wann du im zufechten zu deinem widerpart kommest / so schauw in dem er seine Arm auffzeucht zum streich / so verschrenck dieweil deinen hend in der lufft / und wirff ihm den ort das ist die schwech oder eussertheil deiner klingen auff sein hendt oder Arm / diß aber merck wie bemelt / sol geschehen in dem er zum streich auffzeucht / und ehe er damit fertig soltu ihm mit einer Zwirch schon wider an seiner klingen sein / denn solche stuck sollen fliegend und geschwindt zugehen.
 
 
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This Stück goes thus, (after you have come under his sword in the attack) when your stay in the bind, and drive your sword over the head, as soon as he gives a little room, so that he is not binding on the sword, but rather drives his sword then high above you, then cross your hands in the air, and cut from above with the short edge thus put crosswise, down to his right ear, so that whether your Blade hits or not, it runs around in a circle by his right arm, and in this keep your hands high above your head, as soon as he slips after the Circle, then step with your left foot well on to his right side, and cut in at his head with the Long edge, over his right arm, behind his blade, take your body and head well away from his strike with a step to your left side.
 
This Stück goes thus, (after you have come under his sword in the attack) when your stay in the bind, and drive your sword over the head, as soon as he gives a little room, so that he is not binding on the sword, but rather drives his sword then high above you, then cross your hands in the air, and cut from above with the short edge thus put crosswise, down to his right ear, so that whether your Blade hits or not, it runs around in a circle by his right arm, and in this keep your hands high above your head, as soon as he slips after the Circle, then step with your left foot well on to his right side, and cut in at his head with the Long edge, over his right arm, behind his blade, take your body and head well away from his strike with a step to your left side.
| '''Den Zürckel laß zur Rechten rührn /<br/>Bhalt hoch dein hendt / wilt jhn verführn.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/115|2|lbl=Ⅰ.47v.2}}
 
 
Zürckel kompt auch auß den Krumphäuwen / unnd ist ein sonderlich gut stuck zum verführen für andern / damit es nit lehr oder vergebens und ungerührt (wie ander verführende stuck / als da ist Ablauffen Verfliegen und dergleichen ablaufft) sonder so man jn recht macht / trifft der Zürckel mit der halben schneid im fürlauff sehr hart. Diß stuck aber treib also / wenn du (nach dem du mit dem ahngriff under sein Schwerdt komen) vor einem im bund stehest / und dein Schwerdt in der höhe ob dem Haupt führest / so bald er dir blatz lasset und dir nit nach deim Schwerdt bindt / sonder füret sein Schwerdt mit dem ort auch hoch / so verschrenck dein hendt in der lufft / und Hauwe mit kurtzer schneid also geschrenckt von oben nider zu seinem rechten Ohr / das demnach dein klinge sie treff oder nit / neben seinem rechten arm furuber in einem zirckel herumb lauff / und behalt in dessen gleichwol die hend hoch uber deinem Haupt / so bald er dem Zirckel nachwischt / so trit mit deinem Lincken fuß wol auff sein rechte seiten auß / unn Hauw mit Langerschneid hinder seiner klingen uber sein Rechten arm zum Kopff / nim den leib sampt dem trit wol auß / auff dein lincke seiten / mit deim Haupt auß seinem streich.
 
 
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When you stand before one in this same work, how you have previously been taught, thus pay attention when your advantage will come, then step aside at once with your left foot out to your left side, and cut with a circle to his right while you are stepping but that in running past to the right, it grazes, and also with this Circle, step through with your right foot between you and him, in to his right side, with this stepping through, cut a Zwerchhau from your right to his left, forwards to the face Indes spring well out to his right and cut him long after to his head.
 
When you stand before one in this same work, how you have previously been taught, thus pay attention when your advantage will come, then step aside at once with your left foot out to your left side, and cut with a circle to his right while you are stepping but that in running past to the right, it grazes, and also with this Circle, step through with your right foot between you and him, in to his right side, with this stepping through, cut a Zwerchhau from your right to his left, forwards to the face Indes spring well out to his right and cut him long after to his head.
| '''Ein gut stuck auß dem Zürckel.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/115|3|lbl=Ⅰ.47v.3}}
 
 
Wann du wie vor bemelt in gleicher arbeti vor dem Mann stehest / so hab acht wenn dir die gelegenheit wirt / so trit mit deinem Lincken fuß auff dein lincke seiten beseits auß / und Hauw zugleich mit dem trit ein Zirckel zu seinem Rechten furuber / doch das es im furuber lauffen zur Rechten anschürff und treffe / und trit zugleich in solchem Zirckel mit deinem rechten fuß zwischen dir und jhm auff sein Rechte seiten durch / unnd im durchtreten Hauw ein Zwirchhaw von deiner Rechten gegen seiner Lincken vornen zum gesicht / wie du an den obern bossen in dieser Figur so mit dem K. verzeichnet sehen kanst / in des spring wol auß auff sein Rechte / und Haw jm lang nach zu seim Kopff.
 
 
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This is when you cut in Crooked at the same time as him, with your strike you should step well out from his strike, so that you have your head behind your blade, well from his strike. The second part teaches you that when you have bound on his sword with a Crooked cut, that you nimbly cross over where you have the opportunity and then snap around or wind the quick snap to his head, or wrench out, allow it to overrun.
 
This is when you cut in Crooked at the same time as him, with your strike you should step well out from his strike, so that you have your head behind your blade, well from his strike. The second part teaches you that when you have bound on his sword with a Crooked cut, that you nimbly cross over where you have the opportunity and then snap around or wind the quick snap to his head, or wrench out, allow it to overrun.
| '''[XLVIIIrv] Mit Krump trit wol wiltu versetzen /<br/>Das uberschrencken thut jhn letzen.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/117|1|lbl=Ⅰ.48v.1}}
 
 
Solches soll also verstanden werden / wenn du Krump mit einhauwest / so trit zugleich mit dem Hauw wol auß seinem streich / das du dein Kopff hinder deiner klingen auß seinem streich entziehest. Zum andern wenn du also mit einem Krumphauw an sein Schwerdt gebunden hast / das du behend (wo du gelegenheit darzu haben magst) uberschrenckest / folgends umbschnappest / oder die schnellen nach seinem Kopff windest / oder ausreissest / oder lassest uberlauffen und dergleichen.
 
 
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'''Counter''' - let go the left hand, and allow him to wrench without avail, Indes drive after his upwards pressing, with your slice to his arms, do not allow him to come to any further work, nor to cut freely, when you see your advantage, at once, allow your sword to fly to the next opening.
 
'''Counter''' - let go the left hand, and allow him to wrench without avail, Indes drive after his upwards pressing, with your slice to his arms, do not allow him to come to any further work, nor to cut freely, when you see your advantage, at once, allow your sword to fly to the next opening.
| '''Ein fein stuck aus dem verkeren.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/117|2|lbl=Ⅰ.48v.2}}
 
 
MErck im zufechten hab acht / wenn dein widerpart für dir auffgehet / so trit unnd Hauw von deiner Lincken mit kurtzer schneid und geschrenckten henden zu oder uber den Rechten arm / aber in disem Krumphauw trit wol zu jhm / verkehr dein Schwerdt / unnd reiss undersich auß / auff dein Rechte seiten / arbeitet er ubersich mit den Armen also das du jhn nit undersich zwingen magst / so fahr mit dem knopff von inwendig zwischen sein beide Arm / laß dein Lincke hand vom Hefft / greiff damit dein Schwerdts klingen und reiss ubersich auß wie die Figur mit dem O. anzeiget. Des Bruch also / laß die Linckhand ledig also das er vergeblich außreißt / in des fahr seinem ubersich rucken nach / mit dem Schnit auff sein Arm / und laß jhn ferner zu keiner arbeit kommen noch ledig werden / du habst dann deinen vortheil ersehen / demnach so laß zur nechsten Blöß fliegen.
 
 
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The Counter you should mark that when one meets you with a crooked cut, to your on coming strike, to weaken you, then change through nimbly under his blade and work to his side from which he sent his Crooked cut.
 
The Counter you should mark that when one meets you with a crooked cut, to your on coming strike, to weaken you, then change through nimbly under his blade and work to his side from which he sent his Crooked cut.
| '''Krump zun flechen wilt dich stercken /<br/>Wie du jhn schwechst solt fleissig mercken.'''
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/117|3|lbl=Ⅰ.48v.3|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/119|1|lbl=Ⅰ.49v.1|p=1}}
Solchs ist ein lehr wie du dem Mann sein herkommenden streich schwechen solt / diß soltu aber also treiben / im zufechten hab acht wann dein gegenfechter dir von seiner Rechten zuhauwet / so trit wol auß seinem streich / und Hauw mit geschrenckten henden und Langer schneid auff die sterck seiner klingen in die flech / damit schwechest du '''[XLIXrv]''' jhn also / das er sich kaum zu einem andern erholen mag / denn ehe er sich erholet kanstu jhm mit verwenden oder schnellen / auff seinem Kopff sein. Den Bruch aber soltu hierin also machen / Merckestu das dir einer mit einem Krumphauw begegnet / auff dein herkomenden streich dich zuschwechen / so Wechsel behend udner seiner klingen durch / und arbeit jhm zu der seiten / von welcher er den Krumphauw her bracht hat.
 
 
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This is a very good rhyme that admonishes you earnestly to pay attention to the openings that fall before you. For it is known that you go at him correctly in the After, thus you have very often whenever the swords connect or two strike and clash together above, there is an opening below. You will not fail to note this through several Stück.
 
This is a very good rhyme that admonishes you earnestly to pay attention to the openings that fall before you. For it is known that you go at him correctly in the After, thus you have very often whenever the swords connect or two strike and clash together above, there is an opening below. You will not fail to note this through several Stück.
| '''Als bald es rührt und glützt oben /<br/>Zuck ab zur Blöß wilt jhn betoben.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/119|2|lbl=Ⅰ.49v.2}}
 
 
Dise vers seind sehr notwendig zumercken / sintemal sie dich ernstlich acht zuhaben vermahnen auff die fürfallende Blöß / dann hie ist gewiß wann du der sachen recht nachgehest / das du so offt es rührt oder zwen streich oben zusamen gliitzen / du unden ein Blöß ereilen kanst / solches wirt dir nit fehlen / diß aber damit du es desto baß verstehn könnest / so merck solchs durch diese nachfolgende exempel und stuck also.
 
 
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| Note in Zufechten send yourself into the Wrath Guard, as soon as you can get him, then step and cut in with him from your right a powerful high cut, when this clashes, then strike around nimbly with a Thwart to his left ear, with a back-step of your left foot, behind your right, thus you likewise hit twice, or complete two strikes before he completes one.
 
| Note in Zufechten send yourself into the Wrath Guard, as soon as you can get him, then step and cut in with him from your right a powerful high cut, when this clashes, then strike around nimbly with a Thwart to his left ear, with a back-step of your left foot, behind your right, thus you likewise hit twice, or complete two strikes before he completes one.
| Im zufechten als bald du dir trauwest den Mann zuerlangen / so trit und Hauw mit jhm von deiner Rechten ein gewaltigen Oberhauw hinein / in dem es gliitzt so schlag behend umb wider zu seinem Lincken ohr / unnd trit under des mit deinem Lincken fuß hinder dein Rechten / so triffst du gleich zweymal / oder volbringest zwen streich auff einer seiten ehe denn er einen.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/119|3|lbl=Ⅰ.49v.3}}
 
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| '''Item''' If one cuts at you from above like before, then cut from your lower left against his strike, so that you catch his High cut up in the air, as soon as it connects then cut with the forward short edge and crossed hands in a Circle, to his right ear and that you swiftly go almost at the same time, namely that when the blades connect together, thus you shall hit down from above with the short edge.
 
| '''Item''' If one cuts at you from above like before, then cut from your lower left against his strike, so that you catch his High cut up in the air, as soon as it connects then cut with the forward short edge and crossed hands in a Circle, to his right ear and that you swiftly go almost at the same time, namely that when the blades connect together, thus you shall hit down from above with the short edge.
| Deßgleichen Hauwet einer von Oben wie vor auf dich / so Hauw von deiner Lincken von Unden gegen seinem streich / das du sein Oberhauw hoch in der lufft mit geschrenckten henden auff dein Schwerdt fangest / als bald es gliitzt / so Hauw mit dem vordern kurtzen ort / also mit geschrenckten henden von seinem Schwerdt / in einem Zürckel zu seinem rechten Ohr / diß aber soll geschwindt schier zugleich geschehen / also das in dem die klingen zusamen rühren / auch gleich mit die halb schneid von Oben nider treffen.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/119|4|lbl=Ⅰ.49v.4}}
 
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| '''Item''' In the Onset act as if you would cut from above; but as soon as you note that he slips upwards against your cut, at once turn your High Cut into a Low Cut before it actually connects above, this is the Simultaneous Failer.
 
| '''Item''' In the Onset act as if you would cut from above; but as soon as you note that he slips upwards against your cut, at once turn your High Cut into a Low Cut before it actually connects above, this is the Simultaneous Failer.
| Ferner stell dich im zugang mit geberden sam du von Oben wollest Hauwen / so bald du aber vermerckest das er dem Hauw ubersich entgegen wischet / so verwindt dein Oberhauw in ein Underhaw / ehe denn es oben recht rühret / welches ein rechter fehler ist / und triffest jhm also das Linck ohr ehe ers gewahr wirt.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/119|5|lbl=Ⅰ.49v.5}}
 
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| '''Item''' If he cuts from below, thus fall on it with your long edge from above when it clashes, then pull back nimbly and strike to the next opening in one motion, or strike around from his sword with the flat in a winding flick to the next opening.
 
| '''Item''' If he cuts from below, thus fall on it with your long edge from above when it clashes, then pull back nimbly and strike to the next opening in one motion, or strike around from his sword with the flat in a winding flick to the next opening.
| Letzlich Hauwet dein widerpart von Unden / so fall mit deiner Langen schneid oben darauff / in dem es gliitzt so schlag behend der nechsten Blöß zu in einem flug / oder schlag mit der flech von seinem Schwerdt umb / in einem gewundenen schnall auch der nechsten Blöß zu.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/119|6|lbl=Ⅰ.49v.6}}
 
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This is when you cut a Crooked cut at one, and he holds off hard so that you cannot cross over, or have other work from above, thus wind under and through with the pommel, and cast the pommel to the other side over his blade or arm from the outside, and wrench downwards and strike in with the long edge deep to his head, or cast the pommel in between both of his hands, how this figure reveals.
 
This is when you cut a Crooked cut at one, and he holds off hard so that you cannot cross over, or have other work from above, thus wind under and through with the pommel, and cast the pommel to the other side over his blade or arm from the outside, and wrench downwards and strike in with the long edge deep to his head, or cast the pommel in between both of his hands, how this figure reveals.
  
The next is a counter to the under-cut, if one cuts an under-cut to you low. Then cut with your long edge so that you have your hands crooked or crosswise, above on his strong. Then when this clashes, thrust the blade right in before you, and in thrusting forth, wind the short edge to flick it around at his face or head. If he drives up and defends against your flick, then drive up also, pull around your head, and strike him to another opening.
 
| rowspan="2" | '''[Lr] Wann du jhm Hauwest Krump zur sterck /<br/>Durchwendt / Uberlauff damit merck.'''
 
  
Wann du einem ein Krumphauw zuhauwest / und er hart widerhalt / also das du jhn mit uberschrencken oder anderer arbeit Oben nichts haben magst / so wend mit dem knopff unden durch / und greiff mit demselben jm auff der andern seiten aussen uber sein klingen oder Arm / unnd reiss undersich / schlag jhn mit Langer schneid im riss auff sein Kopff / oder greiff mit dem knopff zwischen sein beide hend / wie in der Figur hievor getruckt an den zwen bossen gegen der Lincken hand zu sehen. Bruch. Hauwet einer ein Underhauw auff dich / so Hauw mit Langer schneid / das du dein hendt krum oder kreutzweiß habest / oben auff die sterck seiner klingen / in dem es dan gliitzt so schieb die kling gerichts für dir hin / unnd im fürtscheiben so winde die kurtze schneid in einem schnall umb zu seinem gesicht oder auff sein Kopff / fehret er auff und wehrt dir dein schnall / so fahr auch auff / unnd zuck umb dein Kopff / und schlag jhm zu seiner undern Blöß.
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| rowspan="2" | {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/120|1|lbl=Ⅰ.50r.1}}
 
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword O.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword O.jpg|center|400px]]
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<p>The next is a counter to the under-cut, if one cuts an under-cut to you low. Then cut with your long edge so that you have your hands crooked or crosswise, above on his strong. Then when this clashes, thrust the blade right in before you, and in thrusting forth, wind the short edge to flick it around at his face or head. If he drives up and defends against your flick, then drive up also, pull around your head, and strike him to another opening.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/120|2|lbl=Ⅰ.50r.2}}
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This is when you cut in with a Crooked Cut to his strong, if he opposes or displaces high, then wind through below with the pommel, and act as if you would grab over with the pommel, as I have already taught; and before he realizes it, then quickly flick the short edge back in at him, again on the same line, to whichever side you first did the Crooked Cut.
 
This is when you cut in with a Crooked Cut to his strong, if he opposes or displaces high, then wind through below with the pommel, and act as if you would grab over with the pommel, as I have already taught; and before he realizes it, then quickly flick the short edge back in at him, again on the same line, to whichever side you first did the Crooked Cut.
| '''Des Knopffs verführens solt gedencken /<br/>Mit Zeckrur / Schnellen würst jhn krenken.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/120|3|lbl=Ⅰ.50r.3}}
 
 
Ist sovil / wenn du in einem Krumphauw einhauwest zu seiner Rechte / und er widerhelt oder versetzt hoch / so windt mit dem knopff unden durch / und stelle dich mit geberden als wolstu wie vor gelehrt / mit dem knopff ubergreiffen / ehe und denn er sich solches versicht / so Schnell jhm die kurtze schneide daselbst wider hinein / zu welcher seiten du erst den Krumphauw gethan hast.
 
 
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| '''Item''' In the Zufechten, lay on against your opponent with a powerful horizontal Middle Cut strongly at his left ear. Quickly pull your pommel around your head, and threaten him with it as if you would thrust at his other side with the pommel, and if he wishes to slip after and displace the thrust then flick back at his left ear with the short edge, and in flicking, step with your left foot back behind your right.
 
| '''Item''' In the Zufechten, lay on against your opponent with a powerful horizontal Middle Cut strongly at his left ear. Quickly pull your pommel around your head, and threaten him with it as if you would thrust at his other side with the pommel, and if he wishes to slip after and displace the thrust then flick back at his left ear with the short edge, and in flicking, step with your left foot back behind your right.
| Item greiff im zufechten dein gegenmann mit einem gewaltigen uberzwerch Mittelhauw / starck zum Lincken ohr an / zuck behend dein knopff umb dein Kopff / und trauw jhm damit / als ob du jhm mit dem Knopff zur andern seiten stossen wolst / und in dem er dir hie entgegen wischt den stoß zuversetzen / so schnell jhn mit der kurtzen schneid wider zu seinem Lincken ohr / und im schnall trit mit deinem Lincken fuß zu ruck hinder dein Rechten / und Hauwe dich von jhm.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/120|4|lbl=Ⅰ.50r.4}}
 
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This is a proper master's technique, when you are in the Zufechten, then send yourself into the right Wrath; as soon as he brings his sword in the air, then strike a free High Cut at him, and in the air, cross your hands so that the right hand comes crosswise over the left, and cut then through crooked with the short edge against his cut, in this, step with a double step well out to his right, and cut with the long edge at his right ear, or use changing through to come onto his shield against his right; then work with winding, slicing, and whatever other work arises for you.
 
This is a proper master's technique, when you are in the Zufechten, then send yourself into the right Wrath; as soon as he brings his sword in the air, then strike a free High Cut at him, and in the air, cross your hands so that the right hand comes crosswise over the left, and cut then through crooked with the short edge against his cut, in this, step with a double step well out to his right, and cut with the long edge at his right ear, or use changing through to come onto his shield against his right; then work with winding, slicing, and whatever other work arises for you.
| '''[Lv] Auch so du recht durchschiessen wilt /<br/>Krumb / Kurtz / Durchwechsel an sein Schilt.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/121|1|lbl=Ⅰ.50v.1}}
 
 
Diß ist ein recht artig Meister stücklein / wenn du im zufechten bist so schick dich in rechten Zorn / als bald er sein Schwerdt in die lufft bringt / so Hauw ein freyen Oberhauw zu jhm / volführe den aber nit / sonder verschrenck in der lufft deine hend / das die Rechte hand uber die Lincke kom / und Hauw also mit kurtzer schneid Krump gegen seinem Hauw listiglich durch / in dessen trit wol mit einem zwifachen trit auff sein Rechte aus / unnd Hauw mit Langer schneid zu seinem Rechten ohr / oder kom mit dem durchwechseln an sein Schilt gegen seiner Rechten / alda arbeit mit Winden / Schneiden und was dir für arbeit werden mag.
 
 
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Line 2,187: Line 2,178:
  
 
Take heed in the Zufechten of he who pulls up his sword to strike, thus cut through quickly and freely before him how it is taught above, so that you come to his right on to his shield. And as soon as it connects, then wind again with the short edge in at his head, and in this winding, jerk your pommel well upward, so that your blade again snaps around, so that in your cut, your right hand comes back over your left, hit then with crossed hands, and thus in snapping around, wind in below to his right ear, and step at the same time, quickly with your left foot well out to his right. Then at once Thwart to his left ear with a step out, deeply wind your short edge inwards and again outwards to his left ear, and then cut away from him.
 
Take heed in the Zufechten of he who pulls up his sword to strike, thus cut through quickly and freely before him how it is taught above, so that you come to his right on to his shield. And as soon as it connects, then wind again with the short edge in at his head, and in this winding, jerk your pommel well upward, so that your blade again snaps around, so that in your cut, your right hand comes back over your left, hit then with crossed hands, and thus in snapping around, wind in below to his right ear, and step at the same time, quickly with your left foot well out to his right. Then at once Thwart to his left ear with a step out, deeply wind your short edge inwards and again outwards to his left ear, and then cut away from him.
| '''Ein stuck aus dem durchschiessen.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/121|2|lbl=Ⅰ.50v.2}}
 
 
HAb im zufechten acht / so bald dein gegenfechter sein Schwerdt zum streich auffziehet / so Hauw dieweil behend und listig vor jhm Krump durch (wie oben gemelt) damit du zu seiner Rechten aussen an seinen Schilt komest / und als geschwindt es nur rührt so winde jhm die kurtze schneid einwerts zum Kopff / unnd ruck in solchem winden dein knopff wol ubersich / das die kurtze schneid dest dieffer kom / fehrt er dann auff zu versetzen / so laß dein kling wider umbschnappen das dein Rechte hand wider uber die Lincke kome / und schnell jhm also im umbschnappen wider unden zu seinem Rechten ohr hinein / in solchem aber trit mit dem Lincken fuß wol auß auff sein Rechte / Zwirch dann bald wider mit einem abtrit zu seinem Lincken ohr dieff / unnd wind an seinem Schwerdt dein kurtze schneid wider unden heraus / zu seinem Lincken ohr / demnach Hauwe dich von jm / und solches alles soll durch das winden behendiglich volbracht werden.
 
 
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Line 2,199: Line 2,188:
  
 
'''Item''' If he remains, then you wind. For winding, slicing, wrenching out, and reversing is called the War, through which one to the other always counters the opponent's devices. And one counter follows one from another, for if he wards off one, then with this he gives you occasion or helps you to another technique that conveniently follows after it, thus you both make War. Also this same you should note, when an opponent lays on against you with a Crooked Cut, that you shall not fly around from one opening to another, for as soon as you go away from the Crooked Cut, then you are totally open to him, where he will correctly step.
 
'''Item''' If he remains, then you wind. For winding, slicing, wrenching out, and reversing is called the War, through which one to the other always counters the opponent's devices. And one counter follows one from another, for if he wards off one, then with this he gives you occasion or helps you to another technique that conveniently follows after it, thus you both make War. Also this same you should note, when an opponent lays on against you with a Crooked Cut, that you shall not fly around from one opening to another, for as soon as you go away from the Crooked Cut, then you are totally open to him, where he will correctly step.
| '''Merck so er dich mit Krumpwolt irren /<br/>Am Schwerdt recht bleib / den krieg thu führen /<br/>Mit Winden / Schnieden und was mehr /<br/>Mit verfliegen laß dich nit zu ferr.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/121|3|lbl=Ⅰ.50v.3}}
  
'''[LIr]''' Auß disen versen lernestu wie sich zuverhalten sey / gegen dem der dir krump an dein Schwerdt bindt / es werden aber hie zu zwey stuck dienstlich vermeldet / nemlich das Bleiben und der Krieg / welches sich also halt / Wenn dir einer krump an dein Schwerdt bindet / so zuck nit bald ab / sonder bleib an seinem Schwerdt / zu fülen was dir für arbeit hie nötig sein werde / als wenn er abgieng das du Nachreisest / oder so er bleibt du windest / dann Winden Schneiden / Verkeren / Außreissen heist hie der krieg / dardurch jmmer einer dem andern sein stuck bricht / unnd ein Bruch aus dem andern volget / dann wehret er dir eines so verursacht er dich oder hilfft dir zum andern / und kriegen also beide umb das Vor / auch soltu mercken wenn dir einer mit Krumphäuwen zuficht / das du gar nit verfliegen lassest von einer Blöß zur andern / dann als bald du vom Krumphauw abgehest / so bistu jhm gantz bloß / wo er sich ein wenig weiß darein zuschicken.
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/122|1|lbl=Ⅰ.51r.1}}
 
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Line 2,211: Line 2,200:
 
| <br/>
 
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Hieraus merck nun ein gut stuck / Hauwet einer von seiner Rechten ein Krumphauw auff dich so setz jhm den Hauw mit Langer schneid ubersich ab von dir / in dem es gliitzt / so bleib mit dem Bandt an seiner klingen / winde in des dein knopff ubersich gegen deiner Lincken / unnd die kling undersich gegen seiner Lincken / die kurtze Schneid an sein Linck ohr / Diß aber alles soll zugleich in einem trit zugehn / so triffestu gewiß / ob er aber so gescheid wer und auch den Krumphauw in das Langort verwenden würde / so winde in einem schnall die kurtze schneid einwerts zu seinem Kopff / winde demnach behend mit dem knopff wider unden durch auff dein Lincke seiten / greiff also mit dem knopff uber sein kling oder arm unnd reiss aus / oder so dir das gewendt / so nim andere stuck so du hie am tüglichen ersihest für die hand.
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/122|2|lbl=Ⅰ.51r.2}}
 
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Line 2,219: Line 2,208:
  
 
Note in the Zufechten, come into the right Change; from there, slash up through his face, so that your sword runs around your head above in a loop. Step with your left foot well to his right and strike with the outside flat from your left against his right athwart to his ear, with this, take your head well out of the way how it is previously stated here and when it clashes, then thrust your pommel through under your right arm and wind with the inside flat, in a flick, up from below again to his right ear. In this winding around remain hard on his shield and press hard from you. If he resists then let your sword go away and pull around your head, strike with the outside flat a strong Clashing Cut over your hand Wind through with the pommel back under your arm and flick from inside behind his blade at his head. Remain hard on his shield and wind rapidly back out, thus you stand back in the Clashing Cut as before. Work further as you will to the four openings, such as the need be and is previously taught here.
 
Note in the Zufechten, come into the right Change; from there, slash up through his face, so that your sword runs around your head above in a loop. Step with your left foot well to his right and strike with the outside flat from your left against his right athwart to his ear, with this, take your head well out of the way how it is previously stated here and when it clashes, then thrust your pommel through under your right arm and wind with the inside flat, in a flick, up from below again to his right ear. In this winding around remain hard on his shield and press hard from you. If he resists then let your sword go away and pull around your head, strike with the outside flat a strong Clashing Cut over your hand Wind through with the pommel back under your arm and flick from inside behind his blade at his head. Remain hard on his shield and wind rapidly back out, thus you stand back in the Clashing Cut as before. Work further as you will to the four openings, such as the need be and is previously taught here.
| '''Bald schnell die schwech zur Rechten dar /<br/>Zwifach schnellen / mit Schilt dich bewar.'''
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Merck kom im zufechten in rechten Wechsel / von dannen streich auff durch sein gesicht / das dein Schwerdt uber dein Haupt umblauff in einder Rinde / trit mit deinem Lincken wol auff sein Rechte / und schlag mit der außwendigen flech von deiner Lincken gegen seiner Rechten / uberzwerch zum ohr / nim den Kopff wol mit / wie hievor gemelt / aber in dem es gliitzt / so stoß behend dein knopff under dein Rechten arm durch / und schnell jhm also mit '''[LIv]''' inwendiger flech in einem schnall / von unden auff wider zu seinem rechten Ohr / in solchem winden bleib hart an seim Schilt mit deinem Schwerdt / und truck zugleich hart von dir / helt er wider / so laß dein Schwerdt leiß auß / und zuck umb den Kopff / schlag also mit außwendiger flech zu seinem Lincken / ein starcken Gliitzhauw uber dein hand / das dein knopff wol ubersich gang / so gehet der Hauw dester dieffer / windt mit dem knopffwider under deinem Arm durch / und schnell von inwendig hinder seiner klingen zum Kopff / bleib alwegen hart an seinem schilt unnd windt in eyl wider herauß / so stehestu wider im Gliitzhauw wie vor / arbeit weiter waß du wilt / nach den vier Blössen.
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/122|3|lbl=Ⅰ.51r.3|p=1}} '''[LIv]''' inwendiger flech in einem schnall / von unden auff wider zu seinem rechten Ohr / in solchem winden bleib hart an seim Schilt mit deinem Schwerdt / und truck zugleich hart von dir / helt er wider / so laß dein Schwerdt leiß auß / und zuck umb den Kopff / schlag also mit außwendiger flech zu seinem Lincken / ein starcken Gliitzhauw uber dein hand / das dein knopff wol ubersich gang / so gehet der Hauw dester dieffer / windt mit dem knopffwider under deinem Arm durch / und schnell von inwendig hinder seiner klingen zum Kopff / bleib alwegen hart an seinem schilt unnd windt in eyl wider herauß / so stehestu wider im Gliitzhauw wie vor / arbeit weiter waß du wilt / nach den vier Blössen.
 
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Revision as of 21:35, 22 April 2021

Joachim Meyer
Born ca. 1537
Basel, Germany
Died 24 February 1571 (aged 34)
Schwerin, Germany
Spouse(s) Appolonia Ruhlman
Occupation
Citizenship Strasbourg
Patron
  • Johann Albrecht (?)
  • Johann Casimir
Movement Freifechter
Influences
Influenced
Genres Fencing manual
Language Early New High German
Notable work(s) Gründtliche Beschreibung der
Kunst des Fechtens
(1570)
Manuscript(s)
First printed
english edition
Forgeng, 2006
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations
Signature Joachim Meyer sig.jpg

Joachim Meyer (ca. 1537 - 1571)[1] was a 16th century German Freifechter and fencing master. He was the last major figure in the tradition of the German grand master Johannes Liechtenauer, and in the last years of his life he devised at least three distinct and quite extensive fencing manuals. Meyer's writings incorporate both the traditional Germanic technical syllabus and contemporary systems that he encountered in his travels, including Italian rapier fencing.[2] In addition to his fencing practice, Meyer was a Burgher and a master cutler.[3]

Meyer was born in Basel,[4] where he presumably apprenticed as a cutler. He writes in his books that he traveled widely in his youth, most likely a reference to the traditional Walz that journeyman craftsmen were required to take before being eligible for mastery and membership in a guild. Journeymen were often sent to stand watch and participate in town and city militias (a responsibility that would have been amplified for the warlike cutlers' guild), and Meyer learned a great deal about foreign fencing systems during his travels. It's been speculated by some fencing historians that he trained specifically in the Bolognese school of fencing, but this doesn't stand up to closer analysis.[5]

Records show that by 4 June 1560 he had settled in Strasbourg, where he married Appolonia Ruhlman (Ruelman)[1] and was granted the rank of master cutler. His interests had already moved beyond smithing, however, and in 1561, Meyer petitioned the City Council of Strasbourg for the right to hold a Fechtschule (fencing competition). He would repeat this in 1563, 1566, 1567 and 1568;[6] the 1568 petition is the first extant record in which he identifies himself as a fencing master.

Meyer probably wrote his first manuscript (MS A.4º.2) in either 1560 or 1568 for Otto Count von Sulms, Minzenberg, and Sonnenwaldt.[7] Its contents seem to be a series of lessons on training with long sword, dussack, and rapier. His second manuscript (MS Var.82), written between 1563 and 1570 for Heinrich Graf von Eberst, is of a decidedly different nature. Like many fencing manuscripts from the previous century, it is an anthology of treatises by a number of prominent German masters including Sigmund ain Ringeck, pseudo-Peter von Danzig, and Martin Syber, and also includes a brief outline by Meyer himself on a system of rapier fencing based on German Messer teachings. Finally, on 24 February 1570 Meyer completed (and soon thereafter published) an enormous multi-weapon treatise entitled Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens ("A Thorough Description of the Art of Combat"); it was dedicated to Johann Casimir, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and illustrated at the workshop of Tobias Stimmer.[8]

Unfortunately, Meyer's writing and publication efforts incurred significant debts (about 1300 crowns), which Meyer pledged to repay by Christmas of 1571.[1] Late in 1570, Meyer accepted the position of Fechtmeister to Duke Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg at his court in Schwerin. There Meyer hoped to sell his book for a better price than was offered locally (30 florins). Meyer sent his books ahead to Schwerin, and left from Strasbourg on 4 January 1571 after receiving his pay. He traveled the 800 miles to Schwerin in the middle of a harsh winter, arriving at the court on 10 February 1571. Two weeks later, on 24 February, Joachim Meyer died. The cause of his death is unknown, possibly disease or pneumonia.[6]

Antoni Rulman, Appolonia’s brother, became her legal guardian after Joachim’s death. On 15 May 1571, he had a letter written by the secretary of the Strasbourg city chamber and sent to the Duke of Mecklenburg stating that Antoni was now the widow Meyer’s guardian; it politely reminded the Duke who Joachim Meyer was, Meyer’s publishing efforts and considerable debt, requested that the Duke send Meyer’s personal affects and his books to Appolonia, and attempted to sell some (if not all) of the books to the Duke.[1]

Appolonia remarried in April 1572 to another cutler named Hans Kuele, bestowing upon him the status of Burgher and Meyer's substantial debts. Joachim Meyer and Hans Kuele are both mentioned in the minutes of Cutlers' Guild archives; Kuele may have made an impression if we can judge that fact by the number of times he is mentioned. It is believed that Appolonia and either her husband or her brother were involved with the second printing of his book in 1600. According to other sources, it was reprinted yet again in 1610 and in 1660.[9][10]

Treatises

Joachim Meyer's writings are preserved in two manuscripts prepared in the 1560s, the MS A.4º.2 (Lund) and the MS Var 82 (Rostock); a third manuscript from 1561 has been lost since at least the mid-20th century, and its contents are unknown.[11] Dwarfing these works is the massive book he published in 1570 entitled "A Thorough Description of the Free, Chivalric, and Noble Art of Fencing, Showing Various Customary Defenses, Affected and Put Forth with Many Handsome and Useful Drawings". Meyer's writings purport to teach the entire art of fencing, something that he claimed had never been done before, and encompass a wide variety of teachings from disparate sources and traditions. To achieve this goal, Meyer seems to have constructed his treatises as a series of progressive lessons, describing a process for learning to fence rather than merely outlining the underlying theory or listing the techniques. In keeping with this, he illustrates his techniques with depictions of fencers in courtyards using training weapons such as two-handed foils, wooden dussacks, and rapiers with ball tips.

The first part of Meyer's treatise is devoted to the long sword (the sword in two hands), which he presents as the foundational weapon of his system, and this section devotes the most space to fundamentals like stance and footwork. His long sword system draws upon the teachings of Freifechter Andre Paurñfeyndt (via Christian Egenolff's reprint) and Liechtenauer glossators Sigmund ain Ringeck and Lew, as well as using terminology otherwise unique to the brief Recital of Martin Syber. Not content merely to compile these teachings as his contemporary Paulus Hector Mair was doing, Meyer sought to update—even reinvent—them in various ways to fit the martial climate of the late sixteenth century, including adapting many techniques to accommodate the increased momentum of a greatsword and modifying others to use beats with the flat and winding slices in place of thrusts to comply with street-fighting laws in German cities (and the rules of the Fechtschule).

The second part of Meyer's treatises is designed to address new weapons gaining traction in German lands, the dussack and the rapier, and thereby find places for them in the German tradition. His early Lund manuscript presents a more summarized syllabus of techniques for these weapons, while his printed book goes into greater depth and is structured more in the fashion of lesson plans.[12] Meyer's dussack system, designed for the broad proto-sabers that spread into German lands from Eastern Europe in the 16th century,[13] combines the old Messer teachings of Johannes Lecküchner and the dussack teachings of Andre Paurñfeyndt with other unknown systems (some have speculated that they might include early Polish or Hungarian saber systems). His rapier system, designed for the lighter single-hand swords spreading north from Iberian and Italian lands, seems again to be a hybrid creation, integrating both the core teachings of the 15th century Liechtenauer tradition as well as components that are characteristic of the various regional Mediterranean fencing systems (including, perhaps, teachings derived from the treatise of Achille Marozzo). Interestingly, Meyer's rapier teachings in the Rostock seem to represent an attempt to unify these two weapon system, outlining a method for rapier fencing that includes key elements of his dussack teachings; it is unclear why this method did not appear in his book, but given the dates it may be that they represent his last musings on the weapon, written in the time between the completion of his book in 1570 and his death a year later.

The third part of Meyer's treatise only appears in his published book and covers dagger, wrestling, and various pole weapons. His dagger teachings, designed primarily for urban self-defense, seem to be based in part on the writings of Bolognese master Achille Marozzo[14] and the anonymous teachings in Egenolff, but also include much unique content of unknown origin (perhaps the anonymous dagger teachings in his Rostock manuscript). His staff material makes up the bulk of this section, beginning with the short staff, which, like Paurñfeyndt, he uses as a training tool for various pole weapons (and possibly also the greatsword), and then moving on to the halberd before ending with the long staff (representing the pike). As with the dagger, the sources Meyer based his staff teachings on are largely unknown.