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! <p>Figures</p>
 
! <p>Figures</p>
! <p>{{rating|start|Draft Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
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! <p>{{rating|start|Incomplete Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
  
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! <p>Figures</p>
 
! <p>Figures</p>
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|C|Incomplete Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
  
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|-  
 
! <p>Figures</p>
 
! <p>Figures</p>
! <p>{{rating|start|Draft Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|start|Incomplete Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
  
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 +
| <p>'''Sword Fencing'''</p>
 +
 +
<p>Firstly will each one of the actions in Fencing be divided into three parts which are particularly good to note. In the Sword this is namely attacking, followed by the withdrawal or other than to the first to reach it, send your attacks through the Guards and Hew like they follow afterwards here, however to the other parts and the middle work, this will be reprinted with the handworks, and a mixture of convenient cuts. Onwards to the last, or the withdrawal, how orderly each one will hereafter be diligently written and taught.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/109|1|lbl=Ⅰ.44v.1}}
 
 
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|-  
 
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 +
| <p>Secondly one should note the Vor and Nach (Before and After), Weak and Strong. The Before is when you drive with your Stücken so that he cannot come to his senses, especially by positioning yourself close, and how he defends before your Stücken and these same would like to break and bar, with this, he runs off the Vor to you.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/109|2|lbl=Ⅰ.44v.2}}
 
 
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|-  
 
|-  
 
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 +
| <p>The after is, when you have been rushed upon by your opponent how it is reported next and above. Thus you should respond Indes quickly with convenient work, with this, you are strongest on his Stücken, when you lay on with your work in the Vor, and in this you are crowded so that you must displace him after, thus is a constant changing with the Vor and Nach, now you have it, then he does, But he who does not pay attention to it, he will nonetheless never learn to fence.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/110|1|lbl=Ⅰ.45r.1}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
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 +
| <p>'''Divisions of the sword to the Weak and Strong'''</p>
 +
 +
<p>The Sword is firstly divided in two parts, namely from the grip to the middle of the Blade which is known as the Strong, from the middle to the most forward, is the Weak furthermore is the sword divided in four parts how the figure below this shows.</p>
 
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|  
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/110|2|lbl=Ⅰ.45r.2}}
 
 
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 +
| <p>With the inward part, that is the haft, and [with it] the work with the pommel and cross and haft will be understood, in the next part, thereafter will the work with cutting and pushing and what belongs to the Strong be understood, to the third part of the sword should be noted the alterable work of the Weak and Strong after opportunity and liking. Which alone is extremely weak for you to work properly to the Openings.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/111|1|lbl=Ⅰ.45v.1}}
 
 
|  
 
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|-  
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+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS A.4º.2 06v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>'''Sword Fencing'''</p>
+
| <p>'''Hard and Soft'''</p>
  
<p>Firstly will each one of the actions in Fencing be divided into three parts which are particularly good to note. In the Sword this is namely attacking, followed by the withdrawal or other than to the first to reach it, send your attacks through the Guards and Hew like they follow afterwards here, however to the other parts and the middle work, this will be reprinted with the handworks, and a mixture of convenient cuts. Onwards to the last, or the withdrawal, how orderly each one will hereafter be diligently written and taught.</p>
+
<p>Thus you shall mark in the binding of the swords, as you shall feel if he has become hard or soft in the bind, with the cut.</p>
 
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|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|
+
| <p>Item If he is yet again, strong or weak, and is usually more watchful of the weak binding before the strong, how hereafter in the fencing it can be seen. With this however the Sword fencing and the following written stuck is more understandable thus as I explain my Zedel according to the rules, as I want the words to have understanding so I have named the order; the Beginning, Middle and End.</p>
| <p>Secondly one should note the Vor and Nach (Before and After), Weak and Strong. The Before is when you drive with your Stücken so that he cannot come to his senses, especially by positioning yourself close, and how he defends before your Stücken and these same would like to break and bar, with this, he runs off the Vor to you.</p>
 
 
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| <p>The after is, when you have been rushed upon by your opponent how it is reported next and above. Thus you should respond Indes quickly with convenient work, with this, you are strongest on his Stücken, when you lay on with your work in the Vor, and in this you are crowded so that you must displace him after, thus is a constant changing with the Vor and Nach, now you have it, then he does, But he who does not pay attention to it, he will nonetheless never learn to fence.</p>
+
| <p>'''Follow the Sword Zedel'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>'''The Four Main guards'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>From the Roof, Fool, Ox, Plow</p>
 
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Line 1,830: Line 1,835:
 
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|-  
 
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| <p>'''Divisions of the sword to the Weak and Strong'''</p>
+
| <p>'''The Eight Secondary Guards'''</p>
  
<p>The Sword is firstly divided in two parts, namely from the grip to the middle of the Blade which is known as the Strong, from the middle to the most forward, is the Weak furthermore is the sword divided in four parts how the figure below this shows.</p>
+
<p>Long-point, Iron-door, Hanging Point, Speak-window, Key, Side Guard, Barrier Guard, Wrath Guard</p>
 
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| <p>With the inward part, that is the haft, and [with it] the work with the pommel and cross and haft will be understood, in the next part, thereafter will the work with cutting and pushing and what belongs to the Strong be understood, to the third part of the sword should be noted the alterable work of the Weak and Strong after opportunity and liking. Which alone is extremely weak for you to work properly to the Openings.</p>
+
| <p>'''The Five Master-Cuts'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Wrath Cut, Crooked cut, Thwart Cut, Squinter cut, Scalper</p>
 
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Line 1,844: Line 1,851:
 
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| <p>'''Hard and Soft'''</p>
+
| <p>'''The Six Covert Cuts'''</p>
  
<p>Thus you shall mark in the binding of the swords, as you shall feel if he has become hard or soft in the bind, with the cut.</p>
+
<p>Blinding cut, Bouncing cut, Short cut, Knuckle cut, Clashing cut, Wind cut</p>
 
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| <p>Item If he is yet again, strong or weak, and is usually more watchful of the weak binding before the strong, how hereafter in the fencing it can be seen. With this however the Sword fencing and the following written stuck is more understandable thus as I explain my Zedel according to the rules, as I want the words to have understanding so I have named the order; the Beginning, Middle and End.</p>
+
| <p>'''Handworks in the Sword'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Bind On, Remain, Cut, Strike Around, Travel After, Snap Around, Run Off, Doubling, Leading, Flying, Feeling, Circle, Looping, Winding, Winding Through, Reverse, Change Through, Run over, Set Off, Cut Off, Pull, Hand Press, Displace, Hanging, Blocking, Barring, Travel out, Grab over, Weak pushing</p>
 
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Line 1,858: Line 1,867:
 
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|-  
 
|  
 
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| <p>'''Follow the Sword Zedel'''</p>
+
| <p>'''From the Four Openings and Divisions'''</p>
  
<p>'''The Four Main guards'''</p>
+
<p>Firstly will the opponent be divided in two sections, namely left and Right, how the Lines in the figure above is shown, thereafter in two more divisions namely under and over, the above two openings would be the Ox, to divide the under two, the Plow.</p>
 
+
|  
<p>From the Roof, Fool, Ox, Plow</p>
 
|  
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>'''The Eight Secondary Guards'''</p>
+
| <p>Whose use should one should thus firstly note, in which division he leads his sword under or above, to the right or the Left/ when you have seen that, thus attack against him at once from above, it is about the location, otherwise, take a general example of this:</p>
 
 
<p>Long-point, Iron-door, Hanging Point, Speak-window, Key, Side Guard, Barrier Guard, Wrath Guard</p>
 
 
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Line 1,876: Line 1,881:
 
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|-  
 
|  
 
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| <p>'''The Five Master-Cuts'''</p>
+
| <p>In Zufechten, thus both of you have come together, and you see that he leads his sword to his right in the high opening, in Ox or Wrath-guard, thus attack in to his lower left opening, if not, then it is much more important that you provoke him to meet you. As soon as this clashes, or will, thus pull around your head and strike him high to the opening from which he came. This is namely to his right ear, with the half edge and crossed hands. This is the correct Squinter cut.</p>
 
 
<p>Wrath Cut, Crooked cut, Thwart Cut, Squinter cut, Scalper</p>
 
 
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Line 1,884: Line 1,887:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>'''The Six Covert Cuts'''</p>
+
| <p>'''Another'''</p>
  
<p>Blinding cut, Bouncing cut, Short cut, Knuckle cut, Clashing cut, Wind cut</p>
+
<p>Thus when one holds his Sword to the left in Zufechten, then go through before him from your right and hew with strength to his right, as soon as he swipes after to the strike thus pull a looping to the left opening, if he swipes after this, however, thus allow it to fly around again, thus drive each opening to the other, crosswise and against one another after your opportunity.</p>
 
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Line 1,892: Line 1,895:
 
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|-  
 
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| <p>'''Handworks in the Sword'''</p>
+
| <p>It is every fencer's [desire] that he quickly knows from all strikes, to which opening the cut is coming, Indes quickly there and follow after, if I however can decide, then I want to instruct about the displacing upwards in hanging.</p>
 
 
<p>Bind On, Remain, Cut, Strike Around, Travel After, Snap Around, Run Off, Doubling, Leading, Flying, Feeling, Circle, Looping, Winding, Winding Through, Reverse, Change Through, Run over, Set Off, Cut Off, Pull, Hand Press, Displace, Hanging, Blocking, Barring, Travel out, Grab over, Weak pushing</p>
 
 
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Line 1,900: Line 1,901:
 
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| <p>'''From the Four Openings and Divisions'''</p>
+
| <p>It is stated in the ancient Verses, who often displaces, will often be injured.</p>
 
 
<p>Firstly will the opponent be divided in two sections, namely left and Right, how the Lines in the figure above is shown, thereafter in two more divisions namely under and over, the above two openings would be the Ox, to divide the under two, the Plow.</p>
 
 
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Line 1,908: Line 1,907:
 
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| <p>Whose use should one should thus firstly note, in which division he leads his sword under or above, to the right or the Left/ when you have seen that, thus attack against him at once from above, it is about the location, otherwise, take a general example of this:</p>
+
| <p>'''Item''' Liechtenauer said in his secret verses, that displacing hurts you, if you wish it on yourself, therefore shall every fencer know that he is to be the first with attacking and following, then to every fencer that is known to watch and wait on another, from this he shall come to no harm, or at the least, if he does not fight much.</p>
 
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Line 1,914: Line 1,913:
 
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| <p>In Zufechten, thus both of you have come together, and you see that he leads his sword to his right in the high opening, in Ox or Wrath-guard, thus attack in to his lower left opening, if not, then it is much more important that you provoke him to meet you. As soon as this clashes, or will, thus pull around your head and strike him high to the opening from which he came. This is namely to his right ear, with the half edge and crossed hands. This is the correct Squinter cut.</p>
+
| <p>A proper fencer, who does not displace much, will have the greatest advantage. Thus, when he strikes you also strike, when he thrusts you also thrust, when he steps you also step. Where two equal strikes come together, thus they bring you to displacing, when however one will cut from above, and then next he goes against with a Thwart, thus he sets off, and steps with one another, thus simultaneously should one have a step out, with the same cut and therein with advantage also pay attention to his openings. Thus should every fencer know that he is soon attentive how it is also shown above, that where two good fencers have come together, which I have attentively married together in the illustrations.</p>
 
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Line 1,920: Line 1,919:
 
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| <p>'''Another'''</p>
+
| <p>Thus have I put forth a short and summary knowledge of sword-fighting and all noteworthy devices and also the translations of which the divisions that are obscured, are clarified in measure and thereafter it enters and then next goes in three divisions, namely how it was previously reported, Onset or Attacking, Pressing After or the middle work, the last is to Withdraw or end and therefore so that one may better understand I will shortly reiterate.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
  
<p>Thus when one holds his Sword to the left in Zufechten, then go through before him from your right and hew with strength to his right, as soon as he swipes after to the strike thus pull a looping to the left opening, if he swipes after this, however, thus allow it to fly around again, thus drive each opening to the other, crosswise and against one another after your opportunity.</p>
+
|-
 +
|
 +
| <p>Thus, to the attacks have I put forth the Guards in which one should not delay, or wait in them, but rather as a result must your necessary courage with whose reported cuts, go once or twice to your opportunity, so that he must then engage and that the Vor has escaped Him, thus to another opening should one work after with various offensive handworks, beholding with the Vor, as such handworks are stated above as a three in one handwork, thus to crowd and close so that one may come to the withdraw without shame.</p>
 
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Line 1,928: Line 1,931:
 
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| <p>It is every fencer's [desire] that he quickly knows from all strikes, to which opening the cut is coming, Indes quickly there and follow after, if I however can decide, then I want to instruct about the displacing upwards in hanging.</p>
+
| <p>'''Of this, I will give an example'''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>If one fights against you in the Guard of the Roof, thus you come in Zufechten into the Side Guard, you must above all not wait in that long, then when he bears witness to the strike and as soon as he brings his sword into the air, thus lay on against him with a Thwart strike, instantly as it clashes, thus cut quickly again around with the long Thwart, to the other side of his sword, that is now attacking, if he strikes around, thus you cut after, if he displaces, then deceive him with the weak, so that you cut him in the after.</p>
 
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Line 1,934: Line 1,939:
 
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| <p>It is stated in the ancient Verses, who often displaces, will often be injured.</p>
+
| <p>If he is hard thus you are soft<br/>If he cuts, so you counter,<br/>If he displaces, then you cut</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Thirdly; also have instant attention for your opportunity to Withdraw.</p>
 
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Line 1,940: Line 1,947:
 
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| <p>'''Item''' Liechtenauer said in his secret verses, that displacing hurts you, if you wish it on yourself, therefore shall every fencer know that he is to be the first with attacking and following, then to every fencer that is known to watch and wait on another, from this he shall come to no harm, or at the least, if he does not fight much.</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/109|1|lbl=Ⅰ.44v.1}}
 
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|  
| <p>A proper fencer, who does not displace much, will have the greatest advantage. Thus, when he strikes you also strike, when he thrusts you also thrust, when he steps you also step. Where two equal strikes come together, thus they bring you to displacing, when however one will cut from above, and then next he goes against with a Thwart, thus he sets off, and steps with one another, thus simultaneously should one have a step out, with the same cut and therein with advantage also pay attention to his openings. Thus should every fencer know that he is soon attentive how it is also shown above, that where two good fencers have come together, which I have attentively married together in the illustrations.</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/109|2|lbl=Ⅰ.44v.2}}
 
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| <p>Thus have I put forth a short and summary knowledge of sword-fighting and all noteworthy devices and also the translations of which the divisions that are obscured, are clarified in measure and thereafter it enters and then next goes in three divisions, namely how it was previously reported, Onset or Attacking, Pressing After or the middle work, the last is to Withdraw or end and therefore so that one may better understand I will shortly reiterate.</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/110|1|lbl=Ⅰ.45r.1}}
 
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|  
  
 
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|  
| <p>Thus, to the attacks have I put forth the Guards in which one should not delay, or wait in them, but rather as a result must your necessary courage with whose reported cuts, go once or twice to your opportunity, so that he must then engage and that the Vor has escaped Him, thus to another opening should one work after with various offensive handworks, beholding with the Vor, as such handworks are stated above as a three in one handwork, thus to crowd and close so that one may come to the withdraw without shame.</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/110|2|lbl=Ⅰ.45r.2}}
 
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|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>'''Of this, I will give an example'''</p>
 
 
<p>If one fights against you in the Guard of the Roof, thus you come in Zufechten into the Side Guard, you must above all not wait in that long, then when he bears witness to the strike and as soon as he brings his sword into the air, thus lay on against him with a Thwart strike, instantly as it clashes, thus cut quickly again around with the long Thwart, to the other side of his sword, that is now attacking, if he strikes around, thus you cut after, if he displaces, then deceive him with the weak, so that you cut him in the after.</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/111|1|lbl=Ⅰ.45v.1}}
 
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|-  
 
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| <p>If he is hard thus you are soft<br/>If he cuts, so you counter,<br/>If he displaces, then you cut</p>
 
 
<p>Thirdly; also have instant attention for your opportunity to Withdraw.</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/111|2|lbl=Ⅰ.45v.2}}
 
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Line 1,983: Line 1,986:
  
 
<p>Thus note that when you wish to fight with someone, then see that you are the first to be in place so that you can act in a timely manner in your intended Stück, then you shall forcefully continue against him with cuts that he cannot send himself into a guard or Stück But rather you shall show that you will rush over him with sudden stepping before he realizes it. How it is then further clarified by the following Rhyme.</p>
 
<p>Thus note that when you wish to fight with someone, then see that you are the first to be in place so that you can act in a timely manner in your intended Stück, then you shall forcefully continue against him with cuts that he cannot send himself into a guard or Stück But rather you shall show that you will rush over him with sudden stepping before he realizes it. How it is then further clarified by the following Rhyme.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/111|2|lbl=Ⅰ.45v.2}}
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/111|3|lbl=Ⅰ.45v.3}}
 
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|  
  
Line 1,992: Line 1,995:
 
<p>This is when you are in the Zufechten and he is just about to you, then note when he acts as if he will adopt a posture, then do not allow him to rest or come to it, but rather always attack first, and as he is choosing a posture, lay on at once to the next opening, and position yourself as if you would to cut strongly, but do not do this, rather allow it to fail or flit to another opening, then as soon as you are at the midway part of your sword on his Sword, do not await, but rather, Thwart, Strike Around, Wrench Out, Slice, Wind, and what other types of work there may be.</p>
 
<p>This is when you are in the Zufechten and he is just about to you, then note when he acts as if he will adopt a posture, then do not allow him to rest or come to it, but rather always attack first, and as he is choosing a posture, lay on at once to the next opening, and position yourself as if you would to cut strongly, but do not do this, rather allow it to fail or flit to another opening, then as soon as you are at the midway part of your sword on his Sword, do not await, but rather, Thwart, Strike Around, Wrench Out, Slice, Wind, and what other types of work there may be.</p>
 
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/111|3|lbl=Ⅰ.45v.3|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/112|1|lbl=Ⅰ.46r.1|p=1}}
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| <p>And firstly when one will cut straight to your head, from his right, thus step with your right foot well out from his strike, to his left, so that you avoid his strike with a spring to his left and likewise cut from your right with crossed hands, against his cut, thus you come with your blade between his head and sword, on his short edge, which is facing him, and when it connects, then step further around to his left side with your right foot, and displace or transfer your sword's blade from his, onto his arm, between his head and sword, in this you will have seen the opening, to which the you may cut and see that you don't wait long but rather allow your cuts to fly quickly to the openings.</p>
 
| <p>And firstly when one will cut straight to your head, from his right, thus step with your right foot well out from his strike, to his left, so that you avoid his strike with a spring to his left and likewise cut from your right with crossed hands, against his cut, thus you come with your blade between his head and sword, on his short edge, which is facing him, and when it connects, then step further around to his left side with your right foot, and displace or transfer your sword's blade from his, onto his arm, between his head and sword, in this you will have seen the opening, to which the you may cut and see that you don't wait long but rather allow your cuts to fly quickly to the openings.</p>
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<p>Item Note when you approach him in the Zufechten, then see when he shows his arm will strike, thus cross your hands while in the air yet that they remain high, and throw the point at his hand or arms, that is the weak or the furthest part of the blade, and that should happen when he goes up to strike, and before he is ready, thus be on his blade, with a Thwart cut, for such techniques should fly and go quickly.</p>
 
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/114|4|lbl=Ⅰ.47r.4|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/115|1|lbl=Ⅰ.47v.1|p=1}}
 
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| <br/>
 
'''Item''' Note when you approach him in the Zufechten, then see when he shows his arm will strike, thus cross your hands while in the air yet that they remain high, and throw the point at his hand or arms, that is the weak or the furthest part of the blade, and that should happen when he goes up to strike, and before he is ready, thus be on his blade, with a Thwart cut, for such techniques should fly and go quickly.
 
| '''[XLVIIv] SEITENWECHSEL'''
 
magst nach gelegenheit / und solt dich hiemit so bald du die Blöß ersehen nicht lang saumen. Ferner wann du im zufechten zu deinem widerpart kommest / so schauw in dem er seine Arm auffzeucht zum streich / so verschrenck dieweil deinen hend in der lufft / und wirff ihm den ort das ist die schwech oder eussertheil deiner klingen auff sein hendt oder Arm / diß aber merck wie bemelt / sol geschehen in dem er zum streich auffzeucht / und ehe er damit fertig soltu ihm mit einer Zwirch schon wider an seiner klingen sein / denn solche stuck sollen fliegend und geschwindt zugehen.
 
 
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This Stück goes thus, (after you have come under his sword in the attack) when your stay in the bind, and drive your sword over the head, as soon as he gives a little room, so that he is not binding on the sword, but rather drives his sword then high above you, then cross your hands in the air, and cut from above with the short edge thus put crosswise, down to his right ear, so that whether your Blade hits or not, it runs around in a circle by his right arm, and in this keep your hands high above your head, as soon as he slips after the Circle, then step with your left foot well on to his right side, and cut in at his head with the Long edge, over his right arm, behind his blade, take your body and head well away from his strike with a step to your left side.
 
This Stück goes thus, (after you have come under his sword in the attack) when your stay in the bind, and drive your sword over the head, as soon as he gives a little room, so that he is not binding on the sword, but rather drives his sword then high above you, then cross your hands in the air, and cut from above with the short edge thus put crosswise, down to his right ear, so that whether your Blade hits or not, it runs around in a circle by his right arm, and in this keep your hands high above your head, as soon as he slips after the Circle, then step with your left foot well on to his right side, and cut in at his head with the Long edge, over his right arm, behind his blade, take your body and head well away from his strike with a step to your left side.
| '''Den Zürckel laß zur Rechten rührn /<br/>Bhalt hoch dein hendt / wilt jhn verführn.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/115|2|lbl=Ⅰ.47v.2}}
 
 
Zürckel kompt auch auß den Krumphäuwen / unnd ist ein sonderlich gut stuck zum verführen für andern / damit es nit lehr oder vergebens und ungerührt (wie ander verführende stuck / als da ist Ablauffen Verfliegen und dergleichen ablaufft) sonder so man jn recht macht / trifft der Zürckel mit der halben schneid im fürlauff sehr hart. Diß stuck aber treib also / wenn du (nach dem du mit dem ahngriff under sein Schwerdt komen) vor einem im bund stehest / und dein Schwerdt in der höhe ob dem Haupt führest / so bald er dir blatz lasset und dir nit nach deim Schwerdt bindt / sonder füret sein Schwerdt mit dem ort auch hoch / so verschrenck dein hendt in der lufft / und Hauwe mit kurtzer schneid also geschrenckt von oben nider zu seinem rechten Ohr / das demnach dein klinge sie treff oder nit / neben seinem rechten arm furuber in einem zirckel herumb lauff / und behalt in dessen gleichwol die hend hoch uber deinem Haupt / so bald er dem Zirckel nachwischt / so trit mit deinem Lincken fuß wol auff sein rechte seiten auß / unn Hauw mit Langerschneid hinder seiner klingen uber sein Rechten arm zum Kopff / nim den leib sampt dem trit wol auß / auff dein lincke seiten / mit deim Haupt auß seinem streich.
 
 
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When you stand before one in this same work, how you have previously been taught, thus pay attention when your advantage will come, then step aside at once with your left foot out to your left side, and cut with a circle to his right while you are stepping but that in running past to the right, it grazes, and also with this Circle, step through with your right foot between you and him, in to his right side, with this stepping through, cut a Zwerchhau from your right to his left, forwards to the face Indes spring well out to his right and cut him long after to his head.
 
When you stand before one in this same work, how you have previously been taught, thus pay attention when your advantage will come, then step aside at once with your left foot out to your left side, and cut with a circle to his right while you are stepping but that in running past to the right, it grazes, and also with this Circle, step through with your right foot between you and him, in to his right side, with this stepping through, cut a Zwerchhau from your right to his left, forwards to the face Indes spring well out to his right and cut him long after to his head.
| '''Ein gut stuck auß dem Zürckel.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/115|3|lbl=Ⅰ.47v.3}}
 
 
Wann du wie vor bemelt in gleicher arbeti vor dem Mann stehest / so hab acht wenn dir die gelegenheit wirt / so trit mit deinem Lincken fuß auff dein lincke seiten beseits auß / und Hauw zugleich mit dem trit ein Zirckel zu seinem Rechten furuber / doch das es im furuber lauffen zur Rechten anschürff und treffe / und trit zugleich in solchem Zirckel mit deinem rechten fuß zwischen dir und jhm auff sein Rechte seiten durch / unnd im durchtreten Hauw ein Zwirchhaw von deiner Rechten gegen seiner Lincken vornen zum gesicht / wie du an den obern bossen in dieser Figur so mit dem K. verzeichnet sehen kanst / in des spring wol auß auff sein Rechte / und Haw jm lang nach zu seim Kopff.
 
 
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This is when you cut in Crooked at the same time as him, with your strike you should step well out from his strike, so that you have your head behind your blade, well from his strike. The second part teaches you that when you have bound on his sword with a Crooked cut, that you nimbly cross over where you have the opportunity and then snap around or wind the quick snap to his head, or wrench out, allow it to overrun.
 
This is when you cut in Crooked at the same time as him, with your strike you should step well out from his strike, so that you have your head behind your blade, well from his strike. The second part teaches you that when you have bound on his sword with a Crooked cut, that you nimbly cross over where you have the opportunity and then snap around or wind the quick snap to his head, or wrench out, allow it to overrun.
| '''[XLVIIIrv] Mit Krump trit wol wiltu versetzen /<br/>Das uberschrencken thut jhn letzen.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/117|1|lbl=Ⅰ.48v.1}}
 
 
Solches soll also verstanden werden / wenn du Krump mit einhauwest / so trit zugleich mit dem Hauw wol auß seinem streich / das du dein Kopff hinder deiner klingen auß seinem streich entziehest. Zum andern wenn du also mit einem Krumphauw an sein Schwerdt gebunden hast / das du behend (wo du gelegenheit darzu haben magst) uberschrenckest / folgends umbschnappest / oder die schnellen nach seinem Kopff windest / oder ausreissest / oder lassest uberlauffen und dergleichen.
 
 
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'''Counter''' - let go the left hand, and allow him to wrench without avail, Indes drive after his upwards pressing, with your slice to his arms, do not allow him to come to any further work, nor to cut freely, when you see your advantage, at once, allow your sword to fly to the next opening.
 
'''Counter''' - let go the left hand, and allow him to wrench without avail, Indes drive after his upwards pressing, with your slice to his arms, do not allow him to come to any further work, nor to cut freely, when you see your advantage, at once, allow your sword to fly to the next opening.
| '''Ein fein stuck aus dem verkeren.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/117|2|lbl=Ⅰ.48v.2}}
 
 
MErck im zufechten hab acht / wenn dein widerpart für dir auffgehet / so trit unnd Hauw von deiner Lincken mit kurtzer schneid und geschrenckten henden zu oder uber den Rechten arm / aber in disem Krumphauw trit wol zu jhm / verkehr dein Schwerdt / unnd reiss undersich auß / auff dein Rechte seiten / arbeitet er ubersich mit den Armen also das du jhn nit undersich zwingen magst / so fahr mit dem knopff von inwendig zwischen sein beide Arm / laß dein Lincke hand vom Hefft / greiff damit dein Schwerdts klingen und reiss ubersich auß wie die Figur mit dem O. anzeiget. Des Bruch also / laß die Linckhand ledig also das er vergeblich außreißt / in des fahr seinem ubersich rucken nach / mit dem Schnit auff sein Arm / und laß jhn ferner zu keiner arbeit kommen noch ledig werden / du habst dann deinen vortheil ersehen / demnach so laß zur nechsten Blöß fliegen.
 
 
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The Counter you should mark that when one meets you with a crooked cut, to your on coming strike, to weaken you, then change through nimbly under his blade and work to his side from which he sent his Crooked cut.
 
The Counter you should mark that when one meets you with a crooked cut, to your on coming strike, to weaken you, then change through nimbly under his blade and work to his side from which he sent his Crooked cut.
| '''Krump zun flechen wilt dich stercken /<br/>Wie du jhn schwechst solt fleissig mercken.'''
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/117|3|lbl=Ⅰ.48v.3|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/119|1|lbl=Ⅰ.49v.1|p=1}}
Solchs ist ein lehr wie du dem Mann sein herkommenden streich schwechen solt / diß soltu aber also treiben / im zufechten hab acht wann dein gegenfechter dir von seiner Rechten zuhauwet / so trit wol auß seinem streich / und Hauw mit geschrenckten henden und Langer schneid auff die sterck seiner klingen in die flech / damit schwechest du '''[XLIXrv]''' jhn also / das er sich kaum zu einem andern erholen mag / denn ehe er sich erholet kanstu jhm mit verwenden oder schnellen / auff seinem Kopff sein. Den Bruch aber soltu hierin also machen / Merckestu das dir einer mit einem Krumphauw begegnet / auff dein herkomenden streich dich zuschwechen / so Wechsel behend udner seiner klingen durch / und arbeit jhm zu der seiten / von welcher er den Krumphauw her bracht hat.
 
 
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This is a very good rhyme that admonishes you earnestly to pay attention to the openings that fall before you. For it is known that you go at him correctly in the After, thus you have very often whenever the swords connect or two strike and clash together above, there is an opening below. You will not fail to note this through several Stück.
 
This is a very good rhyme that admonishes you earnestly to pay attention to the openings that fall before you. For it is known that you go at him correctly in the After, thus you have very often whenever the swords connect or two strike and clash together above, there is an opening below. You will not fail to note this through several Stück.
| '''Als bald es rührt und glützt oben /<br/>Zuck ab zur Blöß wilt jhn betoben.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/119|2|lbl=Ⅰ.49v.2}}
 
 
Dise vers seind sehr notwendig zumercken / sintemal sie dich ernstlich acht zuhaben vermahnen auff die fürfallende Blöß / dann hie ist gewiß wann du der sachen recht nachgehest / das du so offt es rührt oder zwen streich oben zusamen gliitzen / du unden ein Blöß ereilen kanst / solches wirt dir nit fehlen / diß aber damit du es desto baß verstehn könnest / so merck solchs durch diese nachfolgende exempel und stuck also.
 
 
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| Note in Zufechten send yourself into the Wrath Guard, as soon as you can get him, then step and cut in with him from your right a powerful high cut, when this clashes, then strike around nimbly with a Thwart to his left ear, with a back-step of your left foot, behind your right, thus you likewise hit twice, or complete two strikes before he completes one.
 
| Note in Zufechten send yourself into the Wrath Guard, as soon as you can get him, then step and cut in with him from your right a powerful high cut, when this clashes, then strike around nimbly with a Thwart to his left ear, with a back-step of your left foot, behind your right, thus you likewise hit twice, or complete two strikes before he completes one.
| Im zufechten als bald du dir trauwest den Mann zuerlangen / so trit und Hauw mit jhm von deiner Rechten ein gewaltigen Oberhauw hinein / in dem es gliitzt so schlag behend umb wider zu seinem Lincken ohr / unnd trit under des mit deinem Lincken fuß hinder dein Rechten / so triffst du gleich zweymal / oder volbringest zwen streich auff einer seiten ehe denn er einen.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/119|3|lbl=Ⅰ.49v.3}}
 
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| '''Item''' If one cuts at you from above like before, then cut from your lower left against his strike, so that you catch his High cut up in the air, as soon as it connects then cut with the forward short edge and crossed hands in a Circle, to his right ear and that you swiftly go almost at the same time, namely that when the blades connect together, thus you shall hit down from above with the short edge.
 
| '''Item''' If one cuts at you from above like before, then cut from your lower left against his strike, so that you catch his High cut up in the air, as soon as it connects then cut with the forward short edge and crossed hands in a Circle, to his right ear and that you swiftly go almost at the same time, namely that when the blades connect together, thus you shall hit down from above with the short edge.
| Deßgleichen Hauwet einer von Oben wie vor auf dich / so Hauw von deiner Lincken von Unden gegen seinem streich / das du sein Oberhauw hoch in der lufft mit geschrenckten henden auff dein Schwerdt fangest / als bald es gliitzt / so Hauw mit dem vordern kurtzen ort / also mit geschrenckten henden von seinem Schwerdt / in einem Zürckel zu seinem rechten Ohr / diß aber soll geschwindt schier zugleich geschehen / also das in dem die klingen zusamen rühren / auch gleich mit die halb schneid von Oben nider treffen.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/119|4|lbl=Ⅰ.49v.4}}
 
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| '''Item''' In the Onset act as if you would cut from above; but as soon as you note that he slips upwards against your cut, at once turn your High Cut into a Low Cut before it actually connects above, this is the Simultaneous Failer.
 
| '''Item''' In the Onset act as if you would cut from above; but as soon as you note that he slips upwards against your cut, at once turn your High Cut into a Low Cut before it actually connects above, this is the Simultaneous Failer.
| Ferner stell dich im zugang mit geberden sam du von Oben wollest Hauwen / so bald du aber vermerckest das er dem Hauw ubersich entgegen wischet / so verwindt dein Oberhauw in ein Underhaw / ehe denn es oben recht rühret / welches ein rechter fehler ist / und triffest jhm also das Linck ohr ehe ers gewahr wirt.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/119|5|lbl=Ⅰ.49v.5}}
 
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| '''Item''' If he cuts from below, thus fall on it with your long edge from above when it clashes, then pull back nimbly and strike to the next opening in one motion, or strike around from his sword with the flat in a winding flick to the next opening.
 
| '''Item''' If he cuts from below, thus fall on it with your long edge from above when it clashes, then pull back nimbly and strike to the next opening in one motion, or strike around from his sword with the flat in a winding flick to the next opening.
| Letzlich Hauwet dein widerpart von Unden / so fall mit deiner Langen schneid oben darauff / in dem es gliitzt so schlag behend der nechsten Blöß zu in einem flug / oder schlag mit der flech von seinem Schwerdt umb / in einem gewundenen schnall auch der nechsten Blöß zu.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/119|6|lbl=Ⅰ.49v.6}}
 
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Revision as of 00:24, 22 April 2021

Joachim Meyer
Born ca. 1537
Basel, Germany
Died 24 February 1571 (aged 34)
Schwerin, Germany
Spouse(s) Appolonia Ruhlman
Occupation
Citizenship Strasbourg
Patron
  • Johann Albrecht (?)
  • Johann Casimir
Movement Freifechter
Influences
Influenced
Genres Fencing manual
Language Early New High German
Notable work(s) Gründtliche Beschreibung der
Kunst des Fechtens
(1570)
Manuscript(s)
First printed
english edition
Forgeng, 2006
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations
Signature Joachim Meyer sig.jpg

Joachim Meyer (ca. 1537 - 1571)[1] was a 16th century German Freifechter and fencing master. He was the last major figure in the tradition of the German grand master Johannes Liechtenauer, and in the last years of his life he devised at least three distinct and quite extensive fencing manuals. Meyer's writings incorporate both the traditional Germanic technical syllabus and contemporary systems that he encountered in his travels, including Italian rapier fencing.[2] In addition to his fencing practice, Meyer was a Burgher and a master cutler.[3]

Meyer was born in Basel,[4] where he presumably apprenticed as a cutler. He writes in his books that he traveled widely in his youth, most likely a reference to the traditional Walz that journeyman craftsmen were required to take before being eligible for mastery and membership in a guild. Journeymen were often sent to stand watch and participate in town and city militias (a responsibility that would have been amplified for the warlike cutlers' guild), and Meyer learned a great deal about foreign fencing systems during his travels. It's been speculated by some fencing historians that he trained specifically in the Bolognese school of fencing, but this doesn't stand up to closer analysis.[5]

Records show that by 4 June 1560 he had settled in Strasbourg, where he married Appolonia Ruhlman (Ruelman)[1] and was granted the rank of master cutler. His interests had already moved beyond smithing, however, and in 1561, Meyer petitioned the City Council of Strasbourg for the right to hold a Fechtschule (fencing competition). He would repeat this in 1563, 1566, 1567 and 1568;[6] the 1568 petition is the first extant record in which he identifies himself as a fencing master.

Meyer probably wrote his first manuscript (MS A.4º.2) in either 1560 or 1568 for Otto Count von Sulms, Minzenberg, and Sonnenwaldt.[7] Its contents seem to be a series of lessons on training with long sword, dussack, and rapier. His second manuscript (MS Var.82), written between 1563 and 1570 for Heinrich Graf von Eberst, is of a decidedly different nature. Like many fencing manuscripts from the previous century, it is an anthology of treatises by a number of prominent German masters including Sigmund ain Ringeck, pseudo-Peter von Danzig, and Martin Syber, and also includes a brief outline by Meyer himself on a system of rapier fencing based on German Messer teachings. Finally, on 24 February 1570 Meyer completed (and soon thereafter published) an enormous multi-weapon treatise entitled Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens ("A Thorough Description of the Art of Combat"); it was dedicated to Johann Casimir, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and illustrated at the workshop of Tobias Stimmer.[8]

Unfortunately, Meyer's writing and publication efforts incurred significant debts (about 1300 crowns), which Meyer pledged to repay by Christmas of 1571.[1] Late in 1570, Meyer accepted the position of Fechtmeister to Duke Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg at his court in Schwerin. There Meyer hoped to sell his book for a better price than was offered locally (30 florins). Meyer sent his books ahead to Schwerin, and left from Strasbourg on 4 January 1571 after receiving his pay. He traveled the 800 miles to Schwerin in the middle of a harsh winter, arriving at the court on 10 February 1571. Two weeks later, on 24 February, Joachim Meyer died. The cause of his death is unknown, possibly disease or pneumonia.[6]

Antoni Rulman, Appolonia’s brother, became her legal guardian after Joachim’s death. On 15 May 1571, he had a letter written by the secretary of the Strasbourg city chamber and sent to the Duke of Mecklenburg stating that Antoni was now the widow Meyer’s guardian; it politely reminded the Duke who Joachim Meyer was, Meyer’s publishing efforts and considerable debt, requested that the Duke send Meyer’s personal affects and his books to Appolonia, and attempted to sell some (if not all) of the books to the Duke.[1]

Appolonia remarried in April 1572 to another cutler named Hans Kuele, bestowing upon him the status of Burgher and Meyer's substantial debts. Joachim Meyer and Hans Kuele are both mentioned in the minutes of Cutlers' Guild archives; Kuele may have made an impression if we can judge that fact by the number of times he is mentioned. It is believed that Appolonia and either her husband or her brother were involved with the second printing of his book in 1600. According to other sources, it was reprinted yet again in 1610 and in 1660.[9][10]

Treatises

Joachim Meyer's writings are preserved in two manuscripts prepared in the 1560s, the MS A.4º.2 (Lund) and the MS Var 82 (Rostock); a third manuscript from 1561 has been lost since at least the mid-20th century, and its contents are unknown.[11] Dwarfing these works is the massive book he published in 1570 entitled "A Thorough Description of the Free, Chivalric, and Noble Art of Fencing, Showing Various Customary Defenses, Affected and Put Forth with Many Handsome and Useful Drawings". Meyer's writings purport to teach the entire art of fencing, something that he claimed had never been done before, and encompass a wide variety of teachings from disparate sources and traditions. To achieve this goal, Meyer seems to have constructed his treatises as a series of progressive lessons, describing a process for learning to fence rather than merely outlining the underlying theory or listing the techniques. In keeping with this, he illustrates his techniques with depictions of fencers in courtyards using training weapons such as two-handed foils, wooden dussacks, and rapiers with ball tips.

The first part of Meyer's treatise is devoted to the long sword (the sword in two hands), which he presents as the foundational weapon of his system, and this section devotes the most space to fundamentals like stance and footwork. His long sword system draws upon the teachings of Freifechter Andre Paurñfeyndt (via Christian Egenolff's reprint) and Liechtenauer glossators Sigmund ain Ringeck and Lew, as well as using terminology otherwise unique to the brief Recital of Martin Syber. Not content merely to compile these teachings as his contemporary Paulus Hector Mair was doing, Meyer sought to update—even reinvent—them in various ways to fit the martial climate of the late sixteenth century, including adapting many techniques to accommodate the increased momentum of a greatsword and modifying others to use beats with the flat and winding slices in place of thrusts to comply with street-fighting laws in German cities (and the rules of the Fechtschule).

The second part of Meyer's treatises is designed to address new weapons gaining traction in German lands, the dussack and the rapier, and thereby find places for them in the German tradition. His early Lund manuscript presents a more summarized syllabus of techniques for these weapons, while his printed book goes into greater depth and is structured more in the fashion of lesson plans.[12] Meyer's dussack system, designed for the broad proto-sabers that spread into German lands from Eastern Europe in the 16th century,[13] combines the old Messer teachings of Johannes Lecküchner and the dussack teachings of Andre Paurñfeyndt with other unknown systems (some have speculated that they might include early Polish or Hungarian saber systems). His rapier system, designed for the lighter single-hand swords spreading north from Iberian and Italian lands, seems again to be a hybrid creation, integrating both the core teachings of the 15th century Liechtenauer tradition as well as components that are characteristic of the various regional Mediterranean fencing systems (including, perhaps, teachings derived from the treatise of Achille Marozzo). Interestingly, Meyer's rapier teachings in the Rostock seem to represent an attempt to unify these two weapon system, outlining a method for rapier fencing that includes key elements of his dussack teachings; it is unclear why this method did not appear in his book, but given the dates it may be that they represent his last musings on the weapon, written in the time between the completion of his book in 1570 and his death a year later.

The third part of Meyer's treatise only appears in his published book and covers dagger, wrestling, and various pole weapons. His dagger teachings, designed primarily for urban self-defense, seem to be based in part on the writings of Bolognese master Achille Marozzo[14] and the anonymous teachings in Egenolff, but also include much unique content of unknown origin (perhaps the anonymous dagger teachings in his Rostock manuscript). His staff material makes up the bulk of this section, beginning with the short staff, which, like Paurñfeyndt, he uses as a training tool for various pole weapons (and possibly also the greatsword), and then moving on to the halberd before ending with the long staff (representing the pike). As with the dagger, the sources Meyer based his staff teachings on are largely unknown.