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! <p>Figures</p>
 
! <p>Figures</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}</p>
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! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
  
 
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! <p>Figures</p>
 
! <p>Figures</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|start|Draft Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|start|Draft Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}</p>
+
! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
  
 
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| '''Fencing from the Stances'''
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| <p>'''Fencing from the Stances'''</p>
  
Chapter 11
+
<p>Chapter 11</p>
  
Since much now concerns the Stances, I will thus not keep you long in each for the same reason they were given still only half composed, but going onward, since you will need to know, when you present your sword and (while you are twitching off the guard he aimed to you) you would strike, as soon as you come out from the farthest point (where you have begun to pull back your sword), then from here on you should lead your sword against him again with agility, like how it will be handled from the Guard of the Roof, the Guard through which you bring about the Downstrike. Thus when you move to the Downstrike (to do such) you will then in the outermost point of this move come to be in the guard named Roof, you can now not only (just as you seek to strike) strike then and thus drive ahead with your Downstrike, but can also persist to stay. This is the reason, namely just that you not yet undertake any strike unplanned, but even as soon you have allowed the same considered strike to be drawn against them, you should now lead the strike on from even from here so that as you stay for only an eyeblink at the obvious outermost point, so consider ahead if your chosen strike can either still be led usably to fulfillment, or if through it you can attain a better opportunity applicable elsewhere, where you thus change to a second strike accordingly at the outermost point and thus conclude the Downstrike which you have drawn out with a Traverse. This is the underlying reason for the development of the Stances and is why you stay while in one Guard: to see what the other will take ahead (and then rightly know how to overtake his chosen part) and prevent such just by being certain to see here what his chosen part will be, and such waiting is a great art and experience. Because you now need to know onward how to engage your opponent’s oncoming strikes from the Roof with your Sword, I have set the following examples both of when he would strike, or stay and not strike.
+
<p>Since much now concerns the Stances, I will thus not keep you long in each for the same reason they were given still only half composed, but going onward, since you will need to know, when you present your sword and (while you are twitching off the guard he aimed to you) you would strike, as soon as you come out from the farthest point (where you have begun to pull back your sword), then from here on you should lead your sword against him again with agility, like how it will be handled from the Guard of the Roof, the Guard through which you bring about the Downstrike. Thus when you move to the Downstrike (to do such) you will then in the outermost point of this move come to be in the guard named Roof, you can now not only (just as you seek to strike) strike then and thus drive ahead with your Downstrike, but can also persist to stay. This is the reason, namely just that you not yet undertake any strike unplanned, but even as soon you have allowed the same considered strike to be drawn against them, you should now lead the strike on from even from here so that as you stay for only an eyeblink at the obvious outermost point, so consider ahead if your chosen strike can either still be led usably to fulfillment, or if through it you can attain a better opportunity applicable elsewhere, where you thus change to a second strike accordingly at the outermost point and thus conclude the Downstrike which you have drawn out with a Traverse. This is the underlying reason for the development of the Stances and is why you stay while in one Guard: to see what the other will take ahead (and then rightly know how to overtake his chosen part) and prevent such just by being certain to see here what his chosen part will be, and such waiting is a great art and experience. Because you now need to know onward how to engage your opponent’s oncoming strikes from the Roof with your Sword, I have set the following examples both of when he would strike, or stay and not strike.</p>
 
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/81|2|lbl=Ⅰ.30v.2|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf|82|lbl=Ⅰ.31r|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/81|2|lbl=Ⅰ.30v.2|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf|82|lbl=Ⅰ.31r|p=1}}
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| '''The First Part'''
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| <p>'''The First Part'''</p>
And firstly when you come before your opponent and, while striking out or otherwise pulling your sword back (to downstrike) to bring it high above you, he strikes just then to your left at your head, then burst full away from his strike against his left and somewhat toward him, and strike with an outward flat against his incoming strike to meet his sword strongly on the strong so that the forward part of your blade will swing inward over his sword to his head, which is then certainly hit. When you slash at the same time as him and your sword comes to be over his, to hit or not on his strike, then twitch your sword off over yourself again, and strike diagonally upward from below to his right arm, in this strike step out with your left foot full against his right side and arc yourself with your head fully behind your sword’s blade, from there nimbly twitch again upward and flit the short edge to his left ear, if you see that he will wipe against this, then don’t let the impact fail or flow off, but soon cross your hands in the air (the right over the left) and slash him with the short edge deep to his right ear and then traverse over and pull out. Mark here when he would nimbly follow after the Understrike just taught and thus would be hard onto the roof so that you can’t come to flow off, then pay attention just then if he would twitch off from your sword, then follow after him with a cut to the arm.
+
 
 +
<p>And firstly when you come before your opponent and, while striking out or otherwise pulling your sword back (to downstrike) to bring it high above you, he strikes just then to your left at your head, then burst full away from his strike against his left and somewhat toward him, and strike with an outward flat against his incoming strike to meet his sword strongly on the strong so that the forward part of your blade will swing inward over his sword to his head, which is then certainly hit. When you slash at the same time as him and your sword comes to be over his, to hit or not on his strike, then twitch your sword off over yourself again, and strike diagonally upward from below to his right arm, in this strike step out with your left foot full against his right side and arc yourself with your head fully behind your sword’s blade, from there nimbly twitch again upward and flit the short edge to his left ear, if you see that he will wipe against this, then don’t let the impact fail or flow off, but soon cross your hands in the air (the right over the left) and slash him with the short edge deep to his right ear and then traverse over and pull out. Mark here when he would nimbly follow after the Understrike just taught and thus would be hard onto the roof so that you can’t come to flow off, then pay attention just then if he would twitch off from your sword, then follow after him with a cut to the arm.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/83|1|lbl=Ⅰ.31v.1}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/83|1|lbl=Ⅰ.31v.1}}
  
 
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|  
 
|  
| '''The Second Part'''
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| <p>'''The Second Part'''</p>
However if he strikes at your left from below, then step quickly out to his left and strike with the long edge onto the strong of his sword, as soon as your sword moves or glides on his, twitch your sword high above yourself again and slash down with the short edge quickly and deeply to his left ear while stepping forward out to his left, he will then want to rush to displace and then drive above against it, so then strike nimbly with the long edge over again to his right ear and in this slashover step full against his right like before, yet stay with the cross high over your head, and mark as soon as he slashes over then fall further with a cut to his arm, if he is not hurt by this but would evade your work, then follow after him (staying on his arm), and when he makes the smallest extraction, then let fly to another opening and strike him away from you.
+
 
 +
<p>However if he strikes at your left from below, then step quickly out to his left and strike with the long edge onto the strong of his sword, as soon as your sword moves or glides on his, twitch your sword high above yourself again and slash down with the short edge quickly and deeply to his left ear while stepping forward out to his left, he will then want to rush to displace and then drive above against it, so then strike nimbly with the long edge over again to his right ear and in this slashover step full against his right like before, yet stay with the cross high over your head, and mark as soon as he slashes over then fall further with a cut to his arm, if he is not hurt by this but would evade your work, then follow after him (staying on his arm), and when he makes the smallest extraction, then let fly to another opening and strike him away from you.</p>
 
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/83|2|lbl=Ⅰ.31v.2|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/84|1|lbl=Ⅰ.32r.1|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/83|2|lbl=Ⅰ.31v.2|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/84|1|lbl=Ⅰ.32r.1|p=1}}
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| '''The Third Part'''
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| <p>'''The Third Part'''</p>
However, if he strikes to your right as you come to be in the High Guard, then step nimbly with your left foot to his right out of his strike, and at the same time fall from above with the long edge onto the strong of his sword and, just as you fall on his sword, thrust your pommel under your right arm, so that you slash at his head with crossed hands fully over or near his sword, if he drives above against your right then let the half edge nearly flow off and step under it full out to his left side, and strike with the long edge directly to his head from above, but twitch nimbly upward again and slash with a traverse from below to his left ear with an off set with your left foot, and then strike him away from you.
+
 
 +
<p>However, if he strikes to your right as you come to be in the High Guard, then step nimbly with your left foot to his right out of his strike, and at the same time fall from above with the long edge onto the strong of his sword and, just as you fall on his sword, thrust your pommel under your right arm, so that you slash at his head with crossed hands fully over or near his sword, if he drives above against your right then let the half edge nearly flow off and step under it full out to his left side, and strike with the long edge directly to his head from above, but twitch nimbly upward again and slash with a traverse from below to his left ear with an off set with your left foot, and then strike him away from you.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/84|2|lbl=Ⅰ.32r.2}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/84|2|lbl=Ⅰ.32r.2}}
  
 
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword G.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword G.jpg|center|400px]]
| '''The Fourth Part'''
+
| <p>'''The Fourth Part'''</p>
Mark in Pre-Fencing when you have come to hold your sword high above in the guard of the Roof to beware that he not then rush to strike, so that you can stay in the Before, cross your hands over your head, (the right over the left) so that it appears as if you would stab to his face, step under this toward him with your right foot and twitch your sword then to your left over your head and strike him thus with the short edge through a crafty traverse from your right to his left ear, twitch nimbly back off again and drive against his lower right opening with a long traverse, let it not stay but twitch above you again in the same flight and let the third flow off deep to his left ear with the short edge, and slash the short edge again with crossed hands into to his right ear, as soon as this hits, step back with the left foot and strike with the long edge from below to his left arm to be as shown by the figure fighting against the right in the left background of illustration G above, mark here when you step off in this Understrike if he would strike to your lower left opening, then step to him with your left foot and fall with crossed hands and the short edge onto his sword, strike him thus an Understrike as shown in the other figure fighting against the right in the just considered picture. Now mark further just as he then pulls his sword over himself again, then pull your sword with crossed hands full to your left and, just as he slashes again, take his oncoming strike from your left against his right with your outward flat, high traverse out strongly so that your sword flies overhead in full flight and your hands cross over each other in the air while your sword flies, then step full against his right, but still keep your hands high and let the half edge flow off in a twitch near his right ear (as this hits or grazes), and just then strike long with an off step. I have described this part in particular as still many good moves can be taken and be fought from here, therefore you should learn not just this alone, but think forward with diligence. Thus I will describe yet another part with a different start.
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 +
<p>Mark in Pre-Fencing when you have come to hold your sword high above in the guard of the Roof to beware that he not then rush to strike, so that you can stay in the Before, cross your hands over your head, (the right over the left) so that it appears as if you would stab to his face, step under this toward him with your right foot and twitch your sword then to your left over your head and strike him thus with the short edge through a crafty traverse from your right to his left ear, twitch nimbly back off again and drive against his lower right opening with a long traverse, let it not stay but twitch above you again in the same flight and let the third flow off deep to his left ear with the short edge, and slash the short edge again with crossed hands into to his right ear, as soon as this hits, step back with the left foot and strike with the long edge from below to his left arm to be as shown by the figure fighting against the right in the left background of illustration G above, mark here when you step off in this Understrike if he would strike to your lower left opening, then step to him with your left foot and fall with crossed hands and the short edge onto his sword, strike him thus an Understrike as shown in the other figure fighting against the right in the just considered picture. Now mark further just as he then pulls his sword over himself again, then pull your sword with crossed hands full to your left and, just as he slashes again, take his oncoming strike from your left against his right with your outward flat, high traverse out strongly so that your sword flies overhead in full flight and your hands cross over each other in the air while your sword flies, then step full against his right, but still keep your hands high and let the half edge flow off in a twitch near his right ear (as this hits or grazes), and just then strike long with an off step. I have described this part in particular as still many good moves can be taken and be fought from here, therefore you should learn not just this alone, but think forward with diligence. Thus I will describe yet another part with a different start.</p>
 
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/84|3|lbl=Ⅰ.32r.3|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/86|1|lbl=Ⅰ.33r.1|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/84|3|lbl=Ⅰ.32r.3|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/86|1|lbl=Ⅰ.33r.1|p=1}}
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| '''A Second'''
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| <p>'''A Second'''</p>
In the pre-fencing when you come into the Roof or High Guard, then let your blade sink down in front of you, as before, to your left side, and twitch over your head, step and strike a high traversing Middle Strike with the long edge against his left to his neck or throat, as soon as he withdraws, then twitch again over the head, and strike a second high Middle Strike traversing from your left against his right, again at his throat, as soon as it glides then strike the third, a high strike with the long edge direct from above. These three strikes shall go from one to another in a nimble flight. If you want more room then raise your pommel above to your left side, twitch thus overhead, and take your flat or short edge near your left from below through to his right against your right in a wrench out above him, so that your blade again flies over in the air, and strike with the half edge from above down with crossed hands feinting over near his right ear, you can reach further with the short edge by stepping ahead, thus let it engage and strike a strong wrath strike to his left side and following strike away from him. This is indeed a serious and strong sequence in that, since you have the Before, he can only defend.
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<p>In the pre-fencing when you come into the Roof or High Guard, then let your blade sink down in front of you, as before, to your left side, and twitch over your head, step and strike a high traversing Middle Strike with the long edge against his left to his neck or throat, as soon as he withdraws, then twitch again over the head, and strike a second high Middle Strike traversing from your left against his right, again at his throat, as soon as it glides then strike the third, a high strike with the long edge direct from above. These three strikes shall go from one to another in a nimble flight. If you want more room then raise your pommel above to your left side, twitch thus overhead, and take your flat or short edge near your left from below through to his right against your right in a wrench out above him, so that your blade again flies over in the air, and strike with the half edge from above down with crossed hands feinting over near his right ear, you can reach further with the short edge by stepping ahead, thus let it engage and strike a strong wrath strike to his left side and following strike away from him. This is indeed a serious and strong sequence in that, since you have the Before, he can only defend.</p>
 
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/86|2|lbl=Ⅰ.33r.2|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/87|1|lbl=Ⅰ.33v.1|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/86|2|lbl=Ⅰ.33r.2|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/87|1|lbl=Ⅰ.33v.1|p=1}}
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| '''Breaking the Roof Stance or Guard'''
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| <p>'''Breaking the Roof Stance or Guard'''</p>
If you are aware that after striking outward one can, in a little flight up over the head, stay in the Guard of the Roof, then come in the pre-fencing into the Guard of the Key, from there raise both hands thus crosswise over your head, and at the same time step to him with your right foot, and while stepping strike with the short edge near your right thigh strongly from below through your opponent’s Vertex line up above you, so that the sword is above your head, flying off with an upstrike from your left to your right, keep your hands high in the displacement, just as it connects then step nimbly with your right foot to his left and strike with the short edge in a swing to his left ear. From there upstrike twice with a walk, follow the slash with a traverse to his right ear, and just then step at the same time with your right foot backward to your left, thus the Traverse goes deeper. When this happens you can strike as soon as he does.
+
 
 +
<p>If you are aware that after striking outward one can, in a little flight up over the head, stay in the Guard of the Roof, then come in the pre-fencing into the Guard of the Key, from there raise both hands thus crosswise over your head, and at the same time step to him with your right foot, and while stepping strike with the short edge near your right thigh strongly from below through your opponent’s Vertex line up above you, so that the sword is above your head, flying off with an upstrike from your left to your right, keep your hands high in the displacement, just as it connects then step nimbly with your right foot to his left and strike with the short edge in a swing to his left ear. From there upstrike twice with a walk, follow the slash with a traverse to his right ear, and just then step at the same time with your right foot backward to your left, thus the Traverse goes deeper. When this happens you can strike as soon as he does.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/87|2|lbl=Ⅰ.33v.2}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/87|2|lbl=Ⅰ.33v.2}}
  
 
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| Or if he comes ahead to you going high, then pay attention then if he will go to the low guard, then follow him nimbly with two strong understrikes from both sides out of whatever guard or stance suits you, just as long as you strike nimbly from below. One to the other with the half edge in a nimble walk from both sides deep to the head, after this bind nimbly into his blade, if he goes off then follow after. If he stays then wind, wrench out and make your work onward to the next.
+
| <p>Or if he comes ahead to you going high, then pay attention then if he will go to the low guard, then follow him nimbly with two strong understrikes from both sides out of whatever guard or stance suits you, just as long as you strike nimbly from below. One to the other with the half edge in a nimble walk from both sides deep to the head, after this bind nimbly into his blade, if he goes off then follow after. If he stays then wind, wrench out and make your work onward to the next.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/87|3|lbl=Ⅰ.33v.3}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/87|3|lbl=Ⅰ.33v.3}}
  
 
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword E.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword E.jpg|center|400px]]
| '''Wrath Guard'''
+
| <p>'''Wrath Guard'''</p>
When at the onset you come into the Wrath Guard, then step as soon as you can reach him and strike a quick Wrath Strike, which he must defend from, to his left ear. Nimbly follow the strike over with an Under Strike against his lower right opening, thus you have now attacked. Under this as and when he is reached for work and the arms show he will strike, then fall low with your sword onto his arm and behind his charge so that he can not come to work, as he will then not be able to rightly defend from this, then thrust to him with an incomplete shove from yourself, that he likewise shows that he would fall, and meanwhile slash to the next opening that you know you have, but if he reaches this and strikes you off, then be there again with the cut or displacement, and fall against his strike on the blade, if he goes off the blade again, then cut him on the arm again, but if he stays on your sword then thrust his sword aside with your hilt and nimbly let your sword fly again to the next opening and swing to him after your need. Thus now you shall fight with all elements of the sword to the body, and from the body to the sword, but where he would twitch or flow off from you, then always use the cut for help, and where you can’t cut, then there can be no useful fencing, but where you can do it rightly, then swing to him as you will. He who can break the cut himself, you will find less, but he who cannot rightly lead the cut will soon be broken.
+
 
 +
<p>When at the onset you come into the Wrath Guard, then step as soon as you can reach him and strike a quick Wrath Strike, which he must defend from, to his left ear. Nimbly follow the strike over with an Under Strike against his lower right opening, thus you have now attacked. Under this as and when he is reached for work and the arms show he will strike, then fall low with your sword onto his arm and behind his charge so that he can not come to work, as he will then not be able to rightly defend from this, then thrust to him with an incomplete shove from yourself, that he likewise shows that he would fall, and meanwhile slash to the next opening that you know you have, but if he reaches this and strikes you off, then be there again with the cut or displacement, and fall against his strike on the blade, if he goes off the blade again, then cut him on the arm again, but if he stays on your sword then thrust his sword aside with your hilt and nimbly let your sword fly again to the next opening and swing to him after your need. Thus now you shall fight with all elements of the sword to the body, and from the body to the sword, but where he would twitch or flow off from you, then always use the cut for help, and where you can’t cut, then there can be no useful fencing, but where you can do it rightly, then swing to him as you will. He who can break the cut himself, you will find less, but he who cannot rightly lead the cut will soon be broken.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/89|1|lbl=Ⅰ.34v.1}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/89|1|lbl=Ⅰ.34v.1}}
  
 
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword F.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword F.jpg|center|400px]]
| rowspan="2" | If you stand in the right Wrath stance and your opponent strikes from his right to your left, then with a step of your right foot drive with displacement under his blade and over your head, and catch his strike on your flat with your thumb underneath, and the blade hanging below you somewhat to the ground, but as soon as in glides then step with the left foot to his right side, and wind the short edge under his sword inward to his head, as shown by the small middle figures in illustration L. When you have wound, then hold your sword with the short edge on his, and wrench the sword out following against your right above you, as shown by the small middle figures in illustration F, thus that your hands complete the wrench high in the air and crossed over, and slash in (keeping your hands high) with an inwinding flat to his lower right opening, as soon as he swipes against it in displacement, then don’t pull but twitch high again and strike a glide strike to his left ear, but in this strike let the blade swing in deep over your hands and fence quickly away from him.
+
| rowspan="2" | <p>If you stand in the right Wrath stance and your opponent strikes from his right to your left, then with a step of your right foot drive with displacement under his blade and over your head, and catch his strike on your flat with your thumb underneath, and the blade hanging below you somewhat to the ground, but as soon as in glides then step with the left foot to his right side, and wind the short edge under his sword inward to his head, as shown by the small middle figures in illustration L. When you have wound, then hold your sword with the short edge on his, and wrench the sword out following against your right above you, as shown by the small middle figures in illustration F, thus that your hands complete the wrench high in the air and crossed over, and slash in (keeping your hands high) with an inwinding flat to his lower right opening, as soon as he swipes against it in displacement, then don’t pull but twitch high again and strike a glide strike to his left ear, but in this strike let the blade swing in deep over your hands and fence quickly away from him.</p>
 
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword A.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword A.jpg|center|400px]]
| If your counterpart strikes to you from above, then step and strike to him from your right with a high traversing Middle Strike, thus also through and away from his long edge strike in flight so that your blade flies over with the half edge against his left ear but, as soon as you near it, flow off and twitch over your head from your right to your left, step and slash him with an inverted flat from your left to his right ear, high traversing through the middle line shown on the larger figure on the right of illustration A.
+
| <p>If your counterpart strikes to you from above, then step and strike to him from your right with a high traversing Middle Strike, thus also through and away from his long edge strike in flight so that your blade flies over with the half edge against his left ear but, as soon as you near it, flow off and twitch over your head from your right to your left, step and slash him with an inverted flat from your left to his right ear, high traversing through the middle line shown on the larger figure on the right of illustration A.</p>
 
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| If it happens that he would not strike, then place yourself into the right Wrath stance and drive over your forward thigh thus: Stay standing with your left foot planted and strike seriously from your right over your left leg into the left Changer, from there travel over yourself again with the short edge through the strike line which you just travelled through from above so that your sword comes to your right shoulder again. Do this then once or thrice and, at the last when you see your opportunity, then drive the short edge in a move from your left above in the air over yourself and let it snap over thus into an upstrike to his lower right opening with your third step, and as this is then pulled right, then slash a deep one again with the short edge over your hand to his left ear, in this let your pommel snap full upward, thus letting it go deeper, then twitch over again and drive a strike to his lower right opening with two forward steps, and then as such is pulled right, then slash again over your hand with the short edge to his left ear, in this let your pommel snap upward thus making it go deeper, twitch over again and drive a strike to his right, yet still soon traverse again to his left with a back step and then pull out.
+
| <p>If it happens that he would not strike, then place yourself into the right Wrath stance and drive over your forward thigh thus: Stay standing with your left foot planted and strike seriously from your right over your left leg into the left Changer, from there travel over yourself again with the short edge through the strike line which you just travelled through from above so that your sword comes to your right shoulder again. Do this then once or thrice and, at the last when you see your opportunity, then drive the short edge in a move from your left above in the air over yourself and let it snap over thus into an upstrike to his lower right opening with your third step, and as this is then pulled right, then slash a deep one again with the short edge over your hand to his left ear, in this let your pommel snap full upward, thus letting it go deeper, then twitch over again and drive a strike to his lower right opening with two forward steps, and then as such is pulled right, then slash again over your hand with the short edge to his left ear, in this let your pommel snap upward thus making it go deeper, twitch over again and drive a strike to his right, yet still soon traverse again to his left with a back step and then pull out.</p>
 
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| In the pre-fencing strike into the the right Wrath and, as soon as your opponent goes off, then raise your hands high over your head and let your point shoot forward toward his face as if you would stab, but twitch off again and slash with inverted hands or reversed flat from your lower right out to his left ear or arm together with a retreating step. If he then strikes from above at the same time as you, then nimbly twitch over after the swords meet and slash diagonally deep to his upper right opening with an inward flat so that your hands become crossed, yet then pull out to yourself again as if you would strike to his left but don’t, rather twitch off again without engaging and strike thus with the short edge in a circle to his right ear so that the short edge grazes his ear. During this keep your hands high above you and step around with the circle then step back and strike a direct vertex strike to his head, then twitch nimbly upward again with a high traversing cross. That is, come over your head into the Crown, from there traverse to both sides, the first on the right with the long edge, the other to the left with the short edge, keeping your thumb always under the ricasso, and pull off.
+
| <p>In the pre-fencing strike into the the right Wrath and, as soon as your opponent goes off, then raise your hands high over your head and let your point shoot forward toward his face as if you would stab, but twitch off again and slash with inverted hands or reversed flat from your lower right out to his left ear or arm together with a retreating step. If he then strikes from above at the same time as you, then nimbly twitch over after the swords meet and slash diagonally deep to his upper right opening with an inward flat so that your hands become crossed, yet then pull out to yourself again as if you would strike to his left but don’t, rather twitch off again without engaging and strike thus with the short edge in a circle to his right ear so that the short edge grazes his ear. During this keep your hands high above you and step around with the circle then step back and strike a direct vertex strike to his head, then twitch nimbly upward again with a high traversing cross. That is, come over your head into the Crown, from there traverse to both sides, the first on the right with the long edge, the other to the left with the short edge, keeping your thumb always under the ricasso, and pull off.</p>
 
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| '''Rule'''
+
| <p>'''Rule'''</p>
When you stand in the Right or Left Wrath, and one strikes to you from below committing to your right or left opening, then strike high outward with the long edge and, just as it engages, then shoot the point on his sword inward to his face, just then drive off with your hands and work to the next opening with elements of going before or after.
+
 
 +
<p>When you stand in the Right or Left Wrath, and one strikes to you from below committing to your right or left opening, then strike high outward with the long edge and, just as it engages, then shoot the point on his sword inward to his face, just then drive off with your hands and work to the next opening with elements of going before or after.</p>
 
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| '''Left Wrath Stance'''
+
| <p>'''Left Wrath Stance'''</p>
When at the onset you come into the Left Wrath stance, then drive over the right thigh, as above with the left, one strike, two, three, yet then step and strike from your low left out strongly through your right upward, so that your sword flies over in the air in an upstrike toward your right, then twitch over your head and strike a strong traverse to his left ear, onward quickly crosswise and high traverse to all four openings: to his left over the hand, be it high or low, that is reversed or inverted with the hand, and on his right with an inward flat, that is under the hand.
+
 
 +
<p>When at the onset you come into the Left Wrath stance, then drive over the right thigh, as above with the left, one strike, two, three, yet then step and strike from your low left out strongly through your right upward, so that your sword flies over in the air in an upstrike toward your right, then twitch over your head and strike a strong traverse to his left ear, onward quickly crosswise and high traverse to all four openings: to his left over the hand, be it high or low, that is reversed or inverted with the hand, and on his right with an inward flat, that is under the hand.</p>
 
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| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword Cuts.jpg|center]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword Cuts.jpg|center]]
| '''With the Ox'''
+
| <p>'''With the Ox'''</p>
I hope you have taken and judged how you will apply your strikes and elements against your opponent’s four openings with sufficient guidance from the parts taught up to now, also how at times how you should apply a wind, cut, note the flowing off, circle, and flying off with stepping, which are not counted alone as such from this, indeed pre-fencing from all other stances shall also be understood. So now, because the Ox is an especially good stance to engage your opponent, I will give a short lesson and rules on how you shall engage your opponent in the Before, rush, and force displacement from it.
+
 
 +
<p>I hope you have taken and judged how you will apply your strikes and elements against your opponent’s four openings with sufficient guidance from the parts taught up to now, also how at times how you should apply a wind, cut, note the flowing off, circle, and flying off with stepping, which are not counted alone as such from this, indeed pre-fencing from all other stances shall also be understood. So now, because the Ox is an especially good stance to engage your opponent, I will give a short lesson and rules on how you shall engage your opponent in the Before, rush, and force displacement from it.</p>
 
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| And mark now the first, that you have four available attacks from either side, driven forth through the four leading lines as was explained and made apparent in the initial chapter, the lines being the correct paths for all strikes which would be driven and struck from you to your opponent.
+
| <p>And mark now the first, that you have four available attacks from either side, driven forth through the four leading lines as was explained and made apparent in the initial chapter, the lines being the correct paths for all strikes which would be driven and struck from you to your opponent.</p>
 
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| The first of two is when you approach against your opponent with the Plunge Strike, which plunges as you hold your point toward him, and hold it steady (as was taught above) so that your thrust is obviously indicated, from which as soon as you can reach your opponent to attack, be it from below or above, wrathful or high traverse, as is shown through the lines, you will now attack through them from one side striking either high traverse or diagonally against him, be it with long or short edge or with the flat. This you bring on forcefully and nimbly Before him, and must force unto him so that he can not come to other work without your leave, then if he would soon try to work against you, then you will already be at his throat with travelling after, cuts, hits, and similar work following, with which you let no work be accomplished, thus now from this lesson’s elementary basis, an example of how to judge this in both attacking and travelling after will be given:  
+
| <p>The first of two is when you approach against your opponent with the Plunge Strike, which plunges as you hold your point toward him, and hold it steady (as was taught above) so that your thrust is obviously indicated, from which as soon as you can reach your opponent to attack, be it from below or above, wrathful or high traverse, as is shown through the lines, you will now attack through them from one side striking either high traverse or diagonally against him, be it with long or short edge or with the flat. This you bring on forcefully and nimbly Before him, and must force unto him so that he can not come to other work without your leave, then if he would soon try to work against you, then you will already be at his throat with travelling after, cuts, hits, and similar work following, with which you let no work be accomplished, thus now from this lesson’s elementary basis, an example of how to judge this in both attacking and travelling after will be given:</p>
 
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 +
 
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword K.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword K.jpg|center|400px]]
| In the pre-fencing when you have come into the guard of the Ox through a plunge, then strike (as soon as you can reach him) a serious and forceful Wrath Strike from your right to his left ear with a long right foot step, as soon as the strike touches or hits, then almost twitch off again and strike over against his left arm, also with the long edge, but with this strike step with your left foot to his right and take your head out to the side behind your blade, just then he may be ready either to strike or otherwise with his sword stretched out ahead to displace, so at first let your blade hang behind you from your right arm, and meanwhile twitch your grip over your head to your right and take his blade (he is stretched out from striking or displacing) with your long edge or flat and strongly and forcefully high traverse out from your right to his left so that you break out fully with your blade, and in this outward stride let your blade fly above again in a traverse over your head against his left ear, from there twitch your sword over your head again and strike a strong strike swinging in to his right ear with the flat outward, in a flat strike as shown by the larger figure on the right hand side of illustration K, also mark diligently that you step fully out with the left foot to his right side in this strike, from this flatstrike or Bounce Strike twitch your sword high over your head, keeping your hands high, and let the blade fly over with the long edge to his right arm, and yet don’t impact, but traverse nimbly to his left ear while stepping back with the right foot, and sign off. This play, when you have arranged it thus, gives you thus the cut held (as taught above) in reserve, with which you can make more room, either in fencing the full play, or onward in taking another part.
+
| <p>In the pre-fencing when you have come into the guard of the Ox through a plunge, then strike (as soon as you can reach him) a serious and forceful Wrath Strike from your right to his left ear with a long right foot step, as soon as the strike touches or hits, then almost twitch off again and strike over against his left arm, also with the long edge, but with this strike step with your left foot to his right and take your head out to the side behind your blade, just then he may be ready either to strike or otherwise with his sword stretched out ahead to displace, so at first let your blade hang behind you from your right arm, and meanwhile twitch your grip over your head to your right and take his blade (he is stretched out from striking or displacing) with your long edge or flat and strongly and forcefully high traverse out from your right to his left so that you break out fully with your blade, and in this outward stride let your blade fly above again in a traverse over your head against his left ear, from there twitch your sword over your head again and strike a strong strike swinging in to his right ear with the flat outward, in a flat strike as shown by the larger figure on the right hand side of illustration K, also mark diligently that you step fully out with the left foot to his right side in this strike, from this flatstrike or Bounce Strike twitch your sword high over your head, keeping your hands high, and let the blade fly over with the long edge to his right arm, and yet don’t impact, but traverse nimbly to his left ear while stepping back with the right foot, and sign off. This play, when you have arranged it thus, gives you thus the cut held (as taught above) in reserve, with which you can make more room, either in fencing the full play, or onward in taking another part.</p>
 
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| Note that in the onset when you can reach your opponent from the Ox, as was just taught, then twitch your sword over your head and slash a strong and well aimed high traverse from your right with the flat outward to his left ear, yet from there twitch over your head and slash with an outward flat from the other side, also high traversing here. After these two strikes fence to what you think is a good opportunity. Thus you can always attack crosswise and against each other, which also leads out of fencing.
+
| <p>Note that in the onset when you can reach your opponent from the Ox, as was just taught, then twitch your sword over your head and slash a strong and well aimed high traverse from your right with the flat outward to his left ear, yet from there twitch over your head and slash with an outward flat from the other side, also high traversing here. After these two strikes fence to what you think is a good opportunity. Thus you can always attack crosswise and against each other, which also leads out of fencing.</p>
 
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| At times you can also, as opportunity allows, attack seriously from one side high traversing to the other, and this on one side somewhat with the long edge, on the other with the short edge or flat. At the last thus also mark where one would be rushed in this guard, so that you cannot bring any element into the before, then shoot forward just then into his face with a step forward in the long point, and in this shooting forward turn the long edge against his oncoming strike and, as soon as you engage, wind on his sword to the next opening.
+
| <p>At times you can also, as opportunity allows, attack seriously from one side high traversing to the other, and this on one side somewhat with the long edge, on the other with the short edge or flat. At the last thus also mark where one would be rushed in this guard, so that you cannot bring any element into the before, then shoot forward just then into his face with a step forward in the long point, and in this shooting forward turn the long edge against his oncoming strike and, as soon as you engage, wind on his sword to the next opening.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/93|3|lbl=Ⅰ.36v.3}}
 
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword C.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword C.jpg|center|400px]]
| '''Unicorn'''
+
| <p>'''Unicorn'''</p>
Note, come into the pre-fencing with your left foot forward and strike upward from your right with the short edge, one time, twice, through in front of your face, and the third time stay in the long point with your sword thus stretched out in front of you, turn the long edge above you toward your right so that your pommel goes through under your right arm and your hands cross over one another, drive thus upward with crossed hands, thus you stand in the Unicorn, as was told of before, from then strike ahead (seeing that your left foot stays forward) with two consecutive upstrikes, the first from your right, the other from your left, both hard upward near his body so that in the second upstrike your hands cross over again as before. Drive thus nimbly upward flying off again into the Unicorn, raise your left foot somewhat up, then soon set it quickly down again, with such faking and displays you pull him in so that he then strikes to your left opening, yet just as he strikes then let your blade sink down in front of you, and then twitch your sword over your head, strike thus with the long edge high traversing from your right (with an advancing step of the same foot) against his oncoming strike, such that you catch his strike in the high traverse on the strong of your sword, as soon as the swords glide together, then burst with your right foot still forward against his left side, and raise your sword above you rushing a bit from his blade. Yet while you (as was told) drive a bit above you, then thrust your pommel through under your right arm so that your hands become crossed, quickly and nimbly with an inward flat oe short edge (with the next intended step out to his left) behind his sword to his head, as the small figures on the left side of illustration C show, you thus expose your left opening, he will rush to do the same, thus do no more then pull your pommel out from under your right arm again, and wind your sword into the long point so that your long edge turns to stand against his blade, thus you stand in direct displacement, as is shown by the other smaller figures in the same illustration,  
+
 
 +
<p>Note, come into the pre-fencing with your left foot forward and strike upward from your right with the short edge, one time, twice, through in front of your face, and the third time stay in the long point with your sword thus stretched out in front of you, turn the long edge above you toward your right so that your pommel goes through under your right arm and your hands cross over one another, drive thus upward with crossed hands, thus you stand in the Unicorn, as was told of before, from then strike ahead (seeing that your left foot stays forward) with two consecutive upstrikes, the first from your right, the other from your left, both hard upward near his body so that in the second upstrike your hands cross over again as before. Drive thus nimbly upward flying off again into the Unicorn, raise your left foot somewhat up, then soon set it quickly down again, with such faking and displays you pull him in so that he then strikes to your left opening, yet just as he strikes then let your blade sink down in front of you, and then twitch your sword over your head, strike thus with the long edge high traversing from your right (with an advancing step of the same foot) against his oncoming strike, such that you catch his strike in the high traverse on the strong of your sword, as soon as the swords glide together, then burst with your right foot still forward against his left side, and raise your sword above you rushing a bit from his blade. Yet while you (as was told) drive a bit above you, then thrust your pommel through under your right arm so that your hands become crossed, quickly and nimbly with an inward flat oe short edge (with the next intended step out to his left) behind his sword to his head, as the small figures on the left side of illustration C show, you thus expose your left opening, he will rush to do the same, thus do no more then pull your pommel out from under your right arm again, and wind your sword into the long point so that your long edge turns to stand against his blade, thus you stand in direct displacement, as is shown by the other smaller figures in the same illustration,</p>
 
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword D.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword D.jpg|center|400px]]
| or when you have crossed the half edge inward toward his head with crossed hands, so that you have given an opening on your left side, if he rushes (as described before) to fence the same way, then keep your hands crossed, pull your head full to the right, and shoot to him with your blade fully over his, the closer to his hilt the better, thus wrench his blade out to your left, as is shown by the small figures on the right hand side of illustration D, and, when this wrench out comes near your left side, drive out with your hands and slash over them with the hald edge deep to his left ear, after which you come nimbly with your long edge onto his sword after pulling out at your pleasure.
+
| <p>or when you have crossed the half edge inward toward his head with crossed hands, so that you have given an opening on your left side, if he rushes (as described before) to fence the same way, then keep your hands crossed, pull your head full to the right, and shoot to him with your blade fully over his, the closer to his hilt the better, thus wrench his blade out to your left, as is shown by the small figures on the right hand side of illustration D, and, when this wrench out comes near your left side, drive out with your hands and slash over them with the hald edge deep to his left ear, after which you come nimbly with your long edge onto his sword after pulling out at your pleasure.</p>
 
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/95|2|lbl=Ⅰ.37v.2|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/96|1|lbl=Ⅰ.38r.1|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/95|2|lbl=Ⅰ.37v.2|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/96|1|lbl=Ⅰ.38r.1|p=1}}
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword I.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword I.jpg|center|400px]]
| Or when you thus come to be in the Unicorn in front of your opponent, then mark Just As he strikes from above to let your blade drive over your head and bind on his sword from your right high traversing to your left and, as soon as he goes off above from this, then let your blade snap over again so that your right hand comes over your left and fall forward to his arms with the short edge and crossed hands while he is still driving off, as is shown by the outermost figures on the right hand of illustration I, then thrust away forcefully out from your left side with your hilt and strike nimbly when he shows his next opening, or follow after him until you can have your advantage.
+
| <p>Or when you thus come to be in the Unicorn in front of your opponent, then mark Just As he strikes from above to let your blade drive over your head and bind on his sword from your right high traversing to your left and, as soon as he goes off above from this, then let your blade snap over again so that your right hand comes over your left and fall forward to his arms with the short edge and crossed hands while he is still driving off, as is shown by the outermost figures on the right hand of illustration I, then thrust away forcefully out from your left side with your hilt and strike nimbly when he shows his next opening, or follow after him until you can have your advantage.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/96|2|lbl=Ⅰ.38r.2}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/96|2|lbl=Ⅰ.38r.2}}
  
 
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| Note when you have flown out to both sides and come into the Unicorn above you, if your opponent then strikes from his right to the left of your head, then step with your right foot toward his left well away from his strike, and then drop onto the strong of his sword (such that your hands stay crosswise) with the short edge above. This requires an offstep every time which shall be completed at the same time as his oncoming strike, and just as the swords glide together in this way, just then let the short edge snap off again up from his sword, and hit him with it over his hands to his head, after this strike with the long edge and an outstep. From this Unicorn you can also fence and attack rightly and well with the understrike and the thwart, as many good plays shall also go onward similarly when you consider it afterward.
+
| <p>Note when you have flown out to both sides and come into the Unicorn above you, if your opponent then strikes from his right to the left of your head, then step with your right foot toward his left well away from his strike, and then drop onto the strong of his sword (such that your hands stay crosswise) with the short edge above. This requires an offstep every time which shall be completed at the same time as his oncoming strike, and just as the swords glide together in this way, just then let the short edge snap off again up from his sword, and hit him with it over his hands to his head, after this strike with the long edge and an outstep. From this Unicorn you can also fence and attack rightly and well with the understrike and the thwart, as many good plays shall also go onward similarly when you consider it afterward.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/96|3|lbl=Ⅰ.38r.3|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/96|3|lbl=Ⅰ.38r.3|p=1}}
  
 
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| '''Key'''
+
| <p>'''Key'''</p>
This guard is named the Key since all other elements and stances can be broken from this stance just as well as that which can happen from others where you will actually need more force to do so than in this one, and since a key is a small instrument which, without particular effort or force, can enter a big strong castle where otherwise a man must use great force, thus from this weak stance (as it may seem) all other elements will be broken artfully and delicately without special effort, and basically that’s the story. In the pre-fencing put yourself in this guard and, even as how to fence in such forms as the Unicorn was told before, it stands against your opponent’s guards, left or right, high or low, thus stab to him from the Key before yourself directly to his face into the Long Point, the stab of which he (if he doesn’t want to be hit) must defend from. On whichever side he then hits out from, then let your blade then swipe away with intent as he hits out to it, drive over your head and strike him to the same side that he struck out from, if he swipes after it, then don’t let it hit, but let it fly off to another opening, and strike away from him as he seeks for another opening.
+
 
 +
<p>This guard is named the Key since all other elements and stances can be broken from this stance just as well as that which can happen from others where you will actually need more force to do so than in this one, and since a key is a small instrument which, without particular effort or force, can enter a big strong castle where otherwise a man must use great force, thus from this weak stance (as it may seem) all other elements will be broken artfully and delicately without special effort, and basically that’s the story. In the pre-fencing put yourself in this guard and, even as how to fence in such forms as the Unicorn was told before, it stands against your opponent’s guards, left or right, high or low, thus stab to him from the Key before yourself directly to his face into the Long Point, the stab of which he (if he doesn’t want to be hit) must defend from. On whichever side he then hits out from, then let your blade then swipe away with intent as he hits out to it, drive over your head and strike him to the same side that he struck out from, if he swipes after it, then don’t let it hit, but let it fly off to another opening, and strike away from him as he seeks for another opening.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/97|1|lbl=Ⅰ.38v.1}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/97|1|lbl=Ⅰ.38v.1}}
  
 
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| Don’t go to other stances with your opponent, but force them out from you by striking, if he strikes just then from above or from below, from the right or from the left, then mark just as he strikes in, then shoot your Long Point in front of you into his face, and at the same time as shooting forward twist your long edge against his oncoming strike, when you have caught his strike on the strong of your long edge, then stay hard on his blade and wind in nimbly outward to his head, but if he goes nimbly off from your sword striking to the other side, then strike or rush him (while his sword is still driving out) to his head or arms, hurry soon after this to bind again on his sword and think of travelling after, slices, wrenches out, and misleading.
+
| <p>Don’t go to other stances with your opponent, but force them out from you by striking, if he strikes just then from above or from below, from the right or from the left, then mark just as he strikes in, then shoot your Long Point in front of you into his face, and at the same time as shooting forward twist your long edge against his oncoming strike, when you have caught his strike on the strong of your long edge, then stay hard on his blade and wind in nimbly outward to his head, but if he goes nimbly off from your sword striking to the other side, then strike or rush him (while his sword is still driving out) to his head or arms, hurry soon after this to bind again on his sword and think of travelling after, slices, wrenches out, and misleading.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/97|2|lbl=Ⅰ.38v.2}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/97|2|lbl=Ⅰ.38v.2}}
  
 
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| Basically from this forward Guard you fence elements in the Before and shall attack through it, thus you can take off to the elements to which one breaks the High Guard acting from this Key.
+
| <p>Basically from this forward Guard you fence elements in the Before and shall attack through it, thus you can take off to the elements to which one breaks the High Guard acting from this Key.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/97|3|lbl=Ⅰ.38v.3}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/97|3|lbl=Ⅰ.38v.3}}
  
 
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword F.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword F.jpg|center|400px]]
| '''Hanging Point'''
+
| <p>'''Hanging Point'''</p>
In the pre-fencing strike forcefully from your left above you through toward his face in a sweep, once, twice, and the third time don’t let your sword swing out before your face but twist it into the Hanging Point, as shown on the right hand side of figure F and as taught before, and do this a number of times until you see your opportunity to attack with an element, but if your opponent strikes to you during this (while you stand thus in the Hanging Point) from above, or high traverse, or from below to your fingers, or against your head on the left, then step soon out to your left with the left foot behind the right, and twitch at the same time as he strikes, your sword thus hangs from above you against your right shoulder, from here step and strike at the same time as him left to his head, pull the pommel hard to your inward arm in this strike onto the flat, then swing your blade on forcefully to his head. hold your pommel thus hard on your arm and wrench thus out above you with outstretched blade to your left, let this wrench thus fly over your head and traverse strike strong to his left.
+
 
 +
<p>In the pre-fencing strike forcefully from your left above you through toward his face in a sweep, once, twice, and the third time don’t let your sword swing out before your face but twist it into the Hanging Point, as shown on the right hand side of figure F and as taught before, and do this a number of times until you see your opportunity to attack with an element, but if your opponent strikes to you during this (while you stand thus in the Hanging Point) from above, or high traverse, or from below to your fingers, or against your head on the left, then step soon out to your left with the left foot behind the right, and twitch at the same time as he strikes, your sword thus hangs from above you against your right shoulder, from here step and strike at the same time as him left to his head, pull the pommel hard to your inward arm in this strike onto the flat, then swing your blade on forcefully to his head. hold your pommel thus hard on your arm and wrench thus out above you with outstretched blade to your left, let this wrench thus fly over your head and traverse strike strong to his left.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/99|1|lbl=Ⅰ.39v.1}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/99|1|lbl=Ⅰ.39v.1}}
  
 
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| But if he strikes to your right side from above, then catch his strike on your blade’s flat and step out to his right, or stay with your blade (just as the blades have struck together) on the side and wind the short edge inwards to his head, twist nimbly with the sword into the Long Point from the wind, such that you smite his after work away from you, but if he fences in to you from below your blade to your right ear, away from what happens, then twist yet again into the long point with the long edge below, thus setting aside his blade, yet while you displace at the same time also step nimbly with the left foot to his right and thrust your pommel (just as the parry is about to engage) through under your right arm, thus raise your sword high with crossed hands, and hit again nimbly upward with the half edge to his right ear, if he displaces this then let the blade flow off near your right, and step back again with your left foot and meanwhile with your back step strike a forceful middle strike, traverse over to his left ear or arm, then pull out. What would be fenced further is easily taken onward from here.
+
| <p>But if he strikes to your right side from above, then catch his strike on your blade’s flat and step out to his right, or stay with your blade (just as the blades have struck together) on the side and wind the short edge inwards to his head, twist nimbly with the sword into the Long Point from the wind, such that you smite his after work away from you, but if he fences in to you from below your blade to your right ear, away from what happens, then twist yet again into the long point with the long edge below, thus setting aside his blade, yet while you displace at the same time also step nimbly with the left foot to his right and thrust your pommel (just as the parry is about to engage) through under your right arm, thus raise your sword high with crossed hands, and hit again nimbly upward with the half edge to his right ear, if he displaces this then let the blade flow off near your right, and step back again with your left foot and meanwhile with your back step strike a forceful middle strike, traverse over to his left ear or arm, then pull out. What would be fenced further is easily taken onward from here.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/99|2|lbl=Ⅰ.39v.2}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/99|2|lbl=Ⅰ.39v.2}}
  
 
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| '''Iron Door'''
+
| <p>'''Iron Door'''</p>
This Iron Door is actually (as said above) the Barrier Guard, from which you fence thus: if he strikes one from above, then drive thus out with crossed hands and catch his strike on the strong of your blade, just as he then takes his sword off your blade from this strike, then strike him (while his arms pull over himself) with a forceful upstrike to his arms, as soon as he tries to clear off then fence to his head.
+
 
 +
<p>This Iron Door is actually (as said above) the Barrier Guard, from which you fence thus: if he strikes one from above, then drive thus out with crossed hands and catch his strike on the strong of your blade, just as he then takes his sword off your blade from this strike, then strike him (while his arms pull over himself) with a forceful upstrike to his arms, as soon as he tries to clear off then fence to his head.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/100|1|lbl=Ⅰ.40r.1}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/100|1|lbl=Ⅰ.40r.1}}
  
 
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| Note, displace his high strike as before, and just as the swords glide together then wind the short edge nimbly inward to his right ear, then wind again to his left side nimbly over him with your pommel through below, and with a back step strike long to the left of his head. However where he would fence to you from below, then fall from above with the long edge onto his sword into the Long Point. The Iron Door or Barrier Guard breaks out the Key, namely stab toward his face forcing him above himself, and then fence after him (just as he drives overhead) from below.
+
| <p>Note, displace his high strike as before, and just as the swords glide together then wind the short edge nimbly inward to his right ear, then wind again to his left side nimbly over him with your pommel through below, and with a back step strike long to the left of his head. However where he would fence to you from below, then fall from above with the long edge onto his sword into the Long Point. The Iron Door or Barrier Guard breaks out the Key, namely stab toward his face forcing him above himself, and then fence after him (just as he drives overhead) from below.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/100|2|lbl=Ⅰ.40r.2}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/100|2|lbl=Ⅰ.40r.2}}
  
 
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| '''Close Guard'''
+
| <p>'''Close Guard'''</p>
From the Close Guard you will fence into the Arc Strike; as you have been struck to an opening when you hold yourself in the right Close Guard, then step springing with your right foot to his left well away from his strike, and strike with crossed hands above and behind his blade to his head, twitch nimbly (where you don’t want to wrench out to your left) above him with crossed hands and hit strongly with the outward flat from below to his left ear; however where he won’t strike, then fence such as you will learn from the Middle Guard following this.
+
 
 +
<p>From the Close Guard you will fence into the Arc Strike; as you have been struck to an opening when you hold yourself in the right Close Guard, then step springing with your right foot to his left well away from his strike, and strike with crossed hands above and behind his blade to his head, twitch nimbly (where you don’t want to wrench out to your left) above him with crossed hands and hit strongly with the outward flat from below to his left ear; however where he won’t strike, then fence such as you will learn from the Middle Guard following this.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/100|3|lbl=Ⅰ.40r.3}}
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/100|3|lbl=Ⅰ.40r.3}}
  
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/106|5|lbl=Ⅰ.43r.5|p=1}} '''[XLIIIIr]''' die andern stuck all zu beiden seiten / dann er wende gegen deiner Rechten oder Lincken hinein / so blöst er sein ander seiten / derhalben kanstu jhm den Kopff mit gegen winden leichtlich treffen / dann wan er einwerts windet / so winde du auswerts / so triffestu und fehlet er / merck so du also einem einwindest / und wirst under des gewahr das er dir wie nechst gelehrt gegen winden will / so wende gleichwol furt / im winden aber reiss mit deiner halben schneide auff die seiten gegen welcher du eingewunden hast aus / laß dein klingen umbschnappen / oder ficht ander stuck / Dieser winden seindt achterley welche hin unnd wider in stucken gnugsam angeregt / was aber weiter von gemelten winden an einem andern ort weiter gehandelt werden.
+
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/106|5|lbl=Ⅰ.43r.5|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/108|1|lbl=Ⅰ.44r.1|p=1}}
  
 
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| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | Also bistu nun bißher in disen ersten und andern theils disses Schwerdt fechtens / eigentlichen underrichtet worden / beide von des Manns und denn auch von des Schwerdts theilung / folgents vom zufechten / Mittelarbeiten und Abziehen / neben andern notwendigen stucken und lehren / sampt den Exempeln im andern theil so aus dem ersten gezogen / was ferner andere hie zu notwendige stuck belanget / wirstu im folgenden Buch vom Schwerdt fechten gnugsam bescheidt finden / sovil ich dißmal zuschreiben für hab.
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/108|2|lbl=Ⅰ.44r.2}}
  
 
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| '''[XLIIIIv] Das dritte theil vom Schwerdt / in welchem der folgende Zedel mit vil schönen und geschwinden stucken erklert wirt / welchen dan ein kunst liebender Fechter mit nutz lesen und sich darinnen üben kann.'''
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/109|1|lbl=Ⅰ.44v.1}}
Merck wiltu künstlich Fechten lehrn /<br/>
+
|
Solt du mit fleiß den Zedel hörn /<br/>
 
Ein Fechter sol sich halten fein / <br/>
 
Kein Rumer / spiler / sauffer sein /<br/>
 
Auch nit Gottslestern noch Schweren /<br/>
 
Unnd sich nit schemen zu lehren /<br/>
 
Gottsfürchtig / Züchtig / darzu still /<br/>
 
Sonderlich den tag er Fechten will /<br/>
 
Sey messig / erzeig den Alten ehr /<br/>
 
Unnd dem Weibs bild / auch weiter hör /<br/>
 
Aller tugendt ehr und manlichheit /<br/>
 
Der solt dich fleissen alle zeit /<br/>
 
Auff das du dienen könst mit ehren /<br/>
 
Keyser / König / Fürsten und Herren /<br/>
 
Auch nützlich seyest dem Vatterlandt /<br/>
 
Und nicht der Edlen kunst ein schandt /<br/>
 
Indes / das wort / auch Schwech und Sterck /<br/>
 
Das Vor und Nach auch fleissig merck /<br/>
 
Brieff Weich und Hert / das fühlen lern /<br/>
 
Trit mit streich / es sey nach oder fern /
 
  
Die theilung halt in guter hut /<br/>
+
|-
Vor grossen zorn auch dich behut /<br/>
+
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Der Huten und der Häuw nim war /<br/>
+
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Das jhr Bruch dir sey offenbar /<br/>
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/109|2|lbl=Ⅰ.44v.2}}
Ober / Zorn / Mittel / auch Under /<br/>
+
|
Aus den treib all deine wunder /<br/>
 
Als Schieler / Scheidler / Krump / und Zwer /<br/>
 
Unnd was mehr stuck nach deim beger /<br/>
 
Schauw das der erst seyst auff dem Blan /<br/>
 
Ehe sich dein Mann legt / greiff jhn an /<br/>
 
Indes nim war / versteh mich recht /<br/>
 
Ihn triff / ehe er sein Leger schlecht /<br/>
 
Es kom dir für was Leger gut /<br/>
 
Im Nach jhn triffst aus freyem muth /<br/>
 
Dein Häuw führ gewaltig von deim leib /<br/>
 
Zu den vier Blöß dein arbeit threib /<br/>
 
So du Krumphauwst / fahr auff behend /<br/>
 
Geschrenckt den ort wirff auff sein hend /<br/>
 
Den Zürckel laß zur Rechtenrühren /<br/>
 
Halt dein hend hoch / wilt jhn verführen /
 
  
'''[XLVr]''' Wann du ihm hauwest Krump zur sterck /<br/>
+
|-
Durchwendt / Uberlauff damit merck /<br/>
+
|
Des knopffs verführen solt gedenken /<br/>
+
|
Mit Zeckrur / Schnellen werft ihn krencken /<br/>
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/110|1|lbl=Ⅰ.45r.1}}
Mit krump trit wol / wilt du versetzen /<br/>
+
|
Das uberschrenken thüt ihn letzen<br/>
 
Krump zun flechen wilt dich stercken /<br/>
 
Wiet ihn schwechst / solt fleissig mercken /<br/>
 
Als baldts rührt und glützet Oben /<br/>
 
Zuck ab zur Blöß / wilt ihn betoben<br/>
 
Auch so du recht durchiessen wilt /<br/>
 
Krump / Kurtz / durchwechßle an sein Schilt /<br/>
 
Merck so er dich mit Krump wolt irren /<br/>
 
Bleib am Schwerdt / recht den krieg thü füren/<br/>
 
Mit Winden / Schneiden / und was mehr /<br/>
 
Mit verfliegen laß dich nit zu ferr? /<br/>
 
Auch schnell die schwech zum rechten dar /<br/>
 
Zwifach schnellen / mit Schilt dich bewar /<br/>
 
Und deins Mans Schilt sterck verwindt /<br/>
 
Indes stoß ab / und schlag geschwindt /<br/>
 
Den Schielhauw soltu weißlich machen /<br/>
 
Mit Winden kanst ihn auch zwifachen /<br/>
 
Die Zwürch solt du auch halten werdt /<br/>
 
Damit gantz wirt dein kunst im Schwerdt /<br/>
 
Dann alles was er ficht vom tag /<br/>
 
Solchs dir die Zwürch versetzen mag /
 
  
Im angriff treib die Zwürch mit sterck /<br/>
+
|-
Verführen / Fellen / auch mit merck /<br/>
+
|
Zum Pflug und Ochssen sey behendt /<br/>
+
|
Ihm trauw die Zwürch bald wider endt /<br/>
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/110|2|lbl=Ⅰ.45r.2}}
Merck was für Zwürch mitsprung wirt gfürt /<br/>
 
Auch fehlest mit / noch wünschen rürht /<br/>
 
Doppel solt den Fehler machen /<br/>
 
Deßgleichen Trit und Schnit zwifachen /<br/>
 
Vom Schwerdt zum Leib / damit verkehr /<br/>
 
Zweymal oder Schnit in die Wehr /<br/>
 
Nachreisen ist außbindig güt /<br/>
 
Mit Schneiden / Winden dich behnt /<br/>
 
Bey zweymal / oder darint?en / <br/>
 
Verfliegen laß / damit begüne /<br/>
 
Und zu all vier enden treib die treffen /<br/>
 
Die zucken lern / wilt du sie effen /<br/>
 
Abschneiden / Schlaudern / bring auch mit /<br/>
 
Die herten gfehrt weiß ab mit Schnit /<br/>
 
Verlaß dich nit zuvil auf d Kron /<br/>
 
Du bringst sonst von ihr spot und hon /<br/>
 
Den Langen ort durch streich mit gewalt /<br/>
 
Damit all harte gfert auff halt /<br/>
 
Sich thu all Hauw und stuck recht brechen /<br/>
 
Ob du dich an deim part wilt rechen<br/>
 
Die hengen thu weißlichen bringen /<br/>
 
Greiff nit zur unzeit wiltu Ringen /
 
 
 
'''[XLVv]''' Wilt du auch wissen der Meyster kern /<br/>
 
Zu allen stucken recht tretten lern.
 
 
 
Versetzest nit vil / ist desta freyer /<br/>
 
Darvor verwarndt dich Joachim Meyer.
 
 
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| '''Eingang in das dritte Buch.'''
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/111|1|lbl=Ⅰ.45v.1}}
Nach dem ich guthertziger Leser bewilliget / disen meinen Fecht zedel welchen ich auß rechtem grunde der Alten zusamen gesetzt / gebessert un in ein rechte ordnung gebracht / hab ich den (damit meniglich dester mehr nutz darauß haben möcht) durch vil schöner und geschwinder stuck und Exempel auch etwas zu erkleren / unnd den zu verstehn ein kleine anleitung geben wollen / dan sie dermassen reich von stucken / un aller hand geschwindigkeit / also das wo du sie nach solcher anleitung erwigest / jhe lenger ihe mehr stuck hierauß erlernen wirst können / dan das die Reimen ohn außlegung nicht vil nutzen / ist offenbar an andern außgangenen Fechtbüchlein / und solt aber wissen das der erste theil solcher Reimen in meinem bishergelehrten Fechten gnugsam erklärt / derwegen an disem meinen anhab nemen / also.  
 
 
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|  
| '''Sword Fencing'''
+
| <p>'''Sword Fencing'''</p>
  
Firstly will each one of the actions in Fencing be divided into three parts which are particularly good to note. In the Sword this is namely attacking, followed by the withdrawal or other than to the first to reach it, send your attacks through the Guards and Hew like they follow afterwards here, however to the other parts and the middle work, this will be reprinted with the handworks, and a mixture of convenient cuts. Onwards to the last, or the withdrawal, how orderly each one will hereafter be diligently written and taught.
+
<p>Firstly will each one of the actions in Fencing be divided into three parts which are particularly good to note. In the Sword this is namely attacking, followed by the withdrawal or other than to the first to reach it, send your attacks through the Guards and Hew like they follow afterwards here, however to the other parts and the middle work, this will be reprinted with the handworks, and a mixture of convenient cuts. Onwards to the last, or the withdrawal, how orderly each one will hereafter be diligently written and taught.</p>
 
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| Secondly one should note the Vor and Nach (Before and After), Weak and Strong. The Before is when you drive with your Stücken so that he cannot come to his senses, especially by positioning yourself close, and how he defends before your Stücken and these same would like to break and bar, with this, he runs off the Vor to you.
+
| <p>Secondly one should note the Vor and Nach (Before and After), Weak and Strong. The Before is when you drive with your Stücken so that he cannot come to his senses, especially by positioning yourself close, and how he defends before your Stücken and these same would like to break and bar, with this, he runs off the Vor to you.</p>
 
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| The after is, when you have been rushed upon by your opponent how it is reported next and above. Thus you should respond Indes quickly with convenient work, with this, you are strongest on his Stücken, when you lay on with your work in the Vor, and in this you are crowded so that you must displace him after, thus is a constant changing with the Vor and Nach, now you have it, then he does, But he who does not pay attention to it, he will nonetheless never learn to fence.
+
| <p>The after is, when you have been rushed upon by your opponent how it is reported next and above. Thus you should respond Indes quickly with convenient work, with this, you are strongest on his Stücken, when you lay on with your work in the Vor, and in this you are crowded so that you must displace him after, thus is a constant changing with the Vor and Nach, now you have it, then he does, But he who does not pay attention to it, he will nonetheless never learn to fence.</p>
 
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|-  
 
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|  
| '''Divisions of the sword to the Weak and Strong'''
+
| <p>'''Divisions of the sword to the Weak and Strong'''</p>
  
The Sword is firstly divided in two parts, namely from the grip to the middle of the Blade which is known as the Strong, from the middle to the most forward, is the Weak furthermore is the sword divided in four parts how the figure below this shows.
+
<p>The Sword is firstly divided in two parts, namely from the grip to the middle of the Blade which is known as the Strong, from the middle to the most forward, is the Weak furthermore is the sword divided in four parts how the figure below this shows.</p>
 
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| With the inward part, that is the haft, and [with it] the work with the pommel and cross and haft will be understood, in the next part, thereafter will the work with cutting and pushing and what belongs to the Strong be understood, to the third part of the sword should be noted the alterable work of the Weak and Strong after opportunity and liking. Which alone is extremely weak for you to work properly to the Openings.
+
| <p>With the inward part, that is the haft, and [with it] the work with the pommel and cross and haft will be understood, in the next part, thereafter will the work with cutting and pushing and what belongs to the Strong be understood, to the third part of the sword should be noted the alterable work of the Weak and Strong after opportunity and liking. Which alone is extremely weak for you to work properly to the Openings.</p>
 
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| '''Hard and Soft'''
+
| <p>'''Hard and Soft'''</p>
  
Thus you shall mark in the binding of the swords, as you shall feel if he has become hard or soft in the bind, with the cut.
+
<p>Thus you shall mark in the binding of the swords, as you shall feel if he has become hard or soft in the bind, with the cut.</p>
 
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| Item If he is yet again, strong or weak, and is usually more watchful of the weak binding before the strong, how hereafter in the fencing it can be seen. With this however the Sword fencing and the following written stuck is more understandable thus as I explain my Zedel according to the rules, as I want the words to have understanding so I have named the order; the Beginning, Middle and End.
+
| <p>Item If he is yet again, strong or weak, and is usually more watchful of the weak binding before the strong, how hereafter in the fencing it can be seen. With this however the Sword fencing and the following written stuck is more understandable thus as I explain my Zedel according to the rules, as I want the words to have understanding so I have named the order; the Beginning, Middle and End.</p>
 
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| '''Follow the Sword Zedel'''
+
| <p>'''Follow the Sword Zedel'''</p>
  
'''The Four Main guards'''
+
<p>'''The Four Main guards'''</p>
  
From the Roof, Fool, Ox, Plow
+
<p>From the Roof, Fool, Ox, Plow</p>
 
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| '''The Eight Secondary Guards'''
+
| <p>'''The Eight Secondary Guards'''</p>
  
Long-point, Iron-door, Hanging Point, Speak-window, Key, Side Guard, Barrier Guard, Wrath Guard
+
<p>Long-point, Iron-door, Hanging Point, Speak-window, Key, Side Guard, Barrier Guard, Wrath Guard</p>
 
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|  
| '''The Five Master-Cuts'''
+
| <p>'''The Five Master-Cuts'''</p>
  
Wrath Cut, Crooked cut, Thwart Cut, Squinter cut, Scalper
+
<p>Wrath Cut, Crooked cut, Thwart Cut, Squinter cut, Scalper</p>
 
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|  
 
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| '''The Six Covert Cuts'''
+
| <p>'''The Six Covert Cuts'''</p>
  
Blinding cut, Bouncing cut, Short cut, Knuckle cut, Clashing cut, Wind cut
+
<p>Blinding cut, Bouncing cut, Short cut, Knuckle cut, Clashing cut, Wind cut</p>
 
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Line 1,960: Line 1,892:
 
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| '''Handworks in the Sword'''
+
| <p>'''Handworks in the Sword'''</p>
  
Bind On, Remain, Cut, Strike Around, Travel After, Snap Around, Run Off, Doubling, Leading, Flying, Feeling, Circle, Looping, Winding, Winding Through, Reverse, Change Through, Run over, Set Off, Cut Off, Pull, Hand Press, Displace, Hanging, Blocking, Barring, Travel out, Grab over, Weak pushing
+
<p>Bind On, Remain, Cut, Strike Around, Travel After, Snap Around, Run Off, Doubling, Leading, Flying, Feeling, Circle, Looping, Winding, Winding Through, Reverse, Change Through, Run over, Set Off, Cut Off, Pull, Hand Press, Displace, Hanging, Blocking, Barring, Travel out, Grab over, Weak pushing</p>
 
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| '''From the Four Openings and Divisions'''
+
| <p>'''From the Four Openings and Divisions'''</p>
  
Firstly will the opponent be divided in two sections, namely left and Right, how the Lines in the figure above is shown, thereafter in two more divisions namely under and over, the above two openings would be the Ox, to divide the under two, the Plow.
+
<p>Firstly will the opponent be divided in two sections, namely left and Right, how the Lines in the figure above is shown, thereafter in two more divisions namely under and over, the above two openings would be the Ox, to divide the under two, the Plow.</p>
 
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| Whose use should one should thus firstly note, in which division he leads his sword under or above, to the right or the Left/ when you have seen that, thus attack against him at once from above, it is about the location, otherwise, take a general example of this:
+
| <p>Whose use should one should thus firstly note, in which division he leads his sword under or above, to the right or the Left/ when you have seen that, thus attack against him at once from above, it is about the location, otherwise, take a general example of this:</p>
 
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| In Zufechten, thus both of you have come together, and you see that he leads his sword to his right in the high opening, in Ox or Wrath-guard, thus attack in to his lower left opening, if not, then it is much more important that you provoke him to meet you. As soon as this clashes, or will, thus pull around your head and strike him high to the opening from which he came. This is namely to his right ear, with the half edge and crossed hands. This is the correct Squinter cut.
+
| <p>In Zufechten, thus both of you have come together, and you see that he leads his sword to his right in the high opening, in Ox or Wrath-guard, thus attack in to his lower left opening, if not, then it is much more important that you provoke him to meet you. As soon as this clashes, or will, thus pull around your head and strike him high to the opening from which he came. This is namely to his right ear, with the half edge and crossed hands. This is the correct Squinter cut.</p>
 
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|  
| '''Another'''
+
| <p>'''Another'''</p>
  
Thus when one holds his Sword to the left in Zufechten, then go through before him from your right and hew with strength to his right, as soon as he swipes after to the strike thus pull a looping to the left opening, if he swipes after this, however, thus allow it to fly around again, thus drive each opening to the other, crosswise and against one another after your opportunity.
+
<p>Thus when one holds his Sword to the left in Zufechten, then go through before him from your right and hew with strength to his right, as soon as he swipes after to the strike thus pull a looping to the left opening, if he swipes after this, however, thus allow it to fly around again, thus drive each opening to the other, crosswise and against one another after your opportunity.</p>
 
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| It is every fencer's [desire] that he quickly knows from all strikes, to which opening the cut is coming, Indes quickly there and follow after, if I however can decide, then I want to instruct about the displacing upwards in hanging.
+
| <p>It is every fencer's [desire] that he quickly knows from all strikes, to which opening the cut is coming, Indes quickly there and follow after, if I however can decide, then I want to instruct about the displacing upwards in hanging.</p>
 
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| It is stated in the ancient Verses, who often displaces, will often be injured.
+
| <p>It is stated in the ancient Verses, who often displaces, will often be injured.</p>
 
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| '''Item''' Liechtenauer said in his secret verses, that displacing hurts you, if you wish it on yourself, therefore shall every fencer know that he is to be the first with attacking and following, then to every fencer that is known to watch and wait on another, from this he shall come to no harm, or at the least, if he does not fight much.
+
| <p>'''Item''' Liechtenauer said in his secret verses, that displacing hurts you, if you wish it on yourself, therefore shall every fencer know that he is to be the first with attacking and following, then to every fencer that is known to watch and wait on another, from this he shall come to no harm, or at the least, if he does not fight much.</p>
 
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| A proper fencer, who does not displace much, will have the greatest advantage. Thus, when he strikes you also strike, when he thrusts you also thrust, when he steps you also step. Where two equal strikes come together, thus they bring you to displacing, when however one will cut from above, and then next he goes against with a Thwart, thus he sets off, and steps with one another, thus simultaneously should one have a step out, with the same cut and therein with advantage also pay attention to his openings. Thus should every fencer know that he is soon attentive how it is also shown above, that where two good fencers have come together, which I have attentively married together in the illustrations.
+
| <p>A proper fencer, who does not displace much, will have the greatest advantage. Thus, when he strikes you also strike, when he thrusts you also thrust, when he steps you also step. Where two equal strikes come together, thus they bring you to displacing, when however one will cut from above, and then next he goes against with a Thwart, thus he sets off, and steps with one another, thus simultaneously should one have a step out, with the same cut and therein with advantage also pay attention to his openings. Thus should every fencer know that he is soon attentive how it is also shown above, that where two good fencers have come together, which I have attentively married together in the illustrations.</p>
 
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| Thus have I put forth a short and summary knowledge of sword-fighting and all noteworthy devices and also the translations of which the divisions that are obscured, are clarified in measure and thereafter it enters and then next goes in three divisions, namely how it was previously reported, Onset or Attacking, Pressing After or the middle work, the last is to Withdraw or end and therefore so that one may better understand I will shortly reiterate.
+
| <p>Thus have I put forth a short and summary knowledge of sword-fighting and all noteworthy devices and also the translations of which the divisions that are obscured, are clarified in measure and thereafter it enters and then next goes in three divisions, namely how it was previously reported, Onset or Attacking, Pressing After or the middle work, the last is to Withdraw or end and therefore so that one may better understand I will shortly reiterate.</p>
 
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| Thus, to the attacks have I put forth the Guards in which one should not delay, or wait in them, but rather as a result must your necessary courage with whose reported cuts, go once or twice to your opportunity, so that he must then engage and that the Vor has escaped Him, thus to another opening should one work after with various offensive handworks, beholding with the Vor, as such handworks are stated above as a three in one handwork, thus to crowd and close so that one may come to the withdraw without shame.
+
| <p>Thus, to the attacks have I put forth the Guards in which one should not delay, or wait in them, but rather as a result must your necessary courage with whose reported cuts, go once or twice to your opportunity, so that he must then engage and that the Vor has escaped Him, thus to another opening should one work after with various offensive handworks, beholding with the Vor, as such handworks are stated above as a three in one handwork, thus to crowd and close so that one may come to the withdraw without shame.</p>
 
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| '''Of this, I will give an example'''
+
| <p>'''Of this, I will give an example'''</p>
  
If one fights against you in the Guard of the Roof, thus you come in Zufechten into the Side Guard, you must above all not wait in that long, then when he bears witness to the strike and as soon as he brings his sword into the air, thus lay on against him with a Thwart strike, instantly as it clashes, thus cut quickly again around with the long Thwart, to the other side of his sword, that is now attacking, if he strikes around, thus you cut after, if he displaces, then deceive him with the weak, so that you cut him in the after.
+
<p>If one fights against you in the Guard of the Roof, thus you come in Zufechten into the Side Guard, you must above all not wait in that long, then when he bears witness to the strike and as soon as he brings his sword into the air, thus lay on against him with a Thwart strike, instantly as it clashes, thus cut quickly again around with the long Thwart, to the other side of his sword, that is now attacking, if he strikes around, thus you cut after, if he displaces, then deceive him with the weak, so that you cut him in the after.</p>
 
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|  
| If he is hard thus you are soft<br/>If he cuts, so you counter,<br/>If he displaces, then you cut
+
| <p>If he is hard thus you are soft<br/>If he cuts, so you counter,<br/>If he displaces, then you cut</p>
  
Thirdly; also have instant attention for your opportunity to Withdraw.
+
<p>Thirdly; also have instant attention for your opportunity to Withdraw.</p>
 
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Line 2,048: Line 1,980:
 
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| '''See that you are the first on the field;<br/>Before your opponent adopts a posture, lay on against him.'''
+
| <p>See that you are the first on the field;<br/>Before your opponent adopts a posture, lay on against him.</p>
  
Thus note that when you wish to fight with someone, then see that you are the first to be in place so that you can act in a timely manner in your intended Stück, then you shall forcefully continue against him with cuts that he cannot send himself into a guard or Stück But rather you shall show that you will rush over him with sudden stepping before he realizes it. How it is then further clarified by the following Rhyme.
+
<p>Thus note that when you wish to fight with someone, then see that you are the first to be in place so that you can act in a timely manner in your intended Stück, then you shall forcefully continue against him with cuts that he cannot send himself into a guard or Stück But rather you shall show that you will rush over him with sudden stepping before he realizes it. How it is then further clarified by the following Rhyme.</p>
| '''Shauw das der erst seist auff dem plan /<br/>Ehe er sich Legert greiff ihn an.'''
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/111|2|lbl=Ⅰ.45v.2}}
 
Das ist / wann du mit einem Fechten wilt / so schauw das du der erst bey ihm seyest auff dem blatz / damit du dich in deim fürgenomene stuck bey zeyt schicken mögest / als dann soltu mit Häuwen und in triten dermassen anhalten / das er nit zeit oder Blatz möge haben sich in ein Leger oder stuck zuschicken nach seinem gefallen / unnd solt in also ehe und denn ers gewar wirt mit verborgenen tritten ubereilen / wie du denn solches in nachfolgenden Reimen / wie es zuwegen zubringen gnugsam kanst abnemen.
 
 
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|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Pay heed to Instantly, understand me rightly,<br/>Hit him before he adopts his posture.'''
+
| <p>Pay heed to Instantly, understand me rightly,<br/>Hit him before he adopts his posture.</p>
  
This is when you are in the Zufechten and he is just about to you, then note when he acts as if he will adopt a posture, then do not allow him to rest or come to it, but rather always attack first, and as he is choosing a posture, lay on at once to the next opening, and position yourself as if you would to cut strongly, but do not do this, rather allow it to fail or flit to another opening, then as soon as you are at the midway part of your sword on his Sword, do not await, but rather, Thwart, Strike Around, Wrench Out, Slice, Wind, and what other types of work there may be.
+
<p>This is when you are in the Zufechten and he is just about to you, then note when he acts as if he will adopt a posture, then do not allow him to rest or come to it, but rather always attack first, and as he is choosing a posture, lay on at once to the next opening, and position yourself as if you would to cut strongly, but do not do this, rather allow it to fail or flit to another opening, then as soon as you are at the midway part of your sword on his Sword, do not await, but rather, Thwart, Strike Around, Wrench Out, Slice, Wind, and what other types of work there may be.</p>
| '''In des hab acht / versteh mich recht /<br/>Ihn Triff ehe er sein Leger schlecht.'''
+
|
 
+
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/111|3|lbl=Ⅰ.45v.3|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/112|1|lbl=Ⅰ.46r.1|p=1}}
Solches solt du also verstehn / wenn du im zufechten bist / so hab acht wann er sich stelt als wöll er sich Legern / '''[XLVIr]''' so laß in nit Ruhen oder dazu komen / sondern ficht immer furt vor im durch / in dem er aber seines Legers wil acht und war nemen / so greiff ahn / stracks der nechsten Blös zu / und stelle dich als ob du starck hauwen wollest / laß aber fehl gahn / oder verfliegen / und greiff zu einer andern Blöß an / als bald du dann mit deiner klingen zum halben theil darinen / oder an sein Schwerdt komen bist / so feyre nit / sonder Zwirch oder schlag umb / oder reiss aus / oder Schneid / oder Windt / oder threib was für arbeit dir mögen am füglichsten zu handen komen.
 
 
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|  
  
 
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|-  
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword G.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword G.jpg|center|400px]]
| '''For you no guard will come so good<br/>In the after you strike out freely, boldly'''
+
| <p>For you no guard will come so good<br/>In the after you strike out freely, boldly</p>
  
But it makes you wonder, as such, how can there be still many good Guards, and hence, you yourself have seen taught here many good techniques, answer, it is true, there are many good Guards and will be fought from a number of good and beautiful techniques. As I have included several in this book for you. However this rhyme teaches you that it is always better to not settle into a guard. It guards you not at all, to show someone with your guard, what you will do amid the fight, that may your cutting through not be brought so far.  
+
<p>But it makes you wonder, as such, how can there be still many good Guards, and hence, you yourself have seen taught here many good techniques, answer, it is true, there are many good Guards and will be fought from a number of good and beautiful techniques. As I have included several in this book for you. However this rhyme teaches you that it is always better to not settle into a guard. It guards you not at all, to show someone with your guard, what you will do amid the fight, that may your cutting through not be brought so far.</p>
  
In this, learn from the rhyme, when you should do it. Namely in the After that is when you should take him, when he keeps his guard, or stays in a guard, then cut him to the opposite opening, as soon as he goes towards your strike with his displacing, and is out of his Guard, and whether it connects or doesn’t connect, then pull around your head and strike, especially to the part or quarter Line from where he has struck from.
+
<p>In this, learn from the rhyme, when you should do it. Namely in the After that is when you should take him, when he keeps his guard, or stays in a guard, then cut him to the opposite opening, as soon as he goes towards your strike with his displacing, and is out of his Guard, and whether it connects or doesn’t connect, then pull around your head and strike, especially to the part or quarter Line from where he has struck from.</p>
  
'''Of this I will give to you an example'''
+
<p>Of this I will give to you an example:</p>
  
When one stands before you in the right Wrath guard in the Zufechten, as soon as you note that he will remain in the Wrath guard, thus cut through to him, still that you are not too close, and in cutting through, allow your sword to fly around in the air, so that you would come into the right Ochs, but before you complete this, or when you have sent this gesture, then step quickly, before he will properly defend, and cut to his left, from under so that your hands remain high, with this you force him, that he must leave his guard to displace, or with a step back, cut in at the same time as you, as soon as the swords connect, pull around the head and cut with crossed hands to his right ear with a Schielhau, in an arc, to where his departure has made him open, how the Figure shows, it is a lofty attack or onset, in which you should take great heed to the steps, and the body should well follow the cuts.
+
<p>When one stands before you in the right Wrath guard in the Zufechten, as soon as you note that he will remain in the Wrath guard, thus cut through to him, still that you are not too close, and in cutting through, allow your sword to fly around in the air, so that you would come into the right Ochs, but before you complete this, or when you have sent this gesture, then step quickly, before he will properly defend, and cut to his left, from under so that your hands remain high, with this you force him, that he must leave his guard to displace, or with a step back, cut in at the same time as you, as soon as the swords connect, pull around the head and cut with crossed hands to his right ear with a Schielhau, in an arc, to where his departure has made him open, how the Figure shows, it is a lofty attack or onset, in which you should take great heed to the steps, and the body should well follow the cuts.</p>
  
When you threaten to cut to a place, then you can readily deceive him, therefore in such attacks you must take the ground, as it were, and in your approach act as if you would step small and tight and before he is aware step broadly forth to the attack, allow yourself at first to be seen taking large steps, in this he takes notice, and will meet you quickly in earnest, to get there before you, thus withhold your step and do it moderately, so that he is otherwise in this you take your advantage, and as soon as you see it, that you are quickly at him again with broad stepping.
+
<p>When you threaten to cut to a place, then you can readily deceive him, therefore in such attacks you must take the ground, as it were, and in your approach act as if you would step small and tight and before he is aware step broadly forth to the attack, allow yourself at first to be seen taking large steps, in this he takes notice, and will meet you quickly in earnest, to get there before you, thus withhold your step and do it moderately, so that he is otherwise in this you take your advantage, and as soon as you see it, that you are quickly at him again with broad stepping.</p>
| '''Für dich kein Leger kompt so gut /<br/>Im Nach jhn triffst aus freyem muth.'''
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Hie möchte einer fragen wie solches zuverstehn / dieweil sovil guter Leger seindt / unnd auch hin unnd wider vil stuck aus denselbigen angezeigt und gelehrt worden / hierauff solt du mercken ob schon vil guter Leger seind / und auch schöne und gute stuck aus etlichen Legern gefochten werden können / wie jhr denn etlich auch hierin angezeigt und begriffen / so lehrest du doch aus disen Reimen / das allweg besser sey es Leger sich einer gar nit / sintemal aus den Legern leichtlich dein gegenmann kann abnehmen / was für stuck du zufechten im sinn habest / welches aber aus den häuwen nit mag also vermerckt werden / uber das lernestu hieraus wie du (wenn einer vor dir in einem Leger stehet) jhn treffen oder zur Blös komen solt / welches alles durch das Nach mag zuwegen bracht werden / das versteh also / Wenn dein gegenfechter in einem Leger stehet / so hauw gegen uber zur andern Blös / als bald er (dein hauw zuversetzen) aus seinem Leger gehet / so zuck ehe es recht rührt (oder welches besser gar nit rührt) umb den Kopff / und schlag eben zu disem theil oder quatier hinein / von welchem er dir zubegegnen abgangen / aber auff das solches noch desto leichter sey / will ich dir des ein Exempel setzen / Nemlich so bald du im zufechten merckest das er sich in die Zornhut legert / so hauw von deiner Lincken gegen deiner Rechten vor jm durch / doch das du jm nit so nach seiest / im durchhauwen aber laß dein Schwerdt in der lufft umbschiessen / sam du aus dem rechten Ochssen stechen wollest / ehe du aber solches recht zeigest / und mit geberden dich dazu schickest / so trit in eil / und hauw von Unden zu seiner Lincken ein / das deine hend hoch bleiben / damit zwingestu jn das er dir eintweder auß seinem Leger versetzen / oder mit einem abtrit zugleich einhauwen muß / hauwet er denn / so merck als bald die Schwerdter zusamen rühren / so zuck umb den Kopff / und hauw in einem schwung mit geschrecnkten henden die kurtz schneid zu seinem rechten ohr '''[XLVIIr]''' ein / wie diese Figur außseiset / in disem angreiffen oder Fechten / welches gar ein lustig stuck ist / soltu der trit gar wol warnemen / und den leib den häuwen nach wol mit gehen lassen / wann du in einem ort truwest zuschlagen / denn dardurch kanstu ein gar bald verführen / must derowegen in solchem angreiffen jhm das erdtrich abstehlen / und im zugang dich stellen als trettest du nahe und enge trit / ehe erß denn gewar wirt / so trittest du weit zum angreiffen / hergegen laß dich anfencklichen mit grossen tritten mercken / so es denn dein widerpart acht nimpt / und will dir mit ernst begegnen in eil dir vor zukommen / so verhalt als denn dein trit und thu gemach / biß er sich vergebens verzabelt / in dem nimstu deines vortheils war / so bald du dein vorthel ersihest / so bistu in eil mit weiten triten bei jm.
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/112|2|lbl=Ⅰ.46r.2|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/114|1|lbl=Ⅰ.47r.1|p=1}}
 
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| '''The cuts you send powerfully from your body<br/>To the four openings carry out your work'''
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| <p>The cuts you send powerfully from your body<br/>To the four openings carry out your work</p>
  
In this rhyme two things are realized, firstly, to the cutting secondly, to the four openings of the Man, to which the cuts will be cut, and note that you cut all cuts with outstretched arms, and with this reach far to the man, also as soon as a cut from one side fails, thus you should quickly cut to the opposite side.
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<p>In this rhyme two things are realized, firstly, to the cutting secondly, to the four openings of the Man, to which the cuts will be cut, and note that you cut all cuts with outstretched arms, and with this reach far to the man, also as soon as a cut from one side fails, thus you should quickly cut to the opposite side.</p>
| '''Die Häuw führ gewaltig von dem leib /<br/>Zu den vier Blös dein arbeit threib.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/114|2|lbl=Ⅰ.47r.2}}
In disen Reimen wirt gelehrt wie du deine häuw gewaltig unnd lang / zu allen vier enden das ist zu allen vier Blössen frey fliegent / sampt dem Leib welchen du wol mit wie oben gemelt nehmen / führen solt.
 
 
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| '''Item''' If however you step up and are going strong, thus cut quickly around to the other side, also when you will cut to an opening, thus note that as soon as he goes to displace your cut, thus do not allow them to connect, (where it is useful to you) but rather pull free your sword and let it fly around again and strike to another opening, reach far from you with the cuts, and you must step correctly with this, thus fine changing and changing through on the shield comes to you, and so you won’t be harmed see that you cut to the body and not to the sword, from the Second part of this rhyme the verses teach this, also I will write further of this in 38 rhymes, and still more of the same.
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| <p>'''Item''' If however you step up and are going strong, thus cut quickly around to the other side, also when you will cut to an opening, thus note that as soon as he goes to displace your cut, thus do not allow them to connect, (where it is useful to you) but rather pull free your sword and let it fly around again and strike to another opening, reach far from you with the cuts, and you must step correctly with this, thus fine changing and changing through on the shield comes to you, and so you won’t be harmed see that you cut to the body and not to the sword, from the Second part of this rhyme the verses teach this, also I will write further of this in 38 rhymes, and still more of the same.</p>
 
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Line 2,100: Line 2,028:
 
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| '''When you Krumphau go up quickly<br/>Throw the point with crossed hands'''
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| <p>When you Krumphau go up quickly<br/>Throw the point with crossed hands</p>
  
Note the Crooked cuts are many, and that all cuts that are done with hands put crosswise or crossed, will be known as Crooked cuts.
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<p>Note the Crooked cuts are many, and that all cuts that are done with hands put crosswise or crossed, will be known as Crooked cuts.</p>
  
Hence the one, Schieler is also counted among the Crooked Cuts and it applies equally to the long or short edges, thus it is a Krumphau when you hold your hands crosswise.
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<p>Hence the one, Schieler is also counted among the Crooked Cuts and it applies equally to the long or short edges, thus it is a Krumphau when you hold your hands crosswise.</p>
| '''So du Krumphauwst far auff behendt /<br/>Geschrenckt / den ort wirff auff die hendt.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/114|3|lbl=Ⅰ.47r.3}}
Die Krumphäuw werden auff mancherley art gefochten / denn alle Häuw so mit geschrenckten oder gekreutzigten henden gehauwen / werden Krumphäuw genent / daher denn auch der eine Schieler zun Krumphäuwen gezelt wirt / es gilt auch gleich sie geschehen mit halber oder gantzer schneid / wann du die hend kreutzweiß fürest.
 
 
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| And firstly when one will cut straight to your head, from his right, thus step with your right foot well out from his strike, to his left, so that you avoid his strike with a spring to his left and likewise cut from your right with crossed hands, against his cut, thus you come with your blade between his head and sword, on his short edge, which is facing him, and when it connects, then step further around to his left side with your right foot, and displace or transfer your sword's blade from his, onto his arm, between his head and sword, in this you will have seen the opening, to which the you may cut and see that you don't wait long but rather allow your cuts to fly quickly to the openings.
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| <p>And firstly when one will cut straight to your head, from his right, thus step with your right foot well out from his strike, to his left, so that you avoid his strike with a spring to his left and likewise cut from your right with crossed hands, against his cut, thus you come with your blade between his head and sword, on his short edge, which is facing him, and when it connects, then step further around to his left side with your right foot, and displace or transfer your sword's blade from his, onto his arm, between his head and sword, in this you will have seen the opening, to which the you may cut and see that you don't wait long but rather allow your cuts to fly quickly to the openings.</p>
| Erstlichen aber merck wann dir einer von seiner Rechten von Oben stracks zum Kopff hauwet / so trit mit dem Rechten fuß / wol auß seinem streich auff sein Lincke / das du seinen streich in einem sprung auff seine lincke seiten erwischest / und Hauw mit geschrenckten henden von deiner Rechten gegen seinem Hauw / so komstu mit deiner Schwerdts klingen zwischen sein Haupt und Schwerdt auff sein halbe schneid / die dann gegen jhm stehet / in dem es rührt / so trit fürbaß mit deinem Rechten gegen seiner Lincken seiten umb unnd versetz / oder transferier mit deiner klingen von seiner klingen / zwischen seinem Kopff und Schwerdt auff sein Arm / truck also mit geschrenckten henden in einem ruck sein Arm undersich / under disen wirstu gewißlich ein Blöß finden zu welcher du hauwe
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/114|4|lbl=Ⅰ.47r.4|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/115|1|lbl=Ⅰ.47v.1|p=1}}
 
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Revision as of 22:27, 20 April 2021

Joachim Meyer
Born ca. 1537
Basel, Germany
Died 24 February 1571 (aged 34)
Schwerin, Germany
Spouse(s) Appolonia Ruhlman
Occupation
Citizenship Strasbourg
Patron
  • Johann Albrecht (?)
  • Johann Casimir
Movement Freifechter
Influences
Influenced
Genres Fencing manual
Language Early New High German
Notable work(s) Gründtliche Beschreibung der
Kunst des Fechtens
(1570)
Manuscript(s)
First printed
english edition
Forgeng, 2006
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations
Signature Joachim Meyer sig.jpg

Joachim Meyer (ca. 1537 - 1571)[1] was a 16th century German Freifechter and fencing master. He was the last major figure in the tradition of the German grand master Johannes Liechtenauer, and in the last years of his life he devised at least three distinct and quite extensive fencing manuals. Meyer's writings incorporate both the traditional Germanic technical syllabus and contemporary systems that he encountered in his travels, including Italian rapier fencing.[2] In addition to his fencing practice, Meyer was a Burgher and a master cutler.[3]

Meyer was born in Basel,[4] where he presumably apprenticed as a cutler. He writes in his books that he traveled widely in his youth, most likely a reference to the traditional Walz that journeyman craftsmen were required to take before being eligible for mastery and membership in a guild. Journeymen were often sent to stand watch and participate in town and city militias (a responsibility that would have been amplified for the warlike cutlers' guild), and Meyer learned a great deal about foreign fencing systems during his travels. It's been speculated by some fencing historians that he trained specifically in the Bolognese school of fencing, but this doesn't stand up to closer analysis.[5]

Records show that by 4 June 1560 he had settled in Strasbourg, where he married Appolonia Ruhlman (Ruelman)[1] and was granted the rank of master cutler. His interests had already moved beyond smithing, however, and in 1561, Meyer petitioned the City Council of Strasbourg for the right to hold a Fechtschule (fencing competition). He would repeat this in 1563, 1566, 1567 and 1568;[6] the 1568 petition is the first extant record in which he identifies himself as a fencing master.

Meyer probably wrote his first manuscript (MS A.4º.2) in either 1560 or 1568 for Otto Count von Sulms, Minzenberg, and Sonnenwaldt.[7] Its contents seem to be a series of lessons on training with long sword, dussack, and rapier. His second manuscript (MS Var.82), written between 1563 and 1570 for Heinrich Graf von Eberst, is of a decidedly different nature. Like many fencing manuscripts from the previous century, it is an anthology of treatises by a number of prominent German masters including Sigmund ain Ringeck, pseudo-Peter von Danzig, and Martin Syber, and also includes a brief outline by Meyer himself on a system of rapier fencing based on German Messer teachings. Finally, on 24 February 1570 Meyer completed (and soon thereafter published) an enormous multi-weapon treatise entitled Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens ("A Thorough Description of the Art of Combat"); it was dedicated to Johann Casimir, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and illustrated at the workshop of Tobias Stimmer.[8]

Unfortunately, Meyer's writing and publication efforts incurred significant debts (about 1300 crowns), which Meyer pledged to repay by Christmas of 1571.[1] Late in 1570, Meyer accepted the position of Fechtmeister to Duke Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg at his court in Schwerin. There Meyer hoped to sell his book for a better price than was offered locally (30 florins). Meyer sent his books ahead to Schwerin, and left from Strasbourg on 4 January 1571 after receiving his pay. He traveled the 800 miles to Schwerin in the middle of a harsh winter, arriving at the court on 10 February 1571. Two weeks later, on 24 February, Joachim Meyer died. The cause of his death is unknown, possibly disease or pneumonia.[6]

Antoni Rulman, Appolonia’s brother, became her legal guardian after Joachim’s death. On 15 May 1571, he had a letter written by the secretary of the Strasbourg city chamber and sent to the Duke of Mecklenburg stating that Antoni was now the widow Meyer’s guardian; it politely reminded the Duke who Joachim Meyer was, Meyer’s publishing efforts and considerable debt, requested that the Duke send Meyer’s personal affects and his books to Appolonia, and attempted to sell some (if not all) of the books to the Duke.[1]

Appolonia remarried in April 1572 to another cutler named Hans Kuele, bestowing upon him the status of Burgher and Meyer's substantial debts. Joachim Meyer and Hans Kuele are both mentioned in the minutes of Cutlers' Guild archives; Kuele may have made an impression if we can judge that fact by the number of times he is mentioned. It is believed that Appolonia and either her husband or her brother were involved with the second printing of his book in 1600. According to other sources, it was reprinted yet again in 1610 and in 1660.[9][10]

Treatises

Joachim Meyer's writings are preserved in two manuscripts prepared in the 1560s, the MS A.4º.2 (Lund) and the MS Var 82 (Rostock); a third manuscript from 1561 has been lost since at least the mid-20th century, and its contents are unknown.[11] Dwarfing these works is the massive book he published in 1570 entitled "A Thorough Description of the Free, Chivalric, and Noble Art of Fencing, Showing Various Customary Defenses, Affected and Put Forth with Many Handsome and Useful Drawings". Meyer's writings purport to teach the entire art of fencing, something that he claimed had never been done before, and encompass a wide variety of teachings from disparate sources and traditions. To achieve this goal, Meyer seems to have constructed his treatises as a series of progressive lessons, describing a process for learning to fence rather than merely outlining the underlying theory or listing the techniques. In keeping with this, he illustrates his techniques with depictions of fencers in courtyards using training weapons such as two-handed foils, wooden dussacks, and rapiers with ball tips.

The first part of Meyer's treatise is devoted to the long sword (the sword in two hands), which he presents as the foundational weapon of his system, and this section devotes the most space to fundamentals like stance and footwork. His long sword system draws upon the teachings of Freifechter Andre Paurñfeyndt (via Christian Egenolff's reprint) and Liechtenauer glossators Sigmund ain Ringeck and Lew, as well as using terminology otherwise unique to the brief Recital of Martin Syber. Not content merely to compile these teachings as his contemporary Paulus Hector Mair was doing, Meyer sought to update—even reinvent—them in various ways to fit the martial climate of the late sixteenth century, including adapting many techniques to accommodate the increased momentum of a greatsword and modifying others to use beats with the flat and winding slices in place of thrusts to comply with street-fighting laws in German cities (and the rules of the Fechtschule).

The second part of Meyer's treatises is designed to address new weapons gaining traction in German lands, the dussack and the rapier, and thereby find places for them in the German tradition. His early Lund manuscript presents a more summarized syllabus of techniques for these weapons, while his printed book goes into greater depth and is structured more in the fashion of lesson plans.[12] Meyer's dussack system, designed for the broad proto-sabers that spread into German lands from Eastern Europe in the 16th century,[13] combines the old Messer teachings of Johannes Lecküchner and the dussack teachings of Andre Paurñfeyndt with other unknown systems (some have speculated that they might include early Polish or Hungarian saber systems). His rapier system, designed for the lighter single-hand swords spreading north from Iberian and Italian lands, seems again to be a hybrid creation, integrating both the core teachings of the 15th century Liechtenauer tradition as well as components that are characteristic of the various regional Mediterranean fencing systems (including, perhaps, teachings derived from the treatise of Achille Marozzo). Interestingly, Meyer's rapier teachings in the Rostock seem to represent an attempt to unify these two weapon system, outlining a method for rapier fencing that includes key elements of his dussack teachings; it is unclear why this method did not appear in his book, but given the dates it may be that they represent his last musings on the weapon, written in the time between the completion of his book in 1570 and his death a year later.

The third part of Meyer's treatise only appears in his published book and covers dagger, wrestling, and various pole weapons. His dagger teachings, designed primarily for urban self-defense, seem to be based in part on the writings of Bolognese master Achille Marozzo[14] and the anonymous teachings in Egenolff, but also include much unique content of unknown origin (perhaps the anonymous dagger teachings in his Rostock manuscript). His staff material makes up the bulk of this section, beginning with the short staff, which, like Paurñfeyndt, he uses as a training tool for various pole weapons (and possibly also the greatsword), and then moving on to the halberd before ending with the long staff (representing the pike). As with the dagger, the sources Meyer based his staff teachings on are largely unknown.