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| or when you have crossed the half edge inward toward his head with crossed hands, so that you have given an opening on your left side, if he rushes (as described before) to fence the same way, then keep your hands crossed, pull your head full to the right, and shoot to him with your blade fully over his, the closer to his hilt the better, thus wrench his blade out to your left, as is shown by the small figures on the right hand side of illustration D, and, when this wrench out comes near your left side, drive out with your hands and slash over them with the hald edge deep to his left ear, after which you come nimbly with your long edge onto his sword after pulling out at your pleasure.
 
| or when you have crossed the half edge inward toward his head with crossed hands, so that you have given an opening on your left side, if he rushes (as described before) to fence the same way, then keep your hands crossed, pull your head full to the right, and shoot to him with your blade fully over his, the closer to his hilt the better, thus wrench his blade out to your left, as is shown by the small figures on the right hand side of illustration D, and, when this wrench out comes near your left side, drive out with your hands and slash over them with the hald edge deep to his left ear, after which you come nimbly with your long edge onto his sword after pulling out at your pleasure.
 
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/95|2|lbl=Ⅰ.37v.2|p=1}} [XXXVIIIr] besser / reisse jhm also sein klingen gegen deiner Lincken auß / wie du in der Figur so mit dem D. verzeichnet / in den kleinern Bilder zur Rechten hand sihest / und wann du mit solchem ausreissen nahet zu deiner Lincken kommest / so fahr mit den henden auff und schlag mit halber schneide uber dein hand / wider zu seinem lincken ohr dieff hinein / nach solchem komme jhm behend mit Langer schneid wider an sein Schwerdt / so stehestu im Langen ort demnach ziehe ab nach deinem gefallen.  
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword I.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword I.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| Or when you thus come to be in the Unicorn in front of your opponent, then mark Just As he strikes from above to let your blade drive over your head and bind on his sword from your right high traversing to your left and, as soon as he goes off above from this, then let your blade snap over again so that your right hand comes over your left and fall forward to his arms with the short edge and crossed hands while he is still driving off, as is shown by the outermost figures on the right hand of illustration I, then thrust away forcefully out from your left side with your hilt and strike nimbly when he shows his next opening, or follow after him until you can have your advantage.
 
| Or when you thus come to be in the Unicorn in front of your opponent, then mark Just As he strikes from above to let your blade drive over your head and bind on his sword from your right high traversing to your left and, as soon as he goes off above from this, then let your blade snap over again so that your right hand comes over your left and fall forward to his arms with the short edge and crossed hands while he is still driving off, as is shown by the outermost figures on the right hand of illustration I, then thrust away forcefully out from your left side with your hilt and strike nimbly when he shows his next opening, or follow after him until you can have your advantage.
| Oder wann du also vor deinem gegenman in das Einhorn komen bist / so merck in dem er herhauwet von Oben / so laß deine klingen umb deinen Kopff verfahren / und bind jhm von deiner Rechten uberzwerch gegen seiner Lincken an sein Schwerdt / und als bald er von dem selbigen ubersich abgeht / so laß dein klingen wider umb schnappen / also das dein Rechte hand uber die Lincke komme / und fall jhm mit kurtzer schneid und geschrenckten henden dieweil er noch also im auffahren ist / vornen für die Arm / wie an dem eussersten kleinen Bild in der Figur mit dem I. verzeichnet gegen der Rechten hand sehen kanst / stoß in also mit deinem Schilt gewaltig von dir gegen deiner Lincken zur seiten aus / und hauwe behend dieweil er dummelt der nechsten Blöß zu / oder hal jn also mit nach folgen auff / biß du deinen vortheil haben kanst.
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| Note when you have flown out to both sides and come into the Unicorn above you, if your opponent then strikes from his right to the left of your head, then step with your right foot toward his left well away from his strike, and then drop onto the strong of his sword (such that your hands stay crosswise) with the short edge above. This requires an offstep every time which shall be completed at the same time as his oncoming strike, and just as the swords glide together in this way, just then let the short edge snap off again up from his sword, and hit him with it over his hands to his head, after this strike with the long edge and an outstep. From this Unicorn you can also fence and attack rightly and well with the understrike and the thwart, as many good plays shall also go onward similarly when you consider it afterward.
 
| Note when you have flown out to both sides and come into the Unicorn above you, if your opponent then strikes from his right to the left of your head, then step with your right foot toward his left well away from his strike, and then drop onto the strong of his sword (such that your hands stay crosswise) with the short edge above. This requires an offstep every time which shall be completed at the same time as his oncoming strike, and just as the swords glide together in this way, just then let the short edge snap off again up from his sword, and hit him with it over his hands to his head, after this strike with the long edge and an outstep. From this Unicorn you can also fence and attack rightly and well with the understrike and the thwart, as many good plays shall also go onward similarly when you consider it afterward.
| Item wann du also zu beiden seiten auff geflüglet / unnd in die höh zum Einhorn ankommen bist / hauwet er dein widerpart als dann von seiner Rechten gegen deiner Lincken zum Kopff / so trit abermal mit deinem rechten Fuß gegen seiner Lincken wol auß seinem streich / und falle jhm also (doch das deine hend kreutzweiß bleiben) mit kurtzer schneide Oben auff die sterck seines Schwerdts / Ddieseraufffall sampt gemeltem außtrit / sollen mit einander zugleich gegen seiner herfliegenden klingen volbracht werden / und in dem die Schwerdter auff solche weiß zusamen glützen / als bald laß die kurtze schneide wider von seinem Schwerdt ab umbschnappen / und schlag jn mit solcher uber die hand auff sein Kopff / oder brich mit solchem aufffallen / gegen deiner Lincken undersich durch / und zucke demnach dein hefft wider ubersich umb dein Kopff / hauwe mit einem außtrit mit Langer schneide nach. Auß disem Einhorn kanstu auch füglich und wol mit den Underhäuwen und der Zwürch angreiffen und Fechten / wie auch sonst vil guter stuck / deren du selber weiter nach dencken solt.
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| '''Key'''
 
| '''Key'''
 
This guard is named the Key since all other elements and stances can be broken from this stance just as well as that which can happen from others where you will actually need more force to do so than in this one, and since a key is a small instrument which, without particular effort or force, can enter a big strong castle where otherwise a man must use great force, thus from this weak stance (as it may seem) all other elements will be broken artfully and delicately without special effort, and basically that’s the story. In the pre-fencing put yourself in this guard and, even as how to fence in such forms as the Unicorn was told before, it stands against your opponent’s guards, left or right, high or low, thus stab to him from the Key before yourself directly to his face into the Long Point, the stab of which he (if he doesn’t want to be hit) must defend from. On whichever side he then hits out from, then let your blade then swipe away with intent as he hits out to it, drive over your head and strike him to the same side that he struck out from, if he swipes after it, then don’t let it hit, but let it fly off to another opening, and strike away from him as he seeks for another opening.
 
This guard is named the Key since all other elements and stances can be broken from this stance just as well as that which can happen from others where you will actually need more force to do so than in this one, and since a key is a small instrument which, without particular effort or force, can enter a big strong castle where otherwise a man must use great force, thus from this weak stance (as it may seem) all other elements will be broken artfully and delicately without special effort, and basically that’s the story. In the pre-fencing put yourself in this guard and, even as how to fence in such forms as the Unicorn was told before, it stands against your opponent’s guards, left or right, high or low, thus stab to him from the Key before yourself directly to his face into the Long Point, the stab of which he (if he doesn’t want to be hit) must defend from. On whichever side he then hits out from, then let your blade then swipe away with intent as he hits out to it, drive over your head and strike him to the same side that he struck out from, if he swipes after it, then don’t let it hit, but let it fly off to another opening, and strike away from him as he seeks for another opening.
| '''[XXXVIIIv] Schlüssel.'''
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DIse Hut wirt darumb Schlüssel genant / dieweil auß disem Leger alle ander stuck unnd Leger gebrochen werden können / dann ob solches wol aus andern auch geschehen kann / so mustu doch merh gewalts darzu brauchen / dann in disem / und wie ein Schlüssel ein klein Instrument ohn sondere mühe / ein groß starck Schloß darzu man sonst grossen gewalt haben müste / auff thut / also werden und können auch auß disem schwachen Leger (darfür es angesehen wirt) alle andere stuck ohn sondere müh künstlich und zierlich gebrochen werden / und geschicht das ohngefehrlich auff solche weiß / Jim zufechten schicke dich in ddieseHut / unnd das eben auff solche form wie du dich ins Einhorn heivor gemelt gefochten hast / es legere sich dann dein gegenpart zur Rechten oder Lincken / in der obern oder undern Huten eine / so stich jhm auß dem Schlüssel gerichts für dir hin zu seinem gesicht in das Langort / welchen stich er dir (ob er nicht getroffen werden will) wehren muß / von welcher seiten er dir den als dan außschlecht / so laß dein klingen mit willen den weg dahin er die mit seinem außschlagen hin gewisen hat / umb deinen Kopff fahren / und hauwe jhm eben zu derselbigen seiten von welcher er dir außgeschlagen hat hinein / wischt er jhm aber nach / so magstu nit antreffen / sonder verfliegen lassen zu einer andern Blös / und ehe er sich des versicht dich gegen einer andern Blös von jhm wegk hauwen.
 
  
 
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| Don’t go to other stances with your opponent, but force them out from you by striking, if he strikes just then from above or from below, from the right or from the left, then mark just as he strikes in, then shoot your Long Point in front of you into his face, and at the same time as shooting forward twist your long edge against his oncoming strike, when you have caught his strike on the strong of your long edge, then stay hard on his blade and wind in nimbly outward to his head, but if he goes nimbly off from your sword striking to the other side, then strike or rush him (while his sword is still driving out) to his head or arms, hurry soon after this to bind again on his sword and think of travelling after, slices, wrenches out, and misleading.
 
| Don’t go to other stances with your opponent, but force them out from you by striking, if he strikes just then from above or from below, from the right or from the left, then mark just as he strikes in, then shoot your Long Point in front of you into his face, and at the same time as shooting forward twist your long edge against his oncoming strike, when you have caught his strike on the strong of your long edge, then stay hard on his blade and wind in nimbly outward to his head, but if he goes nimbly off from your sword striking to the other side, then strike or rush him (while his sword is still driving out) to his head or arms, hurry soon after this to bind again on his sword and think of travelling after, slices, wrenches out, and misleading.
| Zum andern legert sich aber dein widerpart nicht / sonder tringt auff dich mit häuwen / er hauwe als dann von Oben oder von Unden / von Rechter oder von Lincker / so mercke in dem er herhauwet / so schiesse den Langenort für dir hin / abermal gegen seinem gesicht / und wende zugleich in solchem fürtschieben die Lang schneid gegen seinem herfliegenden hauw / wann du nun seinen hauw auff dein Lange schneide in die sterck empfangen hast / so bleib hart an seiner klingen / und winde behendiglich hinein / und außwerts zu seinem Kopff / geht er aber behend von deiner klingen ab / gegen der andern seiten zuhauwen / so hauwe oder schnelle jhm (dieweil er sein Schwerdt noch also herumb führt) zu seinem Kopff oder Armen / eile demnach bald wider mit dem Band an sein Schwerdt und gedenck des Nachreises / Schneides /Ausreisses / Verführens alle zeit.
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| Basically from this forward Guard you fence elements in the Before and shall attack through it, thus you can take off to the elements to which one breaks the High Guard acting from this Key.
 
| Basically from this forward Guard you fence elements in the Before and shall attack through it, thus you can take off to the elements to which one breaks the High Guard acting from this Key.
| Was du aber uhngefehrlich aus dieser Hut für stuck im Vor Fechten und dardurch angreiffen solt / das kanstu abnemen an dem stuck welches hievor zu einem bruch auff die Oberhut / aus disem Schlüssel gesetzt ist.
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| '''Hanging Point'''
 
| '''Hanging Point'''
 
In the pre-fencing strike forcefully from your left above you through toward his face in a sweep, once, twice, and the third time don’t let your sword swing out before your face but twist it into the Hanging Point, as shown on the right hand side of figure F and as taught before, and do this a number of times until you see your opportunity to attack with an element, but if your opponent strikes to you during this (while you stand thus in the Hanging Point) from above, or high traverse, or from below to your fingers, or against your head on the left, then step soon out to your left with the left foot behind the right, and twitch at the same time as he strikes, your sword thus hangs from above you against your right shoulder, from here step and strike at the same time as him left to his head, pull the pommel hard to your inward arm in this strike onto the flat, then swing your blade on forcefully to his head. hold your pommel thus hard on your arm and wrench thus out above you with outstretched blade to your left, let this wrench thus fly over your head and traverse strike strong to his left.
 
In the pre-fencing strike forcefully from your left above you through toward his face in a sweep, once, twice, and the third time don’t let your sword swing out before your face but twist it into the Hanging Point, as shown on the right hand side of figure F and as taught before, and do this a number of times until you see your opportunity to attack with an element, but if your opponent strikes to you during this (while you stand thus in the Hanging Point) from above, or high traverse, or from below to your fingers, or against your head on the left, then step soon out to your left with the left foot behind the right, and twitch at the same time as he strikes, your sword thus hangs from above you against your right shoulder, from here step and strike at the same time as him left to his head, pull the pommel hard to your inward arm in this strike onto the flat, then swing your blade on forcefully to his head. hold your pommel thus hard on your arm and wrench thus out above you with outstretched blade to your left, let this wrench thus fly over your head and traverse strike strong to his left.
| '''[XXXIXrv] Hangetort.'''
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IM zufechten so streich gewaltiglich von deienr Lincken übersich gegen seim gesicht durch / in einem raht ein mal zwey / und das dritte mal aber laß alwegen dein Schwerdt vor deinem gesicht verschwingen / oder verwende in das Hangetort / wie dich das Bild zur Rechten hand in der Figur mit dem F. hie zu gegen lehrt / unnd das thu ein mal etlich biß das du dein gelegenheit ersihest / mit einem stuck an zugrieffen / hauwet er dein gegenpart aber under des (dieweil du also in dem Hangeten ort stehest) auff dich von Oben / uberzwerch / oder von Unden oder auch nach deinen Fingern / gegen deiner Lincken zum Kopff / so trit bald mit deinem Lincken fuß hinder deinem Rechten / gegen seiner Lincken aus / und zucke zugleich in dem er hauwet / dein Schwerdt also hanget ubersich gegen deiner rechten Achsel / von derselbigen hauwe zugleich mit jhm / in obgelehrtem trit gegen seiner Lincken zum Kopff / in solchem Hauw verzeihe dein knopff / starck zu deinem inwendigen Arm an die flechs / so schwingt sich dein kling dester gewaltiger zu seinem Kopff / behalt also dein knopff hart an deinem Arm / und reiß also mit ausgestreckter klingen gegen deiner Lincken ubersich aus / laß also in disem riß umb deinen Kopff fliegen / und Zwirch gegen seiner Lincken starck hinein.
 
  
 
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| But if he strikes to your right side from above, then catch his strike on your blade’s flat and step out to his right, or stay with your blade (just as the blades have struck together) on the side and wind the short edge inwards to his head, twist nimbly with the sword into the Long Point from the wind, such that you smite his after work away from you, but if he fences in to you from below your blade to your right ear, away from what happens, then twist yet again into the long point with the long edge below, thus setting aside his blade, yet while you displace at the same time also step nimbly with the left foot to his right and thrust your pommel (just as the parry is about to engage) through under your right arm, thus raise your sword high with crossed hands, and hit again nimbly upward with the half edge to his right ear, if he displaces this then let the blade flow off near your right, and step back again with your left foot and meanwhile with your back step strike a forceful middle strike, traverse over to his left ear or arm, then pull out. What would be fenced further is easily taken onward from here.
 
| But if he strikes to your right side from above, then catch his strike on your blade’s flat and step out to his right, or stay with your blade (just as the blades have struck together) on the side and wind the short edge inwards to his head, twist nimbly with the sword into the Long Point from the wind, such that you smite his after work away from you, but if he fences in to you from below your blade to your right ear, away from what happens, then twist yet again into the long point with the long edge below, thus setting aside his blade, yet while you displace at the same time also step nimbly with the left foot to his right and thrust your pommel (just as the parry is about to engage) through under your right arm, thus raise your sword high with crossed hands, and hit again nimbly upward with the half edge to his right ear, if he displaces this then let the blade flow off near your right, and step back again with your left foot and meanwhile with your back step strike a forceful middle strike, traverse over to his left ear or arm, then pull out. What would be fenced further is easily taken onward from here.
| Hauwet er aber gegen deiner Rechten von Oben / so fange sein streich auff dein flache klinge / unnd trit aus gegen seiner Rechten / oder bleib mit deiner klingen (in dem die Schwerdter zusamen gerührt haben) an der seinen und winde jhm die kurtze schneide einwerts zu seinem Kopff / verwende behend mit dem Schwerdt aus dem winden in das Lang ort / also das du jhm sein nach arbeit mit Langer schneide von dir abweisest / ficht er dir aber under deiner klingen hinein zu deinem Rechten ohr / auff was weg das geschehe / so verwende abermal dein Schwert in das Lang ort / die Lang schneid undersich / so setztu jhm also sein kling ab / dieweil du aber so absetzest / dieselbige weil trit auch mit deinem Lincken fus behendiglich gegen seiner Rechten / und stoß under des dein knopff (in dem der absatz gleich noch rührt) under deinen rechten Arm durch / erhebe also dein Schwerdt mit geschrenckten henden in die höhe / und schlag behend mit halber schneid wider nider zu seinem rechten ohr / versetzt er solches / so las die klingen neben seiner Rechten ablauffen / und trit mit deinem Lincken fuß wider zu ruck / unnd hauwe dieweil du abtrits einen gewaltigen Mittelhauw / uberzwerch zu seinem Lincken ohr oder armen / demnoch zieh ab / was weiter hieraus zufechten / ist aus disem leicht ab zunehmen.
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Revision as of 02:48, 17 April 2021

Joachim Meyer
Born ca. 1537
Basel, Germany
Died 24 February 1571 (aged 34)
Schwerin, Germany
Spouse(s) Appolonia Ruhlman
Occupation
Citizenship Strasbourg
Patron
  • Johann Albrecht (?)
  • Johann Casimir
Movement Freifechter
Influences
Influenced
Genres Fencing manual
Language Early New High German
Notable work(s) Gründtliche Beschreibung der
Kunst des Fechtens
(1570)
Manuscript(s)
First printed
english edition
Forgeng, 2006
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations
Signature Joachim Meyer sig.jpg

Joachim Meyer (ca. 1537 - 1571)[1] was a 16th century German Freifechter and fencing master. He was the last major figure in the tradition of the German grand master Johannes Liechtenauer, and in the last years of his life he devised at least three distinct and quite extensive fencing manuals. Meyer's writings incorporate both the traditional Germanic technical syllabus and contemporary systems that he encountered in his travels, including Italian rapier fencing.[2] In addition to his fencing practice, Meyer was a Burgher and a master cutler.[3]

Meyer was born in Basel,[4] where he presumably apprenticed as a cutler. He writes in his books that he traveled widely in his youth, most likely a reference to the traditional Walz that journeyman craftsmen were required to take before being eligible for mastery and membership in a guild. Journeymen were often sent to stand watch and participate in town and city militias (a responsibility that would have been amplified for the warlike cutlers' guild), and Meyer learned a great deal about foreign fencing systems during his travels. It's been speculated by some fencing historians that he trained specifically in the Bolognese school of fencing, but this doesn't stand up to closer analysis.[5]

Records show that by 4 June 1560 he had settled in Strasbourg, where he married Appolonia Ruhlman (Ruelman)[1] and was granted the rank of master cutler. His interests had already moved beyond smithing, however, and in 1561, Meyer petitioned the City Council of Strasbourg for the right to hold a Fechtschule (fencing competition). He would repeat this in 1563, 1566, 1567 and 1568;[6] the 1568 petition is the first extant record in which he identifies himself as a fencing master.

Meyer probably wrote his first manuscript (MS A.4º.2) in either 1560 or 1568 for Otto Count von Sulms, Minzenberg, and Sonnenwaldt.[7] Its contents seem to be a series of lessons on training with long sword, dussack, and rapier. His second manuscript (MS Var.82), written between 1563 and 1570 for Heinrich Graf von Eberst, is of a decidedly different nature. Like many fencing manuscripts from the previous century, it is an anthology of treatises by a number of prominent German masters including Sigmund ain Ringeck, pseudo-Peter von Danzig, and Martin Syber, and also includes a brief outline by Meyer himself on a system of rapier fencing based on German Messer teachings. Finally, on 24 February 1570 Meyer completed (and soon thereafter published) an enormous multi-weapon treatise entitled Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens ("A Thorough Description of the Art of Combat"); it was dedicated to Johann Casimir, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and illustrated at the workshop of Tobias Stimmer.[8]

Unfortunately, Meyer's writing and publication efforts incurred significant debts (about 1300 crowns), which Meyer pledged to repay by Christmas of 1571.[1] Late in 1570, Meyer accepted the position of Fechtmeister to Duke Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg at his court in Schwerin. There Meyer hoped to sell his book for a better price than was offered locally (30 florins). Meyer sent his books ahead to Schwerin, and left from Strasbourg on 4 January 1571 after receiving his pay. He traveled the 800 miles to Schwerin in the middle of a harsh winter, arriving at the court on 10 February 1571. Two weeks later, on 24 February, Joachim Meyer died. The cause of his death is unknown, possibly disease or pneumonia.[6]

Antoni Rulman, Appolonia’s brother, became her legal guardian after Joachim’s death. On 15 May 1571, he had a letter written by the secretary of the Strasbourg city chamber and sent to the Duke of Mecklenburg stating that Antoni was now the widow Meyer’s guardian; it politely reminded the Duke who Joachim Meyer was, Meyer’s publishing efforts and considerable debt, requested that the Duke send Meyer’s personal affects and his books to Appolonia, and attempted to sell some (if not all) of the books to the Duke.[1]

Appolonia remarried in April 1572 to another cutler named Hans Kuele, bestowing upon him the status of Burgher and Meyer's substantial debts. Joachim Meyer and Hans Kuele are both mentioned in the minutes of Cutlers' Guild archives; Kuele may have made an impression if we can judge that fact by the number of times he is mentioned. It is believed that Appolonia and either her husband or her brother were involved with the second printing of his book in 1600. According to other sources, it was reprinted yet again in 1610 and in 1660.[9][10]

Treatises

Joachim Meyer's writings are preserved in two manuscripts prepared in the 1560s, the MS A.4º.2 (Lund) and the MS Var 82 (Rostock); a third manuscript from 1561 has been lost since at least the mid-20th century, and its contents are unknown.[11] Dwarfing these works is the massive book he published in 1570 entitled "A Thorough Description of the Free, Chivalric, and Noble Art of Fencing, Showing Various Customary Defenses, Affected and Put Forth with Many Handsome and Useful Drawings". Meyer's writings purport to teach the entire art of fencing, something that he claimed had never been done before, and encompass a wide variety of teachings from disparate sources and traditions. To achieve this goal, Meyer seems to have constructed his treatises as a series of progressive lessons, describing a process for learning to fence rather than merely outlining the underlying theory or listing the techniques. In keeping with this, he illustrates his techniques with depictions of fencers in courtyards using training weapons such as two-handed foils, wooden dussacks, and rapiers with ball tips.

The first part of Meyer's treatise is devoted to the long sword (the sword in two hands), which he presents as the foundational weapon of his system, and this section devotes the most space to fundamentals like stance and footwork. His long sword system draws upon the teachings of Freifechter Andre Paurñfeyndt (via Christian Egenolff's reprint) and Liechtenauer glossators Sigmund ain Ringeck and Lew, as well as using terminology otherwise unique to the brief Recital of Martin Syber. Not content merely to compile these teachings as his contemporary Paulus Hector Mair was doing, Meyer sought to update—even reinvent—them in various ways to fit the martial climate of the late sixteenth century, including adapting many techniques to accommodate the increased momentum of a greatsword and modifying others to use beats with the flat and winding slices in place of thrusts to comply with street-fighting laws in German cities (and the rules of the Fechtschule).

The second part of Meyer's treatises is designed to address new weapons gaining traction in German lands, the dussack and the rapier, and thereby find places for them in the German tradition. His early Lund manuscript presents a more summarized syllabus of techniques for these weapons, while his printed book goes into greater depth and is structured more in the fashion of lesson plans.[12] Meyer's dussack system, designed for the broad proto-sabers that spread into German lands from Eastern Europe in the 16th century,[13] combines the old Messer teachings of Johannes Lecküchner and the dussack teachings of Andre Paurñfeyndt with other unknown systems (some have speculated that they might include early Polish or Hungarian saber systems). His rapier system, designed for the lighter single-hand swords spreading north from Iberian and Italian lands, seems again to be a hybrid creation, integrating both the core teachings of the 15th century Liechtenauer tradition as well as components that are characteristic of the various regional Mediterranean fencing systems (including, perhaps, teachings derived from the treatise of Achille Marozzo). Interestingly, Meyer's rapier teachings in the Rostock seem to represent an attempt to unify these two weapon system, outlining a method for rapier fencing that includes key elements of his dussack teachings; it is unclear why this method did not appear in his book, but given the dates it may be that they represent his last musings on the weapon, written in the time between the completion of his book in 1570 and his death a year later.

The third part of Meyer's treatise only appears in his published book and covers dagger, wrestling, and various pole weapons. His dagger teachings, designed primarily for urban self-defense, seem to be based in part on the writings of Bolognese master Achille Marozzo[14] and the anonymous teachings in Egenolff, but also include much unique content of unknown origin (perhaps the anonymous dagger teachings in his Rostock manuscript). His staff material makes up the bulk of this section, beginning with the short staff, which, like Paurñfeyndt, he uses as a training tool for various pole weapons (and possibly also the greatsword), and then moving on to the halberd before ending with the long staff (representing the pike). As with the dagger, the sources Meyer based his staff teachings on are largely unknown.

Additional Resources

  • Kiermayer, Alex. Joachim Meyers Kunst Des Fechtens. Gründtliche Beschreibung des Fechtens, 1570. Arts of Mars Books, 2012. ISBN 978-3981162738
  • Meyer, Joachim. Joachim Meyer 1600: Transkription des Fechtbuchs 'Gründtliche Beschreibung der freyen Ritterlichen und Adelichen kunst des Fechtens’. TAT. Wolfgang Landwehr, 2011. ISBN 978-3932077371
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Combat: A German Martial Arts Treatise of 1570. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng.
    • 1st edition. London: Greenhill Books, 2006. ISBN 978-1-85367-643-7
    • 1st edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. ISBN 1-4039-7092-0
    • 2nd edition. London: Frontline Books, 2014. ISBN 978-1-84832-778-8
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Sword Combat: A 1568 German Treatise on Swordmanship. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng. London: Frontline Books, 2016. ISBN 9781473876750

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Dupuis, Olivier. Joachim Meyer, escrimeur libre, bourgeois de Strasbourg (1537 ? - 1571). In Maîtres et techniques de combat. Dijon: AEDEH, 2006.
  2. Castle, Egerton. Schools and Masters of Fencing: From the Middle Ages to the Eighteenth Century. London: George Bell and Sons, 1885. pp 74 - 76.
  3. Naumann, Robert. Serapeum. Vol. 5. T.O. Weigel, 1844. pp 53-59.
  4. According to his wedding certificate.
  5. His dagger teachings do, however, show some evidence of influence by Achilles Marozzo's printed treatise.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Van Slambrouck, Christopher. "The Life and Work of Joachim Meyer". Meyer Frei Fechter Guild, 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
  7. Norling, Roger. "The history of Joachim Meyer’s fencing treatise to Otto von Solms". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  8. Whose members included Christoph Maurer and Hans Christoffel Stimmer.
  9. Schaer, Alfred. Die altdeutschen fechter und spielleute: Ein beitrag zur deutschen culturgeschichte. K.J. Trübner, 1901. p 76.
  10. Pollock, W. H., Grove, F. C., and Prévost, C. Fencing. London and Bombay: Longmans, Green, and co, 1897. pp 267-268.
  11. Jens P. Kleinau. "1561 Joachim Meyer dedicated a fencing book to the Pfalzgrafen of Pfalz-Veldenz". Hans Talhoffer ~ as seen by Jens P. Kleinau. 04 July 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  12. Roberts, James. "System vs Syllabus: Meyer’s 1560 and 1570 sidesword texts". Hroarr.com, 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  13. Roger Norling. "The Dussack - a weapon of war". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  14. Norling, Roger. "Meyer and Marozzo dagger comparison". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  15. "st" ligature inverted.
  16. Typo: wolt, könne.
  17. "t" is upside down.
  18. 18.00 18.01 18.02 18.03 18.04 18.05 18.06 18.07 18.08 18.09 18.10 18.11 18.12 18.13 18.14 18.15 18.16 18.17 18.18 18.19 18.20 18.21 18.22 18.23 18.24 18.25 18.26 18.27 18.28 18.29 18.30 18.31 indes
  19. palm up
  20. Illegible deletion.
  21. oberhauw
  22. ‘right’ is originally written, ‘left’ is written above it
  23. short edge
  24. “Degen”, lit. dagger, could either refer to a sword or dagger.
  25. short edge
  26. Unleserliche Streichung. Illegible deletion.
  27. Unleserliche gestrichen Einfügung oberhalb der Zeile. Crossed out illegible insertion above the line.
  28. Die Schlaufe des »h« trägt ein Diärese. The loop of the “h” carries a diaeresis.
  29. Korrigiert aus »mitelhauw«. Corrected from “mitelhauw”.
  30. Leicht unleserlich. Slightly illegible.
  31. Überschriebens »vom«. Overwritten “vom”.
  32. Inserted by means of a special mark.
  33. Word inserted next to the text.
  34. Inserted nest to the text.
  35. Zwei Worte am Seitenrand nachgetragen. Two words inserted at the margin.
  36. Wort am Seitenrand nachgetragen. Word inserted at the margin.