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Difference between revisions of "Joachim Meyer"

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<p>The word Winding is known in good German as Twisting, whose work shall be done thus: when you have bound onto your opponent’s sword from your right against his left, then hold fast in the bind and wind the far part of your blade inward against his head, and then again out. So that you will be told how to always stay stiff onto his sword in the bind, such will be shown in this example.</p>
 
<p>The word Winding is known in good German as Twisting, whose work shall be done thus: when you have bound onto your opponent’s sword from your right against his left, then hold fast in the bind and wind the far part of your blade inward against his head, and then again out. So that you will be told how to always stay stiff onto his sword in the bind, such will be shown in this example.</p>
 
|  
 
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/61|3|lbl=Ⅰ.20v.3|p=1}} [XXIr] du alweg under des wie bemelt / steiff an seinem Schwerdt mit dem Bandt bleibest / wie solches hie in disem Exempel zusehen.  
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/61|3|lbl=Ⅰ.20v.3|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/62|1|lbl=Ⅰ.21r.1|p=1}}
  
 
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|  
 
|  
 
| <p>Strike once from the Roof, thus binding from your right with a hard traverse onto his sword, and just as it connects, thrust your pommel through under your right arm, and wind the short edge thus in a rush inward against his head, in this all but stay with the edge hard against his sword, if he would beware of the rush and displace, or if you feel that he will fall down to your openings from above, then pull the pommel from under your arm again to your left above you, and hit him again with the short edge through the traverse to his left ear.</p>
 
| <p>Strike once from the Roof, thus binding from your right with a hard traverse onto his sword, and just as it connects, thrust your pommel through under your right arm, and wind the short edge thus in a rush inward against his head, in this all but stay with the edge hard against his sword, if he would beware of the rush and displace, or if you feel that he will fall down to your openings from above, then pull the pommel from under your arm again to your left above you, and hit him again with the short edge through the traverse to his left ear.</p>
| Hauwet einer von dach auff dich / so bindt von deiner Rechten mit einem Zwirch an sein Schwerdt / unnd in dem es glitscht / so stoß dein Knopff under deinem rechten arm durch / unnd wend also die kurtze schneidt in einem schnall einwerts gegen seinem Kopff / in disem allem aber bleib mit dem schnit hart an seinem Schwerdt / wirt er des schnals gewahr und versetzt / oder wirstu fülen das er dir von Oben vom Schwerdt will niderfallen zu der blöß so ruck den Knopff under deinem Arm wider herfür gegen deiner Lincken ubersich / unnd schlag jhm wider mit kurtzer schneiden durch die Zwirch zu seinem Lincken ohr.  
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/62|2|lbl=Ⅰ.21r.2}}
 
<section end="Winden"/><section begin="Durchwinden"/>
 
<section end="Winden"/><section begin="Durchwinden"/>
 
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<p>If you bind with a Traverse Strike, as was described before here, wind the short edge inward against your opponent’s head, then step through under it with the right foot between you and him, against your opponent’s right side, and wind through at the same time with your hilt under your blade from your left side, and drive him with your pommel winding out over your right arm, step back with the right foot, and travel at the same time from your right side out under him, and slash in with the long edge to the head, thus have you not only wound through, but also wrenched over with the pommel.</p>
 
<p>If you bind with a Traverse Strike, as was described before here, wind the short edge inward against your opponent’s head, then step through under it with the right foot between you and him, against your opponent’s right side, and wind through at the same time with your hilt under your blade from your left side, and drive him with your pommel winding out over your right arm, step back with the right foot, and travel at the same time from your right side out under him, and slash in with the long edge to the head, thus have you not only wound through, but also wrenched over with the pommel.</p>
| '''Durchwinden.'''
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/62|3|lbl=Ⅰ.21r.3}}
SO du mit einem Zwirchhauw angebunden / und wie hievor bemelt / die kurtze schneid gegen deines widerparts Kopff einwerts gewunden / so trit under des mit dem rechten Fuß zwischen dir unnd jhm durch / gegen des Manns Rechten seiten / und wende zugleich mit deinem Hefft under seiner klingen auff dein Lincke seiten durch / und fahr jhm mit deinem Knopff außwendig uber sein rechten Arm / trit mit dem rechten Fuß zu ruck / unnd reiß zugleich auff dein Rechte seiten undersich aus / und schlag jn damit mit Langer schneid auff den Kopff / also hastu nit allein durchgewendt / sonder mit dem Knopff ubergreiffen.
 
 
<section end="Durchwinden"/><section begin="Wechseln"/>
 
<section end="Durchwinden"/><section begin="Wechseln"/>
 
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| <p>'''Changes'''</p>
 
| <p>'''Changes'''</p>
  
<p>A skilled fencer will have Changes, so then be skilled at such and only Change at the right time, and only when you need, and not give away your openings without cause. However he who will be experienced in fencing will need the knowledge of Changes, for is it an artful work and belongs to fencing with all this, that while it only works against the sword and not against the body, the Changes are many. Change in opening from one side to the other, change before the attack from one stance to another. Remember in the attacks to change through against the strikes, thus in the pre-fencing strike from your right a direct Wrath or High strike against your opponent’s left side, strike him against the sword and not to his body, thus let the point flit under his sword with crossed hands with the strike, step and strike in to the other high target, see however that you carefully ensure that he does not attack or set upon you by following after, to this in the beginning come into the Long Point, and stretch likewise long from you, if he strikes at your sword, and will hit out or wind, then let the point drop under yourself through sinking, and work him to the other side, if he swipes after and will displace, then change through again, bite onward again to another opening or work to stand yet rightly, then after you can strike.</p>
+
<p>A skilled fencer will have Changes, so then be skilled at such and only Change at the right time, and only when you need, and not give away your openings without cause. However he who will be experienced in fencing will need the knowledge of Changes, for is it an artful work and belongs to fencing with all this, that while it only works against the sword and not against the body, the Changes are many. Change in opening from one side to the other, change before the attack from one stance to another.</p>
| '''Wechseln.'''
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/62|4|lbl=Ⅰ.21r.4}}
WEchseln will ein geübten Fechter haben / denn welcher ongeübt unnd nit zu rechter zeit Wechselt / der saumet sich nur / und gibt sich ohn ursach blos / wer aber im Fechten erfahren / und sich des Wechseln weiß zugebrauchen / dm ist es ein künstliche arbeit / und gehört gegen diese zu Fechten / die nur nach dem Schwerdt und nit nach dem leib arbeiten / Das Wechseln aber ist mancherley / Wechseln im zugang von einer seiten zur andern / Wechseln vor dem angriff von einem Leger in das ander / Item im angreiffen gegen den Hauwe durchwechseln / also im zufechten Hauw von deiner Rechten einen geraden Zorn oder Oberhauw / gegen deines widerparts Lincke sei'''[XXIv]'''ten / Hauwet er gegen dem Schwerdt und nit zum leib / so laß den ort sampt dem Hauw mit geschrenckten henden unden durch wischen / trit und hauw zur andern Ober Blöß lang hinein / sihe aber das du fürsichtig seiest / das er dich im Nachreisen nit erhasche oder dir ansetze / gleichfals im zugang komme in das Lang ort / und streck dasselbig lang von dir / Hauwet er gegen deinem Schwerdt / und will ausschlagen oder Winden / so laß den ort undersich durch sincken / und arbeit jhm zur andern seiten / wischt er jhm nach und will versetzen / so Wechsel wider durch / biß dir entweders ein Blös wirt oder dir sonst fügliche arbeit zuschlehet / darnach du hauwen könnest.
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| <p>Remember in the attacks to change through against the strikes, thus in the pre-fencing strike from your right a direct Wrath or High strike against your opponent’s left side, strike him against the sword and not to his body, thus let the point flit under his sword with crossed hands with the strike, step and strike in to the other high target, see however that you carefully ensure that he does not attack or set upon you by following after, to this in the beginning come into the Long Point, and stretch likewise long from you, if he strikes at your sword, and will hit out or wind, then let the point drop under yourself through sinking, and work him to the other side, if he swipes after and will displace, then change through again, bite onward again to another opening or work to stand yet rightly, then after you can strike.</p>
 +
|  
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/62|5|lbl=Ⅰ.21r.5|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/63|1|lbl=Ⅰ.21v.1|p=1}}
 
<section end="Wechseln"/><section begin="Abschneiden"/>
 
<section end="Wechseln"/><section begin="Abschneiden"/>
 
|-  
 
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<p>Slicing Off shall you drive thus: hold the sword with outstretched arms long from you, or sink into the Fool’s guard, strike your opponent then with a long strike from you, and thus slice away from you to both sides with the long edge, so as long as you keep your advantage, that you onward will come to work properly at need.</p>
 
<p>Slicing Off shall you drive thus: hold the sword with outstretched arms long from you, or sink into the Fool’s guard, strike your opponent then with a long strike from you, and thus slice away from you to both sides with the long edge, so as long as you keep your advantage, that you onward will come to work properly at need.</p>
| '''Abschneiden.'''
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/63|2|lbl=Ⅰ.21v.2}}
ABschneiden soltu also treiben / halt das Schwerdt mit ausgestreckten Armen lang von dir / oder sencke dich in die Hut des Olbers / hauwet dann dein gegenmann mit langen Häuwen auff dich / so schneid dieselben mit Langer schneid von dir ab zu beiden seiten / so lang und vil biß du dein vortheil ersihest / das du zu anderer / dir mehr füglicher arbeit kommen mögest.
 
  
 
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:''Slice off the hardened /<br/>driven from both.''
 
:''Slice off the hardened /<br/>driven from both.''
| In disem Abschneiden ist das Nachreisen auch fein heimlich sampt dem Schnidt begriffen / darumb jhn den auch der Lichtenawer in einem Spruch verfasset da er spricht.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/63|3|lbl=Ⅰ.21v.3}}
 
 
:''Schneidt ab die herten /<br/>on beiden geferten.''
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p>That is cut the hard strike off from you from both sides. Apart than this, Slicing Off will be described more only after here in examples and other defenses.</p>
 
| <p>That is cut the hard strike off from you from both sides. Apart than this, Slicing Off will be described more only after here in examples and other defenses.</p>
| Das ist schneid die harten streich von dir ab von beiden seiten / aber von disem Abschneiden wirt hernach in den Exempeln / und andern Wehren mehr geschrieben.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/63|4|lbl=Ⅰ.21v.4}}
 
<section end="Abschneiden"/><section begin="Hendtrucken"/>
 
<section end="Abschneiden"/><section begin="Hendtrucken"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
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<p>Hand Hitting is almost the same as the Slice to the arm, of which is told above, and not otherwise shown, how to be done with the Over and Under cuts, unless you run one through with oafish hitting, so drive him under his strike with the Crown or other high displacement, or go under yourself by hanging, and catch his sword on your blade’s flat, and thus you come under his sword, yet pay attention when when he with his strike goes off from your defense again over you, that you follow after him with the strong of your sword, and take him with the hilt from below to drive the strong, that you trap him with both the strong and your blade, thrust at him with the hilt above you, and strike long against the opening.</p>
 
<p>Hand Hitting is almost the same as the Slice to the arm, of which is told above, and not otherwise shown, how to be done with the Over and Under cuts, unless you run one through with oafish hitting, so drive him under his strike with the Crown or other high displacement, or go under yourself by hanging, and catch his sword on your blade’s flat, and thus you come under his sword, yet pay attention when when he with his strike goes off from your defense again over you, that you follow after him with the strong of your sword, and take him with the hilt from below to drive the strong, that you trap him with both the strong and your blade, thrust at him with the hilt above you, and strike long against the opening.</p>
| '''Hendtrucken.'''
+
|  
HEndtrucken vergleicht sich fast mit dem Schneiden auff die Arm / von welchen doben ist meldung gethan / sintemal nit anderst geschicht / denn mit dem Ober und Underschnidt / Als uberlaufft dich einer mit Büffelschlegen / so underfahr jhm seine streich mit der Kron / oder sonst hoher versatzung / oder undergehe jhn mit verhengen / und fang jhm sein Schwerdt auff deiner klingen fleche / und so du jhm under sein Schwerdt kommen / so hab acht '''[XXIIr]''' wenn er mit seinem streich von deiner Wehr wider ubersich abgeht / das du ihm mit der sterck deines Schwerdts nach volgest / und fallest ihm mit dem Schild von Unden für die feust / das du sie ihm beide mit der sterck deiner Klingen fassest / stoß ihn mit dem Schild ubersich von dir / und Hauwe lang nach der Blösse.
+
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/63|5|lbl=Ⅰ.21v.5|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/64|1|lbl=Ⅰ.22r.1|p=1}}
 
<section end="Hendtrucken"/><section begin="Verschieben"/>
 
<section end="Hendtrucken"/><section begin="Verschieben"/>
 
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<p>When you stand in the right wrath, and you will be struck at, let the blade hang behind you, and send your hanging blade over your head and under his blade, that you catch his strike on your flat, and your thumbs stand broad across your hilt under you, to then wind or otherwise further work as you want, whatever you can best take onward.</p>
 
<p>When you stand in the right wrath, and you will be struck at, let the blade hang behind you, and send your hanging blade over your head and under his blade, that you catch his strike on your flat, and your thumbs stand broad across your hilt under you, to then wind or otherwise further work as you want, whatever you can best take onward.</p>
| '''Verschieben.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/64|2|lbl=Ⅰ.22r.2}}
WAnn du im rechten Zorn stehest / und auff dich gehauwen wirt / so laß die Kling hinder dir hangen / und schich mit hangender Kling also uber dein Haupt under seine Kling / das du sein streich auff deine fleche empfangest / und dein Daumen den breiten weg auff deinem Schilt undersich stehe / als dan magstu Winden oder sonst fügliche arbeit / wie dichs am besten dunckt fürnemen.
 
 
<section end="Verschieben"/><section begin="Hengen"/>
 
<section end="Verschieben"/><section begin="Hengen"/>
 
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<p>From the preceeding, Hanging is to be understood clearly, this you do thusly: When you stand in the Plough and your opponent strikes to you, drive your grip above you so that the blade hangs somewhat toward the ground, and take his strike thus on your blade’s flat, to then work with Winding to the next opening.</p>
 
<p>From the preceeding, Hanging is to be understood clearly, this you do thusly: When you stand in the Plough and your opponent strikes to you, drive your grip above you so that the blade hangs somewhat toward the ground, and take his strike thus on your blade’s flat, to then work with Winding to the next opening.</p>
| '''Hengen.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/64|3|lbl=Ⅰ.22r.3}}
HEngen ist auß dem vorigen klar zuverstehen / das mach also / Wan du im Pflug stehest / und dein widerpart auff dich Hauwet / so fahr mit deinem gefeß ubersich das die Kling etwas gegen der erden hang / unnd empfach damit seinen streich auff deiner Klingen fleche / als denn arbeite mit Winden / der nechste Blösse zu.
 
 
<section end="Hengen"/><section begin="Außreissen"/>
 
<section end="Hengen"/><section begin="Außreissen"/>
 
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<p>If you bind once from your right, overturn your sword in the bind, and pull out to your left side, so that you both stand close together in the meeting, thus endevour that you can come at him with the pommel from below and wrench over yourself, or you rush him from Above to grapple over the arm with the pommel, or to whatever way the winding wants to happen, then wrench out underneath, that you thereafter come farther to hear more.</p>
 
<p>If you bind once from your right, overturn your sword in the bind, and pull out to your left side, so that you both stand close together in the meeting, thus endevour that you can come at him with the pommel from below and wrench over yourself, or you rush him from Above to grapple over the arm with the pommel, or to whatever way the winding wants to happen, then wrench out underneath, that you thereafter come farther to hear more.</p>
| '''Außreissen.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/64|4|lbl=Ⅰ.22r.4}}
BIndestu einem von deiner Rechten / so verkehr im Bandt dein Schwerdt / un reiß gegen deiner Lincken seiten auß / deßgleichen so ihr beide nahe bey samen im Bundt stehet / so befleißdich das du ihm mit dem Knopff von unden zwischen die Arm kom~en köñest / und ubersich außreissen / oder hettestu ihm von Oben mit dem Knopff uber die Arm griffen / oder auff was weg das mag geschehen gewunden / so reiß undersich auß / wie du denn hernach weiter im stuck hören wirst.
 
 
<section end="Außreissen"/><section begin="Sperren"/>
 
<section end="Außreissen"/><section begin="Sperren"/>
 
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Revision as of 20:24, 6 April 2021

Joachim Meyer
Born ca. 1537
Basel, Germany
Died 24 February 1571 (aged 34)
Schwerin, Germany
Spouse(s) Appolonia Ruhlman
Occupation
Citizenship Strasbourg
Patron
  • Johann Albrecht (?)
  • Johann Casimir
Movement Freifechter
Influences
Influenced
Genres Fencing manual
Language Early New High German
Notable work(s) Gründtliche Beschreibung der
Kunst des Fechtens
(1570)
Manuscript(s)
First printed
english edition
Forgeng, 2006
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations
Signature Joachim Meyer sig.jpg

Joachim Meyer (ca. 1537 - 1571)[1] was a 16th century German Freifechter and fencing master. He was the last major figure in the tradition of the German grand master Johannes Liechtenauer, and in the last years of his life he devised at least three distinct and quite extensive fencing manuals. Meyer's writings incorporate both the traditional Germanic technical syllabus and contemporary systems that he encountered in his travels, including Italian rapier fencing.[2] In addition to his fencing practice, Meyer was a Burgher and a master cutler.[3]

Meyer was born in Basel,[4] where he presumably apprenticed as a cutler. He writes in his books that he traveled widely in his youth, most likely a reference to the traditional Walz that journeyman craftsmen were required to take before being eligible for mastery and membership in a guild. Journeymen were often sent to stand watch and participate in town and city militias (a responsibility that would have been amplified for the warlike cutlers' guild), and Meyer learned a great deal about foreign fencing systems during his travels. It's been speculated by some fencing historians that he trained specifically in the Bolognese school of fencing, but this doesn't stand up to closer analysis.[5]

Records show that by 4 June 1560 he had settled in Strasbourg, where he married Appolonia Ruhlman (Ruelman)[1] and was granted the rank of master cutler. His interests had already moved beyond smithing, however, and in 1561, Meyer petitioned the City Council of Strasbourg for the right to hold a Fechtschule (fencing competition). He would repeat this in 1563, 1566, 1567 and 1568;[6] the 1568 petition is the first extant record in which he identifies himself as a fencing master.

Meyer probably wrote his first manuscript (MS A.4º.2) in either 1560 or 1568 for Otto Count von Sulms, Minzenberg, and Sonnenwaldt.[7] Its contents seem to be a series of lessons on training with long sword, dussack, and rapier. His second manuscript (MS Var.82), written between 1563 and 1570 for Heinrich Graf von Eberst, is of a decidedly different nature. Like many fencing manuscripts from the previous century, it is an anthology of treatises by a number of prominent German masters including Sigmund ain Ringeck, pseudo-Peter von Danzig, and Martin Syber, and also includes a brief outline by Meyer himself on a system of rapier fencing based on German Messer teachings. Finally, on 24 February 1570 Meyer completed (and soon thereafter published) an enormous multi-weapon treatise entitled Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens ("A Thorough Description of the Art of Combat"); it was dedicated to Johann Casimir, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and illustrated at the workshop of Tobias Stimmer.[8]

Unfortunately, Meyer's writing and publication efforts incurred significant debts (about 1300 crowns), which Meyer pledged to repay by Christmas of 1571.[1] Late in 1570, Meyer accepted the position of Fechtmeister to Duke Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg at his court in Schwerin. There Meyer hoped to sell his book for a better price than was offered locally (30 florins). Meyer sent his books ahead to Schwerin, and left from Strasbourg on 4 January 1571 after receiving his pay. He traveled the 800 miles to Schwerin in the middle of a harsh winter, arriving at the court on 10 February 1571. Two weeks later, on 24 February, Joachim Meyer died. The cause of his death is unknown, possibly disease or pneumonia.[6]

Antoni Rulman, Appolonia’s brother, became her legal guardian after Joachim’s death. On 15 May 1571, he had a letter written by the secretary of the Strasbourg city chamber and sent to the Duke of Mecklenburg stating that Antoni was now the widow Meyer’s guardian; it politely reminded the Duke who Joachim Meyer was, Meyer’s publishing efforts and considerable debt, requested that the Duke send Meyer’s personal affects and his books to Appolonia, and attempted to sell some (if not all) of the books to the Duke.[1]

Appolonia remarried in April 1572 to another cutler named Hans Kuele, bestowing upon him the status of Burgher and Meyer's substantial debts. Joachim Meyer and Hans Kuele are both mentioned in the minutes of Cutlers' Guild archives; Kuele may have made an impression if we can judge that fact by the number of times he is mentioned. It is believed that Appolonia and either her husband or her brother were involved with the second printing of his book in 1600. According to other sources, it was reprinted yet again in 1610 and in 1660.[9][10]

Treatises

Joachim Meyer's writings are preserved in two manuscripts prepared in the 1560s, the MS A.4º.2 (Lund) and the MS Var 82 (Rostock); a third manuscript from 1561 has been lost since at least the mid-20th century, and its contents are unknown.[11] Dwarfing these works is the massive book he published in 1570 entitled "A Thorough Description of the Free, Chivalric, and Noble Art of Fencing, Showing Various Customary Defenses, Affected and Put Forth with Many Handsome and Useful Drawings". Meyer's writings purport to teach the entire art of fencing, something that he claimed had never been done before, and encompass a wide variety of teachings from disparate sources and traditions. To achieve this goal, Meyer seems to have constructed his treatises as a series of progressive lessons, describing a process for learning to fence rather than merely outlining the underlying theory or listing the techniques. In keeping with this, he illustrates his techniques with depictions of fencers in courtyards using training weapons such as two-handed foils, wooden dussacks, and rapiers with ball tips.

The first part of Meyer's treatise is devoted to the long sword (the sword in two hands), which he presents as the foundational weapon of his system, and this section devotes the most space to fundamentals like stance and footwork. His long sword system draws upon the teachings of Freifechter Andre Paurñfeyndt (via Christian Egenolff's reprint) and Liechtenauer glossators Sigmund ain Ringeck and Lew, as well as using terminology otherwise unique to the brief Recital of Martin Syber. Not content merely to compile these teachings as his contemporary Paulus Hector Mair was doing, Meyer sought to update—even reinvent—them in various ways to fit the martial climate of the late sixteenth century, including adapting many techniques to accommodate the increased momentum of a greatsword and modifying others to use beats with the flat and winding slices in place of thrusts to comply with street-fighting laws in German cities (and the rules of the Fechtschule).

The second part of Meyer's treatises is designed to address new weapons gaining traction in German lands, the dussack and the rapier, and thereby find places for them in the German tradition. His early Lund manuscript presents a more summarized syllabus of techniques for these weapons, while his printed book goes into greater depth and is structured more in the fashion of lesson plans.[12] Meyer's dussack system, designed for the broad proto-sabers that spread into German lands from Eastern Europe in the 16th century,[13] combines the old Messer teachings of Johannes Lecküchner and the dussack teachings of Andre Paurñfeyndt with other unknown systems (some have speculated that they might include early Polish or Hungarian saber systems). His rapier system, designed for the lighter single-hand swords spreading north from Iberian and Italian lands, seems again to be a hybrid creation, integrating both the core teachings of the 15th century Liechtenauer tradition as well as components that are characteristic of the various regional Mediterranean fencing systems (including, perhaps, teachings derived from the treatise of Achille Marozzo). Interestingly, Meyer's rapier teachings in the Rostock seem to represent an attempt to unify these two weapon system, outlining a method for rapier fencing that includes key elements of his dussack teachings; it is unclear why this method did not appear in his book, but given the dates it may be that they represent his last musings on the weapon, written in the time between the completion of his book in 1570 and his death a year later.

The third part of Meyer's treatise only appears in his published book and covers dagger, wrestling, and various pole weapons. His dagger teachings, designed primarily for urban self-defense, seem to be based in part on the writings of Bolognese master Achille Marozzo[14] and the anonymous teachings in Egenolff, but also include much unique content of unknown origin (perhaps the anonymous dagger teachings in his Rostock manuscript). His staff material makes up the bulk of this section, beginning with the short staff, which, like Paurñfeyndt, he uses as a training tool for various pole weapons (and possibly also the greatsword), and then moving on to the halberd before ending with the long staff (representing the pike). As with the dagger, the sources Meyer based his staff teachings on are largely unknown.

Additional Resources

  • Kiermayer, Alex. Joachim Meyers Kunst Des Fechtens. Gründtliche Beschreibung des Fechtens, 1570. Arts of Mars Books, 2012. ISBN 978-3981162738
  • Meyer, Joachim. Joachim Meyer 1600: Transkription des Fechtbuchs 'Gründtliche Beschreibung der freyen Ritterlichen und Adelichen kunst des Fechtens’. TAT. Wolfgang Landwehr, 2011. ISBN 978-3932077371
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Combat: A German Martial Arts Treatise of 1570. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng.
    • 1st edition. London: Greenhill Books, 2006. ISBN 978-1-85367-643-7
    • 1st edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. ISBN 1-4039-7092-0
    • 2nd edition. London: Frontline Books, 2014. ISBN 978-1-84832-778-8
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Sword Combat: A 1568 German Treatise on Swordmanship. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng. London: Frontline Books, 2016. ISBN 9781473876750

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Dupuis, Olivier. Joachim Meyer, escrimeur libre, bourgeois de Strasbourg (1537 ? - 1571). In Maîtres et techniques de combat. Dijon: AEDEH, 2006.
  2. Castle, Egerton. Schools and Masters of Fencing: From the Middle Ages to the Eighteenth Century. London: George Bell and Sons, 1885. pp 74 - 76.
  3. Naumann, Robert. Serapeum. Vol. 5. T.O. Weigel, 1844. pp 53-59.
  4. According to his wedding certificate.
  5. His dagger teachings do, however, show some evidence of influence by Achilles Marozzo's printed treatise.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Van Slambrouck, Christopher. "The Life and Work of Joachim Meyer". Meyer Frei Fechter Guild, 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
  7. Norling, Roger. "The history of Joachim Meyer’s fencing treatise to Otto von Solms". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  8. Whose members included Christoph Maurer and Hans Christoffel Stimmer.
  9. Schaer, Alfred. Die altdeutschen fechter und spielleute: Ein beitrag zur deutschen culturgeschichte. K.J. Trübner, 1901. p 76.
  10. Pollock, W. H., Grove, F. C., and Prévost, C. Fencing. London and Bombay: Longmans, Green, and co, 1897. pp 267-268.
  11. Jens P. Kleinau. "1561 Joachim Meyer dedicated a fencing book to the Pfalzgrafen of Pfalz-Veldenz". Hans Talhoffer ~ as seen by Jens P. Kleinau. 04 July 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  12. Roberts, James. "System vs Syllabus: Meyer’s 1560 and 1570 sidesword texts". Hroarr.com, 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  13. Roger Norling. "The Dussack - a weapon of war". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  14. Norling, Roger. "Meyer and Marozzo dagger comparison". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  15. "st" ligature inverted.
  16. 16.00 16.01 16.02 16.03 16.04 16.05 16.06 16.07 16.08 16.09 16.10 16.11 16.12 16.13 16.14 16.15 16.16 16.17 16.18 16.19 16.20 16.21 16.22 16.23 16.24 16.25 16.26 16.27 16.28 16.29 16.30 16.31 indes
  17. palm up
  18. Illegible deletion.
  19. oberhauw
  20. ‘right’ is originally written, ‘left’ is written above it
  21. short edge
  22. “Degen”, lit. dagger, could either refer to a sword or dagger.
  23. short edge
  24. Unleserliche Streichung. Illegible deletion.
  25. Unleserliche gestrichen Einfügung oberhalb der Zeile. Crossed out illegible insertion above the line.
  26. Die Schlaufe des »h« trägt ein Diärese. The loop of the “h” carries a diaeresis.
  27. Korrigiert aus »mitelhauw«. Corrected from “mitelhauw”.
  28. Leicht unleserlich. Slightly illegible.
  29. Überschriebens »vom«. Overwritten “vom”.
  30. Inserted by means of a special mark.
  31. Word inserted next to the text.
  32. Inserted nest to the text.
  33. Zwei Worte am Seitenrand nachgetragen. Two words inserted at the margin.
  34. Wort am Seitenrand nachgetragen. Word inserted at the margin.