Wiktenauer logo.png

Difference between revisions of "Hans Talhoffer"

From Wiktenauer
Jump to navigation Jump to search
 
(4 intermediate revisions by the same user not shown)
Line 3,586: Line 3,586:
 
{{master subsection end}}
 
{{master subsection end}}
 
{{master end}}
 
{{master end}}
== Temp ==
+
 
 
{{master begin
 
{{master begin
 
  | title = Personal Manuscript (1459)
 
  | title = Personal Manuscript (1459)
Line 3,661: Line 3,661:
 
* {{red|The second is betrayal.}}<ref>Or “treachery”.</ref>
 
* {{red|The second is betrayal.}}<ref>Or “treachery”.</ref>
 
* {{red|The third is heresy.}}
 
* {{red|The third is heresy.}}
* {{red|The fourth, whoever becomes faithful to his lord.}}
+
* {{red|The fourth, whoever becomes unfaithful to his lord.}}
 
* {{red|The fifth, embracing strife or the like.}}
 
* {{red|The fifth, embracing strife or the like.}}
 
* {{red|The sixth, false representations.}}
 
* {{red|The sixth, false representations.}}
Line 3,811: Line 3,811:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 011v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 011v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| class="noline" |  
+
| class="noline" | <p>[25]</p>
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|011v|jpg|blk=1}}
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|011v|jpg|blk=1}}
  
Line 3,824: Line 3,824:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Jeffrey Hull]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 049r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 049r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[1] Thus rushing-wrestling ''by gripping'' the outer arms.</p>
+
| <p>[1] Item: Approach to wrestling from the arms.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|049r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|049r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 049v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 049v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[2] Thus arm-breaking and throwing over the shank.</p>
+
| <p>[2] Item: The<ref>General note for verbs: verbal noun phrases (das + verb), will be translated as “the [action]”, not as gerunds.</ref> arm-break and [the] throw over the leg.<ref>''Schenckel'' can specifically indicate the thigh/upper leg (its precise meaning), or simply the leg.</ref></p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|049v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|049v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 050r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 050r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[3] Thus bear-clinching.</p>
+
| <p>[3] Item: The peasant’s hold.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|050r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|050r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 050v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 050v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[4] Thus tugging out of that ''bear-clinch'' and throwing ''foe'' foreward ''upon'' the elbows. </p>
+
| <p>[4] Item: The pull-up and throw in front of the elbow.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|050v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|050v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 051r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 051r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[5] Thus going through ''to throw''.</p>
+
| <p>[5] Item: The pass through.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|051r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|051r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 051v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 051v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[6] Thus the counter for that going-through.</p>
+
| <p>[6] Item: The counter against the pass through.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|051v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|051v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 052r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 052r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[7] Thus seizing ''the foe'' by ''his'' wambeson.</p>
+
| <p>[7] Item: The hold by the gambeson.<ref>This is specifically the piece of defensive clothing that covers the buttocks. The picture shows a short, sleeve-less piece of clothing, like a jerkin, while the word refers to the longer piece of clothing, the gambeson.</ref></p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|052r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|052r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 052v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 052v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[8] The counter for that seizing of the wambeson.</p>
+
| <p>[8] The counter against the hold by the gambeson.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|052v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|052v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 053r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 053r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[9] The play over ''foe's'' arm and foot.</p>
+
| <p>[9] The play over the arm and in at the foot.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|053r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|053r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 053v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 053v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[10] Throwing over the hip.</p>
+
| <p>[10] The throw over the hip.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|053v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|053v|jpg}}
  
Line 3,884: Line 3,884:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 054v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 054v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[12] The hinter-treading.</p>
+
| <p>[12] The step behind.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|054v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|054v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 055r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 055r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[13] The arm-break over the shoulder.</p>
+
| <p>[13] The arm break over the shoulder.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|055r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|055r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 055v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 055v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[14] Yet another hinter-treading.</p>
+
| <p>[14] Push down at the step behind.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|055v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|055v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 056r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 056r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[15] The shoulder-breaking.</p>
+
| <p>[15] The shoulder-break.<ref>This could potentially be a dislocation of the shoulder.</ref></p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|056r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|056r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 056v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 056v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[16] The throat-strangling.</p>
+
| <p>[16] The neck<ref>''Hals'' refers to the soft parts of the neck.</ref>-throttle.<ref>Or “strangle”.</ref></p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|056v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|056v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 057r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 057r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[17] Trying to go through or to hinter-tread.</p>
+
| <p>[17]The attempt to pass through or step behind.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|057r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|057r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 057v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 057v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[18] The boys-wrestling / knaves-wrestling ''done by rolling under and throwing foe'' overhead.</p>
+
| <p>[18] The servant’s<ref>''Bube'' is both a male child, a servant, squire, an undisciplined man, or a professional dice player. Multiple references to ''Buben'' and dice (''Würfel'') in the literature make this a likely pun. Lexer: ''Buobe, der würfel machet buoben vil'' Ls. 3. 231,15. 480,116; Mart. 56, 91. 73,1. 206,85. Pass. K. 161,41. Marlg. 222, 296. 362,75.</ref> throw over the head etc.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|057v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|057v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 058r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 058r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[19] Attack and counter. / Play and break.</p>
+
| <p>[19] Play and counter.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|058r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|058r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 058v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 058v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[20] The neck-clinching.</p>
+
| <p>[20] The neck-hold.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|058v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|058v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 059r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 059r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[21] The inverted throw.</p>
+
| <p>[21] The reversed throw.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|059r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|059r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 059v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 059v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[22] Getting away from foe.</p>
+
| <p>[22] To get away from the man.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|059v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|059v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 060r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 060r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[23] The locking-clinch.</p>
+
| <p>[23] The securing<ref>Or “encompassing”.</ref> hold.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|060r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|060r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 060v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 060v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| class="noline" | <p>[24] The counter for ''foe's'' heaving ''of you is found'' behind oneself ''by grabbing foe’s hair to break his hold''.</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[24] [Grab] behind one’s self, the counter for the lifting.</p>
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|060v|jpg}}
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|060v|jpg}}
  
Line 3,957: Line 3,957:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 061r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 061r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[1] For the upper stab, with the left arm.</p>
+
| <p>[1] For the thrust from above, using the left arm.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|061r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|061r|jpg}}
  
Line 3,972: Line 3,972:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 062r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 062r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[3] The inverted throwing.</p>
+
| <p>[3] The reversed throw.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|062r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|062r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 062v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 062v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[4] To throw the opponent with the dagger.</p>
+
| <p>[4] To throw the man using the dagger.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|062v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|062v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 063r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 063r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[5] Resist the lower stab and break the arm.</p>
+
| <p>[5] To defend against the thrust from below and to break the arm.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|063r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|063r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 063v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 063v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[6] To throw the opponent forward.</p>
+
| <p>[6] To throw the man forward.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|063v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|063v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 064r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 064r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[7] One taking the dagger with his dagger.</p>
+
| <p>[7] To take the dagger from someone using his dagger.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|064r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|064r|jpg}}
  
Line 4,007: Line 4,007:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 065v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 065v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[10] Throwing the opponent with force.</p>
+
| <p>[10] To throw the man using force.<ref>Or “violence”.</ref></p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|065v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|065v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 066r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 066r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[11] Throwing before and shooting through, pull toward yourself.</p>
+
| <p>[11] To throw forward and to shoot through; pull towards yourself.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|066r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|066r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 066v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 066v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[12] The catching.</p>
+
| <p>[12] The catch.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|066v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|066v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 067r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 067r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[13] The counter against it.</p>
+
| <p>[13] The counter against that.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|067r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|067r|jpg}}
  
Line 4,032: Line 4,032:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 068r.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 068r.png|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[15] The counter and death-stab.</p>
+
| <p>[15] The counter and killing thrust.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|068r|png}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|068r|png}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 068v.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 068v.png|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[16] The lower counter and heart-stab.</p>
+
| <p>[16] The lower counter and thrust to the heart.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|068v|png}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|068v|png}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 069r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 069r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[17] The woven-stab and counter for it.</p>
+
| <p>[17] The bobbing<ref>Or “swaying”, “rocking”; ''Waben'' is related to honeycomb and bees, and to the back-and-forth, up-and-down movement of water. Even the relationship to ''wëben'' is through bees and honeycomb, not weaving, which has different roots to get to ''weben''.</ref> thrust and the counter for that.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|069r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|069r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 069v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 069v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[18] Technique is completed.</p>
+
| <p>[18] Play is completed.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|069v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|069v|jpg}}
  
Line 4,057: Line 4,057:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 070v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 070v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[21] The murder-stab.</p>
+
| <p>[21] The violent killing<ref>MHG ''mort/mord'' was another form of “dead”, loaned/borrowed from French ''morte''. However, in ENHG, it does have a more violent aspect than ''tot''. It is not until modern German that ''Mord'' picks up the sense of “murder”.</ref> thrust.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|070v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|070v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 071r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 071r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| class="noline" | <p>[22] The finishing technique.</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[22] The final play.</p>
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|071r|jpg}}
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|071r|jpg}}
  
Line 4,075: Line 4,075:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Jeffrey Hull]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 071v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 071v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[1] Foresetting the ''pollaxe'' strike and stop-thrusting ''with pollaxe to the'' heart.</p>
+
| <p>[1] Counteract the blow and thrust away [at the] heart.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|071v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|071v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 072r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 072r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[2] Foresetting foe’s thrust and thrusting to the foe.</p>
+
| <p>[2] Counteract the thrust and thrust at him mortally.<ref>''Erstechen'' implies a mortal wound, beyond the mere thrust of ''stechen''.</ref></p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|072r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|072r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 072v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 072v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[3] The break and throw.</p>
+
| <p>[3] The counter and throw.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|072v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|072v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 073r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 073r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[4] The neck-wrenching.</p>
+
| <p>[4] The neck<ref>''Hals'' here indicates the back of the neck/shoulder.</ref>-yank.<ref>Or “tear”.</ref></p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|073r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|073r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 073v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 073v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[5] The needed stance countering the strike.</p>
+
| <p>[5] The combative stance<ref>The earlier meaning of ''nôt'' is to be threatened, hemmed in, imperiled; however, it can also be used as a replacement for the term battle/combat, as that state already implies peril and threat. ''Nothstand'' is a later compound, and is both a predicament/peril/threat, and a state of being under predicament/peril/threat. Interestingly, it is also used in the north in a very narrow meaning for the horizontal crosspiece that stands behind a dyke gate (''Balkensiel'' as opposed to a culvert) that prevents the gate from opening.</ref> in front of the blow.<ref>Or “The combative stance prior to the blow”.</ref></p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|073v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|073v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 074r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 074r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[6] The play achieved.</p>
+
| <p>[6] Play completed.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|074r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|074r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 074v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 074v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[7] Catching the armament.</p>
+
| <p>[7] Catch the weapon.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|074v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|074v|jpg}}
  
Line 4,198: Line 4,198:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Jeffrey Hull]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 075r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 075r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[1] With the sword one counters the strike with the spear ''by trapping and hewing''.</p>
+
| <p>[1] Using the sword in front of the strike using the spear.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|075r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|075r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 075v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 075v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[2] The woven thrust ''done by half-swording.''</p>
+
| <p>[2] The woven thrust.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|075v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|075v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 076r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 076r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[3] The over-hew countering the thrust ''by spear''.</p>
+
| <p>[3] The cut from above in front of the thrust.<ref>Or “The cut from above forward of the thrust”.</ref></p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|076r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|076r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 076v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 076v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[4] The ending play with the longsword countering the halberd ''by avoiding its over-hew while treading and crumple-hewing''.</p>
+
| <p>[4] The final play using the sword in front of the halberd.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|076v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|076v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 077r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 077r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[5] ''The unarmed'' one blinds the other ''by throwing his hat'' at the head and thereby he throws ''his dagger'' into the body.</p>
+
| <p>[5] The blinding at the head, thereby the throw ''into the body''.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|077r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|077r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 077v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 077v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[6] The ending play with the ''bastard-sword'' countering the halberd.</p>
+
| <p>[6] The final play using the Messer in front of the halberd.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|077v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|077v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 078r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 078r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[7] The foresetting of the ''ready-to-hurl'' spear.</p>
+
| <p>[7] The counteraction against the spear.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|078r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|078r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 078v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 078v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[8] The short-pike counters a long-spear with its shaft ''like one would do with a staff.''</p>
+
| <p>[8] The pilgrim using his staff in front of a long spear.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|078v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|078v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 079r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 079r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[9] The needed stance with the messer ''or bastard-sword''.</p>
+
| <p>[9] The combative stance in Messer.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|079r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|079r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 079v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 079v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| class="noline" | <p>[10] …And the play whereby the hand ''of the foe'' is lost.</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[10] The play ''where the hand is lost''.</p>
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|079v|jpg}}
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|079v|jpg}}
  
Line 4,261: Line 4,261:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Jeffrey Hull]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 080r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 080r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[1] Here, ''in judicial duel of man and woman,'' he strikes at her foot and she hits his head.</p>
+
| <p>[1] Here, he strikes at the foot ''and she hits the head''.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|080r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|080r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 080v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 080v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[2] Here he has negated her strike and caught ''it around'' his arm.</p>
+
| <p>[2] Here, he has disarmed her strike and caught the arm.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|080v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|080v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 081r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 081r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[3] The grip at the throat.</p>
+
| <p>[3] The grab at the neck.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|081r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|081r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 081v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 081v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[4] Here she nods/neutralises the man.</p>
+
| <p>[4] Here, she presses the man down.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|081v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|081v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 082r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 082r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[5] The neck-breaking.</p>
+
| <p>[5] The neck-break.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|082r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|082r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 082v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 082v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[6] Here he makes an ending play.</p>
+
| <p>[6] Here, he makes a final play.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|082v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|082v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 083r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 083r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[7] Here she would hammer/deafen him, and ''here'' he be felling her.</p>
+
| <p>[7] Here, she wants to subdue<ref>''Toben/täuben'': to force, tame, subdue, deafen, with an aspect of irrational fury.</ref> him and he sees her fall.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|083r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|083r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 083v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 083v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[8] Here the woman drives an ending play.</p>
+
| <p>[8] Here, the woman carries out a final play.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|083v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|083v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 084r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 084r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| class="noline" | <p>[] Here ''they'' make an end ''of each other''.</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[9] Here, he makes an end.</p>
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|084r|jpg}}
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|084r|jpg}}
  
Line 4,319: Line 4,319:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Jeffrey Hull]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 084v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 084v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[1] The commencement of the ''armoured'' duel.</p>
+
| <p>[1] The start of the fight.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|084v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|084v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 085r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 085r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[2] Here both ''knights'' be sitting.</p>
+
| <p>[2] Here, they both are sitting.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|085r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|085r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 085v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 085v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[3] The stance countering the hurl ''of foe's spear''.</p>
+
| <p>[3] The stance before the spear throw.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|085v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|085v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 086r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 086r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[4] Here the ''first'' hurl is foreset.</p>
+
| <p>[4] Here, the spear throw is counter acted.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|086r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|086r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 086v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 086v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[5] …And here the second hurl ''is'' foreset.</p>
+
| <p>[5] The second spear throw is counter acted.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|086v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|086v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 087r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 087r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[6] The rushing ''with longswords'' after the ''spear''-hurls.</p>
+
| <p>[6] The approach after the spear throw.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|087r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|087r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 087v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 087v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[7] The morte-strike/murder-strike is foreset.</p>
+
| <p>[7] The killing blow is counter acted.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|087v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|087v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 088r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 088r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[8] The fire-poker/branding-iron, ''thus the half-sword.''</p>
+
| <p>[8] The fire-scissors.<ref>Or “The fire (spark) protection”. ''Schiure, schûren: schützen, beshützen'', in connection with ''schirmen; schüren'': to stimulate, poke the fire to burn higher; ''scheuern, fegen'' = scouring away, sweep.</ref></p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|088r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|088r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 088v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 088v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[9] The sword-taking ''from binding at fire-pokers.''</p>
+
| <p>[9] Taking the sword.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|088v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|088v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 089r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 089r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[10] Out of the morte-strike ''into'' the jugular-stab.</p>
+
| <p>[10] From the killing blow [to] the throat jab.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|089r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|089r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 089v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 089v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[11] The leaning.</p>
+
| <p>[11] The laming.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|089v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|089v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 090r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 090r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[12] The back-throw.</p>
+
| <p>[12] The throw onto the back.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|090r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|090r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 090v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 090v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[13] The foresetting, ripping and face-punching.</p>
+
| <p>[13] Tear the counteraction up/down and jab [at] the face.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|090v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|090v|jpg}}
  
Line 4,394: Line 4,394:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 091v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 091v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[15] An ending play.</p>
+
| <p>[15] Another play.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|091v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|091v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 092r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 092r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[16] Attack and counter.</p>
+
| <p>[16] Play and counter.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|092r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|092r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 092v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 092v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[17] ''Locking then'' throwing down out of fire-poker…</p>
+
| <p>[17] The throw down out of the fire scissors.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|092v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|092v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 093r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 093r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[18] …Which at last is ended ''by dagger-stab.''</p>
+
| <p>[18] And finally, the same end.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|093r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|093r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="3" |[[File:MS Thott.290.2º 093v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| rowspan="3" |[[File:MS Thott.290.2º 093v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[10] Here he thanks God.</p>
+
| <p>[10] Here, he thanks God</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 093v.jpg|1|lbl=93v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 093v.jpg|1|lbl=93v}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[12] And here the winner thanks God; as he had great need.</p>
+
| <p>[12] ''And has a great need''.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 093v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 093v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[13] There lies the loser dead.</p>
+
| <p>[13] He lies there dead.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 093v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 093v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 094r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 094r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| class="noline" | <p>[20] …Whom they carry away to the freedom of the grave that God has for all worthy souls. Amen.
+
| class="noline" | <p>[20] The freedoms carry him away into the grave,<br/>Which god has for all worthy souls, amen.<ref>This is ''Kittelvers'': there are 4 major beats in each line, with a lot of unstressed syllables, particularly in the first line.</ref></p>
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|094r|jpg}}
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|094r|jpg}}
  
Line 4,440: Line 4,440:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Jeffrey Hull]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 094v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 094v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[1] Advancing to the foe.</p>
+
| <p>[1] The approach to the enemies.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|094v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|094v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 095r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 095r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[2] For foresetting during skirmishing ''upon horse''.</p>
+
| <p>[2] The counteraction in the skirmish.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|095r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|095r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 095v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 095v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[3] Shooting ''the crossbow'' while fleeing ''upon horse''.</p>
+
| <p>[3] Shooting at the rout.<ref>Or “the flight/fleeing ones”.</ref></p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|095v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|095v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 096r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 096r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[4] The crossbow and sword: Countering protectively/countering after the shot.</p>
+
| <p>[4] Using the cross bow and sword after shooting.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|096r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|096r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 096v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 096v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[5] The lance counters half and whole.</p>
+
| <p>[5] Using the lance, half and whole.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|096v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|096v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 097r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 097r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[6] The thrust ''done'' out of the foresetting.</p>
+
| <p>[6] The thrust from the counteractions.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|097r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|097r|jpg}}
  
Line 4,553: Line 4,553:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Jeffrey Hull]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 097v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 097v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[1] The first rush ''of judicial duel'' with pavise and sword according to the Swabian tradition.</p>
+
| <p>[1] The first approach with shield and sword according to Swabian customs.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|097v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|097v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 098r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 098r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[2] Seeking there, behind/from behind the pavise.</p>
+
| <p>[2] Seek behind the shield.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|098r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|098r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 098v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 098v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[3] The kick and jugular-thrust.</p>
+
| <p>[3] The kick and throat-thrust.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|098v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|098v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 099r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 099r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[4] The hinter-treading and heart-thrust achieved.</p>
+
| <p>[4] Step behind and complete the heart-thrust.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|099r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|099r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 099v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 099v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[5] Here is the ''judicial'' duel determined by the mace ''and pavise according to Franconia tradition''.</p>
+
| <p>[5] Here, the fight is carried out using clubs.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|099v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|099v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 100r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 100r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[6] The onslaught/provocation.</p>
+
| <p>[6] The initial point.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|100r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|100r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 100v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 100v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[7] The hampering ''of foe's pavise''…</p>
+
| <p>[7] The crosswise cut into the shield.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|100v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|100v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 101r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 101r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[8] …And the thwarting inside ''foe’s'' pavise.</p>
+
| <p>[8] And the binding inward.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|101r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|101r|jpg}}
  
Line 4,686: Line 4,686:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Jeffrey Hull]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 101v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 101v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[1] {{red|b=1|Here Master Hans Talhoffer}}
+
| <p>[1] {{red|b=1|This [is] Master Hans Talhoffer.}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|101v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|101v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 102r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 102r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[2] {{red|b=1|Bethink Thee Right}}
+
| <p>[2] {{red|b=1|Consider correctly.}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|102r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|102r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 103v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 103v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| class="noline" | <p>[3] {{red|b=1|In the year of our Lord 1459:}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[3] {{red|b=1|In the year of our Lord 1459}}</p>
  
<p>{{red|Thus this Book is that of Master Hans Talhoffer; and he is self-avowed with his life that someone (Clauss Pflieger) has illustrated this Book according to him; and that it became illustrated during Whitsuntide in that year after the birth of our beloved Lord Christ which is the one-thousand-four-hundred-fifty-ninth year thereafter. Truly, Michel Rotwyler scribed “me” the Book.}}</p>
+
<p>{{red|Item. The book is Master Hans Talhoffer’s, and he has proven it with his body until one painted the book according to him, and that was painted on Pentecost in the year after the birth of our dear Lord Christ one-thousand-four-hundred and after that in the fifty-nineth year. Michel Rotwylar wrote me truthfully.}}</p>
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|103v|jpg}}
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|103v|jpg}}
  
Line 4,716: Line 4,716:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Jeffrey Hull]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 104r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 104r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[1] This ''spiky'' pavise ''is'' "hard" versus the mace.
+
| <p>[1] The shield prevails over the club.
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|104r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|104r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 104v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 104v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[2] ''As is this spiky pavise'' versus the mace.
+
| <p>[2] [The shield prevails] over the club.
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|104v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|104v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 105r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 105r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[3] ''This hooked & barbed pavise is hard'' versus the sword.
+
| <p>[3] [The shield prevails] over the sword.
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|105r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|105r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 105v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 105v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[4] ''As is this smooth pavise'' versus the sword.
+
| <p>[4] [The shield prevails] over the sword.
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|105v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|105v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 106r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 106r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[5] As is this hooked pavise'' versus the sword.
+
| <p>[5] [The shield prevails] over the sword.
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|106r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|106r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 106v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 106v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[6] Learn ''to wield'' maces.
+
| <p>[6] Learn the club.
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|106v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|106v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 107r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 107r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[7] The garments for the pavise ''duel'' and for ''other'' dueling ''that'' Talhoffer ''advises'' to put on.
+
| <p>[7] The garments to be worn [used] for the shield and for Talhoffer’s fight.
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|107r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|107r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 107v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 107v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[8] For the harness
+
| <p>[8] [To be used] for armor.
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 107v.jpg|1|lbl=107v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 107v.jpg|1|lbl=107v}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[9] Yet also ''for any'' armoured ''dueling''</p>
+
| <p>[9] Also armed/armored.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 107v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 107v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[10] And versus pavises.</p>
+
| <p>[10] [To be used] for the long shield.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 107v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 107v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 108r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 108r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[11] {{red|b=1|Versus pavises}}
+
| <p>[11] {{red|b=1|[To be used] for the shield.}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 108r.jpg|1|lbl=108r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 108r.jpg|1|lbl=108r}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[12] Twain “sword-horns” for armoured dueling.</p>
+
| <p>[12] The two swords belong to armored combat.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 108r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 108r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 108v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 108v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[13] The three daggers for dueling.
+
| <p>[13] The three daggers [to be used] for combat.
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|108v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|108v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 109r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 109r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[14] These weapons break armament & armour, truly as one wills''.
+
| <p>[14] The weapon breaks whatever one wants.
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|109r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|109r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 109v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 109v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[15] These pollaxes/luzern-hammers/ravens-beaks ''are'' for dueling.
+
| <p>[15] The axes [to be used] for combat.
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|109v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|109v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" rowspan="2" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 110r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| class="noline" rowspan="2" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 110r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[16] This is a ''modularly and optionally assembled'' pollaxe for the duel, ''with which'' one lays ''low his foe'' by stabbing ''thus it serves also like spear''.</p>
+
| <p>[16] This is an axe [to be used] for combat, if one lays out [the individual] parts.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 110r.jpg|1|lbl=110r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 110r.jpg|1|lbl=110r}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| class="noline" | <p>[17] This axe ''is assembled and ready'' for dueling.</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[17] The axe [to be used] for combat.</p>
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 110r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 110r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
  
Line 4,810: Line 4,810:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Jeffrey Hull]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
  
Line 4,830: Line 4,830:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 119r.jpg|400x400px|center|Folio 119r]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 119r.jpg|400x400px|center|Folio 119r]]
| <p>[4] {{red|b=1|The right and needed stance against two foes.}}</p>
+
| <p>[4] {{red|b=1|The correct combative stance against two [opponents].}}</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|119r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|119r|jpg}}
  
Line 4,888: Line 4,888:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Jeffrey Hull]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
  
Line 4,910: Line 4,910:
 
{{master end}}
 
{{master end}}
  
== Temp ==
 
 
{{master begin
 
{{master begin
 
  | title = Württemberg Treatise (1467)
 
  | title = Württemberg Treatise (1467)
Line 8,179: Line 8,178:
 
{{sourcebox
 
{{sourcebox
 
  | work        = [[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Copenhagen Translation]]
 
  | work        = [[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Copenhagen Translation]]
  | authors    = [[Jeffrey Hull]]
+
  | authors    = [[Rebecca Garber]]
 
  | source link =  
 
  | source link =  
  | source title= ''[[:file:Fight Earnestly (Hull).pdf|Fight Earnestly]]''
+
  | source title= Wiktenauer
  | license    = copyrighted
+
  | license    = default
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{sourcebox
 
{{sourcebox
Line 8,305: Line 8,304:
 
* ''Der Königsegger Codex. Die Fechthandschrift des Hauses Königsegg.'' Ed. André Schulze and Johannes Graf zu Königsegg-Aulendorf. Geschichte Neu Erleben: Philipp von Zabern, 2010. ISBN 978-3-8053-3753-3
 
* ''Der Königsegger Codex. Die Fechthandschrift des Hauses Königsegg.'' Ed. André Schulze and Johannes Graf zu Königsegg-Aulendorf. Geschichte Neu Erleben: Philipp von Zabern, 2010. ISBN 978-3-8053-3753-3
 
* Burkart, Eric. "Body Techniques Of Combat: The Depiction of a Personal Fighting System in the Fight Books of Hans Talhofer (1443-1467 CE)". ''Killing and Being Killed: Bodies in Battle''. 2018. pp 109-130. {{doi|10.14361/9783839437834-008}}
 
* Burkart, Eric. "Body Techniques Of Combat: The Depiction of a Personal Fighting System in the Fight Books of Hans Talhofer (1443-1467 CE)". ''Killing and Being Killed: Bodies in Battle''. 2018. pp 109-130. {{doi|10.14361/9783839437834-008}}
 +
* Deacon, Jacob Henry. "Prologues, Poetry, Prose and Portrayals: The Purposes of Fifteenth Century Fight Books According to the Diplomatic Evidence". ''[[Acta Periodica Duellatorum]]'' '''4'''(2): 69-90. 2016. {{doi|10.36950/apd-2016-014}}
 
* Elema, Ariella. "Tradition, Innovation, Re-enactment: Hans Talhoffer’s Unusual Weapons." ''[[Acta Periodica Duellatorum]]'' '''7'''(1): 3-25. August 2019. {{doi|10.2478/apd-2019-0001}}
 
* Elema, Ariella. "Tradition, Innovation, Re-enactment: Hans Talhoffer’s Unusual Weapons." ''[[Acta Periodica Duellatorum]]'' '''7'''(1): 3-25. August 2019. {{doi|10.2478/apd-2019-0001}}
 
* Hergsell, Gustav, and [[Hans Talhoffer|Talhoffer, Hans]]. ''[http://jfgilles.perso.sfr.fr/escrime/bibliotheque/talhoffer_ambras/index.html Livre d'escrime de Talhoffer (manuscrit d'Ambras) de l'an 1459]''. Prague: Chez L'Auteur, 1890.
 
* Hergsell, Gustav, and [[Hans Talhoffer|Talhoffer, Hans]]. ''[http://jfgilles.perso.sfr.fr/escrime/bibliotheque/talhoffer_ambras/index.html Livre d'escrime de Talhoffer (manuscrit d'Ambras) de l'an 1459]''. Prague: Chez L'Auteur, 1890.

Latest revision as of 22:41, 12 April 2021

Hans Talhoffer
Born ca. 1410-15
Swabia
Died after 1482
Occupation
Patron
Movement Marxbrüder (?)
Genres
Language Early New High German
Archetype(s)
Manuscript(s)
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations
Signature Hans Talhoffer Sig.jpg
Talhoffer's heraldry, including the Lion of St. Mark

Hans Talhoffer (Dalhover, Talhouer, Thalhoffer, Talhofer) was a 15th century German fencing master. His martial lineage is unknown, but his writings make it clear that he had some connection to the tradition of Johannes Liechtenauer, the grand master of the German school of fencing. Talhoffer was a well educated man, who took interest in astrology, mathematics, onomastics, and the auctoritas and the ratio. He authored at least five fencing manuals during the course of his career, and appears to have made his living teaching, including training people for trial by combat.

The first historical reference to Talhoffer is in 1433, when he represented Johann Ⅱ von Reisberg, archbishop of Salzburg, before the Vehmic court. Shortly thereafter in 1434, Talhoffer was arrested and questioned by order of Wilhelm von Villenbach (a footman to Albrecht Ⅲ von Wittelsbach, duke of Bavaria) in connection to the trial of a Nuremberg aristocrat named Jacob Auer, accused of murdering of his brother Hans. Talhoffer subsequently confessed to being hired to abduct Hans von Villenbach, and offered testimony that others hired by Auer performed the murder.[1] Auer's trial was quite controversial and proved a major source of contention and regional strife for the subsequent two years. Talhoffer himself remained in the service of the archbishop for at least a few more years, and in 1437 is mentioned as serving as a bursary officer (Kastner) in Hohenburg.[2]

The 1440s saw the launch of Talhoffer's career as a professional fencing master. He purchased (and perhaps contributed to) the MS Chart.A.558, an anthology created in ca. 1448. The fencing portion is largely text-less and it may have been designed as a visual aid for use in teaching; in addition to these illustrations, the manuscript also contains a treatise on name magic and a warbook that might be related to Konrad Kyeser's Bellifortis. While Talhoffer's owner's mark appears in this manuscript,[3] his level of involvement with its creation is unclear. It contains many works by other authors, in addition to plays that are somewhat similar to his later works, and shows evidence of multiple scribes and multiple artists. It is possible that he purchased the manuscript after it was completed (or partially completed), and used it as a basis for his later teachings.[4]

Most notable among the noble clients that Talhoffer served in this period was the Königsegg family of southern Germany, and some time between 1446 and 1459[5] he produced the MS ⅩⅨ.17-3 for this family. This work depicts a judicial duel being fought by Luithold von Königsegg and the training that Talhoffer gave him in preparation, but it seems that this duel never actually took place.[6] He seems to have passed through Emerkingen later in the 1450s, where he was contracted to train the brothers David and Buppellin vom Stain; he also produced the MS 78.A.15 for them, a significantly expanded version of the Königsegg manuscript.[7]

In 1459,[8] Talhoffer commissioned the MS Thott.290.2º, a new personal fencing manual along the same lines as the 1448 work but expanded with additional content and captioned throughout. He appears to have continued instructing throughout the 1460s, and in 1467 he produced his final manuscript, Cod.icon 394a, for another of his noble clients, Eberhardt Ⅰ von Württemberg.[9] This would be his most extensive work, and the graf paid 10 Guilder as well as quantities of rye and oats for the finished work.[10]

While only a few facts are known about Talhoffer's life, this has not stopped authors from conjecture. The presence of the Lion of St. Mark in Talhoffer's 1459 coat of arms (right) has given rise to speculation that he may have been an early or even founding member of the Frankfurt-am-Main-based Marxbrüder fencing guild, though there is no record of their existence prior to 1474.[citation needed] Additionally, much has been made of the fact that Talhoffer's name doesn't appear in Paulus Kal's list of members of the Fellowship of Liechtenauer.[11] While some have speculated that this indicates rivalry or ill-will between the two contemporaries, it is more likely that Talhoffer simply didn't participate in whatever venture the fellowship was organized for.

Various otherwise-unidentified fencing masters named Hans have also been associated by some authors with Talhoffer. The 1454 records of the city of Zürich note that a master (presumed by some authors to be Hans Talhoffer) was chartered to teach fencing in some capacity and to adjudicate judicial duels; the account further notes that a fight broke out among his students and had to be settled in front of the city council, resulting in various fines.[12] In 1455, a master named Hans was retained by Mahiot Coquel to train him for his duel with Jacotin Plouvier in Valencienne; if this were Talhoffer, his training did little good as Coquel lost the duel and died in brutal fashion.[citation needed]

Treatises

Not only did Talhoffer produce at least three distinct treatises in his lifetime, but his writings have been reproduced in every century up to the present. They exist in well over a dozen manuscripts created in the fifteenth through nineteenth centuries; they have also been published a number of times in facsimiles beginning in 1887, including translations into English and French.

Talhoffer's writings cover a wide assortment of weapons, including the buckler, crossbow, dagger, flail, Messer, longshield, mace, poleaxe, spear, sword, and unarmed grappling, often both armored and unarmored, on horse and on foot, and in scenarios including tournaments, formal duels, and unequal encounters implying urban self-defense. Despite the obvious care and detail that went into the artwork, the manuscripts generally have only a few words captioning each page (and in many cases none at all); some were likely teaching aids and would need no detailed explanation, while the treatises for Königsegg, Stain, and Württemberg were probably intended as memory aids to review his teachings after he left.

Though there is considerable overlap in the specific plays Talhoffer teaches, the organization and exact contents differ in each of the main treatises. For this reason, they are listed separately below (along with their derivative copies) rather than being combined into one giant mixed concordance that fails to capture the organization of any of them. Though his authorship of his first manuscript, the Gotha, cannot be proven, it is included below because it is a useful reference to compare to his authenticated works.