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Difference between revisions of "Hans Talhoffer"

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== Temp ==
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  | title = Personal Manuscript (1459)
 
  | title = Personal Manuscript (1459)
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! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Jeffrey Hull]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
  
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| <p>[2] Item: The palace of the correct art, according to which it is also easy to understand, as the masters divided it from nearby paths, because this is the cor-rect foundation.</p>
+
| <p>[2] Item: The palace of the correct art, according to which it is also easy to understand, as the masters divided it from nearby paths, because this is the correct foundation.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 001v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 001v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
  
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| <p>Item: when you enter into the barriers<ref>''Schranken/Schränken'' means to close off a space by blocking entry and/or exit. Lexer lists one possibility as spe-cifically relating to tournaments [''turnieren''].</ref> [at the field of combat] and want to begin, then let everyone say and do whatever he would want. And do not look behind you, and remain earnest in mind, and whatever he says to you, do not engage with it. And fight seriously there for yourself, and allow him no rest, and trust and follow the art. Do not fear his blows, and if he seriously wants to approach you, then pull the strikes from him so that any strike joyfully gainsays that </p>
+
| <p>Item: when you enter into the barriers<ref>''Schranken/Schränken'' means to close off a space by blocking entry and/or exit. Lexer lists one possibility as specifically relating to tournaments [''turnieren''].</ref> [at the field of combat] and want to begin, then let everyone say and do whatever he would want. And do not look behind you, and remain earnest in mind, and whatever he says to you, do not engage with it. And fight seriously there for yourself, and allow him no rest, and trust and follow the art. Do not fear his blows, and if he seriously wants to approach you, then pull the strikes from him so that any strike joyfully gainsays that </p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 001v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 001v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
  
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|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Jeffrey Hull]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
  
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| <p>[1] {{red|b=1|Here one finds writing about fights.}}</p>
 
| <p>[1] {{red|b=1|Here one finds writing about fights.}}</p>
  
<p>Item: Even though it now is the case, that the decre-tals forbid fights, yet the custom established [in the past] by emperors and kings, princes and lords, [was] to grant and allow fights, and additionally to offer the same protection, and, as is subsequently written here, particularly about several topics and subjects.
+
<p>Item: Even though it now is the case, that the decretals forbid fights, yet the custom established [in the past] by emperors and kings, princes and lords, [was] to grant and allow fights, and additionally to offer the same protection, and, as is subsequently written here, particularly about several topics and subjects.
 
</p>
 
</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 008r.jpg|1|lbl=8r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 008r.jpg|1|lbl=8r}}
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| <p>[2] {{red|Item: Regarding the first point: that no one likes to have his honor loudly cut short with words by some-one who is his associate. He would rather fight with him, even though he could justifiably walk away from him if he wanted, and therefore fighting is [an act of] free will<ref>''Muotwille'' is the drive to carry something out, which can equally have positive or negative roots, justifications, outcomes. According to Lever and Grimm, in the case of legal writing only, ''mutwille'' is represented as “the opposite of that which is demanded by law”.</ref> [that is legally unjustified].}}</p>
+
| <p>[2] {{red|Item: Regarding the first point: that no one likes to have his honor loudly cut short with words by someone who is his associate. He would rather fight with him, even though he could justifiably walk away from him if he wanted, and therefore fighting is [an act of] free will<ref>''Muotwille'' is the drive to carry something out, which can equally have positive or negative roots, justifications, outcomes. According to Lever and Grimm, in the case of legal writing only, ''mutwille'' is represented as “the opposite of that which is demanded by law”.</ref> [that is legally unjustified].}}</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 008r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 008r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
  
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* {{red|The second is betrayal.}}<ref>Or “treachery”.</ref>
 
* {{red|The second is betrayal.}}<ref>Or “treachery”.</ref>
 
* {{red|The third is heresy.}}
 
* {{red|The third is heresy.}}
* {{red|The fourth, whoever becomes faithful to his lord.}}
+
* {{red|The fourth, whoever becomes unfaithful to his lord.}}
 
* {{red|The fifth, embracing strife or the like.}}
 
* {{red|The fifth, embracing strife or the like.}}
 
* {{red|The sixth, false representations.}}
 
* {{red|The sixth, false representations.}}
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|  
 
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| <p>[6] Item: If two men randomly promise to fight against one another before the court, then one also gives them six weeks of training time and both are com-manded to keep the peace, and whichever among them breaks the peace, he is condemned without the combat, as is correct.</p>
+
| <p>[6] Item: If two men randomly promise to fight against one another before the court, then one also gives them six weeks of training time and both are commanded to keep the peace, and whichever among them breaks the peace, he is condemned without the combat, as is correct.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 008v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 008v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
  
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| <p>[7] {{red|b=1|How one can legally withdraw from [fighting with] the other.}}</p>
 
| <p>[7] {{red|b=1|How one can legally withdraw from [fighting with] the other.}}</p>
  
<p>Item: If a man is formally challenged to single combat by one, who is not as good as he [the challenged] is, he can legally withdraw from [fighting with] him if he wants, or if one man were said to be legally de-prived of rights,<ref>I.e. has been called/labeled illegitimate, unauthentic, has lost legal rights derived from legal birth or marriage.</ref> or has become legally deprived of rights, one may also withdraw from the fight with him.
+
<p>Item: If a man is formally challenged to single combat by one, who is not as good as he [the challenged] is, he can legally withdraw from [fighting with] him if he wants, or if one man were said to be legally deprived of rights,<ref>I.e. has been called/labeled illegitimate, unauthentic, has lost legal rights derived from legal birth or marriage.</ref> or has become legally deprived of rights, one may also withdraw from the fight with him.
 
</p>
 
</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 008v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 008v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
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| <p>[11] Item: When the six weeks are thus up and the last day has arrived, on which the judge has decided that they should fight, then the two should come before the judge with such a display of honor<ref>''Ertzögen'': possibilities from Lexer: 1) could be the participial form from ''erziehen'' [Lexer] drawing a sword specifically upward, or raising/training humans and animals. 2) erzöugen = to show/demonstrate. 3) er zöugen = eh-re zeigen to display honor. Possibilities from Grimm: 4) erziehen = to raise a sword, to swing a sword or axe, to educate, bring up, train up, to lift up.</ref> and in such a spirit as custom and law teaches in the country in which they are to fight, or according to which they have confirmed through free will with one another.</p>
+
| <p>[11] Item: When the six weeks are thus up and the last day has arrived, on which the judge has decided that they should fight, then the two should come before the judge with such a display of honor<ref>''Ertzögen'': possibilities from Lexer: 1) could be the participial form from ''erziehen'' [Lexer] drawing a sword specifically upward, or raising/training humans and animals. 2) ''erzöugen'' = to show/demonstrate. 3) ''er zöugen'' = ''ehre zeigen'' to display honor. Possibilities from Grimm: 4) ''erziehen'' = to raise a sword, to swing a sword or axe, to educate, bring up, train up, to lift up.</ref> and in such a spirit<ref>Or “mood”.</ref>as custom and law teaches in the country in which they are to fight, or according to which they have confirmed through free will with one another.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 009r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 009r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[12] Thus so there, the complainant shall swear that he therefor has cause ''for fighting the other''; and that he has deemed the other man guilty. And then shall ''the judge'' assign a ring and “grit-wardens” and verdict; and counsel wise decrees according to the customs of the land; whereupon the day in the ring arrives ''for'' the verdict. One erring man vanquished as honour demands; which he shall take as proof and as rightful / lawful.</p>
+
| <p>[12] Item: Then, the plaintiff should swear there, that he makes the accusation about the subject about which he challenged the other man, and then one should make a ring, and [find] judges<ref>Or “overseers”.</ref> for the legal single combat, to render judgement according to the advice of wise people and the customs of the country, and whoever does not appear in the ring on that day, that one is judged [to be] without victory [and] in error, unless [there is] legitimate necessity, which he shall prove according to the law.</p>
 
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{{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 009r.jpg|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 009v.jpg|1|lbl=9v|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 009r.jpg|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 009v.jpg|1|lbl=9v|p=1}}
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| <p>[13] {{red|b=1|Here is stated how one shall hold oneself when the combatants are come into the ring upon the ''appointed'' hour, at which time one thus shall duel ''the other'' adversarily:}}</p>
+
| <p>[13] {{red|b=1|Here it is written how one should hold one’s self, when the fighters have entered the ring at the hour and at the time [at which] one should fight as adversaries.}}</p>
  
<p>{{red|W}}hen the combatants are thus come into the ring, then the judge of that hour shall stare at all ''there''; and advise that hiding is forbidden, by health and wealth; and that he shall not allow one or the other to be aided by someone else; thus shall each both do ''combat exclusively;'' so may the ''judge'' intimidate any rabble.</p>
+
<p>{{red|b=1|W}}hen the fighters have thus entered the ring, Then the judge should strictly forbid all disruptions and coaching from that hour onward, under threat to body and property, and should not permit that one is not assisted or punished more than the other, and should make the two of them as equally impaired<ref>Or “injured”.</ref> as he can.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 009v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 009v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[14] {{red|b=1|That which is lawful if one of the combatants flees out, or becomes driven out, of the ring:}}</p>
+
| <p>[14] {{red|b=1|This is what would be legal, if one of the fighters would flee or be driven out of the ring.}}</p>
  
<p>Thus whichever ''combatant'' comes out of the ring, before then the duel has its ''deadly'' ending, because he becomes knocked out of ''the ring'' by the other or he flees thereout, or however else he comes thereout; or he admits that the other man’s position regarding the cause for challenge is right – then shall that man be adjudged vanquished, or otherwise slain and killed; ''for another'' man has conquered him.</p>
+
<p>Item: Whichever fighter exits the ring before the combat has an end, [whether] he is struck by the other or flees therefrom (or however he would exit therefrom), or whether he admits to the issue about which [the other] one had legally summoned him, that one should be judged to be without victory. Or whichever one slays and kills the other, that one has won. However, one should judge him according to the custom and law of the country about the issue regarding which they have fought with one another.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 009v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 009v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[15] Then a man shall rectify indeed as is lawful and customary in the land. And thereby they have battled one another.</p>
+
| <p>[15] {{red|b=1|Now take note of these points: it is imperative to understand [them].}}</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 009v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
+
 
 +
<p>Item the first: You should be well acquainted with the master who wants to teach you, that his art is correct and true, and that he is honorable<ref>''Vrum'' from Lexer includes pretty much all of the virtues of a knight: ''tüchtig'', ''brav'', ''ehrbar'', ''gut'', ''trefflich'', ''angesehn'', ''vornehm'', ''wacker'', ''tapfer'', that is, capable, virtuous, honorable, good, excellent, respected, genteel (well-bred), brave, and courageous.</ref> and does not treat you disloyally and does not abbreviate<ref>Or “abridge”.</ref> in teaching you, and knows to prepare the weapons with which he wants to fight.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 010r.jpg|1|lbl=10r}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[16] {{red|b=1|Now mark this bond that ''you'' need to understand:}}<br/><br/></p>
+
| <p>[16] He should also not accept the master,<br/>[unless] he then swears to him to strive for his honor<br/>and to turn away from his evil.<br/>He should in turn swear the same to the master<br/>not to teach his art to others.</p>
 
+
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 010r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
<p>Thus firstly you should know well the master who will teach you; that his art be right and protective; and that he be pious / sober; and that he not embezzle you; and that he not shorten / beguile the lore; and that he wits to broaden the arsenal wherewith he will battle. However – should that master not accept ''that'', swearing upon his profits ingratiatingly and his prejudices devotedly and thus shall his ilk become masters because of him – then swear neither to further nor to teach his ''so-called'' art.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 010r.jpg|1|lbl=10r}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[17] {{red|b=1|Here heed the master:}}</p>
+
| <p>[16] {{red|b=1|Here [is a] note to the master.}}</p>
  
<p>Thus the master, who ''has'' a student to teach, he shall wit that he recognise well the man whom he will teach; whether he be weak or strong and if he be coxcombraging or gentle-minded; whether he has good breathing / endurance or not; and whether he may work heartily. So when you ''the master'' have well-recognised him as into the lore and what work he is able to do, thereafter you must teach ''the student'' such that it avails him against his foes. Yet the combatant and the master shall guard that they let no man see them nor also the arsenal with which they work. And they both ''shall'' guard ''their doings'' from much of society; and say little of the fighting, so that no notice is made thereof.</p>
+
<p>Item: The master, who has a subordinate<ref>I.e. student.</ref> to teach, he should know that he is well acquainted with the man whom he wants to teach, whether he is weak or strong, and whether he is quickly angry or gentle, also whether he has good breathing or not, also whether he can work at length, and when you have become well acquainted with him in teaching, and [know] what work he is capable of, then afterward, you must teach him that which is useful for him against his enemy. Also, the fighter and the master should guard themselves, that they allow no one to see [them] and particularly the weapons with which they work. And the two should guard from a lot of socializing and say little about the fight, so that no discovery is made about that.</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 010r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 010r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[18] {{red|b=1|About patronage:}}</p>
+
| <p>[17] {{red|b=1|About scouting.}}<ref>Literally “information-gathering”.</ref></p>
  
<p>How the combatant and the master want to relate: Remit the fee and reciprocate. What be his nature? If he be strong or weak, if yet he be coxcomb-raging or not; and how his top heats up if someone would quarrel or fight. It is also needful to wit by the master who teaches him: That the man strives to set himself aright.</p>
+
<p>How the fighter and the master can have knowledge regarding their opponent, what his character is, whether he is strong or weak, whether he is also quickly angry or not, and what his baptismal name is, whether one could predict or calculate from that.<ref>Probably onomancy based on his baptismal name (which is included in an earlier manuscript Talhoffer owned) and/or astrology based on his date of baptism.</ref> It is also necessary to know, what master is teaching him, so that one can direct oneself accordingly.</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 010r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 010r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[19] {{red|b=1|When now ''the combatant'' is taught and shall go within the barriers:}}</p>
+
| <p>[18] {{red|b=1|When he is now taught and should enter into the barriers.}}<ref>''Schränken'' are the barriers used to form the ring/square/space for combat.</ref></p>
  
<p>So firstly, when he shall fight, accordingly shall he hear a priest say mass, in honour of Our Lady ''Mary'' and of Saint George ''patron of knights'', and the priest shall bless him in the name of Saint John of the gospel, with which the combatant agrees. Thereafter the master shall try earnestly to advise ''the combatant one last time''; whereupon ''the combatant'' shall stay; and shall fathom nothing, yet focus upon his foe and earnestly look at him.</p>
+
<p>Firstly, he should then confess.<ref>This is a religious confession to a priest, in case he dies.</ref> Afterward, a priest should read him a Mass about Our Lady and Saint George, and then the priest should bless Saint John’s wine<ref>St. John the Apostle was known for blessing a poisoned cup of wine, where the poison left in the form of a snake. ''Johannesminne'' or ''Johanneswein'' became customary throughout Germany in the 12th c. Numerous examples are found in: Hanns Bächtold-Stäubli: ''Handwörterbuch des deutschen Aberglaubens'', Bd. 4, Berlin 1932, Sp. 745–760.</ref> to him and give [it] to the fighter. Afterward, the master should seriously examine him, and instruct him as to where he should remain,<ref>I.e. within the boundaries of the combat ring.</ref> and [he] should pay attention to nothing except for his enemy and [should] view him seriously.</p>
 
|  
 
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{{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 010r.jpg|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 010v.jpg|1|lbl=10v|p=1}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 010r.jpg|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 010v.jpg|1|lbl=10v|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[20] {{red|b=1|Mark the presentation}} when one thus comes within the barriers:</p>
+
| <p>[19] {{red|b=1|Note regarding the entry.}}</p>
  
<p>So shall he make one cross with the right foot and one ''cross'' with the right hand at his breast and shall sign in the name of the Father and Son and the Holy Ghost. The grit-wardens ''bearing staves or spears'' take the men in and present them and they turn round in the Sun. So then shall ''each'' combatant bid ''well'' the ''witnessing'' princes and lords; and they stand around the circle, as each bids God would help him and would give him victory over his foe, as He has truth and right.</p>
+
<p>Item: When the man enters the barriers, then he should make a cross with the right foot and one with the hand at the breast, and should proceed in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Then the judges of the single combat are to take him and are to guide or direct him around [the ring] counter to the direction of the sun.<Ref>The sun travels clockwise.</ref> Then, the fighter should ask the princes and lords and those standing around the circle that they would help him to ask God that He would grant him the victory against his enemy, as he has truth and law [on his side].</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 010v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 010v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[21] {{red|b=1|Thereafter shall one sit down in the chair:}}</p>
+
| <p>[20] {{red|b=1|Afterward, one should set himself in the seat.}}<ref>Sessel usually refers to a seat of honor, generally a chair with a back and arms.</ref></p>
  
<p>When he is now seated, so shall someone overspan him with a tent, and his bier ''is'' behind him at the barriers, and his arsenal is well-arrayed and is lawful and ready for ''his'' needs / as required by court.</p>
+
<p>
 +
When he is now seated, then one should set up<ref>Or “extend”.</ref> a cloth in front of him and his litter<ref>A ''Bahre'' is a horizontal means of carrying something, and may refer to both a ''Tragbahre'', a litter for the injured, and also a ''Totenbahre'', a litter for the dead. “Bier”, which is a cognate, has a narrower definition than the original.</ref> behind him at the barriers, and his weapons are well hung and organized according to need.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 010v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 010v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[22] {{red|b=1|The grit-wardens or armigers:}}</p>
+
| <p>[21] {{red|b=1|The judges of the single combat or overseers.}}</p>
  
<p>The master and grit-wardens should heed the judge, or whomever else then ''as agreed previously''. Dueling is started at the first call – so shall he ''the judge'' call the ''combatants'' to stand up and draw up from the tents; and when he has called for the third time, calling them ''by name'', then he goes thence and commends them unto God.</p>
+
<p>The master and the judges of the single combat should pay attention to the executioner or to that one who will start the combat. When he calls for the first time, then he should command the man to stand up and pull the cloth away from himself, and when one calls for the third time, then he should command him to go there and commend him to God.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 010v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 010v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[23] {{red|b=1|Of the aftermath ''states the'' judge:}}</p>
+
| <p>[22] {{red|b=1|About the executioner.}}</p>
  
<p>Thus the combatant shall ward his body as avails him, within the ring or barriers; and then go out when he overcomes. So states the judge the aftermath at the barriers – that ''the combatant'' has proven ''himself'' ever-so right, if he becomes called ''the winner''.</p>
+
<p>Item: the fighter should observe,<ref>Or “keep in mind”.</ref>that at no time does his body move past the ring or the barriers, because whatever would extend past that, the executioner is standing at the barriers, he cuts it off with legal right, if he has been called upon [to do that].</p>
  
<p>'''x {{red|Talhoffer}}'''</p>
+
<p>'''X {{red|Talhoffer}}'''</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 010v.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 010v.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 011r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 011r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[24] {{red|b=1|He “inscribes” a message within a knotted twine.}}</p>
+
| <p>[23] {{red|b=1|He writes on a knotted thread/string.}}</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 011r.jpg|1|lbl=11r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 011r.jpg|1|lbl=11r}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[25] {{red|b=1|He records the words of the mouth upon paper and those shall become black later.}}</p>
+
| <p>[24] {{red|b=1|He writes [the words] from his mouth and becomes black.}}</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 011r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 011r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 011v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 011v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| class="noline" |  
+
| class="noline" | <p>[25]</p>
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|011v|jpg|blk=1}}
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|011v|jpg|blk=1}}
  
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|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Jeffrey Hull]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 049r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 049r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[1] Thus rushing-wrestling ''by gripping'' the outer arms.</p>
+
| <p>[1] Item: Approach to wrestling from the arms.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|049r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|049r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 049v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 049v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[2] Thus arm-breaking and throwing over the shank.</p>
+
| <p>[2] Item: The<ref>General note for verbs: verbal noun phrases (das + verb), will be translated as “the [action]”, not as gerunds.</ref> arm-break and [the] throw over the leg.<ref>''Schenckel'' can specifically indicate the thigh/upper leg (its precise meaning), or simply the leg.</ref></p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|049v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|049v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 050r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 050r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[3] Thus bear-clinching.</p>
+
| <p>[3] Item: The peasant’s hold.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|050r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|050r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 050v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 050v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[4] Thus tugging out of that ''bear-clinch'' and throwing ''foe'' foreward ''upon'' the elbows. </p>
+
| <p>[4] Item: The pull-up and throw in front of the elbow.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|050v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|050v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 051r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 051r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[5] Thus going through ''to throw''.</p>
+
| <p>[5] Item: The pass through.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|051r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|051r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 051v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 051v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[6] Thus the counter for that going-through.</p>
+
| <p>[6] Item: The counter against the pass through.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|051v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|051v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 052r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 052r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[7] Thus seizing ''the foe'' by ''his'' wambeson.</p>
+
| <p>[7] Item: The hold by the gambeson.<ref>This is specifically the piece of defensive clothing that covers the buttocks. The picture shows a short, sleeve-less piece of clothing, like a jerkin, while the word refers to the longer piece of clothing, the gambeson.</ref></p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|052r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|052r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 052v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 052v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[8] The counter for that seizing of the wambeson.</p>
+
| <p>[8] The counter against the hold by the gambeson.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|052v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|052v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 053r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 053r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[9] The play over ''foe's'' arm and foot.</p>
+
| <p>[9] The play over the arm and in at the foot.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|053r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|053r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 053v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 053v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[10] Throwing over the hip.</p>
+
| <p>[10] The throw over the hip.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|053v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|053v|jpg}}
  
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|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 054v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 054v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[12] The hinter-treading.</p>
+
| <p>[12] The step behind.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|054v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|054v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 055r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 055r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[13] The arm-break over the shoulder.</p>
+
| <p>[13] The arm break over the shoulder.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|055r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|055r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 055v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 055v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[14] Yet another hinter-treading.</p>
+
| <p>[14] Push down at the step behind.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|055v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|055v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 056r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 056r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[15] The shoulder-breaking.</p>
+
| <p>[15] The shoulder-break.<ref>This could potentially be a dislocation of the shoulder.</ref></p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|056r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|056r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 056v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 056v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[16] The throat-strangling.</p>
+
| <p>[16] The neck<ref>''Hals'' refers to the soft parts of the neck.</ref>-throttle.<ref>Or “strangle”.</ref></p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|056v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|056v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 057r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 057r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[17] Trying to go through or to hinter-tread.</p>
+
| <p>[17]The attempt to pass through or step behind.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|057r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|057r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 057v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 057v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[18] The boys-wrestling / knaves-wrestling ''done by rolling under and throwing foe'' overhead.</p>
+
| <p>[18] The servant’s<ref>''Bube'' is both a male child, a servant, squire, an undisciplined man, or a professional dice player. Multiple references to ''Buben'' and dice (''Würfel'') in the literature make this a likely pun. Lexer: ''Buobe, der würfel machet buoben vil'' Ls. 3. 231,15. 480,116; Mart. 56, 91. 73,1. 206,85. Pass. K. 161,41. Marlg. 222, 296. 362,75.</ref> throw over the head etc.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|057v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|057v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 058r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 058r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[19] Attack and counter. / Play and break.</p>
+
| <p>[19] Play and counter.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|058r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|058r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 058v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 058v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[20] The neck-clinching.</p>
+
| <p>[20] The neck-hold.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|058v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|058v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 059r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 059r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[21] The inverted throw.</p>
+
| <p>[21] The reversed throw.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|059r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|059r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 059v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 059v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[22] Getting away from foe.</p>
+
| <p>[22] To get away from the man.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|059v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|059v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 060r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 060r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[23] The locking-clinch.</p>
+
| <p>[23] The securing<ref>Or “encompassing”.</ref> hold.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|060r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|060r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 060v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 060v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| class="noline" | <p>[24] The counter for ''foe's'' heaving ''of you is found'' behind oneself ''by grabbing foe’s hair to break his hold''.</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[24] [Grab] behind one’s self, the counter for the lifting.</p>
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|060v|jpg}}
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|060v|jpg}}
  
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|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 061r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 061r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[1] For the upper stab, with the left arm.</p>
+
| <p>[1] For the thrust from above, using the left arm.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|061r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|061r|jpg}}
  
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 062r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 062r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[3] The inverted throwing.</p>
+
| <p>[3] The reversed throw.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|062r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|062r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 062v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 062v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[4] To throw the opponent with the dagger.</p>
+
| <p>[4] To throw the man using the dagger.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|062v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|062v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 063r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 063r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[5] Resist the lower stab and break the arm.</p>
+
| <p>[5] To defend against the thrust from below and to break the arm.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|063r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|063r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 063v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 063v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[6] To throw the opponent forward.</p>
+
| <p>[6] To throw the man forward.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|063v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|063v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 064r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 064r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[7] One taking the dagger with his dagger.</p>
+
| <p>[7] To take the dagger from someone using his dagger.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|064r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|064r|jpg}}
  
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|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 065v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 065v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[10] Throwing the opponent with force.</p>
+
| <p>[10] To throw the man using force.<ref>Or “violence”.</ref></p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|065v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|065v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 066r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 066r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[11] Throwing before and shooting through, pull toward yourself.</p>
+
| <p>[11] To throw forward and to shoot through; pull towards yourself.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|066r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|066r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 066v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 066v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[12] The catching.</p>
+
| <p>[12] The catch.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|066v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|066v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 067r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 067r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[13] The counter against it.</p>
+
| <p>[13] The counter against that.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|067r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|067r|jpg}}
  
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|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 068r.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 068r.png|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[15] The counter and death-stab.</p>
+
| <p>[15] The counter and killing thrust.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|068r|png}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|068r|png}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 068v.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 068v.png|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[16] The lower counter and heart-stab.</p>
+
| <p>[16] The lower counter and thrust to the heart.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|068v|png}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|068v|png}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 069r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 069r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[17] The woven-stab and counter for it.</p>
+
| <p>[17] The bobbing<ref>Or “swaying”, “rocking”; ''Waben'' is related to honeycomb and bees, and to the back-and-forth, up-and-down movement of water. Even the relationship to ''wëben'' is through bees and honeycomb, not weaving, which has different roots to get to ''weben''.</ref> thrust and the counter for that.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|069r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|069r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 069v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 069v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[18] Technique is completed.</p>
+
| <p>[18] Play is completed.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|069v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|069v|jpg}}
  
Line 4,056: Line 4,057:
 
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|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 070v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 070v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[21] The murder-stab.</p>
+
| <p>[21] The violent killing<ref>MHG ''mort/mord'' was another form of “dead”, loaned/borrowed from French ''morte''. However, in ENHG, it does have a more violent aspect than ''tot''. It is not until modern German that ''Mord'' picks up the sense of “murder”.</ref> thrust.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|070v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|070v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 071r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 071r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| class="noline" | <p>[22] The finishing technique.</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[22] The final play.</p>
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|071r|jpg}}
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|071r|jpg}}
  
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|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Jeffrey Hull]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 071v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 071v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[1] Foresetting the ''pollaxe'' strike and stop-thrusting ''with pollaxe to the'' heart.</p>
+
| <p>[1] Counteract the blow and thrust away [at the] heart.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|071v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|071v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 072r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 072r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[2] Foresetting foe’s thrust and thrusting to the foe.</p>
+
| <p>[2] Counteract the thrust and thrust at him mortally.<ref>''Erstechen'' implies a mortal wound, beyond the mere thrust of ''stechen''.</ref></p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|072r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|072r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 072v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 072v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[3] The break and throw.</p>
+
| <p>[3] The counter and throw.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|072v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|072v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 073r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 073r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[4] The neck-wrenching.</p>
+
| <p>[4] The neck<ref>''Hals'' here indicates the back of the neck/shoulder.</ref>-yank.<ref>Or “tear”.</ref></p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|073r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|073r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 073v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 073v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[5] The needed stance countering the strike.</p>
+
| <p>[5] The combative stance<ref>The earlier meaning of ''nôt'' is to be threatened, hemmed in, imperiled; however, it can also be used as a replacement for the term battle/combat, as that state already implies peril and threat. ''Nothstand'' is a later compound, and is both a predicament/peril/threat, and a state of being under predicament/peril/threat. Interestingly, it is also used in the north in a very narrow meaning for the horizontal crosspiece that stands behind a dyke gate (''Balkensiel'' as opposed to a culvert) that prevents the gate from opening.</ref> in front of the blow.<ref>Or “The combative stance prior to the blow”.</ref></p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|073v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|073v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 074r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 074r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[6] The play achieved.</p>
+
| <p>[6] Play completed.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|074r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|074r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 074v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 074v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[7] Catching the armament.</p>
+
| <p>[7] Catch the weapon.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|074v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|074v|jpg}}
  
Line 4,197: Line 4,198:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Jeffrey Hull]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 075r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 075r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[1] With the sword one counters the strike with the spear ''by trapping and hewing''.</p>
+
| <p>[1] Using the sword in front of the strike using the spear.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|075r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|075r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 075v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 075v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[2] The woven thrust ''done by half-swording.''</p>
+
| <p>[2] The woven thrust.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|075v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|075v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 076r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 076r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[3] The over-hew countering the thrust ''by spear''.</p>
+
| <p>[3] The cut from above in front of the thrust.<ref>Or “The cut from above forward of the thrust”.</ref></p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|076r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|076r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 076v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 076v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[4] The ending play with the longsword countering the halberd ''by avoiding its over-hew while treading and crumple-hewing''.</p>
+
| <p>[4] The final play using the sword in front of the halberd.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|076v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|076v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 077r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 077r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[5] ''The unarmed'' one blinds the other ''by throwing his hat'' at the head and thereby he throws ''his dagger'' into the body.</p>
+
| <p>[5] The blinding at the head, thereby the throw ''into the body''.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|077r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|077r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 077v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 077v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[6] The ending play with the ''bastard-sword'' countering the halberd.</p>
+
| <p>[6] The final play using the Messer in front of the halberd.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|077v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|077v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 078r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 078r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[7] The foresetting of the ''ready-to-hurl'' spear.</p>
+
| <p>[7] The counteraction against the spear.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|078r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|078r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 078v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 078v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[8] The short-pike counters a long-spear with its shaft ''like one would do with a staff.''</p>
+
| <p>[8] The pilgrim using his staff in front of a long spear.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|078v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|078v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 079r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 079r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[9] The needed stance with the messer ''or bastard-sword''.</p>
+
| <p>[9] The combative stance in Messer.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|079r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|079r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 079v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 079v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| class="noline" | <p>[10] …And the play whereby the hand ''of the foe'' is lost.</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[10] The play ''where the hand is lost''.</p>
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|079v|jpg}}
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|079v|jpg}}
  
Line 4,260: Line 4,261:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Jeffrey Hull]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 080r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 080r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[1] Here, ''in judicial duel of man and woman,'' he strikes at her foot and she hits his head.</p>
+
| <p>[1] Here, he strikes at the foot ''and she hits the head''.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|080r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|080r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 080v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 080v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[2] Here he has negated her strike and caught ''it around'' his arm.</p>
+
| <p>[2] Here, he has disarmed her strike and caught the arm.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|080v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|080v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 081r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 081r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[3] The grip at the throat.</p>
+
| <p>[3] The grab at the neck.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|081r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|081r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 081v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 081v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[4] Here she nods/neutralises the man.</p>
+
| <p>[4] Here, she presses the man down.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|081v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|081v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 082r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 082r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[5] The neck-breaking.</p>
+
| <p>[5] The neck-break.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|082r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|082r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 082v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 082v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[6] Here he makes an ending play.</p>
+
| <p>[6] Here, he makes a final play.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|082v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|082v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 083r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 083r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[7] Here she would hammer/deafen him, and ''here'' he be felling her.</p>
+
| <p>[7] Here, she wants to subdue<ref>''Toben/täuben'': to force, tame, subdue, deafen, with an aspect of irrational fury.</ref> him and he sees her fall.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|083r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|083r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 083v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 083v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[8] Here the woman drives an ending play.</p>
+
| <p>[8] Here, the woman carries out a final play.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|083v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|083v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 084r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 084r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| class="noline" | <p>[] Here ''they'' make an end ''of each other''.</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[9] Here, he makes an end.</p>
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|084r|jpg}}
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|084r|jpg}}
  
Line 4,318: Line 4,319:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Jeffrey Hull]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 084v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 084v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[1] The commencement of the ''armoured'' duel.</p>
+
| <p>[1] The start of the fight.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|084v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|084v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 085r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 085r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[2] Here both ''knights'' be sitting.</p>
+
| <p>[2] Here, they both are sitting.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|085r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|085r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 085v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 085v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[3] The stance countering the hurl ''of foe's spear''.</p>
+
| <p>[3] The stance before the spear throw.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|085v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|085v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 086r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 086r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[4] Here the ''first'' hurl is foreset.</p>
+
| <p>[4] Here, the spear throw is counter acted.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|086r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|086r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 086v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 086v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[5] …And here the second hurl ''is'' foreset.</p>
+
| <p>[5] The second spear throw is counter acted.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|086v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|086v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 087r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 087r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[6] The rushing ''with longswords'' after the ''spear''-hurls.</p>
+
| <p>[6] The approach after the spear throw.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|087r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|087r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 087v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 087v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[7] The morte-strike/murder-strike is foreset.</p>
+
| <p>[7] The killing blow is counter acted.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|087v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|087v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 088r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 088r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[8] The fire-poker/branding-iron, ''thus the half-sword.''</p>
+
| <p>[8] The fire-scissors.<ref>Or “The fire (spark) protection”. ''Schiure, schûren: schützen, beshützen'', in connection with ''schirmen; schüren'': to stimulate, poke the fire to burn higher; ''scheuern, fegen'' = scouring away, sweep.</ref></p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|088r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|088r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 088v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 088v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[9] The sword-taking ''from binding at fire-pokers.''</p>
+
| <p>[9] Taking the sword.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|088v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|088v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 089r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 089r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[10] Out of the morte-strike ''into'' the jugular-stab.</p>
+
| <p>[10] From the killing blow [to] the throat jab.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|089r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|089r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 089v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 089v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[11] The leaning.</p>
+
| <p>[11] The laming.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|089v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|089v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 090r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 090r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[12] The back-throw.</p>
+
| <p>[12] The throw onto the back.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|090r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|090r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 090v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 090v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[13] The foresetting, ripping and face-punching.</p>
+
| <p>[13] Tear the counteraction up/down and jab [at] the face.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|090v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|090v|jpg}}
  
Line 4,393: Line 4,394:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 091v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 091v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[15] An ending play.</p>
+
| <p>[15] Another play.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|091v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|091v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 092r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 092r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[16] Attack and counter.</p>
+
| <p>[16] Play and counter.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|092r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|092r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 092v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 092v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[17] ''Locking then'' throwing down out of fire-poker…</p>
+
| <p>[17] The throw down out of the fire scissors.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|092v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|092v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 093r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 093r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[18] …Which at last is ended ''by dagger-stab.''</p>
+
| <p>[18] And finally, the same end.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|093r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|093r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="3" |[[File:MS Thott.290.2º 093v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| rowspan="3" |[[File:MS Thott.290.2º 093v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[10] Here he thanks God.</p>
+
| <p>[10] Here, he thanks God</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 093v.jpg|1|lbl=93v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 093v.jpg|1|lbl=93v}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[12] And here the winner thanks God; as he had great need.</p>
+
| <p>[12] ''And has a great need''.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 093v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 093v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[13] There lies the loser dead.</p>
+
| <p>[13] He lies there dead.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 093v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 093v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 094r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 094r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| class="noline" | <p>[20] …Whom they carry away to the freedom of the grave that God has for all worthy souls. Amen.
+
| class="noline" | <p>[20] The freedoms carry him away into the grave,<br/>Which god has for all worthy souls, amen.<ref>This is ''Kittelvers'': there are 4 major beats in each line, with a lot of unstressed syllables, particularly in the first line.</ref></p>
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|094r|jpg}}
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|094r|jpg}}
  
Line 4,439: Line 4,440:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Jeffrey Hull]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 094v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 094v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[1] Advancing to the foe.</p>
+
| <p>[1] The approach to the enemies.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|094v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|094v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 095r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 095r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[2] For foresetting during skirmishing ''upon horse''.</p>
+
| <p>[2] The counteraction in the skirmish.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|095r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|095r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 095v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 095v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[3] Shooting ''the crossbow'' while fleeing ''upon horse''.</p>
+
| <p>[3] Shooting at the rout.<ref>Or “the flight/fleeing ones”.</ref></p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|095v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|095v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 096r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 096r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[4] The crossbow and sword: Countering protectively/countering after the shot.</p>
+
| <p>[4] Using the cross bow and sword after shooting.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|096r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|096r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 096v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 096v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[5] The lance counters half and whole.</p>
+
| <p>[5] Using the lance, half and whole.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|096v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|096v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 097r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 097r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[6] The thrust ''done'' out of the foresetting.</p>
+
| <p>[6] The thrust from the counteractions.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|097r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|097r|jpg}}
  
Line 4,552: Line 4,553:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Jeffrey Hull]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 097v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 097v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[1] The first rush ''of judicial duel'' with pavise and sword according to the Swabian tradition.</p>
+
| <p>[1] The first approach with shield and sword according to Swabian customs.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|097v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|097v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 098r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 098r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[2] Seeking there, behind/from behind the pavise.</p>
+
| <p>[2] Seek behind the shield.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|098r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|098r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 098v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 098v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[3] The kick and jugular-thrust.</p>
+
| <p>[3] The kick and throat-thrust.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|098v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|098v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 099r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 099r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[4] The hinter-treading and heart-thrust achieved.</p>
+
| <p>[4] Step behind and complete the heart-thrust.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|099r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|099r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 099v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 099v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[5] Here is the ''judicial'' duel determined by the mace ''and pavise according to Franconia tradition''.</p>
+
| <p>[5] Here, the fight is carried out using clubs.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|099v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|099v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 100r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 100r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[6] The onslaught/provocation.</p>
+
| <p>[6] The initial point.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|100r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|100r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 100v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 100v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[7] The hampering ''of foe's pavise''…</p>
+
| <p>[7] The crosswise cut into the shield.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|100v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|100v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 101r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 101r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[8] …And the thwarting inside ''foe’s'' pavise.</p>
+
| <p>[8] And the binding inward.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|101r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|101r|jpg}}
  
Line 4,685: Line 4,686:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Jeffrey Hull]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 101v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 101v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[1] {{red|b=1|Here Master Hans Talhoffer}}
+
| <p>[1] {{red|b=1|This [is] Master Hans Talhoffer.}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|101v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|101v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 102r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 102r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[2] {{red|b=1|Bethink Thee Right}}
+
| <p>[2] {{red|b=1|Consider correctly.}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|102r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|102r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 103v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 103v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| class="noline" | <p>[3] {{red|b=1|In the year of our Lord 1459:}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[3] {{red|b=1|In the year of our Lord 1459}}</p>
  
<p>{{red|Thus this Book is that of Master Hans Talhoffer; and he is self-avowed with his life that someone (Clauss Pflieger) has illustrated this Book according to him; and that it became illustrated during Whitsuntide in that year after the birth of our beloved Lord Christ which is the one-thousand-four-hundred-fifty-ninth year thereafter. Truly, Michel Rotwyler scribed “me” the Book.}}</p>
+
<p>{{red|Item. The book is Master Hans Talhoffer’s, and he has proven it with his body until one painted the book according to him, and that was painted on Pentecost in the year after the birth of our dear Lord Christ one-thousand-four-hundred and after that in the fifty-nineth year. Michel Rotwylar wrote me truthfully.}}</p>
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|103v|jpg}}
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|103v|jpg}}
  
Line 4,715: Line 4,716:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Jeffrey Hull]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 104r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 104r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[1] This ''spiky'' pavise ''is'' "hard" versus the mace.
+
| <p>[1] The shield prevails over the club.
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|104r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|104r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 104v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 104v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[2] ''As is this spiky pavise'' versus the mace.
+
| <p>[2] [The shield prevails] over the club.
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|104v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|104v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 105r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 105r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[3] ''This hooked & barbed pavise is hard'' versus the sword.
+
| <p>[3] [The shield prevails] over the sword.
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|105r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|105r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 105v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 105v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[4] ''As is this smooth pavise'' versus the sword.
+
| <p>[4] [The shield prevails] over the sword.
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|105v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|105v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 106r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 106r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[5] As is this hooked pavise'' versus the sword.
+
| <p>[5] [The shield prevails] over the sword.
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|106r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|106r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 106v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 106v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[6] Learn ''to wield'' maces.
+
| <p>[6] Learn the club.
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|106v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|106v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 107r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 107r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[7] The garments for the pavise ''duel'' and for ''other'' dueling ''that'' Talhoffer ''advises'' to put on.
+
| <p>[7] The garments to be worn [used] for the shield and for Talhoffer’s fight.
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|107r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|107r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 107v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 107v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[8] For the harness
+
| <p>[8] [To be used] for armor.
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 107v.jpg|1|lbl=107v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 107v.jpg|1|lbl=107v}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[9] Yet also ''for any'' armoured ''dueling''</p>
+
| <p>[9] Also armed/armored.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 107v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 107v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[10] And versus pavises.</p>
+
| <p>[10] [To be used] for the long shield.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 107v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 107v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 108r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 108r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[11] {{red|b=1|Versus pavises}}
+
| <p>[11] {{red|b=1|[To be used] for the shield.}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 108r.jpg|1|lbl=108r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 108r.jpg|1|lbl=108r}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[12] Twain “sword-horns” for armoured dueling.</p>
+
| <p>[12] The two swords belong to armored combat.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 108r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 108r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 108v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 108v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[13] The three daggers for dueling.
+
| <p>[13] The three daggers [to be used] for combat.
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|108v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|108v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 109r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 109r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[14] These weapons break armament & armour, truly as one wills''.
+
| <p>[14] The weapon breaks whatever one wants.
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|109r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|109r|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 109v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 109v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[15] These pollaxes/luzern-hammers/ravens-beaks ''are'' for dueling.
+
| <p>[15] The axes [to be used] for combat.
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|109v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|109v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" rowspan="2" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 110r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| class="noline" rowspan="2" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 110r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[16] This is a ''modularly and optionally assembled'' pollaxe for the duel, ''with which'' one lays ''low his foe'' by stabbing ''thus it serves also like spear''.</p>
+
| <p>[16] This is an axe [to be used] for combat, if one lays out [the individual] parts.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 110r.jpg|1|lbl=110r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 110r.jpg|1|lbl=110r}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| class="noline" | <p>[17] This axe ''is assembled and ready'' for dueling.</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[17] The axe [to be used] for combat.</p>
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 110r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 110r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
  
Line 4,809: Line 4,810:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Jeffrey Hull]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
  
Line 4,829: Line 4,830:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 119r.jpg|400x400px|center|Folio 119r]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 119r.jpg|400x400px|center|Folio 119r]]
| <p>[4] {{red|b=1|The right and needed stance against two foes.}}</p>
+
| <p>[4] {{red|b=1|The correct combative stance against two [opponents].}}</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|119r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|119r|jpg}}
  
Line 4,887: Line 4,888:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Jeffrey Hull]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Archetype Transcription]] (1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
  
Line 4,908: Line 4,909:
 
{{master subsection end}}
 
{{master subsection end}}
 
{{master end}}
 
{{master end}}
== Temp ==
+
 
 
{{master begin
 
{{master begin
 
  | title = Württemberg Treatise (1467)
 
  | title = Württemberg Treatise (1467)
Line 8,177: Line 8,178:
 
{{sourcebox
 
{{sourcebox
 
  | work        = [[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Copenhagen Translation]]
 
  | work        = [[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|Copenhagen Translation]]
  | authors    = [[Jeffrey Hull]]
+
  | authors    = [[Rebecca Garber]]
 
  | source link =  
 
  | source link =  
  | source title= ''[[:file:Fight Earnestly (Hull).pdf|Fight Earnestly]]''
+
  | source title= Wiktenauer
  | license    = copyrighted
+
  | license    = default
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{sourcebox
 
{{sourcebox
Line 8,303: Line 8,304:
 
* ''Der Königsegger Codex. Die Fechthandschrift des Hauses Königsegg.'' Ed. André Schulze and Johannes Graf zu Königsegg-Aulendorf. Geschichte Neu Erleben: Philipp von Zabern, 2010. ISBN 978-3-8053-3753-3
 
* ''Der Königsegger Codex. Die Fechthandschrift des Hauses Königsegg.'' Ed. André Schulze and Johannes Graf zu Königsegg-Aulendorf. Geschichte Neu Erleben: Philipp von Zabern, 2010. ISBN 978-3-8053-3753-3
 
* Burkart, Eric. "Body Techniques Of Combat: The Depiction of a Personal Fighting System in the Fight Books of Hans Talhofer (1443-1467 CE)". ''Killing and Being Killed: Bodies in Battle''. 2018. pp 109-130. {{doi|10.14361/9783839437834-008}}
 
* Burkart, Eric. "Body Techniques Of Combat: The Depiction of a Personal Fighting System in the Fight Books of Hans Talhofer (1443-1467 CE)". ''Killing and Being Killed: Bodies in Battle''. 2018. pp 109-130. {{doi|10.14361/9783839437834-008}}
 +
* Deacon, Jacob Henry. "Prologues, Poetry, Prose and Portrayals: The Purposes of Fifteenth Century Fight Books According to the Diplomatic Evidence". ''[[Acta Periodica Duellatorum]]'' '''4'''(2): 69-90. 2016. {{doi|10.36950/apd-2016-014}}
 
* Elema, Ariella. "Tradition, Innovation, Re-enactment: Hans Talhoffer’s Unusual Weapons." ''[[Acta Periodica Duellatorum]]'' '''7'''(1): 3-25. August 2019. {{doi|10.2478/apd-2019-0001}}
 
* Elema, Ariella. "Tradition, Innovation, Re-enactment: Hans Talhoffer’s Unusual Weapons." ''[[Acta Periodica Duellatorum]]'' '''7'''(1): 3-25. August 2019. {{doi|10.2478/apd-2019-0001}}
 
* Hergsell, Gustav, and [[Hans Talhoffer|Talhoffer, Hans]]. ''[http://jfgilles.perso.sfr.fr/escrime/bibliotheque/talhoffer_ambras/index.html Livre d'escrime de Talhoffer (manuscrit d'Ambras) de l'an 1459]''. Prague: Chez L'Auteur, 1890.
 
* Hergsell, Gustav, and [[Hans Talhoffer|Talhoffer, Hans]]. ''[http://jfgilles.perso.sfr.fr/escrime/bibliotheque/talhoffer_ambras/index.html Livre d'escrime de Talhoffer (manuscrit d'Ambras) de l'an 1459]''. Prague: Chez L'Auteur, 1890.

Latest revision as of 22:41, 12 April 2021

Hans Talhoffer
Born ca. 1410-15
Swabia
Died after 1482
Occupation
Patron
Movement Marxbrüder (?)
Genres
Language Early New High German
Archetype(s)
Manuscript(s)
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations
Signature Hans Talhoffer Sig.jpg
Talhoffer's heraldry, including the Lion of St. Mark

Hans Talhoffer (Dalhover, Talhouer, Thalhoffer, Talhofer) was a 15th century German fencing master. His martial lineage is unknown, but his writings make it clear that he had some connection to the tradition of Johannes Liechtenauer, the grand master of the German school of fencing. Talhoffer was a well educated man, who took interest in astrology, mathematics, onomastics, and the auctoritas and the ratio. He authored at least five fencing manuals during the course of his career, and appears to have made his living teaching, including training people for trial by combat.

The first historical reference to Talhoffer is in 1433, when he represented Johann Ⅱ von Reisberg, archbishop of Salzburg, before the Vehmic court. Shortly thereafter in 1434, Talhoffer was arrested and questioned by order of Wilhelm von Villenbach (a footman to Albrecht Ⅲ von Wittelsbach, duke of Bavaria) in connection to the trial of a Nuremberg aristocrat named Jacob Auer, accused of murdering of his brother Hans. Talhoffer subsequently confessed to being hired to abduct Hans von Villenbach, and offered testimony that others hired by Auer performed the murder.[1] Auer's trial was quite controversial and proved a major source of contention and regional strife for the subsequent two years. Talhoffer himself remained in the service of the archbishop for at least a few more years, and in 1437 is mentioned as serving as a bursary officer (Kastner) in Hohenburg.[2]

The 1440s saw the launch of Talhoffer's career as a professional fencing master. He purchased (and perhaps contributed to) the MS Chart.A.558, an anthology created in ca. 1448. The fencing portion is largely text-less and it may have been designed as a visual aid for use in teaching; in addition to these illustrations, the manuscript also contains a treatise on name magic and a warbook that might be related to Konrad Kyeser's Bellifortis. While Talhoffer's owner's mark appears in this manuscript,[3] his level of involvement with its creation is unclear. It contains many works by other authors, in addition to plays that are somewhat similar to his later works, and shows evidence of multiple scribes and multiple artists. It is possible that he purchased the manuscript after it was completed (or partially completed), and used it as a basis for his later teachings.[4]

Most notable among the noble clients that Talhoffer served in this period was the Königsegg family of southern Germany, and some time between 1446 and 1459[5] he produced the MS ⅩⅨ.17-3 for this family. This work depicts a judicial duel being fought by Luithold von Königsegg and the training that Talhoffer gave him in preparation, but it seems that this duel never actually took place.[6] He seems to have passed through Emerkingen later in the 1450s, where he was contracted to train the brothers David and Buppellin vom Stain; he also produced the MS 78.A.15 for them, a significantly expanded version of the Königsegg manuscript.[7]

In 1459,[8] Talhoffer commissioned the MS Thott.290.2º, a new personal fencing manual along the same lines as the 1448 work but expanded with additional content and captioned throughout. He appears to have continued instructing throughout the 1460s, and in 1467 he produced his final manuscript, Cod.icon 394a, for another of his noble clients, Eberhardt Ⅰ von Württemberg.[9] This would be his most extensive work, and the graf paid 10 Guilder as well as quantities of rye and oats for the finished work.[10]

While only a few facts are known about Talhoffer's life, this has not stopped authors from conjecture. The presence of the Lion of St. Mark in Talhoffer's 1459 coat of arms (right) has given rise to speculation that he may have been an early or even founding member of the Frankfurt-am-Main-based Marxbrüder fencing guild, though there is no record of their existence prior to 1474.[citation needed] Additionally, much has been made of the fact that Talhoffer's name doesn't appear in Paulus Kal's list of members of the Fellowship of Liechtenauer.[11] While some have speculated that this indicates rivalry or ill-will between the two contemporaries, it is more likely that Talhoffer simply didn't participate in whatever venture the fellowship was organized for.

Various otherwise-unidentified fencing masters named Hans have also been associated by some authors with Talhoffer. The 1454 records of the city of Zürich note that a master (presumed by some authors to be Hans Talhoffer) was chartered to teach fencing in some capacity and to adjudicate judicial duels; the account further notes that a fight broke out among his students and had to be settled in front of the city council, resulting in various fines.[12] In 1455, a master named Hans was retained by Mahiot Coquel to train him for his duel with Jacotin Plouvier in Valencienne; if this were Talhoffer, his training did little good as Coquel lost the duel and died in brutal fashion.[citation needed]

Treatises

Not only did Talhoffer produce at least three distinct treatises in his lifetime, but his writings have been reproduced in every century up to the present. They exist in well over a dozen manuscripts created in the fifteenth through nineteenth centuries; they have also been published a number of times in facsimiles beginning in 1887, including translations into English and French.

Talhoffer's writings cover a wide assortment of weapons, including the buckler, crossbow, dagger, flail, Messer, longshield, mace, poleaxe, spear, sword, and unarmed grappling, often both armored and unarmored, on horse and on foot, and in scenarios including tournaments, formal duels, and unequal encounters implying urban self-defense. Despite the obvious care and detail that went into the artwork, the manuscripts generally have only a few words captioning each page (and in many cases none at all); some were likely teaching aids and would need no detailed explanation, while the treatises for Königsegg, Stain, and Württemberg were probably intended as memory aids to review his teachings after he left.

Though there is considerable overlap in the specific plays Talhoffer teaches, the organization and exact contents differ in each of the main treatises. For this reason, they are listed separately below (along with their derivative copies) rather than being combined into one giant mixed concordance that fails to capture the organization of any of them. Though his authorship of his first manuscript, the Gotha, cannot be proven, it is included below because it is a useful reference to compare to his authenticated works.