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Difference between revisions of "Hans Talhoffer"

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| language              = [[language::Early New High German]]
 
| language              = [[language::Early New High German]]
 
| notableworks          =  
 
| notableworks          =  
| archetype              = {{collapsible list
+
| archetype              = {{plainlist
 
  | [[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Chart.A.558)|MS Chart.A.558]] (1448)(?)
 
  | [[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Chart.A.558)|MS Chart.A.558]] (1448)(?)
 
  | [[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS XIX.17-3)|MS XIX 17-3]] (1446-1459)
 
  | [[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS XIX.17-3)|MS XIX 17-3]] (1446-1459)
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|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>Images</p>
 
! <p>Images</p>
! <p>{{rating|C|Completed Translation (from the Vienna)}}<br/>by [[Hugh Knight]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the Vienna)}}<br/>by [[Hugh Knight]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS XIX.17-3)|Archetype Transcription]] (1446-1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS XIX.17-3)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS XIX.17-3)|Archetype Transcription]] (1446-1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS XIX.17-3)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS 78.A.15)|Berlin Transcription]] (1450s){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS 78.A.15)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS 78.A.15)|Berlin Transcription]] (1450s){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS 78.A.15)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>Images</p>
 
! <p>Images</p>
! <p>{{rating|c|Completed Translation (from the Vienna)}}<br/>by [[Brian Hunt]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the Vienna)}}<br/>by [[Brian Hunt]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS XIX.17-3)|Archetype Transcription]] (1446-1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS XIX.17-3)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS XIX.17-3)|Archetype Transcription]] (1446-1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS XIX.17-3)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS 78.A.15)|Berlin Transcription]] (1450s){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS 78.A.15)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS 78.A.15)|Berlin Transcription]] (1450s){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS 78.A.15)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>Images</p>
 
! <p>Images</p>
! <p>{{rating|c}}<br/>Open</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Cory Winslow]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS XIX.17-3)|Archetype Transcription]] (1446-1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS XIX.17-3)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS XIX.17-3)|Archetype Transcription]] (1446-1459){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS XIX.17-3)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS 78.A.15)|Berlin Transcription]] (1450s){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS 78.A.15)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS 78.A.15)|Berlin Transcription]] (1450s){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS 78.A.15)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>'''Conclusion of hewing:'''<ref>Preceded by a version of the Recital.</ref></p>
+
| <p>[1] '''Conclusion of hewing:'''<ref>Preceded by a version of the Recital.</ref></p>
  
 
<p>Would that your fighting be lucky –<br/>Then be lively, withhold not long the play.<br/>The dandy laugh at that<br/>While the earnest make –<br/>They trust in the sword.<br/>As the Talhoffer does teach:<br/>In the sword you shall have trust and belief,<br/>So that blood runs not over the eyes, etc.</p>
 
<p>Would that your fighting be lucky –<br/>Then be lively, withhold not long the play.<br/>The dandy laugh at that<br/>While the earnest make –<br/>They trust in the sword.<br/>As the Talhoffer does teach:<br/>In the sword you shall have trust and belief,<br/>So that blood runs not over the eyes, etc.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>Thus here is the key to Rightful Art, according to all the masters, the sundry hands of converging ways; which is also consigned to memory; and which is the right grounding:</p>
+
| <p>[2] Thus here is the key to Rightful Art, according to all the masters, the sundry hands of converging ways; which is also consigned to memory; and which is the right grounding:</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 001v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 001v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>Thus firstly, when you will fight in earnest with someone, then look out for how you and he agree what hour thereafter; thus by all means you act according to pressing need; and keep that to yourself and tell nobody what you have in mind or would do, since the World is so false. And by all means, the gauntlets serve to your vantage; sword and gambeson and leggings and whatever you will that is customary; yet mark how you and he agree upon that – and so then abide by it. Even if the sword has no other right, then it has that which is one’s own and free will. Thus when you come within the barriers and will begin / attack, then let any foe say and do what he will; and cower not within yourself; and have the earnest in mind; and whatever he says unto you, do not react to it; and fight earnestly for yourself thusly; and let him have no rest and become no threat; and follow the art, thus fear not his strikes; and would he draw you into meetings of the blades, then counterstrike merrily.</p>
+
| <p>[3] Thus firstly, when you will fight in earnest with someone, then look out for how you and he agree what hour thereafter; thus by all means you act according to pressing need; and keep that to yourself and tell nobody what you have in mind or would do, since the World is so false. And by all means, the gauntlets serve to your vantage; sword and gambeson and leggings and whatever you will that is customary; yet mark how you and he agree upon that – and so then abide by it. Even if the sword has no other right, then it has that which is one’s own and free will. Thus when you come within the barriers and will begin / attack, then let any foe say and do what he will; and cower not within yourself; and have the earnest in mind; and whatever he says unto you, do not react to it; and fight earnestly for yourself thusly; and let him have no rest and become no threat; and follow the art, thus fear not his strikes; and would he draw you into meetings of the blades, then counterstrike merrily.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 001v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 001v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>Thereupon speaks Hans Talhoffer: The good man must speak up for the truth – even when it seems obvious and happens often, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[4] Thereupon speaks Hans Talhoffer: The good man must speak up for the truth – even when it seems obvious and happens often, etc.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 001v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 001v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
  
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>{{red|b=1|Here finds one written of judicial combat}}</p>
+
| <p>[1] {{red|b=1|Here finds one written of judicial combat}}</p>
  
 
<p>Thus what now be decreed as forbidden of all combatants. So by and by, it has become the custom of kaisers and kings, princes and lords, to whom one likens himself and emulates, that one is obliged to fight, especially regarding several causes and articles which are written down hereafter.</p>
 
<p>Thus what now be decreed as forbidden of all combatants. So by and by, it has become the custom of kaisers and kings, princes and lords, to whom one likens himself and emulates, that one is obliged to fight, especially regarding several causes and articles which are written down hereafter.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>{{red|Yet firstly this – Nobody is happy when one of his comrades cuts him up with loud words. He who would have at dueling with such a comrade, indeed he is within his rights and may well-fight him if he would. Thus dueling is wantonness.}}</p>
+
| <p>[2] {{red|Yet firstly this – Nobody is happy when one of his comrades cuts him up with loud words. He who would have at dueling with such a comrade, indeed he is within his rights and may well-fight him if he would. Thus dueling is wantonness.}}</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 008r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 008r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>{{red|b=1|Now those aforesaid causes and articles are seven, wherefor a man has duty to fight:}}</p>
+
| <p>[3] {{red|b=1|Now those aforesaid causes and articles are seven, wherefor a man has duty to fight:}}</p>
  
 
* {{red|Thus the first is murder. }}
 
* {{red|Thus the first is murder. }}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>That is why one man challenges another to duel. Such a man shall come before court and shall lay down his case through his own advocacy. Therefor he who accuses shall name the man by baptized name and surname. At the appointed hour it is right that he who calls for the tribunal also complains to three tribunes after the accused comes – unless either one comes not and answers for himself. Yet nobody of one’s ilk may do so, for truly one may answer better for himself. Then the accuser proves his need be just and right. So shall the man under accusation, as much as his accuser, comprehend and likewise this helps the land. Only after all the testimony is done shall verdict be rendered.</p>
+
| <p>[4] That is why one man challenges another to duel. Such a man shall come before court and shall lay down his case through his own advocacy. Therefor he who accuses shall name the man by baptized name and surname. At the appointed hour it is right that he who calls for the tribunal also complains to three tribunes after the accused comes – unless either one comes not and answers for himself. Yet nobody of one’s ilk may do so, for truly one may answer better for himself. Then the accuser proves his need be just and right. So shall the man under accusation, as much as his accuser, comprehend and likewise this helps the land. Only after all the testimony is done shall verdict be rendered.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 008r.jpg|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 008v.jpg|1|lbl=8v|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 008r.jpg|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 008v.jpg|1|lbl=8v|p=1}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>Thus he who was challenged, he comes singularly before the three tribunes to respond and gainsay. Therefor the man who was challenged, he speaks thus that he be blameless and he repeats that the accusations be not true and thereover he would honour with struggle upon that knowledge, as then be right for and required by the land wherein this be and so thereupon is dealt his training-time. So he is dealt six weeks and four days from this tribunal for his training time. Thereupon is also dealt that the men shall struggle as is customary and right in the land.</p>
+
| <p>[5] Thus he who was challenged, he comes singularly before the three tribunes to respond and gainsay. Therefor the man who was challenged, he speaks thus that he be blameless and he repeats that the accusations be not true and thereover he would honour with struggle upon that knowledge, as then be right for and required by the land wherein this be and so thereupon is dealt his training-time. So he is dealt six weeks and four days from this tribunal for his training time. Thereupon is also dealt that the men shall struggle as is customary and right in the land.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 008v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 008v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>Thus the two men pledge willingly to go before court and struggle against each other – each also with about six weeks of trainingtime in peace, during which either or both are banished if someone breaks peace – thus not until when it is agreed upon as right by the judge.</p>
+
| <p>[6] Thus the two men pledge willingly to go before court and struggle against each other – each also with about six weeks of trainingtime in peace, during which either or both are banished if someone breaks peace – thus not until when it is agreed upon as right by the judge.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 008v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 008v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>{{red|b=1|How one may lawfully meet the other.}}</p>
+
| <p>[7] {{red|b=1|How one may lawfully meet the other.}}</p>
  
 
<p>Thus is one man challenged to fight by another man. The man said to be not as good by the other – he may with right meet that other, if he will. Or if a man would be said or become spurious, then he may instead disregard the duel. Thus indeed the noble challenge the craven to dueling – so may the craven not well disregard that.</p>
 
<p>Thus is one man challenged to fight by another man. The man said to be not as good by the other – he may with right meet that other, if he will. Or if a man would be said or become spurious, then he may instead disregard the duel. Thus indeed the noble challenge the craven to dueling – so may the craven not well disregard that.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>{{red|b=1|Thus why indeed two men may not combat one another; though whichever among them, of the two, may well want to meet the other:}}</p>
+
| <p>[8] {{red|b=1|Thus why indeed two men may not combat one another; though whichever among them, of the two, may well want to meet the other:}}</p>
  
 
<p>Thus these two men are intent ''to duel'' – except they who are within five places of kinship, they may not rectify with one another by dueling; which seven men must swear, who may be of either the paternal or maternal half ''of either man’s family''.</p>
 
<p>Thus these two men are intent ''to duel'' – except they who are within five places of kinship, they may not rectify with one another by dueling; which seven men must swear, who may be of either the paternal or maternal half ''of either man’s family''.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>{{red|b=1|Thus how one or the other may disregard the duel, if he has such a handicap as written and stated here:}}</p>
+
| <p>[9] {{red|b=1|Thus how one or the other may disregard the duel, if he has such a handicap as written and stated here:}}</p>
  
 
<p>Thus if a lame man, or one who has bad eyes, becomes challenged to duel. ''Yet if'' he may well-manage somehow to meet the sound one, it be then the wise decree to make this person on par with ''the other''; and that wise decree must be done upon their oath; ''such that'' just as well the lamed or poorly sighted man thus may well win instead of the ''other'' one in any duel of theirs.</p>
 
<p>Thus if a lame man, or one who has bad eyes, becomes challenged to duel. ''Yet if'' he may well-manage somehow to meet the sound one, it be then the wise decree to make this person on par with ''the other''; and that wise decree must be done upon their oath; ''such that'' just as well the lamed or poorly sighted man thus may well win instead of the ''other'' one in any duel of theirs.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>When thus the six weeks are past and the last day is come, then the judge has summoned them, whereupon shall be combat. So shall they both come before the judge with such training and in such respect as the customs and law teach in the land wherein the duel shall be; or accordingly as they have ''otherwise'' willingly agreed and so forth.</p>
+
| <p>[10] When thus the six weeks are past and the last day is come, then the judge has summoned them, whereupon shall be combat. So shall they both come before the judge with such training and in such respect as the customs and law teach in the land wherein the duel shall be; or accordingly as they have ''otherwise'' willingly agreed and so forth.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 009r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 009r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>Thus so there, the complainant shall swear that he therefor has cause ''for fighting the other''; and that he has deemed the other man guilty. And then shall ''the judge'' assign a ring and “grit-wardens” and verdict; and counsel wise decrees according to the customs of the land; whereupon the day in the ring arrives ''for'' the verdict. One erring man vanquished as honour demands; which he shall take as proof and as rightful / lawful.</p>
+
| <p>[11] Thus so there, the complainant shall swear that he therefor has cause ''for fighting the other''; and that he has deemed the other man guilty. And then shall ''the judge'' assign a ring and “grit-wardens” and verdict; and counsel wise decrees according to the customs of the land; whereupon the day in the ring arrives ''for'' the verdict. One erring man vanquished as honour demands; which he shall take as proof and as rightful / lawful.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 009r.jpg|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 009v.jpg|1|lbl=9v|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 009r.jpg|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 009v.jpg|1|lbl=9v|p=1}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>{{red|b=1|Here is stated how one shall hold oneself when the combatants are come into the ring upon the ''appointed'' hour, at which time one thus shall duel ''the other'' adversarily:}}</p>
+
| <p>[12] {{red|b=1|Here is stated how one shall hold oneself when the combatants are come into the ring upon the ''appointed'' hour, at which time one thus shall duel ''the other'' adversarily:}}</p>
  
 
<p>{{red|W}}hen the combatants are thus come into the ring, then the judge of that hour shall stare at all ''there''; and advise that hiding is forbidden, by health and wealth; and that he shall not allow one or the other to be aided by someone else; thus shall each both do ''combat exclusively;'' so may the ''judge'' intimidate any rabble.</p>
 
<p>{{red|W}}hen the combatants are thus come into the ring, then the judge of that hour shall stare at all ''there''; and advise that hiding is forbidden, by health and wealth; and that he shall not allow one or the other to be aided by someone else; thus shall each both do ''combat exclusively;'' so may the ''judge'' intimidate any rabble.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>{{red|b=1|That which is lawful if one of the combatants flees out, or becomes driven out, of the ring:}}</p>
+
| <p>[13] {{red|b=1|That which is lawful if one of the combatants flees out, or becomes driven out, of the ring:}}</p>
  
 
<p>Thus whichever ''combatant'' comes out of the ring, before then the duel has its ''deadly'' ending, because he becomes knocked out of ''the ring'' by the other or he flees thereout, or however else he comes thereout; or he admits that the other man’s position regarding the cause for challenge is right – then shall that man be adjudged vanquished, or otherwise slain and killed; ''for another'' man has conquered him.</p>
 
<p>Thus whichever ''combatant'' comes out of the ring, before then the duel has its ''deadly'' ending, because he becomes knocked out of ''the ring'' by the other or he flees thereout, or however else he comes thereout; or he admits that the other man’s position regarding the cause for challenge is right – then shall that man be adjudged vanquished, or otherwise slain and killed; ''for another'' man has conquered him.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>Then a man shall rectify indeed as is lawful and customary in the land. And thereby they have battled one another.</p>
+
| <p>[14] Then a man shall rectify indeed as is lawful and customary in the land. And thereby they have battled one another.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 009v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 009v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>{{red|b=1|Now mark this bond that ''you'' need to understand:}}<br/><br/></p>
+
| <p>[15] {{red|b=1|Now mark this bond that ''you'' need to understand:}}<br/><br/></p>
  
 
<p>Thus firstly you should know well the master who will teach you; that his art be right and protective; and that he be pious / sober; and that he not embezzle you; and that he not shorten / beguile the lore; and that he wits to broaden the arsenal wherewith he will battle. However – should that master not accept ''that'', swearing upon his profits ingratiatingly and his prejudices devotedly and thus shall his ilk become masters because of him – then swear neither to further nor to teach his ''so-called'' art.</p>
 
<p>Thus firstly you should know well the master who will teach you; that his art be right and protective; and that he be pious / sober; and that he not embezzle you; and that he not shorten / beguile the lore; and that he wits to broaden the arsenal wherewith he will battle. However – should that master not accept ''that'', swearing upon his profits ingratiatingly and his prejudices devotedly and thus shall his ilk become masters because of him – then swear neither to further nor to teach his ''so-called'' art.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>{{red|b=1|Here heed the master:}}</p>
+
| <p>[16] {{red|b=1|Here heed the master:}}</p>
  
 
<p>Thus the master, who ''has'' a student to teach, he shall wit that he recognise well the man whom he will teach; whether he be weak or strong and if he be coxcombraging or gentle-minded; whether he has good breathing / endurance or not; and whether he may work heartily. So when you ''the master'' have well-recognised him as into the lore and what work he is able to do, thereafter you must teach ''the student'' such that it avails him against his foes. Yet the combatant and the master shall guard that they let no man see them nor also the arsenal with which they work. And they both ''shall'' guard ''their doings'' from much of society; and say little of the fighting, so that no notice is made thereof.</p>
 
<p>Thus the master, who ''has'' a student to teach, he shall wit that he recognise well the man whom he will teach; whether he be weak or strong and if he be coxcombraging or gentle-minded; whether he has good breathing / endurance or not; and whether he may work heartily. So when you ''the master'' have well-recognised him as into the lore and what work he is able to do, thereafter you must teach ''the student'' such that it avails him against his foes. Yet the combatant and the master shall guard that they let no man see them nor also the arsenal with which they work. And they both ''shall'' guard ''their doings'' from much of society; and say little of the fighting, so that no notice is made thereof.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>{{red|b=1|About patronage:}}</p>
+
| <p>[17] {{red|b=1|About patronage:}}</p>
  
 
<p>How the combatant and the master want to relate: Remit the fee and reciprocate. What be his nature? If he be strong or weak, if yet he be coxcomb-raging or not; and how his top heats up if someone would quarrel or fight. It is also needful to wit by the master who teaches him: That the man strives to set himself aright.</p>
 
<p>How the combatant and the master want to relate: Remit the fee and reciprocate. What be his nature? If he be strong or weak, if yet he be coxcomb-raging or not; and how his top heats up if someone would quarrel or fight. It is also needful to wit by the master who teaches him: That the man strives to set himself aright.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>{{red|b=1|When now ''the combatant'' is taught and shall go within the barriers:}}</p>
+
| <p>[18] {{red|b=1|When now ''the combatant'' is taught and shall go within the barriers:}}</p>
  
 
<p>So firstly, when he shall fight, accordingly shall he hear a priest say mass, in honour of Our Lady ''Mary'' and of Saint George ''patron of knights'', and the priest shall bless him in the name of Saint John of the gospel, with which the combatant agrees. Thereafter the master shall try earnestly to advise ''the combatant one last time''; whereupon ''the combatant'' shall stay; and shall fathom nothing, yet focus upon his foe and earnestly look at him.</p>
 
<p>So firstly, when he shall fight, accordingly shall he hear a priest say mass, in honour of Our Lady ''Mary'' and of Saint George ''patron of knights'', and the priest shall bless him in the name of Saint John of the gospel, with which the combatant agrees. Thereafter the master shall try earnestly to advise ''the combatant one last time''; whereupon ''the combatant'' shall stay; and shall fathom nothing, yet focus upon his foe and earnestly look at him.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>{{red|b=1|Mark the presentation}} when one thus comes within the barriers:</p>
+
| <p>[19] {{red|b=1|Mark the presentation}} when one thus comes within the barriers:</p>
  
 
<p>So shall he make one cross with the right foot and one ''cross'' with the right hand at his breast and shall sign in the name of the Father and Son and the Holy Ghost. The grit-wardens ''bearing staves or spears'' take the men in and present them and they turn round in the Sun. So then shall ''each'' combatant bid ''well'' the ''witnessing'' princes and lords; and they stand around the circle, as each bids God would help him and would give him victory over his foe, as He has truth and right.</p>
 
<p>So shall he make one cross with the right foot and one ''cross'' with the right hand at his breast and shall sign in the name of the Father and Son and the Holy Ghost. The grit-wardens ''bearing staves or spears'' take the men in and present them and they turn round in the Sun. So then shall ''each'' combatant bid ''well'' the ''witnessing'' princes and lords; and they stand around the circle, as each bids God would help him and would give him victory over his foe, as He has truth and right.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>{{red|b=1|Thereafter shall one sit down in the chair:}}</p>
+
| <p>[20] {{red|b=1|Thereafter shall one sit down in the chair:}}</p>
  
 
<p>When he is now seated, so shall someone overspan him with a tent, and his bier ''is'' behind him at the barriers, and his arsenal is well-arrayed and is lawful and ready for ''his'' needs / as required by court.</p>
 
<p>When he is now seated, so shall someone overspan him with a tent, and his bier ''is'' behind him at the barriers, and his arsenal is well-arrayed and is lawful and ready for ''his'' needs / as required by court.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>{{red|b=1|The grit-wardens or armigers:}}</p>
+
| <p>[21] {{red|b=1|The grit-wardens or armigers:}}</p>
  
 
<p>The master and grit-wardens should heed the judge, or whomever else then ''as agreed previously''. Dueling is started at the first call – so shall he ''the judge'' call the ''combatants'' to stand up and draw up from the tents; and when he has called for the third time, calling them ''by name'', then he goes thence and commends them unto God.</p>
 
<p>The master and grit-wardens should heed the judge, or whomever else then ''as agreed previously''. Dueling is started at the first call – so shall he ''the judge'' call the ''combatants'' to stand up and draw up from the tents; and when he has called for the third time, calling them ''by name'', then he goes thence and commends them unto God.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>{{red|b=1|Of the aftermath ''states the'' judge:}}</p>
+
| <p>[22] {{red|b=1|Of the aftermath ''states the'' judge:}}</p>
  
 
<p>Thus the combatant shall ward his body as avails him, within the ring or barriers; and then go out when he overcomes. So states the judge the aftermath at the barriers – that ''the combatant'' has proven ''himself'' ever-so right, if he becomes called ''the winner''.</p>
 
<p>Thus the combatant shall ward his body as avails him, within the ring or barriers; and then go out when he overcomes. So states the judge the aftermath at the barriers – that ''the combatant'' has proven ''himself'' ever-so right, if he becomes called ''the winner''.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 011r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 011r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>{{red|He “inscribes” a message within a knotted twine}}</p>
+
| <p>[23] {{red|b=1|He “inscribes” a message within a knotted twine.}}</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 011r.jpg|1|lbl=11r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 011r.jpg|1|lbl=11r}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>{{red|He records the words of the mouth upon paper and those shall become black later.}}</p>
+
| <p>[24] {{red|b=1|He records the words of the mouth upon paper and those shall become black later.}}</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 011r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 011r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
  
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| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 068r.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 068r.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| <p>[15] The counter and death-stab.</p>
 
| <p>[15] The counter and death-stab.</p>
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|068r|jpg}}
+
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|068r|png}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 068v.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 068v.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| <p>[16] The lower counter and heart-stab.</p>
 
| <p>[16] The lower counter and heart-stab.</p>
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|068v|jpg}}
+
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|068v|png}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 101v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 101v.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[1] Here Master Hans Talhoffer
+
| <p>[1] {{red|b=1|Here Master Hans Talhoffer}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|101v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|101v|jpg}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 102r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 102r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[2] '''Bethink Thee Right'''
+
| <p>[2] {{red|b=1|Bethink Thee Right}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|102r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|102r|jpg}}
  
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 108r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 108r.jpg|400x400px|center]]
| <p>[11] Versus pavises
+
| <p>[11] {{red|b=1|Versus pavises}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 108r.jpg|1|lbl=108r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Thott.290.2º 108r.jpg|1|lbl=108r}}
  
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| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 118r.png|400x400px|center|Folio 118r]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 118r.png|400x400px|center|Folio 118r]]
 
| <p>[2]</p>
 
| <p>[2]</p>
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|118r|jpg}}  
+
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|118r|png}}  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 118v.png|400x400px|center|Folio 118v]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 118v.png|400x400px|center|Folio 118v]]
 
| <p>[3]</p>
 
| <p>[3]</p>
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|118v|jpg|blk=1}}  
+
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|118v|png|blk=1}}  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 119r.jpg|400x400px|center|Folio 119r]]
 
| [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 119r.jpg|400x400px|center|Folio 119r]]
| <p>[4] The right and needed stance against two foes.</p>
+
| <p>[4] {{red|b=1|The right and needed stance against two foes.}}</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|119r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS Thott.290.2º|119r|jpg}}
  

Latest revision as of 00:52, 9 July 2020

Hans Talhoffer
Born ca. 1410-15
Swabia
Died after 1482
Occupation
Patron
Movement Marxbrüder (?)
Genres
Language Early New High German
Archetype(s)
Manuscript(s)
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations
Signature Hans Talhoffer Sig.jpg
Talhoffer's heraldry, including the Lion of St. Mark

Hans Talhoffer (Dalhover, Talhouer, Thalhoffer, Talhofer) was a 15th century German fencing master. His martial lineage is unknown, but his writings make it clear that he had some connection to the tradition of Johannes Liechtenauer, the grand master of the German school of fencing. Talhoffer was a well educated man, who took interest in astrology, mathematics, onomastics, and the auctoritas and the ratio. He authored at least five fencing manuals during the course of his career, and appears to have made his living teaching, including training people for trial by combat.

The first historical reference to Talhoffer is in 1433, when he represented Johann II von Reisberg, archbishop of Salzburg, before the Vehmic court. Shortly thereafter in 1434, Talhoffer was arrested and questioned by order of Wilhelm von Villach (a footman to Albrecht III von Wittelsbach, duke of Bavaria) in connection to the trial of a Nuremberg aristocrat named Jacob Auer, accused of murdering of his brother Hans. Talhoffer subsequently confessed to being hired to abduct Hans von Villach, and offered testimony that others hired by Auer performed the murder.[1] Auer's trial was quite controversial and proved a major source of contention and regional strife for the subsequent two years. Talhoffer himself remained in the service of the archbishop for at least a few more years, and in 1437 is mentioned as serving as a bursary officer (Kastner) in Hohenburg.[2]

The 1440s saw the launch of Talhoffer's career as a professional fencing master. He purchased (and perhaps contributed to) the MS Chart.A.558, an anthology created in ca. 1448. The fencing portion is largely text-less and it may have been designed as a visual aid for use in teaching; in addition to these illustrations, the manuscript also contains a treatise on name magic and a warbook that might be related to Konrad Kyeser's Bellifortis. While Talhoffer's owner's mark appears in this manuscript,[3] his level of involvement with its creation is unclear. It contains many works by other authors, in addition to plays that are somewhat similar to his later works, and shows evidence of multiple scribes and multiple artists. It is possible that he purchased the manuscript after it was completed (or partially completed), and used it as a basis for his later teachings.[4]

Most notable among the noble clients that Talhoffer served in this period was the Königsegg family of southern Germany, and some time between 1446 and 1459[5] he produced the MS XIX.17-3 for this family. This work depicts a judicial duel being fought by Luithold von Königsegg and the training that Talhoffer gave him in preparation, but it seems that this duel never actually took place.[6] He seems to have passed through Emerkingen later in the 1450s, where he was contracted to train the brothers David and Buppellin vom Stain; he also produced the MS 78.A.15 for them, a significantly expanded version of the Königsegg manuscript.[7]

In 1459,[8] Talhoffer commissioned the MS Thott.290.2º, a new personal fencing manual along the same lines as the 1448 work but expanded with additional content and captioned throughout. He appears to have continued instructing throughout the 1460s, and in 1467 he produced his final manuscript, Cod.icon 394a, for another of his noble clients, Eberhardt I von Württemberg.[9] This would be his most extensive work, and the graf paid 10 Guilder as well as quantities of rye and oats for the finished work.[10]

While only a few facts are known about Talhoffer's life, this has not stopped authors from conjecture. The presence of the Lion of St. Mark in Talhoffer's 1459 coat of arms (right) has given rise to speculation that he may have been an early or even founding member of the Frankfurt-am-Main-based Marxbrüder fencing guild, though there is no record of their existence prior to 1474.[citation needed] Additionally, much has been made of the fact that Talhoffer's name doesn't appear in Paulus Kal's list of members of the Fellowship of Liechtenauer.[11] While some have speculated that this indicates rivalry or ill-will between the two contemporaries, it is more likely that Talhoffer simply didn't participate in whatever venture the fellowship was organized for.

Various otherwise-unidentified fencing masters named Hans have also been associated by some authors with Talhoffer. The 1454 records of the city of Zürich note that a master (presumed by some authors to be Hans Talhoffer) was chartered to teach fencing in some capacity and to adjudicate judicial duels; the account further notes that a fight broke out among his students and had to be settled in front of the city council, resulting in various fines.[12] In 1455, a master named Hans was retained by Mahiot Coquel to train him for his duel with Jacotin Plouvier in Valencienne; if this were Talhoffer, his training did little good as Coquel lost the duel and died in brutal fashion.[citation needed]

Treatises

Not only did Talhoffer produce at least three distinct treatises in his lifetime, but his writings have been reproduced in every century up to the present. They exist in well over a dozen manuscripts created in the fifteenth through nineteenth centuries; they have also been published a number of times in facsimiles beginning in 1887, including translations into English and French.

Talhoffer's writings cover a wide assortment of weapons, including the buckler, crossbow, dagger, flail, Messer, longshield, mace, poleaxe, spear, sword, and unarmed grappling, often both armored and unarmored, on horse and on foot, and in scenarios including tournaments, formal duels, and unequal encounters implying urban self-defense. Despite the obvious care and detail that went into the artwork, the manuscripts generally have only a few words captioning each page (and in many cases none at all); some were likely teaching aids and would need no detailed explanation, while the treatises for Königsegg, Stain, and Württemberg were probably intended as memory aids to review his teachings after he left.

Though there is considerable overlap in the specific plays Talhoffer teaches, the organization and exact contents differ in each of the main treatises. For this reason, they are listed separately below (along with their derivative copies) rather than being combined into one giant mixed concordance that fails to capture the organization of any of them. Though his authorship of his first manuscript, the Gotha, cannot be proven, it is included below because it is a useful reference to compare to his authenticated works.