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| <p>Note the twelfth play. If you want to end him quickly, hold your spear and sword together on your arm, unscrew the pommel of your sword and throw it at him vigorously. Close in with the throw and use your sword or spear, whatever suits you best.</p>
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| class="noline" | <p>Note the twelfth play. If you want to end him quickly, hold your spear and sword together on your arm, unscrew the pommel of your sword and throw it at him vigorously. Close in with the throw and use your sword or spear, whatever suits you best.</p>
  
 
<p>When he throws his pommel at you, keep your buckler close to you and watch out for the throw. Hold your spear in your right hand and prepare to thrust, to stop him from closing in if it is his intention.</p>
 
<p>When he throws his pommel at you, keep your buckler close to you and watch out for the throw. Hold your spear in your right hand and prepare to thrust, to stop him from closing in if it is his intention.</p>
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| <p>This is the fiftieth technique of the sword: When you hold each others’ arms strongly then release your left hand and shove his right arm with it behind the elbow turning inwards and grab with your right arm over his back and grab his right foot from the outside below his knee with your left hand and lift so you can throw him as seen in the picture above.</p>
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| class="noline" | <p>This is the fiftieth technique of the sword: When you hold each others’ arms strongly then release your left hand and shove his right arm with it behind the elbow turning inwards and grab with your right arm over his back and grab his right foot from the outside below his knee with your left hand and lift so you can throw him as seen in the picture above.</p>
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| <p>The thirty-sixth technique of the dagger: if he thrusts at you from below from his left side and his right foot is forward, then stride with your left foot inside his foot, and leave your dagger in its sheath, and briskly grasp his right hand behind the dagger with your left hand, and go up from below with your right hand on his blade, and twist his point to his chest; thus his grip comes on your chest; thus you crowd his dagger at him as you see illustrated above.</p>
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| class="noline" | <p>The thirty-sixth technique of the dagger: if he thrusts at you from below from his left side and his right foot is forward, then stride with your left foot inside his foot, and leave your dagger in its sheath, and briskly grasp his right hand behind the dagger with your left hand, and go up from below with your right hand on his blade, and twist his point to his chest; thus his grip comes on your chest; thus you crowd his dagger at him as you see illustrated above.</p>
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| <p>The seventh technique of pinning: when it happens again that you have brought him on his back with wrestling, then fall with your right knee between his legs, and catch with your right foot over his left instep, thus holding his foot so that he cannot pull his leg to himself; and take his left hand in your left hand, and jerk it behind his helmet, and hold fast, and work to his face as you see illustrated above.</p>
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| class="noline" | <p>The seventh technique of pinning: when it happens again that you have brought him on his back with wrestling, then fall with your right knee between his legs, and catch with your right foot over his left instep, thus holding his foot so that he cannot pull his leg to himself; and take his left hand in your left hand, and jerk it behind his helmet, and hold fast, and work to his face as you see illustrated above.</p>
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[[Category:German]]

Latest revision as of 23:41, 6 October 2020

Gladiatoria Group
MS Germ.Quart.16 01r.jpg
Author(s) Unknown
Illustrated by Unknown
Patron Unknown
Date ca. 1430s
Genre
Language Early New High German
Archetype(s) Currently lost
Manuscript(s)
First Printed
English Edition
Knight, 2008
Concordance by Michael Chidester and
Dierk Hagedorn
Translations Traduzione italiana

The Gladiatoria Group is a series of several 15th century German manuscripts that share the same art style and cover the same material—various types of armored combat. These are interesting texts in that they seem to be contemporary with the tradition of Johannes Liechtenauer, but not directly influenced by it.[citation needed] Gladiatoria is thus one of very few glimpses into the characteristics of a potentially independent German martial tradition.

The core of the Gladiatoria group is a series of devices of armored fencing following the typical progression of a judicial duel: beginning with spears and small shields called ecranches, moving to longswords, then employing daggers on foot and on the ground. (Traditional dueling would begin on horseback before going to foot combat, and the ecranche is designed for mounted fencing, but Gladiatoria skips that stage entirely.) The diverse manuscripts in the group generally describe other kinds of fighting as well, such as the sword and buckler of the Codex Guelf 78.2 August 2º or the longshield of the MS German Quarto 16, but these teachings lack some of the common elements of the core Gladiatoria complex and will not be covered on this page. They may be found on the individual manuscript pages.

There are currently five known versions of the Gladiatoria treatise, found in the MS KK5013, the MS German Quarto 16 (the only version with a title page), the MS U860.F46 1450, the Codex Guelf 78.2 August 2º, and the MS Cl. 23842. Hans-Peter Hils mentions a sixth lost manuscript identified as MS T in his edition of Gladiatoria,[1] but Dierk Hagedorn has since determined that this is the MS U860 F46 1450 (which Hils did not have access to). Aside from these five, there are several other manuscripts that some scholars have ascribed to the group. These include the the Cod.11093 and part C of the Codex Wallerstein (also known as pseudo-Gladiatoria for this reason). In each case, there are disqualifying factors that lead us to exclude them from the group, but additional research may reverse these decisions.

While the three oldest texts in the Gladiatoria complex present a fairly identical set of devices, the slightly later Wolfenbüttel version of the treatise contains significantly more material, primarily in the dagger section. The origin of this additional material is unknown, and the textless nature of that version makes it difficult to place these plays in any sort of context.

Treatise

Due to the fact that Wolfenbüttel and Paris versions appear in a mixed anthologies combining multiple sources, only those images from the manuscripts that are reflected in at least one other version of Gladiatoria are included in the concordance below.

Additional Resources

References

  1. Hils, Hans Peter. "Gladiatoria: Über drei Fechthandschriften aus der ersten Hälfte des 15. Jahrhunderts." Codici Manuscripti 13. Verlag Brüder Hollinek, 1987. pp. 1-54. Print.
  2. Es läßt sich nicht zweifelsfrei ausmachen, ob das Wort durchgestrichen oder die Tinte nur verwischt wurde
  3. Zwischen „gew“ und „omen“ befindet sich ein Zeichen, daß wie eine schließende Klammer aussieht.
  4. Könnte auch „deim“ heißen.
  5. Beim ´z´ ist zwar ein Aufstrich am Beginn des Wortes zu sehen, dieser geht aber nicht über das Niveau des ´z´. Das Wort wird deshalb als „zukch“ anstatt „tzukch“ transkribiert.
  6. Last letter in the inner fold not visible.
  7. Über dem Wort befindet sich ein kurzer Strich. Es ist nicht ersichtlich, ob es sich dabei um einen Nasalstrich handelt oder den Umlaut ´ä´ oder ´ö´ kennzeichnen soll. Hier wird es als ´ä´ transkribiert.
  8. Der Anfangsbuchstabe ist eindeutig als ´v´ zu identifizieren, das Wort muß aber „recht“ heißen. Vergleiche auch 30r 2. Zeile 1. Wort „resch“
  9. Der Schreiber hat das erste ´l´ zu tief gezogen, so dass es einem ſähnelt, es wird hier dennoch als ´vallen´ transkribiert.
  10. Der Schreiber fügt dem Buchstaben l meist einen kurzen Aufstrich an, womit das Wort wie „zwelifft“ aussieht, dies wird hier aber vernachläßigt
  11. Das Wort ist nicht lesbar und läßt sich auch mit Hilfe der Ms. germ. Quart. 16 nicht ergänzen, da dieses dort fehlt.
  12. Disappears into the margin.
  13. Difficult to decipher from «als er». The text reaches into the lower, clipped off margin.
  14. vor dich nicht eindeutiges so
  15. The left margin is clipped off, so the initial letters are missing occasionally.
  16. Geschrieben ist „ärtt“, sinngemäß ist ortt gemeint.
  17. This seems to suggest holding the sword well back—close to the body—so there is room to thrust up under the attacker's palm.
  18. Neben dem s befinden sich 2 Punkte und ein halbhoher Schaft. Dies könnte auch auf die Kombination „sü“ hinweisen, wird aber hier als „si“ transkribiert
  19. „darhin“ könnte auch nur „darin“ heißen. Das ´h´ sieht hier eher wie eine schließende Klammer aus und könnte auch auf einen Abschreibfehler hindeuten
  20. Difficult to read due to a speck.
  21. A speck has made portions of the text difficult to read.
  22. What is straß der glider? It is likely glider is glieder from modern German, meaning "joints". While the use of straß (probably "road") is confusing here, the contextual use in this and the following plate suggest these to be a class of techniques attacking joints. Other texts (e.g., Codex Wallerstein fol. 15r) use the term Armbrüche (lit. "arm breaks") for joint locking techniques so this might represent a separate kind of attack, especially one intended to disarm an opponent.
  23. nach bruch setzt der Schreiber drei Punkte, offenbar um anzuzeigen das der Satz durch das in den Text ragende Bild nicht unterbrochen ist.
  24. Die r-Abbreviatur befindet sich am Ende des Wortes, wird hier aber sinngemäß mit andern transkribiert.
  25. korrekt wohl: wenn ainer den andern das ort an dye prust hat gesetzt
  26. Dringen = Crowding. This refers to pressing into one's opponent after lodging one's point in the opponent's mail in armored halfsword combat and is the same as Ringeck and von Danzig's Fourth Guard of the halfsword.
  27. dreyvndreyßigst fälschlich für Zweiundreissigstes ?
  28. nhd : davon
  29. Wer es ... gemalet siest Hierbei müßte es sich um das 38. Stück handeln
  30. „tenken“ wurde aberhalb der Zeile ergänzt.
  31. Hs: als du es oben gemalt ist, du wurde vom Hg. getilgt
  32. Partially illegible due to clipping.
  33. The rest of the line disapears in the margin.
  34. „auffs“ wurde oberhalb der Zeile ergänzt.
  35. "Wag" might be Waage or scale, which in the Wallerstein Codex (fol. 3r) is used to refer to the Balance Stance of the feet.
  36. Perhaps this refers to the angle of your hand as you reach through?
  37. The last line diappears in the margin.
  38. Some words illegible because of clipping.
  39. 39.0 39.1 Underlined by a later hand in pencil
  40. Hs: ob du er dir, du wurde vom Hg. getilgt
  41. Über dem Wort befindet sich ein Nasal- oder ein Zierstrich, wird aber in der Transkription vernachlässigt.
  42. Über dem Wort befindet sich ein Nasal- oder ein Zierstrich, wird aber in der Transkription vernachlässigt.
  43. tencken korrigiert für teincken ? temcken ? trincken ?
  44. Wurde am oberen Rand des Blattes durch eine andere Hand ergänzt, ist aber nicht vollständig zu lesen.
  45. „oben“ wurde oberhalb der Zeile ergänzt.
  46. Wurde am oberen Rand des Blattes durch eine andere Hand hinzugefügt.
  47. The rest of the line disappears in the clipped margin.
  48. „zum´“wurde sinngemäß ergänzt, da im Text, durch eine Beschädigung des Blattes nur ein ´z´ und ´m´ erkennbar sind.
  49. Das Wort ist im Text nur fragmentarisch erkennbar, da das Blatt hier beschädigt ist und wurde deshalb sinngemäß ergänzt.