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Difference between revisions of "Giacomo di Grassi"

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{{under construction}}
 
 
{{Infobox writer
 
{{Infobox writer
 
| name                = [[name::Giacomo di Grassi]]
 
| name                = [[name::Giacomo di Grassi]]
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'''Giacomo di Grassi''' was a [[century::16th century]] [[nationality::Italian]] [[fencing master]]. Little is known about the life of this master, but he seems to have been born in Modena, Italy and acquired some fame as a fencing master in his youth. He operated a fencing school in Trevino and apparently traveled around Italy observing the teachings of other schools and masters.
 
'''Giacomo di Grassi''' was a [[century::16th century]] [[nationality::Italian]] [[fencing master]]. Little is known about the life of this master, but he seems to have been born in Modena, Italy and acquired some fame as a fencing master in his youth. He operated a fencing school in Trevino and apparently traveled around Italy observing the teachings of other schools and masters.
  
Ultimately di Grassi seems to have developed his own method, which he laid out in great detail in his 1570 work ''[[Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi)|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme]]'' ("Discourse on Wielding Arms with Safety"). In 1594, a new edition of his book was printed in London under the title ''His True Arte of Defence'', translated by an admirer named Thomas Churchyard and published by an I. Iaggard.
+
Ultimately di Grassi seems to have developed his own method, which he laid out in great detail in his 1570 work ''[[Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi)|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme]]'' ("Discourse on Wielding Arms with Safety"). In 1594, a new edition of his book was printed in London under the title ''His True Arte of Defence''; this edition was orchestrated by an admirer named Thomas Churchyard, who hired I. G. to translated it and I. Iaggard to publish it.
  
 
== Treatise ==
 
== Treatise ==
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{| class="master"
 
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Images<br/>from the 1570</p>
+
! <p>Figures<br/>from the 1570</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|start|Incomplete Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|start|Incomplete Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Kelly Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Kelly Hatcher]]</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>Therefore I humbly beseech your honors, that with the same liberal minds, with the which you accepted of me, your Ls will also receive these my endeavors, and vouchsafe so to protect them, as I have always, and will defend your honors most pure and undefiled. Wherein, if I perceive this my first childbirth (as I have only published it to the intent to help and teach others) to be to the general satisfaction of all I will so strain my endeavors in an other work which shortly shall shew the way both how to handle all those weapons on horseback which here are taught on foot, as also all other weapons whatsoever.</p>
+
| <p>Therefore I humbly beseech your honors, that with the same liberal minds, with the which you accepted of me, your Ls will also receive these my endeavors, and vouchsafe so to protect them, as I have always, and will defend your honors most pure and undefiled. Wherein, if I perceive this my first childbirth (as I have only published it to the intent to help and teach others) to be to the general satisfaction of all I will so strain my endeavors in another work which shortly shall shew the way both how to handle all those weapons on horseback which here are taught on foot, as also all other weapons whatsoever.</p>
  
 
<p>Your honours most affectionate servant,</p>
 
<p>Your honours most affectionate servant,</p>
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{{master begin
 
{{master begin
 +
| title = The True Art of Defense
 +
| width = 120em
 +
}}
 +
{{master subsection begin
 
  | title = Introduction
 
  | title = Introduction
 
  | width = 120em
 
  | width = 120em
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{| class="master"
 
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Images<br/>from the 1570</p>
+
! <p>Figures<br/>from the 1570</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Kelly Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Kelly Hatcher]]</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>But to the intent that this may be more plainly perceived, I have framed this present figure for the better understanding whereof it is to be known, that as the arm in his motion carries the sword with it, and is the occasion that being forced by the said motion, the sword frames a circle upwards, So the hand moving itself in the wrist, may either lift up the point of the sword upwards or abase it downwards. So that if the hand do so much let fall the point, as the arm does lift up the handle, it comes to pass that the swords point thrusts directly at an other prick or point than that it respects.</p>
+
| <p>But to the intent that this may be more plainly perceived, I have framed this present figure for the better understanding whereof it is to be known, that as the arm in his motion carries the sword with it, and is the occasion that being forced by the said motion, the sword frames a circle upwards, So the hand moving itself in the wrist, may either lift up the point of the sword upwards or abase it downwards. So that if the hand do so much let fall the point, as the arm does lift up the handle, it comes to pass that the swords point thrusts directly at another prick or point than that it respects.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/26|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/26|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/26|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/26|2|lbl=-}}
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|}
 
|}
{{master end}}
+
{{master subsection end}}
  
{{master begin
+
{{master subsection begin
 
  | title = Single Rapier
 
  | title = Single Rapier
 
  | width = 120em
 
  | width = 120em
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{| class="master"
 
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Images<br/>from the 1570</p>
+
! <p>Figures<br/>from the 1570</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Kelly Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Kelly Hatcher]]</p>
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| <p>He that persuades himself that he can learn this Art by the exercise of a few particular strokes of the point and edge is utterly deceived: for besides, that by those particular tricks, there is small knowledge gotten: So the chances in this Art are so dangerous and diverse, that it is impossible to deliberate suddenly, except he have the universal knowledge and understanding of all the rules and principals hereof, being grounded upon offending and defending, and not only upon the sword, the dagger, the target, the javelin and the bill. For a man at all times (when he is occasioned to strike or defend) does not carry these weapons about him, but is constrained to defend himself with a piece of wood from a javelin, with a stool or form from a sword, or with a cloak from a dagger, in which case men commonly use many other things not ordained for that purpose, doing that therewith which natural instinct teaches them. And this instinct is no other thing then the knowledge of the rules before laid down: which knowledge, being it is naturally grafted in the mind, is something the rather helped and qualified by Art, and makes a man so assured and bold, that he dares to enter on any great danger, and judges (when he sees the quality of the weapon, and the site wherein it is placed) what it may do, or in how many ways it may either strike or defend. From which his judgment springs the knowledge of all that he has to do, and how he has to handle himself to encounter any danger.</p>
 
| <p>He that persuades himself that he can learn this Art by the exercise of a few particular strokes of the point and edge is utterly deceived: for besides, that by those particular tricks, there is small knowledge gotten: So the chances in this Art are so dangerous and diverse, that it is impossible to deliberate suddenly, except he have the universal knowledge and understanding of all the rules and principals hereof, being grounded upon offending and defending, and not only upon the sword, the dagger, the target, the javelin and the bill. For a man at all times (when he is occasioned to strike or defend) does not carry these weapons about him, but is constrained to defend himself with a piece of wood from a javelin, with a stool or form from a sword, or with a cloak from a dagger, in which case men commonly use many other things not ordained for that purpose, doing that therewith which natural instinct teaches them. And this instinct is no other thing then the knowledge of the rules before laid down: which knowledge, being it is naturally grafted in the mind, is something the rather helped and qualified by Art, and makes a man so assured and bold, that he dares to enter on any great danger, and judges (when he sees the quality of the weapon, and the site wherein it is placed) what it may do, or in how many ways it may either strike or defend. From which his judgment springs the knowledge of all that he has to do, and how he has to handle himself to encounter any danger.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/41|2|lbl=25|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/42|1|lbl=26|p=1}}
+
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/41|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/42|1|lbl=26|p=1}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/43|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/44|1|lbl=32|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/43|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/44|1|lbl=32|p=1}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>Now for the lofty edge-blows, both right and reversed, the rules aforesaid may suffice: To wit, the edge-blow fetches a compass. The blow of the point or thrust is the shortest, and in this blow, he that is nearest hits the soonest: So then he must thrust under any of these edge-blows. And farther, for as much as it is naturally given to every man to defend himself, he may encounter the right edge-blow after an other way, and that is, to encounter it with the edge of his sword, and presently, to drive therewithal a thrust at the enemy's face, and to compass his hindfoot, towards the right side behind, to the end, that the thrust may be lengthened and his body thereby covered, considering he shall then stand right behind his sword.</p>
+
| <p>Now for the lofty edge-blows, both right and reversed, the rules aforesaid may suffice: To wit, the edge-blow fetches a compass. The blow of the point or thrust is the shortest, and in this blow, he that is nearest hits the soonest: So then he must thrust under any of these edge-blows. And farther, for as much as it is naturally given to every man to defend himself, he may encounter the right edge-blow after another way, and that is, to encounter it with the edge of his sword, and presently, to drive therewithal a thrust at the enemy's face, and to compass his hindfoot, towards the right side behind, to the end, that the thrust may be lengthened and his body thereby covered, considering he shall then stand right behind his sword.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/47|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/48|1|lbl=32|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/47|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/48|1|lbl=32|p=1}}
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|}
 
|}
{{master end}}
+
{{master subsection end}}
  
{{master begin
+
{{master subsection begin
 
  | title = Rapier and Dagger
 
  | title = Rapier and Dagger
 
  | width = 120em
 
  | width = 120em
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{| class="master"
 
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Images<br/>from the 1570</p>
+
! <p>Figures<br/>from the 1570</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Kelly Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Kelly Hatcher]]</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>It is therefore to be known, that in the handling of these two weapons one may with less danger give a blow with the edge then at single Rapier: For albeit the point of the Rapier be moved out of the straight line: yet for all that there is not free power given to the enemy's to strike, considering there is an other weapon contrariwise prepared to defend: but this does not so fall out at the single Rapier, which bearing itself far off when it strikes with the edge, does present and give the means to the enemy to hit home first. And yet for all that, I would not counsel no man, either in this or in any other sort of weapon to accustom himself to give blows with the edge: for that he may under them be most easily struck with a thrust.</p>
+
| <p>It is therefore to be known, that in the handling of these two weapons one may with less danger give a blow with the edge then at single Rapier: For albeit the point of the Rapier be moved out of the straight line: yet for all that there is not free power given to the enemy's to strike, considering there is another weapon contrariwise prepared to defend: but this does not so fall out at the single Rapier, which bearing itself far off when it strikes with the edge, does present and give the means to the enemy to hit home first. And yet for all that, I would not counsel no man, either in this or in any other sort of weapon to accustom himself to give blows with the edge: for that he may under them be most easily struck with a thrust.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/53|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/54|1|lbl=38|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/53|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/54|1|lbl=38|p=1}}
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|}
 
|}
{{master end}}
+
{{master subsection end}}
  
{{master begin
+
{{master subsection begin
 
  | title = Rapier and Cloak
 
  | title = Rapier and Cloak
 
  | width = 120em
 
  | width = 120em
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{| class="master"
 
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Images<br/>from the 1570</p>
+
! <p>Figures<br/>from the 1570</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Kelly Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Kelly Hatcher]]</p>
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{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/65|4|lbl=49|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/66|1|lbl=50|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/65|4|lbl=49|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/66|1|lbl=50|p=1}}
 
|  
 
|  
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/71|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/72|1|lbl=60|p=1}}
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/71|4|lbl=59|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/72|1|lbl=60|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
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|}
 
|}
{{master end}}
+
{{master subsection end}}
  
{{master begin
+
{{master subsection begin
 
  | title = Rapier and Buckler
 
  | title = Rapier and Buckler
 
  | width = 120em
 
  | width = 120em
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{| class="master"
 
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Images<br/>from the 1570</p>
+
! <p>Figures<br/>from the 1570</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/></p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/></p>
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<p>Forasmuch as the Buckler is a weapon very commodious and much used, it is reason that I handle it next after the Cloak. For my purpose is, to reason of those weapons first which men do most ordinarily use, then of those that are extraordinary and less accustomed, discoursing upon each of them, as much as is requisite when I come unto them. Therefore I will first consider of the Buckler, therewith proceeding orderly.</p>
 
<p>Forasmuch as the Buckler is a weapon very commodious and much used, it is reason that I handle it next after the Cloak. For my purpose is, to reason of those weapons first which men do most ordinarily use, then of those that are extraordinary and less accustomed, discoursing upon each of them, as much as is requisite when I come unto them. Therefore I will first consider of the Buckler, therewith proceeding orderly.</p>
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/75|4|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/75|4|lbl=59}}
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/82|3|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/82|3|lbl=70}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
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|}
 
|}
{{master end}}
+
{{master subsection end}}
  
{{master begin
+
{{master subsection begin
 
  | title = Rapier and Square Shield
 
  | title = Rapier and Square Shield
 
  | width = 120em
 
  | width = 120em
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{| class="master"
 
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Images<br/>from the 1570</p>
+
! <p>Figures<br/>from the 1570</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}</p>
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<p>It is most manifest, that the Target is a most ancient weapon, found out only for the use of warfare, and peculiar quarrels between man and man: albeit, since the finding thereof, there have been devised by the industry of man a thousand ways to serve them at their need: From whence it has come to pass, (because it seemed convenient unto the Professors of this Art) that this weapon was very commodious and profitable, as well for his fashion, as for it is a mean or middle weapon, between the buckler and the round Target: That they have framed a special kind of play therewith, although it differs from the other two weapons in no other thing then fashion. Therefore, diverse professors of this Art, being moved some by reason of the form, some by the bigness, and some by the heaviness thereof, have accustomed to bear it after diverse ways, Those who make most account of the heaviness, would for some consideration, that the right and proper bearing thereof, was to hold it leaning on the thigh, not moving there hence, but being greatly constrained thereunto.</p>
 
<p>It is most manifest, that the Target is a most ancient weapon, found out only for the use of warfare, and peculiar quarrels between man and man: albeit, since the finding thereof, there have been devised by the industry of man a thousand ways to serve them at their need: From whence it has come to pass, (because it seemed convenient unto the Professors of this Art) that this weapon was very commodious and profitable, as well for his fashion, as for it is a mean or middle weapon, between the buckler and the round Target: That they have framed a special kind of play therewith, although it differs from the other two weapons in no other thing then fashion. Therefore, diverse professors of this Art, being moved some by reason of the form, some by the bigness, and some by the heaviness thereof, have accustomed to bear it after diverse ways, Those who make most account of the heaviness, would for some consideration, that the right and proper bearing thereof, was to hold it leaning on the thigh, not moving there hence, but being greatly constrained thereunto.</p>
|  
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/94|2|lbl=68}}
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/91|2|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/91|2|lbl=79}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
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|}
 
|}
{{master end}}
+
{{master subsection end}}
  
{{master begin
+
{{master subsection begin
 
  | title = Rapier and Round Shield
 
  | title = Rapier and Round Shield
 
  | width = 120em
 
  | width = 120em
Line 1,645: Line 1,648:
 
{| class="master"
 
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Images<br/>from the 1570</p>
+
! <p>Figures<br/>from the 1570</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}</p>
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<p>The round Target would require a long and most exquisite consideration because it is of circular form, most capable, and most perfect of all others. But for that my purpose in this my work, is to write that only which I know does appertain to this Art, giving leave to every man to busy himself in his own profession. And leaving a great part of this consideration to the Mathematicians and Historiographers to reason of his diverse qualities or passions, either who was inventor thereof, either, whether it be a weapon of antiquity, or of this our age, And coming to discourse of that, wherein it profits in this our time, (being a weapon so greatly honored and esteemed of Princes, Lords, and Gentlemen, that besides the use thereof in their affairs, as well by day as by night, they also keep their hoses richly decked and beautified therewith) And considering only that thing, in the round Target, among all weapons which may profit or hurt in the handling thereof, I say, that the said round Target has been diversely held, borne and used, by diverse men in diverse ages, as well as the other square Target, and other weapons of defense, as well as of offense. And there want not also men in our time, who to the intent they be not wearied, bear it leaning on their thigh as though that in this exercise (in which only travail and pains are available) a man should only care for rest and quietness. For by the means of these two, strength and activity, (parts in the exercise of weapons, both important and necessary) are obtained and gotten.</p>
 
<p>The round Target would require a long and most exquisite consideration because it is of circular form, most capable, and most perfect of all others. But for that my purpose in this my work, is to write that only which I know does appertain to this Art, giving leave to every man to busy himself in his own profession. And leaving a great part of this consideration to the Mathematicians and Historiographers to reason of his diverse qualities or passions, either who was inventor thereof, either, whether it be a weapon of antiquity, or of this our age, And coming to discourse of that, wherein it profits in this our time, (being a weapon so greatly honored and esteemed of Princes, Lords, and Gentlemen, that besides the use thereof in their affairs, as well by day as by night, they also keep their hoses richly decked and beautified therewith) And considering only that thing, in the round Target, among all weapons which may profit or hurt in the handling thereof, I say, that the said round Target has been diversely held, borne and used, by diverse men in diverse ages, as well as the other square Target, and other weapons of defense, as well as of offense. And there want not also men in our time, who to the intent they be not wearied, bear it leaning on their thigh as though that in this exercise (in which only travail and pains are available) a man should only care for rest and quietness. For by the means of these two, strength and activity, (parts in the exercise of weapons, both important and necessary) are obtained and gotten.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/101|2|lbl=75}}
 
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{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/98|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/99|1|lbl=87|p=1}}
 
  
 
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|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>Now, all these thrusts, no doubt shall speed every time that the enemy either makes no traverse motion with his body, either as he strikes, comes directly forwards, or else being fearful, goes directly backwards, for it is not possible that one man go so fast directly backwards, as an other may forwards. Yet it is therefore diligently to be observed in this ward, never to determine to strike, either in the handling of these, or of any other kind of weapons, if (with one of them) he shall not first find the enemy's sword. The which redoings to great profit of every man, but especially of those, who have strong arms, for that they are better able to beat back the enemy's weapon.</p>
+
| <p>Now, all these thrusts, no doubt shall speed every time that the enemy either makes no traverse motion with his body, either as he strikes, comes directly forwards, or else being fearful, goes directly backwards, for it is not possible that one man go so fast directly backwards, as another may forwards. Yet it is therefore diligently to be observed in this ward, never to determine to strike, either in the handling of these, or of any other kind of weapons, if (with one of them) he shall not first find the enemy's sword. The which redoings to great profit of every man, but especially of those, who have strong arms, for that they are better able to beat back the enemy's weapon.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/106|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/106|2|lbl=-}}
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|}
 
|}
{{master end}}
+
{{master subsection end}}
  
{{master begin
+
{{master subsection begin
 
  | title = Double Rapiers
 
  | title = Double Rapiers
 
  | width = 120em
 
  | width = 120em
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{| class="master"
 
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Images<br/>from the 1570</p>
+
! <p>Figures<br/>from the 1570</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}</p>
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<p>There are also used now adays, as well in the schools, as in the lists, two Swords or Rapiers, admitted, and approved both of Princes, and of the professors of this art, for honorable and knightly weapons, albeit they be not used in the wars. Wherefore I shall not vary from my purpose, if I reason also of these, as far as is agreeable to true art. To him that would handle these weapons, it is necessary that he can as well manage the left hand as the right, which thing shall be (if not necessary) yet most profitable in every other kind of weapon. But in these principally he is to resolve himself, that he can do no good, without that kind of nimbleness and dexterity. For seeing they are two weapons, and yet of one selfsame kind, they ought equally and indifferently to be handled, the one performing that which the other does, and every of them being apt as well to strike as defend. And therefore a man ought to accustom his body, arms and hands as well to strike as defend. And he which is not much practiced and exercised therein, ought not to make profession of this Art: for he shall find himself to be utterly deceived.</p>
 
<p>There are also used now adays, as well in the schools, as in the lists, two Swords or Rapiers, admitted, and approved both of Princes, and of the professors of this art, for honorable and knightly weapons, albeit they be not used in the wars. Wherefore I shall not vary from my purpose, if I reason also of these, as far as is agreeable to true art. To him that would handle these weapons, it is necessary that he can as well manage the left hand as the right, which thing shall be (if not necessary) yet most profitable in every other kind of weapon. But in these principally he is to resolve himself, that he can do no good, without that kind of nimbleness and dexterity. For seeing they are two weapons, and yet of one selfsame kind, they ought equally and indifferently to be handled, the one performing that which the other does, and every of them being apt as well to strike as defend. And therefore a man ought to accustom his body, arms and hands as well to strike as defend. And he which is not much practiced and exercised therein, ought not to make profession of this Art: for he shall find himself to be utterly deceived.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/110|3|lbl=84}}
 
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{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/107|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/108|1|lbl=96|p=1}}
 
  
 
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|-  
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|}
 
|}
{{master end}}
+
{{master subsection end}}
  
{{master begin
+
{{master subsection begin
 
  | title = Two-Handed Sword
 
  | title = Two-Handed Sword
 
  | width = 120em
 
  | width = 120em
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{| class="master"
 
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Images<br/>from the 1570</p>
+
! <p>Figures<br/>from the 1570</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Niccolò Menozzi]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Niccolò Menozzi]]</p>
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{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/119|3|lbl=93|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/120|1|lbl=94|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/119|3|lbl=93|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/120|1|lbl=94|p=1}}
 
|  
 
|  
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/117|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/118|1|lbl=106|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/119|1|lbl=107|p=1}}
+
{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/117|3|lbl=105|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/118|1|lbl=106|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/119|1|lbl=107|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
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|  
 
| <p>Touching the first, All men use to deliver thrusts, as well as edge blows, down right, and reversed, with both hands to the Sword which way albeit, it be profitable in the bestowing of edge blows, as being the better able to sustain the Sword, yet in the discharge of thrusts it is hurtful, for it causes them to be much shorter, then they would be, if in the beginning, they were forcibly delivered with both the hands, and then by taking away one hand from the cross, they were springed as far forth, as the pommel hand, foot, and all the body of that side, may be stretched out. For, being discharged in this manner, if they hit home they make great passage, and if they be voided, yet the Two hand sword may be quickly had again, by the retiring of a pace, and of the hand and arm, placing the other hand there where it was, and so settling in the low ward. Therefore, when one finds himself to stand at the high ward, (the which at the two hand Sword, is framed, either with the right side towards the enemy, either with the left, in either of which ways, the arm would be borne aloft, and far off from the body, causing the point somewhat to bend both towards the ground and the body, to the end it may defend both the length of the body, and cover it in a manner thwarting or crossing, it being so far off from the sword.</p>
 
| <p>Touching the first, All men use to deliver thrusts, as well as edge blows, down right, and reversed, with both hands to the Sword which way albeit, it be profitable in the bestowing of edge blows, as being the better able to sustain the Sword, yet in the discharge of thrusts it is hurtful, for it causes them to be much shorter, then they would be, if in the beginning, they were forcibly delivered with both the hands, and then by taking away one hand from the cross, they were springed as far forth, as the pommel hand, foot, and all the body of that side, may be stretched out. For, being discharged in this manner, if they hit home they make great passage, and if they be voided, yet the Two hand sword may be quickly had again, by the retiring of a pace, and of the hand and arm, placing the other hand there where it was, and so settling in the low ward. Therefore, when one finds himself to stand at the high ward, (the which at the two hand Sword, is framed, either with the right side towards the enemy, either with the left, in either of which ways, the arm would be borne aloft, and far off from the body, causing the point somewhat to bend both towards the ground and the body, to the end it may defend both the length of the body, and cover it in a manner thwarting or crossing, it being so far off from the sword.</p>
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/121|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/122|1|lbl=96|p=1}}
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{{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/119|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/120|1|lbl=108|p=1}}
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|}
 
|}
{{master end}}
+
{{master subsection end}}
  
{{master begin
+
{{master subsection begin
  | title = Pole Weapons
+
  | title = Polearms
 
  | width = 120em
 
  | width = 120em
 
}}
 
}}
 
{| class="master"
 
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Images<br/>from the 1570</p>
+
! <p>Figures<br/>from the 1570</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/></p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/></p>
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<p>Because it may seem strange unto many, that I have here placed these 4 sorts of weapons together, as though I would frame but one only way for the handling of all, although they differ in form, from which form is gathered their difference in use. Therefore, forasmuch as I am of opinion, that all of them may be handled in manner after one way, it shall not be amiss, if I declare the reason thereof, speaking first of every one severally by itself, and then generally of all together, holding and maintaining always for my conclusion, that the skill of handling of them, helps a man to the knowledge of all the rest, for as much as concerns true Art.</p>
 
<p>Because it may seem strange unto many, that I have here placed these 4 sorts of weapons together, as though I would frame but one only way for the handling of all, although they differ in form, from which form is gathered their difference in use. Therefore, forasmuch as I am of opinion, that all of them may be handled in manner after one way, it shall not be amiss, if I declare the reason thereof, speaking first of every one severally by itself, and then generally of all together, holding and maintaining always for my conclusion, that the skill of handling of them, helps a man to the knowledge of all the rest, for as much as concerns true Art.</p>
|  
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| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/125|3|lbl=99}}
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/124|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/136|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/136|2|lbl=-}}
 +
|}
 +
{{master subsection end}}
  
 +
{{master subsection begin
 +
| title = Pike
 +
| width = 120em
 +
}}
 +
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
! <p>Figures<br/>from the 1570</p>
 +
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 +
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/></p>
 +
! <p>English Transcription (1594){{edit index|DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf}}<br/>by [[Early English Books Online]]</p>
 +
 +
|- 
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p>'''Of the pike'''</p>
 
| <p>'''Of the pike'''</p>
  
<p>As among all other weapons, which are worn by the side, the single sword is the most honorable, as being such a one which is left capable of deceit of any other: So among the weapons of the Staff, the Pike is the most plain, most honorable, and most noble weapon of all the rest.</p>
+
<p>As among all other weapons, which are worn by the side, the single sword is the most honorable, as being such a one which is less capable of deceit of any other: So among the weapons of the Staff, the Pike is the most plain, most honorable, and most noble weapon of all the rest.</p>
|  
+
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/136|2|lbl=110}}
| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/136|3|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:DiGraſsi his true Arte of Defence (Giacomo di Grassi) 1594.pdf/136|3|lbl=124}}
  
 
|-  
 
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|}
 +
{{master subsection end}}
 
{{master end}}
 
{{master end}}
  
 
{{master begin
 
{{master begin
  | title = Deceits and Falsings (all weapons again)
+
  | title = The False Art
 
  | width = 120em
 
  | width = 120em
 
}}
 
}}
 
{| class="master"
 
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Images<br/>from the 1570</p>
+
! <p>Figures<br/>from the 1570</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Niccolò Menozzi]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Niccolò Menozzi]]</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>There is also an other high ward opposite to this and that is, without moving the feet at all to turn the point towards the other side, that is, towards the left side and to cross the arms. And it is to be noted, that in this high ward, be it on what side it will, the sword is to be borne with the point turned downwards.</p>
+
| <p>There is also another high ward opposite to this and that is, without moving the feet at all to turn the point towards the other side, that is, towards the left side and to cross the arms. And it is to be noted, that in this high ward, be it on what side it will, the sword is to be borne with the point turned downwards.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/164|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf/164|3|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
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{| class="master"
 
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Images<br/>from the 1570</p>
+
! <p>Figures<br/>from the 1570</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Modernization}}<br/>by [[Norman White]]</p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/></p>
 
! <p>Italian Transcription (1570){{edit index|Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (Giacomo di Grassi) 1570.pdf}}<br/></p>
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<p>If nature had bestowed strength upon men (as many believe) in such sort as she has given sight, hearing and other senses, which are such in us, that they may not by our endeavor either be increased, or diminished, it should be no less superfluous, than ridiculous to teach how strength should be obtained, than it were if one should say, he would instruct a man how to hear or see better than he does already by nature. Neither albeit he that becomes a Painter or a Musician sees the proportions much better than he did before, or by hearing learns the harmony and conformity of voices which he knew not, ought it therefore be said, that he sees or hears more than he did? For that proceeds not of better hearing or seeing, but of seeing and hearing with more reason. But in strength it does not so come to pass: For it is manifestly seen, that a man of ripe age and strength, cannot lift up a weight today which he cannot do on the morrow, or some other time. But contrary, if a man prove with the selfsame sight on the morrow or some other time to see a thing which yesterday he saw not in the same distance, he shall but trouble himself in vain, and be in danger rather to see less than more, as it commonly happen to students and other such, who do much exercise their sight. Therefore there is no doubt at all but that a man's strength may be increased by reasonable exercise, And so likewise by too much rest it may be diminished: the which if it were not manifest, yet it might be proved by infinite examples. You shall see Gentlemen, Knights and others, to be most strong and nimble in running or leaping, or in vaulting, or in turning on Horseback, and yet are not able by a great deal to bear so great a burden as a Country man or Porter: But in contrary in running and leaping, the Porter and Country man are most slow and heavy, neither know how to vault upon their horse without a ladder. And this proceeds of no other cause, than for that every man is not exercised in that which is most esteemed: So that if in the managing of these weapons, a man would get strength, it shall be convenient for him to exercise himself in such sort as shall be declared.</p>
 
<p>If nature had bestowed strength upon men (as many believe) in such sort as she has given sight, hearing and other senses, which are such in us, that they may not by our endeavor either be increased, or diminished, it should be no less superfluous, than ridiculous to teach how strength should be obtained, than it were if one should say, he would instruct a man how to hear or see better than he does already by nature. Neither albeit he that becomes a Painter or a Musician sees the proportions much better than he did before, or by hearing learns the harmony and conformity of voices which he knew not, ought it therefore be said, that he sees or hears more than he did? For that proceeds not of better hearing or seeing, but of seeing and hearing with more reason. But in strength it does not so come to pass: For it is manifestly seen, that a man of ripe age and strength, cannot lift up a weight today which he cannot do on the morrow, or some other time. But contrary, if a man prove with the selfsame sight on the morrow or some other time to see a thing which yesterday he saw not in the same distance, he shall but trouble himself in vain, and be in danger rather to see less than more, as it commonly happen to students and other such, who do much exercise their sight. Therefore there is no doubt at all but that a man's strength may be increased by reasonable exercise, And so likewise by too much rest it may be diminished: the which if it were not manifest, yet it might be proved by infinite examples. You shall see Gentlemen, Knights and others, to be most strong and nimble in running or leaping, or in vaulting, or in turning on Horseback, and yet are not able by a great deal to bear so great a burden as a Country man or Porter: But in contrary in running and leaping, the Porter and Country man are most slow and heavy, neither know how to vault upon their horse without a ladder. And this proceeds of no other cause, than for that every man is not exercised in that which is most esteemed: So that if in the managing of these weapons, a man would get strength, it shall be convenient for him to exercise himself in such sort as shall be declared.</p>
|  
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Latest revision as of 23:07, 14 October 2020

Giacomo di Grassi
Born 16th century
Modena, Italy
Died after 1594
London, England
Occupation Fencing master
Genres Fencing manual
Language
Notable work(s) Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme (1570)
First printed
english edition
His True Arte of Defence (1594)
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations Český Překlad

Giacomo di Grassi was a 16th century Italian fencing master. Little is known about the life of this master, but he seems to have been born in Modena, Italy and acquired some fame as a fencing master in his youth. He operated a fencing school in Trevino and apparently traveled around Italy observing the teachings of other schools and masters.

Ultimately di Grassi seems to have developed his own method, which he laid out in great detail in his 1570 work Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'Arme ("Discourse on Wielding Arms with Safety"). In 1594, a new edition of his book was printed in London under the title His True Arte of Defence; this edition was orchestrated by an admirer named Thomas Churchyard, who hired I. G. to translated it and I. Iaggard to publish it.

Treatise

This presentation includes a modernized version of the 1594 English translation, which did not follow the original Italian text with exactness. We intend to replace or expand this with a translation of the Italian, when such becomes available.

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