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| notableworks        = ''The Flower of Battle''
 
| notableworks        = ''The Flower of Battle''
 
| manuscript(s)        = {{collapsible list
 
| manuscript(s)        = {{collapsible list
  | [[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|MS M.383]] (1400s)
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  | [[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|MS M.383]] (1400s)
  | [[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|MS Ludwig XV 13]] (1400s)
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  | [[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|MS Ludwig ⅩⅤ 13]] (1400s)
 
  | [[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi MS]] (1409)
 
  | [[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi MS]] (1409)
 
  | [[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|MS Latin 11269]] (1410s?)
 
  | [[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|MS Latin 11269]] (1410s?)
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'''Fiore Furlano de’i Liberi de Cividale d’Austria''' (Fiore delli Liberi, Fiore Furlano, Fiore de Cividale d’Austria; fl. 1381 - 1409) was a late [[century::14th century]] knight, diplomat, and [[fencing master]]. He was born in Cividale del Friuli, a town in the Patriarchal State of Aquileia (in the Friuli region of modern-day Italy), the son of Benedetto and scion of a Liberi house of Premariacco.<ref name="de’i Liberi Morgan">[[Fiore de'i Liberi]]. ''Fior di Battaglia'' [manuscript]. [[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|MS M.383]]. New York City: [[Morgan Library & Museum]], ca. 1400. ff 1r-2r.</ref><ref name="de’i Liberi Getty">[[Fiore de'i Liberi]]. ''Fior di Battaglia'' [manuscript]. [[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|MS Ludwig XV 13]] (ACNO 83.MR.183). Los Angeles: [[J. Paul Getty Museum]], ca. 1400. ff 1r-2r.</ref><ref name="de’i Liberi Pisani Dossi">[[Fiore de'i Liberi]]. ''Flos Duellatorum'' [manuscript]. [[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi MS]]. Italy: Private Collection, 1409. f 1rv.</ref> The term ''Liberi'', while potentially merely a surname, more probably indicates that his family had Imperial immediacy (''Reichsunmittelbarkeit''), either as part of the ''nobili liberi'' (''Edelfrei'', "free nobles"), the Germanic unindentured knightly class which formed the lower tier of nobility in the Middle Ages, or possibly of the rising class of Imperial Free Knights.<ref>He is never given such a surname in any contemporary records of his life, and the term only appears when introducing his family in his own treatises.</ref><ref name="Mondschein 11">Mondschein, p 11.</ref><ref>Howe, Russ. “[http://ejmas.com/jwma/articles/2008/jwmaart_howe_0808.htm Fiore dei Liberi: Origins and Motivations]”. [[Journal of Western Martial Art]]. Electronic Journals of Martial Arts and Sciences, 2008. Retrieved 2015-11-23.</ref> It has been suggested by various historians that Fiore and Benedetto were descended from Cristallo dei Liberi of Premariacco, who was granted immediacy in 1110 by Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich V,<ref>Giusto Fontanini. {{Google books|929Oruf2qScC|Della Eloquenza italiana di monsignor Giusto Fontanini|page=274}}, vol. 3 (in Italian). R. Bernabò, 1736. pp 274-276.</ref><ref>Gian Guiseppe Liruti. {{Google books|swCiIpD6UeIC|Notizie delle vite ed opere scritte da' letterati del Friuli|page=27}}, vol. 4 (in Italian). Alvisopoli, 1830. p 27.</ref><ref>Novati, pp 15-16.</ref> but this has yet to be proven.<ref>Malipiero, p 80.</ref>
+
'''Fiore Furlano de’i Liberi de Cividale d’Austria''' (Fiore delli Liberi, Fiore Furlano, Fiore de Cividale d’Austria; fl. 1381 - 1409) was a late [[century::14th century]] knight, diplomat, and [[fencing master]]. He was born in Cividale del Friuli, a town in the Patriarchal State of Aquileia (in the Friuli region of modern-day Italy), the son of Benedetto and scion of a Liberi house of Premariacco.<ref name="de’i Liberi Morgan">[[Fiore de'i Liberi]]. ''Fior di Battaglia'' [manuscript]. [[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|MS M.383]]. New York City: [[Morgan Library & Museum]], ca. 1400. ff 1r-2r.</ref><ref name="de’i Liberi Getty">[[Fiore de'i Liberi]]. ''Fior di Battaglia'' [manuscript]. [[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|MS Ludwig ⅩⅤ 13]] (ACNO 83.MR.183). Los Angeles: [[J. Paul Getty Museum]], ca. 1400. ff 1r-2r.</ref><ref name="de’i Liberi Pisani Dossi">[[Fiore de'i Liberi]]. ''Flos Duellatorum'' [manuscript]. [[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi MS]]. Italy: Private Collection, 1409. f 1rv.</ref> The term ''Liberi'', while potentially merely a surname, more probably indicates that his family had Imperial immediacy (''Reichsunmittelbarkeit''), either as part of the ''nobili liberi'' (''Edelfrei'', "free nobles"), the Germanic unindentured knightly class which formed the lower tier of nobility in the Middle Ages, or possibly of the rising class of Imperial Free Knights.<ref>He is never given such a surname in any contemporary records of his life, and the term only appears when introducing his family in his own treatises.</ref><ref name="Mondschein 11">Mondschein, p 11.</ref><ref>Howe, Russ. “[http://ejmas.com/jwma/articles/2008/jwmaart_howe_0808.htm Fiore dei Liberi: Origins and Motivations]”. [[Journal of Western Martial Art]]. Electronic Journals of Martial Arts and Sciences, 2008. Retrieved 2015-11-23.</ref> It has been suggested by various historians that Fiore and Benedetto were descended from Cristallo dei Liberi of Premariacco, who was granted immediacy in 1110 by Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich V,<ref>Giusto Fontanini. {{Google books|929Oruf2qScC|Della Eloquenza italiana di monsignor Giusto Fontanini|page=274}}, vol. 3 (in Italian). R. Bernabò, 1736. pp 274-276.</ref><ref>Gian Guiseppe Liruti. {{Google books|swCiIpD6UeIC|Notizie delle vite ed opere scritte da' letterati del Friuli|page=27}}, vol. 4 (in Italian). Alvisopoli, 1830. p 27.</ref><ref>Novati, pp 15-16.</ref> but this has yet to be proven.<ref>Malipiero, p 80.</ref>
  
Fiore wrote that he had a natural inclination to the martial arts and began training at a young age, ultimately studying with “countless” masters from both Italic and Germanic lands.<ref name="de’i Liberi Morgan"/><ref name="de’i Liberi Getty"/><ref name="de’i Liberi Pisani Dossi"/> He had ample opportunity to interact with both, being born in the Holy Roman Empire and later traveling widely in the northern Italian states. Unfortunately, not all of these encounters were friendly: Fiore wrote of meeting many “false” or unworthy masters in his travels, most of whom lacked even the limited skill he'd expect in a good student.<ref name="de’i Liberi Pisani Dossi"/> He further mentions that on five separate occasions he was forced to fight [[duel]]s for his honor against certain of these masters who he described as envious because he refused to teach them his art; the duels were all fought with sharp swords, unarmored except for gambesons and chamois gloves, and he won each without injury.<ref name="de’i Liberi Morgan"/><ref name="de’i Liberi Getty"/><ref>15th century jurist [[Paride del Pozzo]], in discussing Italian dueling customs, dismisses unarmored duels as the ignoble domain of the rash and the hot-headed, contrasted with honorable dueling done in armor with the full range of military weapons. This might provide insight into Fiore's disposition as a young man. See Leoni 2012, pp xxiv-xxv.</ref>
+
Fiore wrote that he had a natural inclination to the martial arts and began training at a young age, ultimately studying with “countless” masters from both Italic and Germanic lands.<ref name="de’i Liberi Morgan"/><ref name="de’i Liberi Getty"/><ref name="de’i Liberi Pisani Dossi"/> He had ample opportunity to interact with both, being born in the Holy Roman Empire and later traveling widely in the northern Italian states. Unfortunately, not all of these encounters were friendly: Fiore wrote of meeting many “false” or unworthy masters in his travels, most of whom lacked even the limited skill he'd expect in a good student.<ref name="de’i Liberi Pisani Dossi"/> He further mentions that on five separate occasions he was forced to fight [[duel]]s for his honor against certain of these masters who he described as envious because he refused to teach them his art; the duels were all fought with sharp swords, unarmored except for gambesons and chamois gloves, and he won each without injury.<ref name="de’i Liberi Morgan"/><ref name="de’i Liberi Getty"/><ref>15th century jurist [[Paride del Pozzo]], in discussing Italian dueling customs, dismisses unarmored duels as the ignoble domain of the rash and the hot-headed, contrasted with honorable dueling done in armor with the full range of military weapons. This might provide insight into Fiore's disposition as a young man. See Leoni 2012, pp ⅹⅹⅳ-ⅹⅹⅴ.</ref>
  
 
Writing very little on his own career as a commander and master at arms, Fiore laid out his credentials for his readers in other ways. He stated that foremost among the masters who trained him was one [[Johannes Suvenus|Johane dicto Suueno]], who he notes was a disciple of [[Nicholai de Toblem]];<ref name="de’i Liberi Pisani Dossi"/> unfortunately, both names are given in Latin so there is little we can conclude about them other than that they were probably among the Italians and Germans he alludes to, and that one or both were well known in Fiore's time. He further offered an extensive list of the famous ''condottieri'' that he trained, including Piero Paolo del Verde (Peter von Grünen),<ref>[http://www.condottieridiventura.it/index.php/lettera-v/2660-piero-del-verde “PIERO DEL VERDE (Paolo del Verde) Tedesco. Signore di Colle di Val d’Elsa.”]. ''Note biografiche di Capitani di Guerra e di Condottieri di Ventura operanti in Italia nel 1330 - 1550''. Retrieved 2015-11-23.</ref> Niccolo Unricilino (Nikolo von Urslingen),<ref>Leoni, p 7.</ref> Galeazzo Cattaneo dei Grumelli (Galeazzo Gonzaga da Mantova),<ref name="Galeazzo">[http://www.condottieridiventura.it/index.php/lettera-m/1450-galeazzo-da-mantova “GALEAZZO DA MANTOVA (Galeazzo Cattaneo dei Grumelli, Galeazzo Gonzaga) Di Mantova. Secondo alcune fonti, di Grumello nel pavese.”]. ''Note biografiche di Capitani di Guerra e di Condottieri di Ventura operanti in Italia nel 1330 - 1550''. Retrieved 2015-11-23.</ref> Lancillotto Beccaria di Pavia,<ref>[http://www.condottieridiventura.it/index.php/lettera-b/630-lancillotto-beccaria “LANCILLOTTO BECCARIA  (Lanciarotto Beccaria) Di Pavia. Ghibellino. Signore di Serravalle Scrivia, Casei Gerola, Bassignana, Novi Ligure, Voghera, Broni.”]. ''Note biografiche di Capitani di Guerra e di Condottieri di Ventura operanti in Italia nel 1330 - 1550''. Retrieved 2015-11-23.</ref> Giovannino da Baggio di Milano,<ref name="Malipiero 9496">Malipiero, pp 94-96.</ref> and Azzone di Castelbarco,<ref name="Jens">[https://talhoffer.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/fiore-his-master-and-his-students/ Fiore his masters and his students]. ''Hans Talhoffer ~ as seen by Jens P. Kleinau.'' Retrieved 2015-11-23.</ref> and also highlights some of their martial exploits.<ref name="de’i Liberi Morgan"/><ref name="de’i Liberi Getty"/>
 
Writing very little on his own career as a commander and master at arms, Fiore laid out his credentials for his readers in other ways. He stated that foremost among the masters who trained him was one [[Johannes Suvenus|Johane dicto Suueno]], who he notes was a disciple of [[Nicholai de Toblem]];<ref name="de’i Liberi Pisani Dossi"/> unfortunately, both names are given in Latin so there is little we can conclude about them other than that they were probably among the Italians and Germans he alludes to, and that one or both were well known in Fiore's time. He further offered an extensive list of the famous ''condottieri'' that he trained, including Piero Paolo del Verde (Peter von Grünen),<ref>[http://www.condottieridiventura.it/index.php/lettera-v/2660-piero-del-verde “PIERO DEL VERDE (Paolo del Verde) Tedesco. Signore di Colle di Val d’Elsa.”]. ''Note biografiche di Capitani di Guerra e di Condottieri di Ventura operanti in Italia nel 1330 - 1550''. Retrieved 2015-11-23.</ref> Niccolo Unricilino (Nikolo von Urslingen),<ref>Leoni, p 7.</ref> Galeazzo Cattaneo dei Grumelli (Galeazzo Gonzaga da Mantova),<ref name="Galeazzo">[http://www.condottieridiventura.it/index.php/lettera-m/1450-galeazzo-da-mantova “GALEAZZO DA MANTOVA (Galeazzo Cattaneo dei Grumelli, Galeazzo Gonzaga) Di Mantova. Secondo alcune fonti, di Grumello nel pavese.”]. ''Note biografiche di Capitani di Guerra e di Condottieri di Ventura operanti in Italia nel 1330 - 1550''. Retrieved 2015-11-23.</ref> Lancillotto Beccaria di Pavia,<ref>[http://www.condottieridiventura.it/index.php/lettera-b/630-lancillotto-beccaria “LANCILLOTTO BECCARIA  (Lanciarotto Beccaria) Di Pavia. Ghibellino. Signore di Serravalle Scrivia, Casei Gerola, Bassignana, Novi Ligure, Voghera, Broni.”]. ''Note biografiche di Capitani di Guerra e di Condottieri di Ventura operanti in Italia nel 1330 - 1550''. Retrieved 2015-11-23.</ref> Giovannino da Baggio di Milano,<ref name="Malipiero 9496">Malipiero, pp 94-96.</ref> and Azzone di Castelbarco,<ref name="Jens">[https://talhoffer.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/fiore-his-master-and-his-students/ Fiore his masters and his students]. ''Hans Talhoffer ~ as seen by Jens P. Kleinau.'' Retrieved 2015-11-23.</ref> and also highlights some of their martial exploits.<ref name="de’i Liberi Morgan"/><ref name="de’i Liberi Getty"/>
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Fiore surfaces again in Pavia in 1399, this time training Giovannino da Baggio for a duel with a German squire named Sirano. It was fought on 24 June and attended by Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan, as well as the Duchess and other nobles. The duel was to consist of three bouts of mounted lance followed by three bouts each of dismounted [[poleaxe]], [[estoc]], and [[dagger]]. They ultimately rode two additional passes and on the fifth, Baggio impaled Sirano’s horse through the chest, slaying the horse but losing his lance in the process. They fought the other nine bouts as scheduled, and due to the strength of their armor (and the fact that all of the weapons were blunted), both combatants reportedly emerged from these exchanges unharmed.<ref name="Malipiero 9496"/><ref name="Mondschein 12">Mondschein, p 12.</ref>
 
Fiore surfaces again in Pavia in 1399, this time training Giovannino da Baggio for a duel with a German squire named Sirano. It was fought on 24 June and attended by Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan, as well as the Duchess and other nobles. The duel was to consist of three bouts of mounted lance followed by three bouts each of dismounted [[poleaxe]], [[estoc]], and [[dagger]]. They ultimately rode two additional passes and on the fifth, Baggio impaled Sirano’s horse through the chest, slaying the horse but losing his lance in the process. They fought the other nine bouts as scheduled, and due to the strength of their armor (and the fact that all of the weapons were blunted), both combatants reportedly emerged from these exchanges unharmed.<ref name="Malipiero 9496"/><ref name="Mondschein 12">Mondschein, p 12.</ref>
  
Fiore was likely involved in at least one other duel that year, that of his final student Azzone di Castelbarco and Giovanni degli Ordelaffi, as the latter is known to have died in 1399.<ref>Malipiero, p 97.</ref> After Castelbarco’s duel, Fiore’s activities are unclear. Based on the allegiances of the nobles that he trained in the 1390s, he seems to have been associated with the ducal court of Milan in the latter part of his career.<ref name="Easton"/> Some time in the first years of the 1400s, Fiore composed a fencing treatise in Italian and Latin called "The Flower of Battle" (rendered variously as ''Fior di Battaglia'', ''Florius de Arte Luctandi'', and ''Flos Duellatorum''). The briefest version of the text is dated to 1409 and indicates that it was a labor of six months and great personal effort;<ref name="de’i Liberi Pisani Dossi"/> as evidence suggests that at least two longer versions were composed some time before this,<ref>Fiore states in the preface to the [[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi MS]] that he had studied combat for fifty years, whereas the comparable statement in the [[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|MS M.383]] and [[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|MS Ludwig.XV.13]] mention the slightly shorter "forty years and more".</ref> we may assume that he devoted a considerable amount of time to writing during this decade.
+
Fiore was likely involved in at least one other duel that year, that of his final student Azzone di Castelbarco and Giovanni degli Ordelaffi, as the latter is known to have died in 1399.<ref>Malipiero, p 97.</ref> After Castelbarco’s duel, Fiore’s activities are unclear. Based on the allegiances of the nobles that he trained in the 1390s, he seems to have been associated with the ducal court of Milan in the latter part of his career.<ref name="Easton"/> Some time in the first years of the 1400s, Fiore composed a fencing treatise in Italian and Latin called "The Flower of Battle" (rendered variously as ''Fior di Battaglia'', ''Florius de Arte Luctandi'', and ''Flos Duellatorum''). The briefest version of the text is dated to 1409 and indicates that it was a labor of six months and great personal effort;<ref name="de’i Liberi Pisani Dossi"/> as evidence suggests that at least two longer versions were composed some time before this,<ref>Fiore states in the preface to the [[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi MS]] that he had studied combat for fifty years, whereas the comparable statement in the [[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|MS M.383]] and [[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|MS Ludwig ⅩⅤ 13]] mention the slightly shorter "forty years and more".</ref> we may assume that he devoted a considerable amount of time to writing during this decade.
  
 
Beyond this, nothing certain is known of Fiore's activities in the 15th century. [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Luigi Zanutto]] both assume that some time before 1409 he accepted an appointment as court fencing master to Niccolò Ⅲ d’Este, Marquis of Ferrara, Modena, and Parma; presumably he would have made this change when Milan fell into disarray in 1402, though Zanutto went so far as to speculate that he trained Niccolò for his 1399 passage at arms.<ref>Zanutto, pp 211-212.</ref> However, while the records of the d’Este library indicate the presence of two versions of "the Flower of Battle", it seems more likely that the manuscripts were written as a diplomatic gift to Ferrara from Milan when they made peace in 1404.<ref name="Mondschein 12"/><ref name="Easton"/> C. A. Blengini di Torricella stated that late in life he made his way to Paris, France, where he could be placed teaching fencing in 1418 and creating a copy of a [[fencing manual]] located there in 1420. Though he attributes these facts to Novati, no publication verifying them has yet been located and this anecdote may be entirely spurious.<ref>In 1907, fencing master C. A. Blengini di Torricella mentioned that “In 1904, a historical work by [[Francesco Novati]], Director of the Academy in Milano and Gaffuri, Director of the graphical institute in Bergamo was published… These two prominent scholars uncovered documents, found in different archives, …''Rules for Fencing'' were printed by Fiore dei Liberi in 1420… And how could then dei Liberi have taught fencing lessons in Paris in 1418?” (translated from Norwegian by [[Roger Norling]]). See Blengini, di Torricella C. A. ''Haandbog i Fægtning med Floret, Kaarde, Sabel, Forsvar med Sabel mod Bajonet og Sabelhugning tilhest: Med forklarende Tegninger og en Oversigt over Fægtekunstens Historie og Udvikling.'' 1907. p 28.{{full}}</ref>
 
Beyond this, nothing certain is known of Fiore's activities in the 15th century. [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Luigi Zanutto]] both assume that some time before 1409 he accepted an appointment as court fencing master to Niccolò Ⅲ d’Este, Marquis of Ferrara, Modena, and Parma; presumably he would have made this change when Milan fell into disarray in 1402, though Zanutto went so far as to speculate that he trained Niccolò for his 1399 passage at arms.<ref>Zanutto, pp 211-212.</ref> However, while the records of the d’Este library indicate the presence of two versions of "the Flower of Battle", it seems more likely that the manuscripts were written as a diplomatic gift to Ferrara from Milan when they made peace in 1404.<ref name="Mondschein 12"/><ref name="Easton"/> C. A. Blengini di Torricella stated that late in life he made his way to Paris, France, where he could be placed teaching fencing in 1418 and creating a copy of a [[fencing manual]] located there in 1420. Though he attributes these facts to Novati, no publication verifying them has yet been located and this anecdote may be entirely spurious.<ref>In 1907, fencing master C. A. Blengini di Torricella mentioned that “In 1904, a historical work by [[Francesco Novati]], Director of the Academy in Milano and Gaffuri, Director of the graphical institute in Bergamo was published… These two prominent scholars uncovered documents, found in different archives, …''Rules for Fencing'' were printed by Fiore dei Liberi in 1420… And how could then dei Liberi have taught fencing lessons in Paris in 1418?” (translated from Norwegian by [[Roger Norling]]). See Blengini, di Torricella C. A. ''Haandbog i Fægtning med Floret, Kaarde, Sabel, Forsvar med Sabel mod Bajonet og Sabelhugning tilhest: Med forklarende Tegninger og en Oversigt over Fægtekunstens Historie og Udvikling.'' 1907. p 28.{{full}}</ref>
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== Treatise ==
 
== Treatise ==
  
The d'Este family owned three manuscripts by Fiore during the 15th century,<ref>There are two records in the [https://archive.org/details/giornalestoricod14toriuoft/page/18/mode/2up 1436 catalog] and two records in the [https://books.google.com/books?id=yz5FAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA219 1467 catalog], but only one of the manuscript descriptions is similar between the catalogs. The 1436 catalog lists one unbound Latin manuscript and one Italian manuscript in red leather; the 1467 catalog lists two Latin manuscripts, one of which was only 15 unbound folia (probably the same as the one from 1436) and one of which was 58 folia bound in white leather. From this, we might speculate that the Getty manuscript was present in 1436, the Paris manuscript in 1467, and the third (very short) manuscript is currently unknown to us. If there were an error in the 1467 catalog, then the unknown manuscript could be the Pisani Dossi, which currently consists of 35 unbound folia.</ref> and a total of four copies survive to the present. Of these, the [[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|MS Ludwig XV 13]] (Getty) and the [[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi MS]] (Novati) are both dedicated to Niccolò Ⅲ d'Este and state that they were written at his request and according to his design. The [[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|MS M.383]] (Morgan), on the other hand, lacks a dedication and claims to have been laid out according to his own intelligence, while the [[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|MS Latin 11269]] (Paris) lost any dedication it might have had along with its prologue. Each of the extant copies of the ''Flower of Battle'' follows a different order, though each of these pairs contains strong similarities to each other in order of presentation.  
+
The d'Este family owned at least three manuscripts by Fiore during the 15th century,<ref>There are two records in the [https://archive.org/details/giornalestoricod14toriuoft/page/18/mode/2up 1436 catalog] and two records in the [https://books.google.com/books?id=yz5FAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA219 1467 catalog], but only one of the manuscript descriptions is similar between the catalogs. The 1436 catalog lists one unbound Latin manuscript and one Italian manuscript in red leather; the 1467 catalog lists two Latin manuscripts, one of which was only 15 unbound folia (probably the same as the one from 1436) and one of which was 58 folia bound in white leather. From this, we might speculate that the Getty manuscript was present in 1436, the Paris manuscript in 1467, and the third (very short) manuscript is currently unknown to us. If there were an error in the 1467 catalog, then the unknown manuscript could be the Pisani Dossi, which currently consists of 35 unbound folia.</ref> and a total of four copies survive to the present. Of these, the [[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|MS Ludwig ⅩⅤ 13]] (Getty) and the [[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi MS]] (Novati) are both dedicated to Niccolò Ⅲ d'Este and state that they were written at his request and according to his design. The [[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|MS M.383]] (Morgan), on the other hand, lacks a dedication and claims to have been laid out according to his own intelligence, while the [[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|MS Latin 11269]] (Paris) lost any dedication it might have had along with its prologue. Each of the extant copies of the ''Flower of Battle'' follows a different order, though each of these pairs contains strong similarities to each other in order of presentation.  
  
 
In addition, Philippo di Vadi's manuscript from the 1480s, whose second half is essentially a redaction of the ''Flower of Battle'', provides a valuable fifth point of reference when considering Fiore's teachings. (These is also a 17th century copy of the Morgan's preface, transcribed by Apostolo Zeno, but it contributes little to our understanding of the text.)
 
In addition, Philippo di Vadi's manuscript from the 1480s, whose second half is essentially a redaction of the ''Flower of Battle'', provides a valuable fifth point of reference when considering Fiore's teachings. (These is also a 17th century copy of the Morgan's preface, transcribed by Apostolo Zeno, but it contributes little to our understanding of the text.)
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! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Getty)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Getty)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Morgan)}}<br/>by [[translator::Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Morgan)}}<br/>by [[translator::Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS XXIV)|San Daniele del Friuli Transcription]] (1699)<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS XXIV)|San Daniele del Friuli Transcription]] (1699){{edit index| Fior di Battaglia (MS XXIV)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
Line 598: Line 598:
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the Pisani Dossi)}}<br/>by [[translator::Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the Pisani Dossi)}}<br/>by [[translator::Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[Paris does not contain Preface]</p>
 
! <p>[Paris does not contain Preface]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS XXIV)|San Daniele del Friuli Transcription]] (1699)<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS XXIV)|San Daniele del Friuli Transcription]] (1699){{edit index| Fior di Battaglia (MS XXIV)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
Line 696: Line 696:
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Pisani Dossi)}}<br/>by [[translator::Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Pisani Dossi)}}<br/>by [[translator::Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[Paris does not contain Preface]</p>
 
! <p>[Paris does not contain Preface]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS XXIV)|San Daniele del Friuli Transcription]] (1699)<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS XXIV)|San Daniele del Friuli Transcription]] (1699){{edit index| Fior di Battaglia (MS XXIV)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
Line 715: Line 715:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>And this present gloss will recite all our knowledge and our understanding of all that we have seen from many masters and scholars and fencers, and from dukes, princes, marquises, counts, knights, and squires, and from countless other men of diverse provinces, and also things that we discovered ourself. There will also be guards of all weapons, and plays, and covers, and strikes, and holds, and binds, and breaks, and dislocations of arms and legs, and torsions and lesions—in the most perilous places—following that which the master of this art wishes.</p>
+
| <p>And this present gloss will recite all our knowledge and our understanding of all that we have experienced from many masters and scholars and fencers, and from dukes, princes, marquises, counts, knights, and squires, and from countless other men of diverse provinces, and also things that we discovered ourself. There will also be guards of all weapons, and plays, and covers, and strikes, and holds, and binds, and breaks, and dislocations of arms and legs, and torsions and lesions—in the most perilous places—following that which the master of this art wishes.</p>
  
 
<p>So poorly can one keep in mind without books and writing this large art that there will never be a good student without books. How, then, could there be a good master? I, the aforementioned Fiore, have seen a thousand men calling themselves masters, though not four among them were good students, and of those four none would be a good teacher.</p>
 
<p>So poorly can one keep in mind without books and writing this large art that there will never be a good student without books. How, then, could there be a good master? I, the aforementioned Fiore, have seen a thousand men calling themselves masters, though not four among them were good students, and of those four none would be a good teacher.</p>
Line 1,126: Line 1,126:
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>''{{rating|B|PD}} by [[translator::Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty}} by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>''{{rating|B|PD}} by [[translator::Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty}} by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
! <p>{{rating|C|Paris}} by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]</p>
+
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris}} by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="10" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 16r.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="11" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|400px|center]]
| rowspan="10" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="11" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 16r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>''We are four animals with these features:<br/>Whoever wants to fence makes comparisons to us;<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>''We are four animals with these features:<br/>Whoever wants to fence makes comparisons to us;<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
| <p>''Behold! we are four distinguished animals with these [traits]<br/>Who, for instance, strongly reminds [that] he is able in arms;<br/>He wants to be clear/bright and even shining brightly with honesty.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>''Behold! we are four distinguished animals with these [traits]<br/>Who, for instance, strongly reminds [that] he is able in arms;<br/>He wants to be clear/bright and even shining brightly with honesty.''</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-c|lbl=17a}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-c|lbl=17a}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-c|lbl=1v}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-c|lbl=1v}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>''And whoever will have a good portion of our virtues<br/>Will have honor in weapons, as bespeaks the art.<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>''And whoever will have a good portion of our virtues<br/>Will have honor in weapons, as bespeaks the art.<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
| <p>''He undertakes the lessons for himself, [and] determines which [are for] harming.<br/>Impress the evidence made known upon your spirit. Thenceforth<br/>That [evidence] of arms will have been taught before among friends.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>''He undertakes the lessons for himself, [and] determines which [are for] harming.<br/>Impress the evidence made known upon your spirit. Thenceforth<br/>That [evidence] of arms will have been taught before among friends.''</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-d|lbl=-}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-d|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-d|lbl=-}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-d|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,159: Line 1,159:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>{{red|b=1|Prudence/Wisdom}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>{{red|b=1|Prudence/Wisdom}}</p>
  
 
<p>''No creature sees better than me, the Lynx.<br/>And I always set things in order with compass and measure.''</p>
 
<p>''No creature sees better than me, the Lynx.<br/>And I always set things in order with compass and measure.''</p>
| <p>{{red|b=1|Prudence}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>{{red|b=1|Prudence}}</p>
  
 
<p>''Everything born under the sky will be discerned with [my] eyes; I, the lynx,<br/>I conquer [by] measurement whatever it pleases [me] to attempt.</p>
 
<p>''Everything born under the sky will be discerned with [my] eyes; I, the lynx,<br/>I conquer [by] measurement whatever it pleases [me] to attempt.</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|32r-1|lbl=-}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|32r-1|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-t|lbl=-}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-tttl|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-t|lbl=-}}
+
 
 +
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-t|lbl=-}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-tttl|lbl=-}}
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-t|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,179: Line 1,183:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>{{red|b=1|Celerity/Speed}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>{{red|b=1|Celerity/Speed}}</p>
  
 
<p>''I, the tiger, am so swift to run and to wheel<br/>That even the bolt from the sky cannot overtake me.''</p>
 
<p>''I, the tiger, am so swift to run and to wheel<br/>That even the bolt from the sky cannot overtake me.''</p>
| <p>{{red|b=1|Quickness}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>{{red|b=1|Quickness}}</p>
  
 
<p>''I am quick in the hunt and roll the quick ones back in their orbit,<br/>Nor in my running will the lightning overcome the tiger.</p>
 
<p>''I am quick in the hunt and roll the quick ones back in their orbit,<br/>Nor in my running will the lightning overcome the tiger.</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|32r-3|lbl=-}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|32r-3|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-a|lbl=-}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-attl|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-a|lbl=-}}
+
 
 +
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-a|lbl=-}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-attl|lbl=-}}
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-a|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,199: Line 1,207:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>{{red|b=1|Audacity/Daring}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>{{red|b=1|Audacity/Daring}}</p>
  
 
<p>''None carries a more ardent heart than me, the lion,<br/>But to everyone I make an invitation to battle.''</p>
 
<p>''None carries a more ardent heart than me, the lion,<br/>But to everyone I make an invitation to battle.''</p>
| <p>{{red|b=1|Courage}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>{{red|b=1|Courage}}</p>
  
 
<p>''I am the quadruped, the strong crown; my brave things,<br/>For instance, are the foundation of every axis. Now conquers the lion of the heart;<br/>[...] Therefore, we call whomsoever to arms.</p>
 
<p>''I am the quadruped, the strong crown; my brave things,<br/>For instance, are the foundation of every axis. Now conquers the lion of the heart;<br/>[...] Therefore, we call whomsoever to arms.</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|32r-5|lbl=-}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|32r-5|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-b|lbl=-}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-bttl|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-b|lbl=-}}
+
 
 +
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-b|lbl=-}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-bttl|lbl=-}}
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-b|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,219: Line 1,231:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>{{red|b=1|Fortitude/Strength}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>{{red|b=1|Fortitude/Strength}}</p>
  
 
<p>''I am the elephant and I carry a castle as cargo,<br/>And I do not kneel nor lose my footing.''</p>
 
<p>''I am the elephant and I carry a castle as cargo,<br/>And I do not kneel nor lose my footing.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>{{red|b=1|Strength}}</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|32r-7|lbl=-}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-ettl|lbl=-}}
 +
 +
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-e|lbl=-}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-ettl|lbl=-}}
 +
 +
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-e|lbl=-}}
  
<p>I am the Elephant and I carry a castle in my care, and I neither fall to my knees nor lose my footing.<ref>“Ne perdo vargo” means literally “I do not lose my way”. From the Bestiaries however we understand that what the Elephant never does is fall over. In the Bestiaries we are told the Elephant has no knees and if it once lies down can never get up again. Thus Fiore’s Elephant stands for stability and sure-footedness. The Aberdeen Bestiary reads as follows: “[Of the elephant] ... no larger animal is seen. The Persians and Indians, carried in wooden towers on their backs, fight with javelins as from a wall. ...The elephant has this characteristic: if it falls down, it cannot rise. But it falls when it leans on a tree in order to sleep, for it has no joints in its knees. A hunter cuts part of the way through the tree, so that when the elephant leans against it, elephant and tree will fall together.”</ref></p>
 
| <p>{{red|b=1|Strength}}</p>
 
|
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|32r-7|lbl=-}}
 
  
<p><br/><br/></p>
 
  
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|32r-8|lbl=-}}
+
|-
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-e|lbl=-}}
+
| <p>I am the Elephant and I carry a castle in my care, and I neither fall to my knees nor lose my footing.<ref>“Ne perdo vargo” means literally “I do not lose my way”. From the Bestiaries however we understand that what the Elephant never does is fall over. In the Bestiaries we are told the Elephant has no knees and if it once lies down can never get up again. Thus Fiore’s Elephant stands for stability and sure-footedness. The Aberdeen Bestiary reads as follows: “[Of the elephant] ... no larger animal is seen. The Persians and Indians, carried in wooden towers on their backs, fight with javelins as from a wall. ...The elephant has this characteristic: if it falls down, it cannot rise. But it falls when it leans on a tree in order to sleep, for it has no joints in its knees. A hunter cuts part of the way through the tree, so that when the elephant leans against it, elephant and tree will fall together.”</ref></p>
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-e|lbl=-}}
+
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|32r-8|lbl=-}}
 +
|  
 +
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,264: Line 1,284:
 
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
Line 1,280: Line 1,300:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" |  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-a.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-a.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[2] {{red|b=1|[The Long Guard]}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[2] {{red|b=1|[The Long Guard]}}</p>
  
 
<p>''I am ready to show you how I win with my holds,<br/>And if I don’t leave you wondering what happened, you can count yourself lucky.''</p>
 
<p>''I am ready to show you how I win with my holds,<br/>And if I don’t leave you wondering what happened, you can count yourself lucky.''</p>
| <p><br/></p>
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
  
 
<p>''Even if you capture me, I would win; I am truly prepared.<br/>If I do not deceive you, you will be able to benefit for a short while.''</p>
 
<p>''Even if you capture me, I would win; I am truly prepared.<br/>If I do not deceive you, you will be able to benefit for a short while.''</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
<br/>
+
 
 
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-a}}
 
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-a}}
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
<br/>
+
 
 
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-a}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-a}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>I am ''Posta Longa'' and I seek you like this. And in response to the first grapple that you attempt on me I will bring my right arm up under your left arm. And I will then execute the first play of Grappling. And with that lock I will force you to the ground. And if that lock looks like it will fail me, then I will switch to one of the other locks that follow.</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>I am ''Posta Longa'' and I seek you like this. And in response to the first grapple that you attempt on me I will bring my right arm up under your left arm. And I will then execute the first play of Grappling. And with that lock I will force you to the ground. And if that lock looks like it will fail me, then I will switch to one of the other locks that follow.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-a}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-a}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" |  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-b.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-b.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[3] {{red|b=1|[The Boar's Tooth]}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[3] {{red|b=1|[The Boar's Tooth]}}</p>
  
 
<p>''I seek to reverse the fight,<br/>And from this position I will force you to the ground.''</p>
 
<p>''I seek to reverse the fight,<br/>And from this position I will force you to the ground.''</p>
| <p><br/></p>
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
  
 
<p>''I seek to shift, <for> which reason I would be able to deceive you well.<br/>Henceforth, I would turn you, using the speeding chest, through the dirt.''</p>
 
<p>''I seek to shift, <for> which reason I would be able to deceive you well.<br/>Henceforth, I would turn you, using the speeding chest, through the dirt.''</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
<br/>
+
 
 
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-b}}
 
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-b}}
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
<br/>
+
 
 
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-b}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-b}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>I counter you with ''Dente di Zenghiaro''. And with this move I am sure to break your grip. And from this guard I can transition to ''Porta di Ferro'', which will force you to the ground. And if my plan fails me because of your defense, I will seek other ways to hurt you, for example with breaks, binds and dislocations, as you see depicted in these drawings.</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>I counter you with ''Dente di Zenghiaro''. And with this move I am sure to break your grip. And from this guard I can transition to ''Porta di Ferro'', which will force you to the ground. And if my plan fails me because of your defense, I will seek other ways to hurt you, for example with breaks, binds and dislocations, as you see depicted in these drawings.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-b}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-c.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-c.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[4] {{red|b=1|[The Iron Gate]}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[4] {{red|b=1|[The Iron Gate]}}</p>
  
 
<p>''If you fail to beat me with your skill, I believe<br/>That with my power I will hurt you, or worse.''</p>
 
<p>''If you fail to beat me with your skill, I believe<br/>That with my power I will hurt you, or worse.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
  
<p>I wait for you without moving in ''Porta di Ferro'', ready to grapple with all of my skill. And this guard can be applied not only in the art of grappling, but also in the art of the Spear, the Poleaxe, the Sword, and the Dagger. For I am ''Porta di Ferro'', full of danger. Those who oppose me will always end up in pain and suffering. And as for those of you who come against me trying to get your hands on me, I will force you to the ground.</p>
+
<p>''If you do not conquer with a trick, I can, of course, believe [that]<br/>By my strength, that one &lt;that is, you&gt; will suffer many calamities.''</p>
| <p><br/></p>
+
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
  
<p>''If you do not conquer with a trick, I can, of course, believe [that]<br/>By my strength, that one <that is, you> will suffer many calamities.''</p>
+
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-c}}
 +
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
  
|  
+
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-c}}
|  
 
<br/>
 
  
<br/><br/>
+
|-
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-c}}
+
| class="noline" | <p>I wait for you without moving in ''Porta di Ferro'', ready to grapple with all of my skill. And this guard can be applied not only in the art of grappling, but also in the art of the Spear, the Poleaxe, the Sword, and the Dagger. For I am ''Porta di Ferro'', full of danger. Those who oppose me will always end up in pain and suffering. And as for those of you who come against me trying to get your hands on me, I will force you to the ground.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-c}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
<br/>
 
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-c}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
<br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-c}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-d.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-d.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[5] {{red|b=1|[The Guard of the Forehead]}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[5] {{red|b=1|[The Guard of the Forehead]}}</p>
  
 
<p>''I advance upon you with my arms well forward<br/>To lay hands on you in a variety of ways.''</p>
 
<p>''I advance upon you with my arms well forward<br/>To lay hands on you in a variety of ways.''</p>
 
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
<p>I am ''Posta Frontale'', used to get my hands on you. Now if I come against you in this guard, you may lay hands on me. But I will then move from this guard, and with skill I will take you down to ''Porta di Ferro''. Then I will make you suffer as if you had fallen into the depths of hell. And I will serve you so effectively with locks and dislocations, that you will quickly acknowledge my superiority. And as long as I don’t forget my skills, I will gain my superior holds.</p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
  
 
<p>''Behold!  I am coming, eager to overcome by means of the stretched shoulder,<br/>In order that I gain for myself a powerful capturing during the playing.''</p>
 
<p>''Behold!  I am coming, eager to overcome by means of the stretched shoulder,<br/>In order that I gain for myself a powerful capturing during the playing.''</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
<br/>
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-d}}
 
|
 
<br/>
 
 
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-d}}
 
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-d}}
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
<br/>
+
 
 
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-d}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-d}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| class="noline" | <p>I am ''Posta Frontale'', used to get my hands on you. Now if I come against you in this guard, you may lay hands on me. But I will then move from this guard, and with skill I will take you down to ''Porta di Ferro''. Then I will make you suffer as if you had fallen into the depths of hell. And I will serve you so effectively with locks and dislocations, that you will quickly acknowledge my superiority. And as long as I don’t forget my skills, I will gain my superior holds.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-d}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-a.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[6] ''With this move I will either force you to the ground<br/>Or else your left arm will be dislocated.''</p>
 
 
<p>This is the first play of ''Abrazare'' and from every grappling guard you can arrive at this play, and from this position, proceed as follows: jam his right inside elbow with your left hand, and bring your right hand up behind and against his left elbow as shown. Now quickly make the second play, that is to say, having gripped him like this, turn your body to the left, and as a result he either goes to the ground or his arm will be dislocated.</p>
 
| <p>''In this way, I, using a capturing, would make you touch the earth.<br/>I will dislocate your left shoulder, or perhaps the other.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39r.jpg|39r-b}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Cod.1324 29r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-b.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-a.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[7] ''Either I will make you kiss the ground with your mouth,<br/>Or I will force you into the lower lock.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[6] ''With this move I will either force you to the ground<br/>Or else your left arm will be dislocated.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''In this way, I, using a capturing, would make you touch the earth.<br/>I will dislocate your left shoulder, or perhaps the other.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-a}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39r.jpg|39r-b}}
  
<p>As the Scholar of the First ''Abrazare'' Remedy Master says, I am certain to put this man to the ground, either by breaking or dislocating his left arm. And if the ''Zugadore'' who fights with the First ''Abrazare'' Remedy Master takes his left hand off the shoulder of the Remedy Master in order to make a defense, then I will quickly let go of his right arm with my left hand and instead seize his left leg with my left hand, and grip his throat with my right hand in order to throw him to the ground, as you see depicted in the third play.</p>
+
|-
| <p>''I would compel you, ugly, to lick the ground with your mouth;<br/>Not to mention I would even make you, wretched, enter the lowest key.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>This is the first play of ''Abrazare'' and from every grappling guard you can arrive at this play, and from this position, proceed as follows: jam his right inside elbow with your left hand, and bring your right hand up behind and against his left elbow as shown. Now quickly make the second play, that is to say, having gripped him like this, turn your body to the left, and as a result he either goes to the ground or his arm will be dislocated.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-a}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]''</p>
+
|-
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39r.jpg|39r-d}}
 
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-c.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[8] ''And I will put you on the ground on your back,<br/>And I will not let you back up again without injury.''</p>
 
 
<p>The scholar that came before me speaks truly that from his hold he will force his opponent to the ground or dislocate his left arm. As he told you, if the ''Zugadore'' takes away his left hand from the shoulder of the Remedy Master, then the Remedy Master transitions to the Third Play, as you see depicted here. Thus, the First play and the Second play are really one single play, where the Remedy Master forces the ''Zugadore'' to the ground with a turn of his body, while in this Third play the ''Zugadore'' is thrown to the ground onto his back.</p>
 
| <p>''I would throw you, without pause, into the farthest earth up to the kidneys.<br/>Without you being able to rise from ominous punishment at all.''<ref>''Nec sine'' is an emphatic, not a negation.</ref></p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39v.jpg|39v-b}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Cod.1324 29r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-d.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-b.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[9] ''Even if you were a master of grappling,<br/>I will force you to the ground with this technique.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[7] ''Either I will make you kiss the ground with your mouth,<br/>Or I will force you into the lower lock.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''I would compel you, ugly, to lick the ground with your mouth;<br/>Not to mention I would even make you, wretched, enter the lowest key.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-b}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39r.jpg|39r-d}}
  
<p>This is the Fourth Play of ''Abrazare'', by which the ''Scholaro'' [Student] can easily force the ''Zugadore'' to the ground. And if he cannot force him to ground like this, he will seek other plays and techniques and use other methods, as you will see depicted below. You should know that the plays and the techniques will not always work in every situation, so if you do not have a good hold, you should quickly seek one, so as not to let your opponent gain any advantage over you.</p>
+
|-
| <p>''In this way, I would make you sink down to the earth using a capturing,<br/>If you were being better during the entire playing by the masters.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>As the Scholar of the First ''Abrazare'' Remedy Master says, I am certain to put this man to the ground, either by breaking or dislocating his left arm. And if the ''Zugadore'' who fights with the First ''Abrazare'' Remedy Master takes his left hand off the shoulder of the Remedy Master in order to make a defense, then I will quickly let go of his right arm with my left hand and instead seize his left leg with my left hand, and grip his throat with my right hand in order to throw him to the ground, as you see depicted in the third play.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]''</p>
+
|-
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]</p>
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39v.jpg|39v-d}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-e.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[10] ''With the grips that I have on you above and below,<br/>I will break open your head on the ground.''</p>
 
 
<p>This grip that I make with my right hand at your throat will bring you pain and suffering, and with it I will force you to the ground. Also let me tell you that if I seize you under your left knee with my right hand, I will be even more certain of driving you into the ground.</p>
 
| <p>''Because of capturing, <by> wrestling above and below<br/>You will pound the earth with the top of your head. The fates will not refuse.''</p>
 
 
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-e}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40r.jpg|40r-b}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r-b.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-c.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[11] ''Your hand in my face is well placed,<br/>But I will now show you some other moves.<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[8] ''And I will put you on the ground on your back,<br/>And I will not let you back up again without injury.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''I would throw you, without pause, into the farthest earth up to the kidneys.<br/>Without you being able to rise from ominous punishment at all.''<ref>''Nec sine'' is an emphatic, not a negation.</ref></p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-c}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39v.jpg|39v-b}}
  
<p>I am the counter of the Fifth Play [10] that is shown earlier. And let me explain that if with my right hand I push up the elbow of his hand that seeks to harm me, I will turn him in such a way that either I will force him to the ground, as you see here depicted, or I will gain a hold or a lock, and so I will have little concern for his grappling skills.</p>
+
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>The scholar that came before me speaks truly that from his hold he will force his opponent to the ground or dislocate his left arm. As he told you, if the ''Zugadore'' takes away his left hand from the shoulder of the Remedy Master, then the Remedy Master transitions to the Third Play, as you see depicted here. Thus, the First play and the Second play are really one single play, where the Remedy Master forces the ''Zugadore'' to the ground with a turn of his body, while in this Third play the ''Zugadore'' is thrown to the ground onto his back.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-c}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>''[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]''</p>
+
|-
| <p>''I served up the palms to the face.<ref>''Apposui'' is clearly “I served up,” but with the convention that the captions are spoken by the wearer of the crown or garter, this makes little sense (as the palms are in the face of that person). Further, the Pisani Dossi text reverses the speaker.</ref> But still I cheerfully moved<br/>Those [palms] from that place, <in order that> I would therefore be able to<br/>Bury you using the other capturing.''</p>
+
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-f}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40r.jpg|40r-c}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-a.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[12] ''By putting my head under your arm,<br/>I will easily throw you to the ground.''</p>
 
 
<p>From this hold that I have gained, and by the way I hold you, I will lift you off the ground with my strength and throw you down under my feet head first with your body following. And as far as I am concerned, you will not be able to counter me.</p>
 
| <p>''You, confused one, will be spread on the ground (like a tarp) in sadness and disorder;<br/>This, because I am holding [your arm] on the left <and put> the head of this person <that is, me> under the shoulder.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40v.jpg|40v-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-b.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-d.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[13] ''Because of my thumb pressing under your left ear,<br/>Your hold on me is failing, as you can see depicted here.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[9] ''Even if you were a master of grappling,<br/>I will force you to the ground with this technique.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''In this way, I would make you sink down to the earth using a capturing,<br/>If you were being better during the entire playing by the masters.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-d}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39v.jpg|39v-d}}
  
<p>When I press my thumb under your ear you will feel so much pain that you will go to the ground for sure, or I will make other hold or lock that will be worse than torture for you. The counter that can be made is the Sixth play [11] made against the Fifth Play [10] when he puts his hand underneath his opponent’s elbow. This counter can certainly be done to me here.</p>
+
|-
| <p>''{{highlight|I but hold}} this finger to the left ear during wrestling,<br/>In order that you destroy the capturing by which you were keeping the upper hand on me.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>This is the Fourth Play of ''Abrazare'', by which the ''Scholaro'' [Student] can easily force the ''Zugadore'' to the ground. And if he cannot force him to ground like this, he will seek other plays and techniques and use other methods, as you will see depicted below. You should know that the plays and the techniques will not always work in every situation, so if you do not have a good hold, you should quickly seek one, so as not to let your opponent gain any advantage over you.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-d}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]''</p>
+
|-
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]</p>
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40v.jpg|40v-d}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-c.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[14] ''With great cunning you grabbed me from behind,<br/>But this move will throw you to the ground without fail.''</p>
 
 
<p>You seized me from behind in order to throw me to the ground, and I turned like this. And if I fail to throw you to the ground you will have a lucky escape. This play is a good finishing move, but unless this is done quickly, this remedy will fail.</p>
 
| <p>''<If you>, Traitor, by your art have seized me from behind,<br/>This capturing nevertheless puts <and buries> you in the deepest ground.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41r.jpg|41r-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-d.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-e.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[15] ''This is a grappling move that involves the ''Gambarola'',<br/>But be aware that this move will not always work.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[10] ''With the grips that I have on you above and below,<br/>I will break open your head on the ground.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''Because of capturing, &lt;by&gt; wrestling above and below<br/>You will pound the earth with the top of your head. The fates will not refuse.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-e}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40r.jpg|40r-b}}
  
<p>This is a play that involves a throw over the leg [''Gambarola''] which is a risky move in grappling. So if you want to make this leg throw successfully, you will need to do it with power and speed.</p>
+
|-
| <p>''Here, meanwhile, the play of turning of legs is discussed.<br/>{{highlight|However, it}} is not suitable; it often fails at holding.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>This grip that I make with my right hand at your throat will bring you pain and suffering, and with it I will force you to the ground. Also let me tell you that if I seize you under your left knee with my right hand, I will be even more certain of driving you into the ground.</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
<br/><br/>
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-a}}
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-b}}
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-d}}
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41r.jpg|41r-c}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-e.png|400px|center]]
+
| <p>[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]</p>
| <p>[16] ''This is a good hold to practice,<br/>For I can hold you without you being able to harm me.''</p>
 
 
 
<p>This is a finishing move and it is a good way to hold someone, because they cannot defend themselves. For the counter, the one who is being held should move as quickly as he can over to a wall or a post and drive himself backwards against it so that the man holding him breaks his head or his back against the aforementioned wall or post.</p>
 
| <p>''By the joint, thought and mind, the capturing is called Outsider.<br/>In this way, at last, I will force you, gloomy one, to endure.''</p>
 
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-e}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41v.jpg|41v-a}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-f.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[17] ''I will strike you so hard in the groin<br/>That all of your strength will be taken away.''</p>
 
 
<p>This student strikes his opponent with a knee to the groin to gain advantage in order to throw him to the ground. To make the counter, when your opponent comes in quickly to strike you in the groin with his knee, seize his right leg under the knee with your right hand, and throw him to the ground.</p>
 
| <p>''In this way, &lt;I&gt; myself would destroy your testicles with a hard<br/>Knee, so that no strength will be present in the heart.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-f}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41v.jpg|41v-d}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-a.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r-b.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[18] ''I'll give you so much pain and suffering to your nose<br/>That I will immediately make you let go of me.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[11] ''Your hand in my face is well placed,<br/>But I will now show you some other moves.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''I served up the palms to the face.<ref>''Apposui'' is clearly “I served up,” but with the convention that the captions are spoken by the wearer of the crown or garter, this makes little sense (as the palms are in the face of that person). Further, the Pisani Dossi text reverses the speaker.</ref> But still I cheerfully moved<br/>Those [palms] from that place, &lt;in order that&gt; I would therefore be able to<br/>Bury you using the other capturing.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-f}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40r.jpg|40r-c}}
  
<p>If you seize me with both your arms underneath mine, I will strike with both my hands into your face. And even if you were well armored this would still make you let go. The counter of this play is to place your right hand under the left elbow of your opponent and push hard upwards, and you will be able to free yourself.</p>
+
|-
| <p>''I will redouble so many<ref>''Tot'': so many, such a number.</ref> pains which your nose is suffering<br/>That I believe you will quickly release me [who {{highlight|am}}] fighting with you.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>I am the counter of the Fifth Play [10] that is shown earlier. And let me explain that if with my right hand I push up the elbow of his hand that seeks to harm me, I will turn him in such a way that either I will force him to the ground, as you see here depicted, or I will gain a hold or a lock, and so I will have little concern for his grappling skills.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| <p>[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42r.jpg|42r-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-b.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-a.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[19] ''No doubt about it, with this move I will free myself<br/>And with this counter you will be thrown to the ground.<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[12] ''By putting my head under your arm,<br/>I will easily throw you to the ground.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''You, confused one, will be spread on the ground (like a tarp) in sadness and disorder;<br/>This, because I am holding [your arm] on the left &lt;and put&gt; the head of this person &lt;that is, me&gt; under the shoulder.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-a}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40v.jpg|40v-a}}
  
<p>This shows how I make the counter to the thirteenth play [18]. As you can see his hands have been removed from my face. And from this hold, if I fail to throw him to the ground I will be worthy of your disdain.</p>
+
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>From this hold that I have gained, and by the way I hold you, I will lift you off the ground with my strength and throw you down under my feet head first with your body following. And as far as I am concerned, you will not be able to counter me.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-c}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>''[In the Getty, the master grabs the scholar's right elbow rather than his left wrist.]''</p>
+
|-
| <p>''I set up your limbs using a similar capturing (and so we demonstrate).<br/>Nevertheless, <you>, miserable ruined one, will depart<br/>By means of the counter, as you will duly see if you examine [it] by the light of day.''</p>
+
|  
 
 
<p>''[In the Paris, the Master is missing his crown.]''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42r.jpg|42r-d}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-c.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[20] ''I will hurt you under your chin so badly<br/>That you will quickly find yourself thrown onto your back.''</p>
 
 
<p>If you come to grips with both your arms underneath your opponent's, then you can attack his face as you see depicted, especially if his face is not protected. You can also transition from here into the third play of grappling.</p>
 
| <p>''And I drag many pains to you below your chin,<br/>So that I touch the farthest earth with the sorrowful kidneys.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42v.jpg|42v-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| rowspan="3" |
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[13] ''Because of my thumb pressing under your left ear,<br/>Your hold on me is failing, as you can see depicted here.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''{{highlight|I but hold}} this finger to the left ear during wrestling,<br/>In order that you destroy the capturing by which you were keeping the upper hand on me.''</p>
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | <p>[21] ''With your hands in my face you can cause me trouble,<br/>But with this counter to your eyes, I will cause you even more trouble.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-b}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40v.jpg|40v-d}}
  
<p>This is the counter to the fourteenth play [20], and to any other play where my opponent has his hands in my face while grappling with me. If his face is unprotected, I push my thumbs into his eyes. If his face is protected, I push up under his elbow and quickly move to a ''presa'' or a ''ligadura''.</p>
+
|-
 
+
| class="noline" | <p>When I press my thumb under your ear you will feel so much pain that you will go to the ground for sure, or I will make other hold or lock that will be worse than torture for you. The counter that can be made is the Sixth play [11] made against the Fifth Play [10] when he puts his hand underneath his opponent’s elbow. This counter can certainly be done to me here.</p>
<p>''[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]''</p>
+
| class="noline" |
| class="noline" | <p>''Here, by this twin play, you press the face with the hand.<br/>But the counter, thenceforth, will injure the eye more greatly.''</p>
+
| class="noline" |
 
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-d}}
<p>''[In the Paris, the Master is missing his crown.]''</p>
 
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-d}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-d}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42v.jpg|42v-d}}
 
 
|}
 
{{master end}}
 
 
{{master begin
 
| title = Baton
 
| width = 240em
 
}}
 
{| class="master"
 
|-
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-e.png|400px|center]]
+
| <p>[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]</p>
| <p>[1] ''With a short staff I bind your neck,<br/>And if I fail to put you into the ground, you can count yourself lucky.''</p>
 
 
 
<p>See how with a short staff I hold you bound by your neck. And from here if I wish to throw you to the ground I will have little trouble doing so. And if I choose to do worse to you I can keep this strong bind applied. And you will not be able to counter this play.</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-e}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-f.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-c.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[2] ''If this short staff play does not put you on the ground,<br/>Then I will have no faith in the effectiveness of this art.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[14] ''With great cunning you grabbed me from behind,<br/>But this move will throw you to the ground without fail.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''&lt;If you&gt;, Traitor, by your art have seized me from behind,<br/>This capturing nevertheless puts &lt;and buries&gt; you in the deepest ground.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-c}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41r.jpg|41r-a}}
  
<p>If you were well armored then I would prefer to make this play against you than the previous one. Now that I have caught you between your legs with the short staff, you are stuck riding it like a horse, but you won't be trapped like this long before I turn you upside down onto your back.</p>
+
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>You seized me from behind in order to throw me to the ground, and I turned like this. And if I fail to throw you to the ground you will have a lucky escape. This play is a good finishing move, but unless this is done quickly, this remedy will fail.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-a}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
''[In the Getty, the Scholar steps between his opponent's legs.]''
+
|-
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| <br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-f}}
 
|
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[3] I am the Student of the Sixth Remedy Master of the Daga, who counters in this way with his dagger. And it is in his honor that I make this cover with my short staff. And from here I will rise quickly to my feet and I will make the plays of my Master. And this cover that I have made with a short staff can also be done with a hood. And the counter to this move is the same counter shown by my Master [in the dagger section].</p>
 
 
<p>''[Based on the description, the placement of this illustration is probably an error and it more likely belongs to the following play.]''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-c}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| rowspan="3" |
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[15] ''This is a grappling move that involves the ''Gambarola'',<br/>But be aware that this move will not always work.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''Here, meanwhile, the play of turning of legs is discussed.<br/>{{highlight|However, it}} is not suitable; it often fails at holding.''</p>
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v-d.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | <p>[4] I have taken this remedy from the Eighth Remedy Master of the Dagger, and I can defend myself armed only with this short staff. And having made this cover I rise to my feet, and I can then make all of the plays of my Master. And I could defend myself in this way equally well with a hood or a piece of rope. And the counter to this move is the same counter shown by my Master.</p>
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-d}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41r.jpg|41r-c}}
  
<p>''[Based on the description, the placement of this illustration is probably an error and it more likely belongs to the previous play.]''</p>
+
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>This is a play that involves a throw over the leg [''Gambarola''] which is a risky move in grappling. So if you want to make this leg throw successfully, you will need to do it with power and speed.</p>
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-d}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-b}}
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
  
|}
+
|-
{{master end}}
+
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
  
{{master begin
 
| title = Dagger
 
| width = 100%
 
}}
 
{{master subsection begin
 
| title = Introduction
 
| width = 240em
 
}}
 
{| class="master"
 
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Illustrations</p>
+
| rowspan="3" |
! <p>Illustrations</p>
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-e.png|400px|center]]
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[16] ''This is a good hold to practice,<br/>For I can hold you without you being able to harm me.''</p>
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>''By the joint, thought and mind, the capturing is called Outsider.<br/>In this way, at last, I will force you, gloomy one, to endure.''</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
+
| class="noline" |
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
| class="noline" |  
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-e}}
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41v.jpg|41v-a}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p>This is a finishing move and it is a good way to hold someone, because they cannot defend themselves. For the counter, the one who is being held should move as quickly as he can over to a wall or a post and drive himself backwards against it so that the man holding him breaks his head or his back against the aforementioned wall or post.</p>
| style="text-align:center; vertical-align:middle;" | [No illustration]
+
| class="noline" |  
| <p>[1] <section begin="dagger 1"/>These five figures are the guards of the dagger; and some are good in armor; and some are good without armor; and some are good both in or out of armor; and some are good in armor but not good without armor; and all these are displayed below.<section end="dagger 1"/></p>
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-c}}
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-t}}
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
 
|  
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[2] <section begin="dagger 2"/>{{red|b=1|[Full Iron Gate, Single]}}</p>
 
<p>I am Full Iron Gate Single. And I am good in armour and without armour, because I can ward off an attack with or without moving to grapple. And I can play with or without a dagger when I make my covers.</p><section end="dagger 2"/>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-a}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r-b.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-f.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[3] <section begin="dagger 3"/>{{red|b=1|[Full Iron Door, Doubled]}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[17] ''I will strike you so hard in the groin<br/>That all of your strength will be taken away.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''In this way, &lt;I&gt; myself would destroy your testicles with a hard<br/>Knee, so that no strength will be present in the heart.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-f}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41v.jpg|41v-d}}
  
<p>I am Full Iron Gate Doubled, and I am good in armour and without armour, but in all situations I am better in armour than without armour, and with a guard like this I cannot use a dagger.</p><section end="dagger 3"/>
+
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>This student strikes his opponent with a knee to the groin to gain advantage in order to throw him to the ground. To make the counter, when your opponent comes in quickly to strike you in the groin with his knee, seize his right leg under the knee with your right hand, and throw him to the ground.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-d}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-b}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r-e.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-a.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[4] <section begin="dagger 4"/>{{red|b=1|[Middle Iron Gate, Doubled]}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[18] ''I'll give you so much pain and suffering to your nose<br/>That I will immediately make you let go of me.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''I will redouble so many<ref>''Tot'': so many, such a number.</ref> pains which your nose is suffering<br/>That I believe you will quickly release me [who {{highlight|am}}] fighting with you.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-a}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42r.jpg|42r-a}}
  
<p>I am Middle Iron Gate with dagger in hand and I am doubled, and I am better and more strong than any of the others, and I am good in armour and without armour, and I can cover low and high on either side.</p><section end="dagger 4"/>
+
|-
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p>If you seize me with both your arms underneath mine, I will strike with both my hands into your face. And even if you were well armored this would still make you let go. The counter of this play is to place your right hand under the left elbow of your opponent and push hard upwards, and you will be able to free yourself.</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
<br/>
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-a}}
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-e}}
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r-f.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[5] <section begin="dagger 5"/>{{red|b=1|[Full Iron Door, Doubled and Crossed]}}</p>
 
 
<p>And I am Full Iron Gate with the arms crossed and doubled. And I am like a mighty fortress, and in armour I am especially strong. But without armour I am not sufficient, because I cannot cover long.</p><section end="dagger 5"/>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-f}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-b.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[6] <section begin="dagger 6"/>{{red|b=1|[Middle Iron Gate, Doubled and Crossed]}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[19] ''No doubt about it, with this move I will free myself<br/>And with this counter you will be thrown to the ground.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''I set up your limbs using a similar capturing (and so we demonstrate).<br/>Nevertheless, &lt;you&gt;, miserable ruined one, will depart<br/>By means of the counter, as you will duly see if you examine [it] by the light of day.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-b}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42r.jpg|42r-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>This shows how I make the counter to the thirteenth play [18]. As you can see his hands have been removed from my face. And from this hold, if I fail to throw him to the ground I will be worthy of your disdain.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>And I am Middle Iron Gate doubled and crossed [with dagger]. And I am good in armour but not without armour, because I cannot cover long, but I can cover above and below, from the right and the left, with or without a dagger.</p><section end="dagger 6"/>
+
|-
 +
| <p>[In the Getty, the master grabs the scholar's right elbow rather than his left wrist.]</p>
 +
| <p>[In the Paris, the Master is missing his crown.]</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
|
 
<br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-c}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" |  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| style="text-align:center; vertical-align:middle;" rowspan="2" | [No illustration]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-c.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[7] <section begin="dagger 7"/>I am the noble weapon named the dagger who plays at very close range, and he who understands my malice and my art will also gain a good understanding of many other weapons. And since I finish my fight fiercely and quickly, there is no man who can stand against my method. Whoever witnesses my deeds of arms will see me make covers and thrusts as I move to grapple, and will see me take away the dagger by dislocating and binding arms, and against me neither weapons nor armour will be of any use.<section end="dagger 7"/></p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[20] ''I will hurt you under your chin so badly<br/>That you will quickly find yourself thrown onto your back.''</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p>''And I drag many pains to you below your chin,<br/>So that I touch the farthest earth with the sorrowful kidneys.''</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v}}
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-c}}
|  
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42v.jpg|42v-a}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[8] <section begin="dagger 8"/>Everyone should take care when facing the perilous dagger, and your arms, hands and elbows must go quickly against it, to do these five things, namely: take away the dagger; strike; dislocate the arms; bind the arms; and force your opponent to the ground. And never fail to do one or the other of these five things; And may he who seeks to defend himself protect himself in this way.<section end="dagger 8"/></p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>If you come to grips with both your arms underneath your opponent's, then you can attack his face as you see depicted, especially if his face is not protected. You can also transition from here into the third play of grappling.</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-a}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-c}}
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="4" |
 
| rowspan="4" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[9] <section begin="dagger 9"/>With the ''fendente'' I can strike to the head and the body from the elbow up to the top of the head. But below the elbow I cannot be sure that I can make this strike without danger, and therefore I am reluctant to strike lower.<section end="dagger 9"/></p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-b}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
| <p>[10] <section begin="dagger 10"/>From the left (reverse) side, you can strike from the elbow to end at the temple of the head. And these are called the ''colpi mezani'' (middle strikes). And these reverse strikes from the left cannot be delivered if you are still waiting to make cover against your opponent’s attack.<section end="dagger 10"/></p>
 
|
 
|
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-c}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[11] <section begin="dagger 11"/>From the right side you can strike or cover if needed, and your target ranges from the elbows to the temples of the head. And this strike is more safely made from the right side than made from the left side.<section end="dagger 11"/></p>
+
| rowspan="3" |
|  
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p>[21] ''With your hands in my face you can cause me trouble,<br/>But with this counter to your eyes, I will cause you even more trouble.''</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-d}}
+
| class="noline" | <p>''Here, by this twin play, you press the face with the hand.<br/>But the counter, thenceforth, will injure the eye more greatly.''</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-d}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42v.jpg|42v-d}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[12] <section begin="dagger 12"/>The dagger that goes through the middle towards the head strikes below the chest and never higher. And while striking you should at all times make cover with your left hand.<section end="dagger 12"/></p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>This is the counter to the fourteenth play [20], and to any other play where my opponent has his hands in my face while grappling with me. If his face is unprotected, I push my thumbs into his eyes. If his face is protected, I push up under his elbow and quickly move to a ''presa'' or a ''ligadura''.</p>
|
+
| class="noline" |  
|
+
| class="noline" |
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-e}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-d}}
|
+
| class="noline" |  
|
+
| class="noline" |  
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[13] <section begin="dagger 13"/>''After taking away your dagger, to signify my victory<br/>I hold it in my raised hand in this manner.''</p>
 
 
 
<p>In my right hand I hold your dagger, and I gained it through my skill, which is so good that if you draw a dagger on me, I will take it from your hand. And I know well how to strike to finish you, no matter what advantage you might have.</p><section end="dagger 13"/>
 
| <p>''Now sealed with the palm, thus I carry the safe dagger.<br/>With my hands I would lift [the dagger] itself, all having been carried.''</p>
 
|
 
|
 
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r.jpg|10r-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21r.jpg|21r-a}}
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[14] <section begin="dagger 14"/>''Because I triumph over those who fight with me,<br/>I carry torn-off broken arms as a decoration.''</p>
 
 
 
<p>I choose to symbolize my skill with the broken arms I carry. And I do not lie when I tell you that I have broken and dislocated many arms in my life. And whoever chooses to go against my art, will find me always ready to use that art against him.</p><section end="dagger 14"/>
 
| <p>''Whereas I would overcome all which can war with me;<br/>Distinguished, I carry before me broken arms in [my] hands.</p>
 
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r.jpg|10r-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21r.jpg|21r-b}}
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[15] <section begin="dagger 15"/>''Locking the arms of all opponents<br/>In such a way that none can safely extend their right hand,<br/>To show my success I carry a pair of keys in my hand.''</p>
 
 
 
<p>I am the Master of the unlocking and locking of the arms of those who choose to oppose me. I will cause them great pain and suffering with my techniques of binding and dislocating. And therefore I carry these keys to signify the value of my art.</p><section end="dagger 15"/>
 
| <p>''Nailing together the arms of all fighting in the region<br/>In such a way that they would not be able to extend the safe right,<br/>Now happily I thus collect two keys in my hands.''</p>
 
|
 
|
 
<br/><br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r.jpg|10r-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21r.jpg|21r-c}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[In the Paris, the Master is missing his crown.]</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| class="noline" | <p>[16] <section begin="dagger 16"/>''You ask how I force others to the ground under my feet with such prowess,<br/>I tell you that because I grapple each man and throw him down;<br/>The victory palm is appropriately held in my right hand.''</p>
 
 
<p>You ask how it is that I have this man held under my feet. Thousands have suffered this fate because of my art of Abrazare. And I carry the victory palm in my right hand, because no one can stand up to my grappling skills.</p><section end="dagger 16"/>
 
| class="noline" | <p>''You ask why I, boasting, ruined so great [a person] with [my] feet:<br/>Because by wrestling men of courage, I assert to lay them all low;<br/>Certainly the palm is extended to stand on our right.''</p>
 
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
<br/><br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r.jpg|10r-d}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-d}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21r.jpg|21r-d}}
 
  
 
|}
 
|}
{{master subsection end}}
+
{{master end}}
  
{{master subsection begin
+
{{master begin
  | title = 1st Master
+
  | title = Baton
 
  | width = 240em
 
  | width = 240em
 
}}
 
}}
Line 1,917: Line 1,864:
 
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a-e.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-e.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[17] <section begin="dagger 17"/>''I am the First Master of the Dagger, full of guile,<br/>And with my left hand I will wind the dagger around your arm,<br/>And truth to tell I can make many other plays,<br/>And my students will do them cunningly.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[1] ''With a short staff I bind your neck,<br/>And if I fail to put you into the ground, you can count yourself lucky.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-e}}
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>I am the first master and I am called Remedy, because I know how to remedy so well that you cannot harm me whereas I on the contrary can strike you and hurt you. And I cannot make a better play against you than to make your dagger go to the ground, by turning my hand to the left.</p><section end="dagger 17"/>
+
|-
| <p>''The first master of the dagger, I am called caution itself;<br/>At any time, the left hand having been extended to lift the dagger away.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>See how with a short staff I hold you bound by your neck. And from here if I wish to throw you to the ground I will have little trouble doing so. And if I choose to do worse to you I can keep this strong bind applied. And you will not be able to counter this play.</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |
|  
+
| class="noline" |
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-a}}
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10v.jpg|10v-a}}
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-e}}
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21v.jpg|21v-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a-f.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[18] <section begin="dagger 18"/>''If I make a turn around your arm with my dagger,<br/>I will strike you in the chest, and it will not be taken from me.''</p>
 
 
<p>I will turn my dagger around your arm. And because of this counter you will not be able to take the dagger from me. And also with this turn I can drive it into your chest without a doubt.</p><section end="dagger 18"/>
 
| <p>''Truly I sweep the dagger away around your shoulder.<br/>Not wasting that [attack], I would pulp you, miserable, in the chest.''</p>
 
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10v.jpg|10v-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-f}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21v.jpg|21v-d}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-a.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[19] <section begin="dagger 19"/>''With your right arm locked under my left,<br/>I can cause you much harm while keeping you trapped.''</p>
 
 
<p>I will lock your arm in the middle bind, and I will do it in such a way that you will not be able to give me any trouble. And if I wish to put you to the ground I will do so with little effort, and you will have no chance of escaping.</p>
 
 
''[In the Getty, the Scholar steps with his left foot in front of his opponent's right, not behind.]''<section end="dagger 19"/>
 
| <p>''And behold your right [arm] confined under my left<br/>Shoulder. Far too many misfortunes delay you, the imprisoned one.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10v.jpg|10v-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 24r.jpg|24r-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-b.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-f.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[20] <section begin="dagger 20"/>''If you wind around my arm and try to lock it in this way,<br/>I will put you in the lower bind and this hold will make things hard for you.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[2] ''If this short staff play does not put you on the ground,<br/>Then I will have no faith in the effectiveness of this art.''</p>
 +
 
  
<p>I make the counter to the play that came before me. You can see the kind of position that I have put him in. I will break his arm or quickly throw him to the ground.</p><section end="dagger 20"/>
+
| class="noline" |  
| <p>''It is permitted that you hold me pressed hard inward, the lower key having been retained [and]<br/>Then pressed hard, [which] will harm the shoulder.''</p>
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-f}}
<br/><br/>
+
| class="noline" |  
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10v.jpg|10v-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 24r.jpg|24r-d}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p>If you were well armored then I would prefer to make this play against you than the previous one. Now that I have caught you between your legs with the short staff, you are stuck riding it like a horse, but you won't be trapped like this long before I turn you upside down onto your back.</p>
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-c.png|400px|center]]
+
| class="noline" |
| <p>[21] <section begin="dagger 21"/><em>If I can turn this arm of yours,<br/>I will make you suffer with a middle bind.</em></p>
+
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>This is a good cover from which to take the dagger from your hand, and with this grip I will be able to bind you well. And this art is so effective that if I place my right hand under your right knee, then I will put you to the ground.</p><section end="dagger 21"/>
+
|-
| <p>''If I myself can now turn the shoulder using the hands,<br/>You, sad, will remain eternally in that middle key.''</p>
+
| <p>[In the Getty, the Scholar steps between his opponent's legs.]</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r.jpg|11r-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 24v.jpg|24v-a}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-d.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[22] <section begin="dagger 22"/><em>You will not make me suffer in the middle bind<br/>When I meet you with this counter and make you let go.</em></p>
 
 
<p>I make the counter to the play that came before me, so that you will not be able to throw me to the ground, nor take the dagger from me, nor bind me either. You will have to let go, or else you will be quickly stabbed by my dagger.</p><section end="dagger 22"/>
 
| <p>''You will not make [me] endure in the middle key. But now,<br/>By means of that my<ref>Possibly a scribal error—the first sentence seems to be missing a “me” and the second has one it doesn’t need.</ref> counter, it is convenient for you if you will yield to me.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r.jpg|11r-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 24v.jpg|24v-d}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| rowspan="2" |
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[3] I am the Student of the Sixth Remedy Master of the Daga, who counters in this way with his dagger. And it is in his honor that I make this cover with my short staff. And from here I will rise quickly to my feet and I will make the plays of my Master. And this cover that I have made with a short staff can also be done with a hood. And the counter to this move is the same counter shown by my Master [in the dagger section].</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-c}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 +
|-
 +
| <p>[Based on the description, the placement of this illustration is probably an error and it more likely belongs to the following play.]</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[23] <section begin="dagger 23"/>This is a play with no counter, and it is inevitable that the player will go to the ground and lose his dagger if the student performs this technique as depicted. And when the player is thrown to the ground, the student can finish him in various ways.<section end="dagger 23"/></p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r.jpg|11r-c}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v-d.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[24] <section begin="dagger 24"/>This play is rarely used in the art of the dagger, yet it is an additional defense to know. For after beating aside the attack in this way, the scholar can then strike with a counter to the ribs or the stomach.<section end="dagger 24"/></p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[4] I have taken this remedy from the Eighth Remedy Master of the Dagger, and I can defend myself armed only with this short staff. And having made this cover I rise to my feet, and I can then make all of the plays of my Master. And I could defend myself in this way equally well with a hood or a piece of rope. And the counter to this move is the same counter shown by my Master.</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r.jpg|11r-d}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-d}}
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-d.png|400px|center]]
+
| class="noline" | <p>[Based on the description, the placement of this illustration is probably an error and it more likely belongs to the previous play.]</p>
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v-a.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| class="noline" |
| <p>[25] <section begin="dagger 25"/><em>This bind is easy for me to do<br/>And from it I will be able to strike you in the back.</em></p>
+
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>I am a counter to the First Dagger Remedy Master. Woe to he who remedies with techniques that allow his left hand to be seized. And from this hold I will be able to drive the dagger into his back.</p>
+
|}
 +
{{master end}}
  
''[These two illustrations seem to show the beginning and end of the technique.]''<section end="dagger 25"/>
+
{{master begin
| <p>''It is neither labor nor pain to me to make a persistent bind,<br/>By which route now I will be able to injure you,<br/>And possibly I will strike your kidneys with a great wound.''</p>
+
| title = Dagger
 +
| width = 100%
 +
}}
 +
{{master subsection begin
 +
| title = Introduction
 +
| width = 240em
 +
}}
 +
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
<p>''[The Paris resembles the Getty.]''</p>
+
|-
 +
|
 +
| style="text-align:center; vertical-align:middle;" | [No illustration]
 +
| <p>[1] These five figures are the guards of the dagger; and some are good in armor; and some are good without armor; and some are good both in or out of armor; and some are good in armor but not good without armor; and all these are displayed below.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-t}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v.jpg|11v-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 44r.jpg|44r-b}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-e.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[26] <section begin="dagger 26"/><em>I make the counter-counter to the First Master,<br/>For the counter-counter is a fine master.</em><section end="dagger 26"/></p>
+
| <p>[2] {{red|b=1|[Full Iron Gate, Single]}}</p>
 +
<p>I am Full Iron Gate Single. And I am good in armour and without armour, because I can ward off an attack with or without moving to grapple. And I can play with or without a dagger when I make my covers.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-e}}
+
<br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-a}}
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-f.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r-b.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[27] <section begin="dagger 27"/><em>I make the counter-counter against the First Master,<br/>And I will be first to take away the dagger every time.</em><section end="dagger 27"/></p>
+
| <p>[3] {{red|b=1|[Full Iron Door, Doubled]}}</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I am Full Iron Gate Doubled, and I am good in armour and without armour, but in all situations I am better in armour than without armour, and with a guard like this I cannot use a dagger.</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
<br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-b}}
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-f}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:MS Latin 11269 43v-a.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r-e.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[28] <section begin="dagger 28"/><em>I counter the First Dagger Master<br/>And I will strike your arm from above.</em></p>
+
| <p>[4] {{red|b=1|[Middle Iron Gate, Doubled]}}</p>
 
 
<p>''[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]''</p><section end="dagger 28"/>
 
| <p>''I am of the first king; you retain the dagger, openly<br/>I make the counter. This is well known [to] strike the shoulder.''<ref>The illustration clearly shows a thrust to the arm, not the shoulder.</ref></p>
 
  
 +
<p>I am Middle Iron Gate with dagger in hand and I am doubled, and I am better and more strong than any of the others, and I am good in armour and without armour, and I can cover low and high on either side.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 43v.jpg|43v-b}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-b.png|400px|center]]
+
<br/>
| <p>[29] <section begin="dagger 29"/><em>I make the counter to the First Master<br/>With this cover I will hurt him and worse.</em></p>
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-e}}
 
 
<p>I am also the counter of the First Dagger Remedy Master, and when his student grips me like this [10], I will strike him, and make him let go. And if he tries to do other plays against me, I will counter him without hesitation.</p><section end="dagger 29"/>
 
| <p>''I certainly keep the counter of the first master,<br/>And I will now prove this covering using many bad things.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v.jpg|11v-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 43r.jpg|43r-d}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-c.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r-f.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[30] <section begin="dagger 30"/><em>In the previous counter I told you that you could hurt him and worse;<br/>Here I show you how this can be done.</em></p>
+
| <p>[5] {{red|b=1|[Full Iron Door, Doubled and Crossed]}}</p>
  
<p>This flows from the counter referred to in the previous play. It also flows from the counter referred to two plays back [10], where the Counter Remedy Master has trapped the hand of his opponent with his dagger, and where he told you that he can drive the dagger into his opponent’s back. My play comes from that play, but where he says you drive the dagger into your opponent’s back, I drive it into his chest. But this still flows from the previous play, even though I choose to finish it differently.</p>
+
<p>And I am Full Iron Gate with the arms crossed and doubled. And I am like a mighty fortress, and in armour I am especially strong. But without armour I am not sufficient, because I cannot cover long.</p>
 
+
|
''[In the Getty, the Master's right foot is outside (in front) of his opponent's left foot.]''<section end="dagger 30"/>
+
|
| <p>''Using a counter to the former, which threatens many evils,<br/>I direct myself in these circumstances so that I would strike the associate with a deadly wound.''</p>
+
|  
 +
<br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-f}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v.jpg|11v-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 43v.jpg|43v-d}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:MS Latin 11269 25r-a.png|400px|center]]
+
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-e.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[31] <section begin="dagger 31"/><em>I am well placed and positioned to force you to the ground;<br/>If you do not know the counter, I will throw you down immediately.</em></p>
+
| <p>[6] {{red|b=1|[Middle Iron Gate, Doubled and Crossed]}}</p>
  
<p>I am the student of the first Master of [Dagger] Remedies. And with this grip I seek to take your dagger and bind your arm, and since I do not believe that you know how to counter me, I will do this to you without delay.</p>
+
<p>And I am Middle Iron Gate doubled and crossed [with dagger]. And I am good in armour but not without armour, because I cannot cover long, but I can cover above and below, from the right and the left, with or without a dagger.</p>
 
+
|
''[The Getty resembles the Paris. These two illustrations may show progressive stages of the technique.]''<section end="dagger 31"/>
+
|
| <p>''I am ready now to beat you, gloomy, into the ground.<br/>And if the counter would miss, I would do this to you readily.''</p>
+
|  
 +
<br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-c}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v.jpg|11v-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-e}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 25r.jpg|25r-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| rowspan="2" |
 +
| style="text-align:center; vertical-align:middle;" rowspan="2" | [No illustration]
 +
| <p>[7] I am the noble weapon named the dagger who plays at very close range, and he who understands my malice and my art will also gain a good understanding of many other weapons. And since I finish my fight fiercely and quickly, there is no man who can stand against my method. Whoever witnesses my deeds of arms will see me make covers and thrusts as I move to grapple, and will see me take away the dagger by dislocating and binding arms, and against me neither weapons nor armour will be of any use.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-f.png|400px|center]]
+
|  
| <p>[32] <section begin="dagger 32"/><em>I make the counter like this,<br/>And I know well how to strike you from here.</em></p>
+
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-f}}
 
 
<p>I counter you like this, so that you will neither take my dagger nor bind my arm, and my dagger and I will remain at liberty. And then I will be able to strike you when you let go of me in such a way that you will have no defense.</p><section end="dagger 32"/>
 
| <p>''Now I do this counter quickly; you see duly just as it were.<br/>The spirit becoming enflamed, I would then beat your limbs.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12r.jpg|12r-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-f}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 25r.jpg|25r-d}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| <p>[8] Everyone should take care when facing the perilous dagger, and your arms, hands and elbows must go quickly against it, to do these five things, namely: take away the dagger; strike; dislocate the arms; bind the arms; and force your opponent to the ground. And never fail to do one or the other of these five things; And may he who seeks to defend himself protect himself in this way.</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-a.png|400px|center]]
+
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-a}}
| <p>[33] <section begin="dagger 33"/><em>To make a much stronger cover I cross my arms in this manner;<br/>And from here I can do all the previous remedies.</em></p>
 
 
 
<p>This cover is known to be much stronger and I make it so as to be able to obstruct you with various plays. And you cannot overcome such a strong cover, because two arms can easily oppose one arm.</p><section end="dagger 33"/>
 
| <p>''I cover myself using great bodily strength, as you see the movements.<br/>I attack in this way before anyone can bring about anything.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12r.jpg|12r-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 25v.jpg|25v-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| rowspan="4" |
 +
| rowspan="4" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[9] With the ''fendente'' I can strike to the head and the body from the elbow up to the top of the head. But below the elbow I cannot be sure that I can make this strike without danger, and therefore I am reluctant to strike lower.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-b.png|400px|center]]
+
|  
| <p>[34] <section begin="dagger 34"/><em>With this counter the previous cover will meet with failure;<br/>After I have made you turn I will strike you with my dagger.</em></p>
+
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-b}}
 
 
<p>This is the counter to the cover that came before, that I told you was much stronger. And I will turn him with my left hand. Having turned him, I will not fail to strike him.</p><section end="dagger 34"/>
 
| <p>''Now, by means of this counter, I cheat the earlier plays<br/>In such a way, and I would turn you behind in order to wreck you <that is, bring you to ruin> with wounds.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12r.jpg|12r-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 25v.jpg|25v-d}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| <p>[10] From the left (reverse) side, you can strike from the elbow to end at the temple of the head. And these are called the ''colpi mezani'' (middle strikes). And these reverse strikes from the left cannot be delivered if you are still waiting to make cover against your opponent’s attack.</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-c.png|400px|center]]
+
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-c}}
| <p>[35] <section begin="dagger 35"/><em>Since my Master’s technique will not fail me,<br/>I will break your arm over my shoulder.</em></p>
 
 
 
<p>With this excellent presa that I have made against you, I will not fail to break your arm over my left shoulder. And afterwards I can strike you with your own dagger, since this play will not fail me.</p><section end="dagger 35"/>
 
| <p>''Because of how that master now brings about the taking,<br/>I believe you will not withdraw without shoulders having been broken.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12r.jpg|12r-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 23r.jpg|23r-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|
+
| <p>[11] From the right side you can strike or cover if needed, and your target ranges from the elbows to the temples of the head. And this strike is more safely made from the right side than made from the left side.</p>
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-d.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[36] <section begin="dagger 36"/><em>You will not break my arm over your shoulder,<br/>For with my counter I will throw you to the ground.</em></p>
 
 
 
<p>I make this counter to you who in the previous play intended to break my arm over your shoulder. I will throw you to the ground to your death with great force and you will cause me no further injury.</p><section end="dagger 36"/>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-d}}
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12v.jpg|12v-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-d}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| <p>[12] The dagger that goes through the middle towards the head strikes below the chest and never higher. And while striking you should at all times make cover with your left hand.</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-e.png|400px|center]]
+
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-e}}
| <p>[37] <section begin="dagger 37"/><em>Your dagger will quickly be taken from you,<br/>When I twist it upwards close by your elbow.</em></p>
 
 
 
<p>I am in a good position to take the dagger from your hand, and to do it I push the point upwards, close to your elbow. And you will lose it, and I will quickly strike you with it. I took the dagger in this way because I was not able to bend your arm.</p><section end="dagger 37"/>
 
| <p>''I seize the dagger using a sudden violent whirling motion near the elbow;<br/>Yet before [that], I strongly turn the lower arms.''<ref>Alternative with accusatives in opposite order: “I would seize the arm(s) in front suddenly / &lt;I&gt; the strong one would bring the dagger around in a violent whirling motion close by the elbow.”</ref></p>
 
 
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
+
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12v.jpg|12v-b}}
+
|-
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-e}}
+
| rowspan="3" |
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 23r.jpg|23r-c}}
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[13] ''After taking away your dagger, to signify my victory<br/>I hold it in my raised hand in this manner.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''Now sealed with the palm, thus I carry the safe dagger.<br/>With my hands I would lift [the dagger] itself, all having been carried.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-a}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21r.jpg|21r-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>In my right hand I hold your dagger, and I gained it through my skill, which is so good that if you draw a dagger on me, I will take it from your hand. And I know well how to strike to finish you, no matter what advantage you might have.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r.jpg|10r-a}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-f.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[38] <section begin="dagger 38"/><em>My dagger will not be taken by your turning it,<br/>And I will strike you with it without fail.</em></p>
 
 
<p>I make the counter of the play that came before, so that you will not be able to take my dagger in that way. I will press my dagger into your hand, to make you let go, and with the cruel point I will strike you for your trouble.</p><section end="dagger 38"/>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
+
|  
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12v.jpg|12v-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-f}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-a.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r-b.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[39] <section begin="dagger 39"/><em>I will have no problem making you fall to the ground,<br/>But you will have a major problem trying to get up.</em></p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[14] ''Because I triumph over those who fight with me,<br/>I carry torn-off broken arms as a decoration.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''Whereas I would overcome all which can war with me;<br/>Distinguished, I carry before me broken arms in [my] hands.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-b}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21r.jpg|21r-b}}
  
<p>In this way you will be driven into the ground, and you will not be able to make any defense or counter. And I will quickly make the dagger that you hold in your hand go far from you, because of my skillful knowledge of this art.</p>
+
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>I choose to symbolize my skill with the broken arms I carry. And I do not lie when I tell you that I have broken and dislocated many arms in my life. And whoever chooses to go against my art, will find me always ready to use that art against him.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r.jpg|10r-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
''[In the Getty and Paris, the Scholar steps outside of his opponent's right leg.]''<section end="dagger 39"/>
+
|-
| <p>''It is not any work to me, laying you out fallen.<br/>You will not be able to rise free[ly] without a large wound.''</p>
+
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12v.jpg|12v-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 23v.jpg|23v-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| rowspan="3" |
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[15] ''Locking the arms of all opponents<br/>In such a way that none can safely extend their right hand,<br/>To show my success I carry a pair of keys in my hand.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''Nailing together the arms of all fighting in the region<br/>In such a way that they would not be able to extend the safe right,<br/>Now happily I thus collect two keys in my hands.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-c}}
| class="noline" | <p>[40] <section begin="dagger 40"/><em>I do not want to fall to the ground with the previous play,<br/>So with this grip I will take away all of your strength.</em></p>
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21r.jpg|21r-c}}
  
<p>What you plan to do cannot always be done. I am the counter of the scholar who came before, and this counter will make him look very foolish, because in this way I will make him let go my leg. And I will drive the dagger into his face to demonstrate that he is indeed a great fool.</p><section end="dagger 40"/>
+
|-
 
+
| class="noline" | <p>I am the Master of the unlocking and locking of the arms of those who choose to oppose me. I will cause them great pain and suffering with my techniques of binding and dislocating. And therefore I carry these keys to signify the value of my art.</p>
''[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]''
+
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r.jpg|10r-c}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" rowspan="3" |
 +
| class="noline" rowspan="3" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[16] ''You ask how I force others to the ground under my feet with such prowess,<br/>I tell you that because I grapple each man and throw him down;<br/>The victory palm is appropriately held in my right hand.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''You ask why I, boasting, ruined so great [a person] with [my] feet:<br/>Because by wrestling men of courage, I assert to lay them all low;<br/>Certainly the palm is extended to stand on our right.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-d}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21r.jpg|21r-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>You ask how it is that I have this man held under my feet. Thousands have suffered this fate because of my art of Abrazare. And I carry the victory palm in my right hand, because no one can stand up to my grappling skills.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r.jpg|10r-d}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r.jpg|13r-a}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-b}}
 
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
  
Line 2,261: Line 2,220:
  
 
{{master subsection begin
 
{{master subsection begin
  | title = 2nd Master
+
  | title = 1st Master
 
  | width = 240em
 
  | width = 240em
 
}}
 
}}
Line 2,270: Line 2,229:
 
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-c.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a-e.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[41] ''And I make cover with arms crossed,<br/>And I can make all the previous remedies,<br/>Nor will I fail to cover any of the backhand strikes,<br/>For I can do them all, one by one.''</p>
+
| <p>[17] ''I am the First Master of the Dagger, full of guile,<br/>And with my left hand I will wind the dagger around your arm,<br/>And truth to tell I can make many other plays,<br/>And my students will do them cunningly.''</p>
  
<p>I play with my arms crossed, and can make all the remedies that were previously shown. And if we were both armoured, you could not make a better cover. No other crowned [Dagger] Remedy Master makes a stronger cover than I, for I can play both to the right and to the left, and I can cross from both underneath and from above.</p>
+
<p>I am the first master and I am called Remedy, because I know how to remedy so well that you cannot harm me whereas I on the contrary can strike you and hurt you. And I cannot make a better play against you than to make your dagger go to the ground, by turning my hand to the left.</p>
 +
| <p>''The first master of the dagger, I am called caution itself;<br/>At any time, the left hand having been extended to lift the dagger away.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
+
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10v.jpg|10v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-e}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21v.jpg|21v-a}}
  
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r.jpg|13r-b}}
+
|-  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-c}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[18] ''If I make a turn around your arm with my dagger,<br/>I will strike you in the chest, and it will not be taken from me.''</p>
  
|-
+
<p>I will turn my dagger around your arm. And because of this counter you will not be able to take the dagger from me. And also with this turn I can drive it into your chest without a doubt.</p>
|
+
| <p>''Truly I sweep the dagger away around your shoulder.<br/>Not wasting that [attack], I would pulp you, miserable, in the chest.''</p>
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-d.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[42] ''You won’t be able to make the plays that came before, nor the plays from the backhand strikes [that follow],<br/>Because with this counter, your cover will be completely lost.''</p>
 
  
<p>I counter the [Dagger] Remedy Master who made the cross before me, so he will not be able to cause me any problems with his crossing. I will give a push to his elbow to make him turn, and then I will quickly strike him.</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p><br/><br/><br/></p>
+
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10v.jpg|10v-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-f}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21v.jpg|21v-d}}
  
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r.jpg|13r-c}}
+
|-  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-d}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[19] ''With your right arm locked under my left,<br/>I can cause you much harm while keeping you trapped.''</p>
  
|-
+
<p>I will lock your arm in the middle bind, and I will do it in such a way that you will not be able to give me any trouble. And if I wish to put you to the ground I will do so with little effort, and you will have no chance of escaping.</p>
|
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-e.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[43] ''Take the dagger, dislocate your arm, bind you,<br/>Or throw you to the ground–I can do all of these things.''</p>
 
  
<p>I believe that this very strong grapple is fatal to anyone, because I can break your arm, throw you to the ground, or take your dagger. I can also hold you bound in the upper bind. And as a result of these four things, you will be unable to get away.</p>
+
''[In the Getty, the Scholar steps with his left foot in front of his opponent's right, not behind.]''
 +
| <p>''And behold your right [arm] confined under my left<br/>Shoulder. Far too many misfortunes delay you, the imprisoned one.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p><br/><br/></p>
+
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10v.jpg|10v-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 24r.jpg|24r-a}}
  
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r.jpg|13r-d}}
+
|-  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-e}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[20] ''If you wind around my arm and try to lock it in this way,<br/>I will put you in the lower bind and this hold will make things hard for you.''</p>
  
|-
+
<p>I make the counter to the play that came before me. You can see the kind of position that I have put him in. I will break his arm or quickly throw him to the ground.</p>
 +
| <p>''It is permitted that you hold me pressed hard inward, the lower key having been retained [and]<br/>Then pressed hard, [which] will harm the shoulder.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-f.png|400px|center]]
+
|
| <p>[44] ''As for the four plays you mentioned, you won’t be able to do any of them to me,<br/>And with this counter I will throw you to the ground.''</p>
+
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10v.jpg|10v-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 24r.jpg|24r-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[21] <em>If I can turn this arm of yours,<br/>I will make you suffer with a middle bind.</em></p>
  
<p>I know the counter to the previous play. And with this grapple I will counter all four of the plays he said he could do before. And as soon as he sees me, I will throw him to the ground, for this grapple is strong and fierce.</p>
+
<p>This is a good cover from which to take the dagger from your hand, and with this grip I will be able to bind you well. And this art is so effective that if I place my right hand under your right knee, then I will put you to the ground.</p>
 +
| <p>''If I myself can now turn the shoulder using the hands,<br/>You, sad, will remain eternally in that middle key.''</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r.jpg|11r-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 24v.jpg|24v-a}}
 +
 +
|-
 
|  
 
|  
| <p><br/><br/></p>
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[22] <em>You will not make me suffer in the middle bind<br/>When I meet you with this counter and make you let go.</em></p>
  
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13v.jpg|13v-a}}
+
<p>I make the counter to the play that came before me, so that you will not be able to throw me to the ground, nor take the dagger from me, nor bind me either. You will have to let go, or else you will be quickly stabbed by my dagger.</p>
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-f}}
+
| <p>''You will not make [me] endure in the middle key. But now,<br/>By means of that my<ref>Possibly a scribal error—the first sentence seems to be missing a “me” and the second has one it doesn’t need.</ref> counter, it is convenient for you if you will yield to me.''</p>
 +
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r.jpg|11r-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 24v.jpg|24v-d}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:MS Latin 11269 23v-c.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[23] This is a play with no counter, and it is inevitable that the player will go to the ground and lose his dagger if the student performs this technique as depicted. And when the player is thrown to the ground, the student can finish him in various ways.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>''I certainly cover myself during wrestling using arms as in the cross.<br/>And I can make sport with all the first rules.<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r.jpg|11r-c}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 23v.jpg|23v-c}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| class="noline" |  
+
|  
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Latin 11269 22r-b.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
| class="noline" |
+
| <p>[24] This play is rarely used in the art of the dagger, yet it is an additional defense to know. For after beating aside the attack in this way, the scholar can then strike with a counter to the ribs or the stomach.</p>
| class="noline" | <p>''By this counter your covering is refuted; and behold:<br/>Neither the play of the reversed palm, nor the prior [plays]<br/>Accomplish. Then you, miserable one, will die lying on your back.''</p>
+
|  
| class="noline" |
+
|  
| class="noline" |  
+
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r.jpg|11r-d}}
| class="noline" |  
+
|
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 22r.jpg|22r-b}}
+
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[25] <em>This bind is easy for me to do<br/>And from it I will be able to strike you in the back.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I am a counter to the First Dagger Remedy Master. Woe to he who remedies with techniques that allow his left hand to be seized. And from this hold I will be able to drive the dagger into his back.</p>
  
|}
+
''[These two illustrations seem to show the beginning and end of the technique.]''
{{master subsection end}}
+
| <p>''It is neither labor nor pain to me to make a persistent bind,<br/>By which route now I will be able to injure you,<br/>And possibly I will strike your kidneys with a great wound.''</p>
  
{{master subsection begin
+
<p>''[The Paris resembles the Getty.]''</p>
| title = 3rd Master
+
|  
| width = 240em
+
|  
}}
+
<br/><br/>
{| class="master"
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v.jpg|11v-a}}
|-
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-d}}
! <p>Illustrations</p>
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 44r.jpg|44r-b}}
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
 
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-a.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-e.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[45] <section begin="dagger 45"/><em>Here begin the powerful plays of the backhand attack,<ref>Or "backhand cover"</ref><br/>Through which many have been killed.<br/>And the plays of my scholars will follow,<br/>And so we begin the defense to the backhand attack.<ref>Or "of the backhand cover"</ref></em><section end="dagger 45"/></p>
+
| <p>[26] <em>I make the counter-counter to the First Master,<br/>For the counter-counter is a fine master.</em></p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-a}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-e}}
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-b.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-f.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[46] <section begin="dagger 46"/><em>With this play of the Master, your dagger will be taken<br/>And I will strike you a mortal blow.</em><section end="dagger 46"/></p>
+
| <p>[27] <em>I make the counter-counter against the First Master,<br/>And I will be first to take away the dagger every time.</em></p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-b}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-f}}
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-c.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:MS Latin 11269 43v-a.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[47] <section begin="dagger 47"/><em>Here I believe I will throw you to the ground.<br/>First I will do this to you, and then I will do worse to you.</em></p>
+
| <p>[28] <em>I counter the First Dagger Master<br/>And I will strike your arm from above.</em></p>
  
<p>Here begin the plays of the reverse strikes,<ref>Or "reverse cover"</ref> through which countless men have lost their lives. And the plays of my scholars will follow, demonstrating the cover made with the right hand. This play depicted is easy to do, and in this way I will throw this man into the ground.</p>
+
<p>''[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]''</p>
 +
| <p>''I am of the first king; you retain the dagger, openly<br/>I make the counter. This is well known [to] strike the shoulder.''<ref>The illustration clearly shows a thrust to the arm, not the shoulder.</ref></p>
  
<p>''[In the Getty, this Scholar is the Master.]''</p><section end="dagger 47"/>
 
| <p>''I believe you, treacherous one, will now indeed touch the earth.<br/>And itself <read: I> would do worse to you, henceforth lying dead.''</p>
 
 
<p>''[In the Paris, this Scholar is the Master.]''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-a}}
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13v.jpg|13v-b}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 43v.jpg|43v-b}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 22r.jpg|22r-c}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-d.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-b.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[48] <section begin="dagger 48"/><em>You will go to the ground because of your lack of knowledge,<br/>And in armour this is a particularly safe throw.</em></p>
+
| <p>[29] <em>I make the counter to the First Master<br/>With this cover I will hurt him and worse.</em></p>
  
<p>With this method you will be driven into the ground. And I could not make a safer throw, being armoured. But even without armour, there is nothing you can do. And even if you were strong and powerful, I would still be able to do this to you.</p><section end="dagger 48"/>
+
<p>I am also the counter of the First Dagger Remedy Master, and when his student grips me like this [10], I will strike him, and make him let go. And if he tries to do other plays against me, I will counter him without hesitation.</p>
| <p>''You, incautious one, will touch the earth with [your] chest prostrated.<br/>This armor-wearer will more safely impart the play.''</p>
+
| <p>''I certainly keep the counter of the first master,<br/>And I will now prove this covering using many bad things.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13v.jpg|13v-c}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v.jpg|11v-b}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-d}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-b}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 22v.jpg|22v-a}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 43r.jpg|43r-d}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-e.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-c.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[49] <section begin="dagger 49"/><em>This leads to a broken ruined arm,<br/>As you will find out when I have you in this hold.</em></p>
+
| <p>[30] <em>In the previous counter I told you that you could hurt him and worse;<br/>Here I show you how this can be done.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This flows from the counter referred to in the previous play. It also flows from the counter referred to two plays back [10], where the Counter Remedy Master has trapped the hand of his opponent with his dagger, and where he told you that he can drive the dagger into his opponent’s back. My play comes from that play, but where he says you drive the dagger into your opponent’s back, I drive it into his chest. But this still flows from the previous play, even though I choose to finish it differently.</p>
  
<p>You will go to the ground and your arm will be dislocated by the skill of my crowned Master. And there is not one counter that you can do to me, for I hold you like this…</p><section end="dagger 49"/>
+
''[In the Getty, the Master's right foot is outside (in front) of his opponent's left foot.]''
| <p>''Each is able to break the shoulder of the associate in wrestling, as I comprehend.<br/>It will be pleasing to know whatever has been imparted.''</p>
+
| <p>''Using a counter to the former, which threatens many evils,<br/>I direct myself in these circumstances so that I would strike the associate with a deadly wound.''</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
| rowspan="2" |
 
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13v.jpg|13v-d}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v.jpg|11v-c}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-e}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-c}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 22v.jpg|22v-c}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 43v.jpg|43v-d}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| [[File:MS Latin 11269 25r-a.png|400px|center]]
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-f.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-e.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[50] <section begin="dagger 50"/><em>I will have no trouble dislocating your arm<br/>And I will easily take your dagger from you.</em></p>
+
| <p>[31] <em>I am well placed and positioned to force you to the ground;<br/>If you do not know the counter, I will throw you down immediately.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I am the student of the first Master of [Dagger] Remedies. And with this grip I seek to take your dagger and bind your arm, and since I do not believe that you know how to counter me, I will do this to you without delay.</p>
  
<p>…and will make you suffer greatly.<section end="dagger 50"/></p>
+
''[The Getty resembles the Paris. These two illustrations may show progressive stages of the technique.]''
 +
| <p>''I am ready now to beat you, gloomy, into the ground.<br/>And if the counter would miss, I would do this to you readily.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-f}}
+
<br/><br/>
|  
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v.jpg|11v-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-e}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 25r.jpg|25r-a}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-a.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-f.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[51] <section begin="dagger 51"/><em>This is another powerful dislocation<br/>From which I will be able to kill you with your own dagger.</em></p>
+
| <p>[32] <em>I make the counter like this,<br/>And I know well how to strike you from here.</em></p>
  
<p>This is a lock that has no counter and no defense. And in this way I can take your dagger, and it will be no trouble to bind or dislocate your arm. You will not be able to get away without my permission. And I can ruin your arm if I choose.</p><section end="dagger 51"/>
+
<p>I counter you like this, so that you will neither take my dagger nor bind my arm, and my dagger and I will remain at liberty. And then I will be able to strike you when you let go of me in such a way that you will have no defense.</p>
| <p>''He was able to dislocate<ref>''Denodare'' appears to be a technical term for breaking or dislocating limbs; appears only in Ducange.</ref> the shoulder of any companion for himself,<br/>And sentence him to death with the point of the dagger.''</p>
+
| <p>''Now I do this counter quickly; you see duly just as it were.<br/>The spirit becoming enflamed, I would then beat your limbs.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14r.jpg|14r-a}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12r.jpg|12r-a}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a.jpg|9a-a}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-f}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 31r.jpg|31r-a}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 25r.jpg|25r-d}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-b.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-a.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[52] <section begin="dagger 52"/><em>I take your dagger as I wish,<br/>And now if I choose, I can bind you in the lower lock.</em></p>
+
| <p>[33] <em>To make a much stronger cover I cross my arms in this manner;<br/>And from here I can do all the previous remedies.</em></p>
  
<p>You will lose your dagger by the way I hold you. And after taking your dagger I can bind you. and make you suffer in the lower lock, which is one of the key binds, and which I will use on you. And whoever is put into this lock cannot escape, because of the great pain and suffering they will be forced to endure.</p><section end="dagger 52"/>
+
<p>This cover is known to be much stronger and I make it so as to be able to obstruct you with various plays. And you cannot overcome such a strong cover, because two arms can easily oppose one arm.</p>
| <p>''I now take hold of your dagger, nor can I be mistaken.<br/>And if I want, I am able to bind you, who is [sic] being overthrown <read: thrown back> in the key.''</p>
+
| <p>''I cover myself using great bodily strength, as you see the movements.<br/>I attack in this way before anyone can bring about anything.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14r.jpg|14r-b}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12r.jpg|12r-b}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a.jpg|9a-b}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-a}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 31r.jpg|31r-c}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 25v.jpg|25v-a}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-c.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-b.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[53] <section begin="dagger 53"/><em>I will turn your dagger upwards with my right arm,<br/>And I will quickly bind you in the lower lock.</em><section end="dagger 53"/></p>
+
| <p>[34] <em>With this counter the previous cover will meet with failure;<br/>After I have made you turn I will strike you with my dagger.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is the counter to the cover that came before, that I told you was much stronger. And I will turn him with my left hand. Having turned him, I will not fail to strike him.</p>
 +
| <p>''Now, by means of this counter, I cheat the earlier plays<br/>In such a way, and I would turn you behind in order to wreck you <that is, bring you to ruin> with wounds.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
<br/><br/>
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a.jpg|9a-c}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12r.jpg|12r-c}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 25v.jpg|25v-d}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-d.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-c.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[54] <section begin="dagger 54"/><em>This is called the strong lower lock,<br/>And it is a bind with a great risk of death<br/>But this lock, truth to tell,<br/>If not properly applied can be escaped from.</em></p>
+
| <p>[35] <em>Since my Master’s technique will not fail me,<br/>I will break your arm over my shoulder.</em></p>
  
<p>This is called the lower lock, also known as the “strong key”, and from this bind I can kill you, whether you are armoured or unarmoured, because from here I can strike you in all of your most vulnerable places. And no one can escape from this bind. And if you are put into it, as depicted in the drawing, there you will remain enduring much pain and suffering.</p><section end="dagger 54"/>
+
<p>With this excellent presa that I have made against you, I will not fail to break your arm over my left shoulder. And afterwards I can strike you with your own dagger, since this play will not fail me.</p>
| <p>''The lower key is brought under the strong name;<br/>It is the bind of death by means of excessive distinction.<br/>If any enters into this, he will hardly prevail to escape this.''</p>
+
| <p>''Because of how that master now brings about the taking,<br/>I believe you will not withdraw without shoulders having been broken.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
+
<br/><br/>
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14r.jpg|14r-c}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12r.jpg|12r-d}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a.jpg|9a-d}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-c}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 31v.jpg|31v-a}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 23r.jpg|23r-a}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Latin 11269 31v-c.png|400px|center]]
+
|  
| class="noline" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-e.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-d.png|400px|center]]
| class="noline" | <p>[55] <section begin="dagger 55"/><em>This is how to do the counter to the Master's cover to the reverse strike,<ref>Or "Master's reverse cover"</ref><br/>And with this bind I will make you drop to the ground on your knees.</em></p>
+
| <p>[36] <em>You will not break my arm over your shoulder,<br/>For with my counter I will throw you to the ground.</em></p>
  
<p>This is the counter to the Third Daga Remedy Master, who covers the reverse attack.<ref>Or "with the reverse cover"</ref> I have made this bind against him. Whether he is armoured or unarmoured, this bind is strong and secure. And if I trap a man who is unarmoured in this way, I will ruin his hand and dislocate it. And the pain will be so great I will make him kneel at my feet. And should I wish to strike him, this I can also do.</p>
+
<p>I make this counter to you who in the previous play intended to break my arm over your shoulder. I will throw you to the ground to your death with great force and you will cause me no further injury.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12v.jpg|12v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-d}}
 +
|
  
<p>''[In the Getty, the Master's left foot is forward.]''</p><section end="dagger 55"/>
+
|-
| class="noline" | <p>''I, the efficient counter of the master, during this wrestling<br/>Finish whomever by means of the reverse palm of the hand;<br/>And you will sink down on bended knee by means of this taking.''</p>
+
|
| class="noline" |
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-e.png|400px|center]]
| class="noline" |
+
| <p>[37] <em>Your dagger will quickly be taken from you,<br/>When I twist it upwards close by your elbow.</em></p>
<br/><br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14r.jpg|14r-d}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a.jpg|9a-e}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 31v.jpg|31v-c}}
 
  
|}
+
<p>I am in a good position to take the dagger from your hand, and to do it I push the point upwards, close to your elbow. And you will lose it, and I will quickly strike you with it. I took the dagger in this way because I was not able to bend your arm.</p>
{{master subsection end}}
+
| <p>''I seize the dagger using a sudden violent whirling motion near the elbow;<br/>Yet before [that], I strongly turn the lower arms.''<ref>Alternative with accusatives in opposite order: “I would seize the arm(s) in front suddenly / &lt;I&gt; the strong one would bring the dagger around in a violent whirling motion close by the elbow.”</ref></p>
  
{{master subsection begin
+
|  
| title = 4th Master
+
|  
| width = 240em
+
<br/><br/>
}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12v.jpg|12v-b}}
{| class="master"
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-e}}
|-
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 23r.jpg|23r-c}}
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
 
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-a.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-f.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[56] ''I am a Master who covers with both hands,<br/>And I can hurt you from above or below.<br/>If I give a turn to your shoulder without releasing your arm,<br/>Then in this way I and my students will put you in great pain.''</p>
+
| <p>[38] <em>My dagger will not be taken by your turning it,<br/>And I will strike you with it without fail.</em></p>
  
<p>I am the Fourth [Dagger Remedy] Master, and I play from this grip. From covers like this my students will hurt many…</p>
+
<p>I make the counter of the play that came before, so that you will not be able to take my dagger in that way. I will press my dagger into your hand, to make you let go, and with the cruel point I will strike you for your trouble.</p>
| <p>''Using both hands, &lt;I&gt; the master now take hold of the associate.<br/>From above and beneath, I am able to injure you with a weapon.''</p>
+
|  
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12v.jpg|12v-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-f}}
 
|  
 
|  
| rowspan="2" |
 
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14v.jpg|14v-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 32r.jpg|32r-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-b.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-a.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[57] <em>My Master spoke truly and unerringly:<br/>I can take your dagger, while you cannot escape.</em></p>
+
| <p>[39] <em>I will have no problem making you fall to the ground,<br/>But you will have a major problem trying to get up.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>In this way you will be driven into the ground, and you will not be able to make any defense or counter. And I will quickly make the dagger that you hold in your hand go far from you, because of my skillful knowledge of this art.</p>
  
<p>…And if I turn to the right without releasing your arm, I will take your dagger and put you in great pain.</p>
+
''[In the Getty and Paris, the Scholar steps outside of his opponent's right leg.]''
 +
| <p>''It is not any work to me, laying you out fallen.<br/>You will not be able to rise free[ly] without a large wound.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-b}}
+
<br/><br/>
|  
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12v.jpg|12v-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 23v.jpg|23v-a}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 14v-b.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| class="noline" |
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-c.png|400px|center]]
+
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[58] ''I am well positioned to force you to the ground,<br/>And if you don't end up with a broken head, you can count yourself lucky.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[40] <em>I do not want to fall to the ground with the previous play,<br/>So with this grip I will take away all of your strength.</em></p>
  
<p>This is an upper bind that locks you up very well. I will take your dagger from you and throw you to the ground. And I can also dislocate your arm. If however you grip your right hand with your left hand, then you can counter me and make me let go of you.</p>
+
<p>What you plan to do cannot always be done. I am the counter of the scholar who came before, and this counter will make him look very foolish, because in this way I will make him let go my leg. And I will drive the dagger into his face to demonstrate that he is indeed a great fool.</p>
  
<p>''[These two illustrations may show the beginning and end of the technique.]''</p>
+
''[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]''
| <p>''I am certainly prepared in order to cast you down into the earth.<br/>And I will give many evils to your head, if it remains because of courage.''<ref>''Demittere mentem'' is recorded (by Bantam dictionary) as an idiom meaning “to lose heart”. Possibly ''mente sedebit'' is referencing this, in a pun (e.g., ''demittere'' in the sense of depose, and ''sedeo'' in the sense of hold court).</reF></p>
+
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r.jpg|13r-a}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar's left foot is forward, but inside (in front) of his opponent's leg.]''</p>
+
|}
|
+
{{master subsection end}}
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14v.jpg|14v-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 32r.jpg|32r-c}}
 
  
 +
{{master subsection begin
 +
| title = 2nd Master
 +
| width = 240em
 +
}}
 +
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
|
+
! <p>Illustrations</p>
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09-d.png|400px|center]]
+
! <p>Illustrations</p>
| <p>[59] ''This is another lock that will throw you to the ground,<br/>And against such a hold no one is safe.''</p>
+
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
+
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
<p>This is another upper bind that is very powerful. And with this I am certain to throw you to the ground. And if I wish I can dislocate your arm. To counter me, you grip your right hand with your left hand. Then your grip will be strong and mine will be weak.</p>
+
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
''[In the Getty and Paris, the Scholar's right foot is forward.]''
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
| <p>''This movement is another to strike down the associate to the earth.<br/>Nevertheless, it is not safe because he attempts a similar playing.''</p>
+
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14v.jpg|14v-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 32v.jpg|32v-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-e.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-c.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[60] ''As I see this you will quickly go to the ground,<br/>Of this I am certain, and you won't be getting back up.''</p>
+
| <p>[41] ''And I make cover with arms crossed,<br/>And I can make all the previous remedies,<br/>Nor will I fail to cover any of the backhand strikes,<br/>For I can do them all, one by one.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I play with my arms crossed, and can make all the remedies that were previously shown. And if we were both armoured, you could not make a better cover. No other crowned [Dagger] Remedy Master makes a stronger cover than I, for I can play both to the right and to the left, and I can cross from both underneath and from above.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-e}}
+
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r.jpg|13r-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-c}}
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-f.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-d.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[61] ''I can also throw you to the ground like this,<br/>And once you are on the ground it will go badly for you.''</p>
+
| <p>[42] ''You won’t be able to make the plays that came before, nor the plays from the backhand strikes [that follow],<br/>Because with this counter, your cover will be completely lost.''</p>
  
<p>After I made the cover of my Master, I put my left hand under your right elbow. And my right hand quickly gripped you under your knee in such a way that I could throw you to the ground, and there was no counter that you could do to me.</p>
+
<p>I counter the [Dagger] Remedy Master who made the cross before me, so he will not be able to cause me any problems with his crossing. I will give a push to his elbow to make him turn, and then I will quickly strike him.</p>
| <p>''Certainly in this way I can send you a second time<br/>To the ground. Hereafter, &lt;I&gt; myself will approve worse things to you.''</p>
+
|
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p><br/><br/><br/></p>
 +
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r.jpg|13r-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-d}}
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14v.jpg|14v-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-f}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 32v.jpg|32v-c}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-a.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-e.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[62] ''I will give a turn to your dagger,<br/>And in that way it will be quickly taken from you.''</p>
+
| <p>[43] ''Take the dagger, dislocate your arm, bind you,<br/>Or throw you to the ground–I can do all of these things.''</p>
  
<p>With my right hand I will make a horizontal turn to your dagger, pushing it round close to your arm that I am holding. And your dagger will be mine to control. And then I will deal with you as you deserve.</p>
+
<p>I believe that this very strong grapple is fatal to anyone, because I can break your arm, throw you to the ground, or take your dagger. I can also hold you bound in the upper bind. And as a result of these four things, you will be unable to get away.</p>
| <p>''In this way, &lt;I&gt; myself coil your dagger up using the whirlwind,<br/>Because I would capture you, whether you would prevent or you would fight back.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
+
| <p><br/><br/></p>
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38r.jpg|38r-a}}
+
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-a}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r.jpg|13r-d}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 33r.jpg|33r-a}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-e}}
 +
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-b.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-f.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[63] ''If I raise your dagger upwards close to your elbow,<br/>You will feel it instantly taken from you.''</p>
+
| <p>[44] ''As for the four plays you mentioned, you won’t be able to do any of them to me,<br/>And with this counter I will throw you to the ground.''</p>
  
<p>If I raise your dagger upwards close to your elbow, I will keep it in my hand and strike you for certain. But I will need to make this play very quickly, to make sure that you cannot counter me with your left hand.</p>
+
<p>I know the counter to the previous play. And with this grapple I will counter all four of the plays he said he could do before. And as soon as he sees me, I will throw him to the ground, for this grapple is strong and fierce.</p>
| <p>''Now if I attempt to lift your elbow [and] very own dagger,<br/>You yourself certainly will see it has been suddenly freed.''</p>
+
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13v.jpg|13v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-f}}
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38r.jpg|38r-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 33r.jpg|33r-c}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Cod.1324 36r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-d.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[64] ''I moved my right hand like this,<br/>And I will make you strike yourself in your thigh with your own dagger.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| [[File:MS Latin 11269 23v-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
|
 +
| <p>''I certainly cover myself during wrestling using arms as in the cross.<br/>And I can make sport with all the first rules.<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-d}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 23v.jpg|23v-c}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 38r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-c.png|400px|center]]
+
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Latin 11269 22r-b.png|400px|center]]
| class="noline" | <p>[65] ''Against the Master who covers with both hands<br/>I make this counter as my defense.<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
+
| class="noline" |  
 
+
| class="noline" | <p>''By this counter your covering is refuted; and behold:<br/>Neither the play of the reversed palm, nor the prior [plays]<br/>Accomplish. Then you, miserable one, will die lying on your back.''</p>
<p>I am the Counter-remedy against the Fourth [Dagger] Remedy Master. And I counter all his plays that came before me. And with one quick wrench like this I will ruin this student’s hand and his master’s too. And if they are well armored the ruin of their hands will be all the more certain.</p>
+
| class="noline" |
| class="noline" | <p>''By this means I will now seek the opponent, using both palms<ref>Literally “the two palms”.</ref><br/>In order to defend myself, just as the master does<br/>Who seizes the companion with both hands during wrestling.''</p>
 
 
 
<p>''[The Paris resembles the Getty illustration.]''</p>
 
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
<br/><br/><br/>
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 22r.jpg|22r-b}}
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38r.jpg|38r-c}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-c}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 33v.jpg|33v-b}}
 
  
 
|}
 
|}
Line 2,673: Line 2,667:
  
 
{{master subsection begin
 
{{master subsection begin
  | title = 5th Master
+
  | title = 3rd Master
 
  | width = 240em
 
  | width = 240em
 
}}
 
}}
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Dagger/5th master}}
+
{| class="master"
{{master subsection end}}
+
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
{{master subsection begin
+
|-
| title = 6th Master
+
|
| width = 240em
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-a.png|400px|center]]
}}
+
| <p>[45] <em>Here begin the powerful plays of the backhand attack,<ref>Or "backhand cover"</ref><br/>Through which many have been killed.<br/>And the plays of my scholars will follow,<br/>And so we begin the defense to the backhand attack.<ref>Or "of the backhand cover"</ref></em></p>
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Dagger/6th master}}
+
|  
{{master subsection end}}
+
|  
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-a}}
 +
|
  
{{master subsection begin
+
|-
| title = 7th Master
+
|
| width = 240em
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-b.png|400px|center]]
}}
+
| <p>[46] <em>With this play of the Master, your dagger will be taken<br/>And I will strike you a mortal blow.</em></p>
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Dagger/7th master}}
+
|
{{master subsection end}}
+
|  
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-b}}
 +
|
  
{{master subsection begin
+
|-
| title = 8th Master
+
|  
| width = 240em
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-c.png|400px|center]]
}}
+
| <p>[47] <em>Here I believe I will throw you to the ground.<br/>First I will do this to you, and then I will do worse to you.</em></p>
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Dagger/8th master}}
 
{{master subsection end}}
 
  
{{master subsection begin
+
<p>Here begin the plays of the reverse strikes,<ref>Or "reverse cover"</ref> through which countless men have lost their lives. And the plays of my scholars will follow, demonstrating the cover made with the right hand. This play depicted is easy to do, and in this way I will throw this man into the ground.</p>
| title = 9th Master
 
| width = 240em
 
}}
 
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Dagger/9th master}}
 
{{master subsection end}}
 
{{master end}}
 
  
{{master begin
+
<p>''[In the Getty, this Scholar is the Master.]''</p>
| title = Dagger vs. Sword
+
| <p>''I believe you, treacherous one, will now indeed touch the earth.<br/>And itself <read: I> would do worse to you, henceforth lying dead.''</p>
| width = 240em
 
}}
 
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Sword vs. Dagger}}
 
{{master end}}
 
  
{{master begin
+
<p>''[In the Paris, this Scholar is the Master.]''</p>
| title = Sword in One Hand
+
|  
| width = 240em
+
|  
}}
+
<br/><br/>
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Sword in One Hand}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13v.jpg|13v-b}}
{{master end}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 22r.jpg|22r-c}}
  
{{master begin
+
|-
| title = Sword in Two Hands
+
|  
| width = 100%
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-d.png|400px|center]]
}}
+
| <p>[48] <em>You will go to the ground because of your lack of knowledge,<br/>And in armour this is a particularly safe throw.</em></p>
{{master subsection begin
 
| title = Introduction
 
| width = 240em
 
}}
 
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Sword in Two Hands}}
 
{{master subsection end}}
 
  
{{master subsection begin
+
<p>With this method you will be driven into the ground. And I could not make a safer throw, being armoured. But even without armour, there is nothing you can do. And even if you were strong and powerful, I would still be able to do this to you.</p>
| title = Wide Plays
+
| <p>''You, incautious one, will touch the earth with [your] chest prostrated.<br/>This armor-wearer will more safely impart the play.''</p>
| width = 240em
+
|  
}}
+
|  
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Sword in Two Hands/Wide Play}}
+
<br/><br/>
{{master subsection end}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13v.jpg|13v-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 22v.jpg|22v-a}}
  
{{master subsection begin
+
|-
| title = Close Plays
+
|  
| width = 240em
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-e.png|400px|center]]
}}
+
| <p>[49] <em>This leads to a broken ruined arm,<br/>As you will find out when I have you in this hold.</em></p>
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Sword in Two Hands/Narrow Play}}
 
{{master subsection end}}
 
{{master end}}
 
  
{{master begin
+
<p>You will go to the ground and your arm will be dislocated by the skill of my crowned Master. And there is not one counter that you can do to me, for I hold you like this…</p>
| title = Sword vs. Spear
+
| <p>''Each is able to break the shoulder of the associate in wrestling, as I comprehend.<br/>It will be pleasing to know whatever has been imparted.''</p>
| width = 240em
+
|
}}
+
| rowspan="2" |
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Sword vs. Spear}}
+
<br/><br/>
{{master end}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13v.jpg|13v-d}}
 
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-e}}
{{master begin
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 22v.jpg|22v-c}}
| title = Sword in Armor
+
 
| width = 240em
+
|-
}}
+
|  
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Sword in Armor}}
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-f.png|400px|center]]
{{master end}}
+
| <p>[50] <em>I will have no trouble dislocating your arm<br/>And I will easily take your dagger from you.</em></p>
 
+
 
{{master begin
+
<p>…and will make you suffer greatly.</p>
| title = Axe in Armor
+
|
| width = 240em
+
|  
}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-f}}
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Poleaxe}}
+
|
{{master end}}
+
 
 
+
|-
{{master begin
+
|
| title = Spear
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-a.png|400px|center]]
| width = 240em
+
| <p>[51] <em>This is another powerful dislocation<br/>From which I will be able to kill you with your own dagger.</em></p>
}}
+
 
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Spear}}
+
<p>This is a lock that has no counter and no defense. And in this way I can take your dagger, and it will be no trouble to bind or dislocate your arm. You will not be able to get away without my permission. And I can ruin your arm if I choose.</p>
{{master end}}
+
| <p>''He was able to dislocate<ref>''Denodare'' appears to be a technical term for breaking or dislocating limbs; appears only in Ducange.</ref> the shoulder of any companion for himself,<br/>And sentence him to death with the point of the dagger.''</p>
 
+
|  
{{master begin
+
|  
| title = Spear vs. Other Weapons
+
<br/><br/>
| width = 240em
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14r.jpg|14r-a}}
}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a.jpg|9a-a}}
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Spear vs. Other Weapons}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 31r.jpg|31r-a}}
{{master end}}
+
 
 
+
|-
{{master begin
+
|
| title = Mounted Fencing
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-b.png|400px|center]]
| width = 240em
+
| <p>[52] <em>I take your dagger as I wish,<br/>And now if I choose, I can bind you in the lower lock.</em></p>
}}
+
 
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Mounted Fencing}}
+
<p>You will lose your dagger by the way I hold you. And after taking your dagger I can bind you. and make you suffer in the lower lock, which is one of the key binds, and which I will use on you. And whoever is put into this lock cannot escape, because of the great pain and suffering they will be forced to endure.</p>
{{master end}}
+
| <p>''I now take hold of your dagger, nor can I be mistaken.<br/>And if I want, I am able to bind you, who is [sic] being overthrown <read: thrown back> in the key.''</p>
 
+
|
{{master begin
+
|
  | title = Copyright and License Summary
+
<br/><br/>
  | width = 100%
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14r.jpg|14r-b}}
}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a.jpg|9a-b}}
For further information, including transcription and translation notes, see the [[Talk:{{PAGENAME}}|discussion page]].
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 31r.jpg|31r-c}}
 
+
 
<section begin="sourcebox"/>{{sourcebox header}}
+
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[53] <em>I will turn your dagger upwards with my right arm,<br/>And I will quickly bind you in the lower lock.</em></p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a.jpg|9a-c}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[54] <em>This is called the strong lower lock,<br/>And it is a bind with a great risk of death<br/>But this lock, truth to tell,<br/>If not properly applied can be escaped from.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is called the lower lock, also known as the “strong key”, and from this bind I can kill you, whether you are armoured or unarmoured, because from here I can strike you in all of your most vulnerable places. And no one can escape from this bind. And if you are put into it, as depicted in the drawing, there you will remain enduring much pain and suffering.</p>
 +
| <p>''The lower key is brought under the strong name;<br/>It is the bind of death by means of excessive distinction.<br/>If any enters into this, he will hardly prevail to escape this.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14r.jpg|14r-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a.jpg|9a-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 31v.jpg|31v-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Latin 11269 31v-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[55] <em>This is how to do the counter to the Master's cover to the reverse strike,<ref>Or "Master's reverse cover"</ref><br/>And with this bind I will make you drop to the ground on your knees.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is the counter to the Third Daga Remedy Master, who covers the reverse attack.<ref>Or "with the reverse cover"</ref> I have made this bind against him. Whether he is armoured or unarmoured, this bind is strong and secure. And if I trap a man who is unarmoured in this way, I will ruin his hand and dislocate it. And the pain will be so great I will make him kneel at my feet. And should I wish to strike him, this I can also do.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Getty, the Master's left foot is forward.]''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''I, the efficient counter of the master, during this wrestling<br/>Finish whomever by means of the reverse palm of the hand;<br/>And you will sink down on bended knee by means of this taking.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
<br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14r.jpg|14r-d}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a.jpg|9a-e}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 31v.jpg|31v-c}}
 +
 
 +
|}
 +
{{master subsection end}}
 +
 
 +
{{master subsection begin
 +
| title = 4th Master
 +
| width = 240em
 +
}}
 +
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[56] ''I am a Master who covers with both hands,<br/>And I can hurt you from above or below.<br/>If I give a turn to your shoulder without releasing your arm,<br/>Then in this way I and my students will put you in great pain.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I am the Fourth [Dagger Remedy] Master, and I play from this grip. From covers like this my students will hurt many…</p>
 +
| <p>''Using both hands, &lt;I&gt; the master now take hold of the associate.<br/>From above and beneath, I am able to injure you with a weapon.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| rowspan="2" |
 +
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14v.jpg|14v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 32r.jpg|32r-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[57] <em>My Master spoke truly and unerringly:<br/>I can take your dagger, while you cannot escape.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>…And if I turn to the right without releasing your arm, I will take your dagger and put you in great pain.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-b}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 14v-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[58] ''I am well positioned to force you to the ground,<br/>And if you don't end up with a broken head, you can count yourself lucky.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is an upper bind that locks you up very well. I will take your dagger from you and throw you to the ground. And I can also dislocate your arm. If however you grip your right hand with your left hand, then you can counter me and make me let go of you.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[These two illustrations may show the beginning and end of the technique.]''</p>
 +
| <p>''I am certainly prepared in order to cast you down into the earth.<br/>And I will give many evils to your head, if it remains because of courage.''<ref>''Demittere mentem'' is recorded (by Bantam dictionary) as an idiom meaning “to lose heart”. Possibly ''mente sedebit'' is referencing this, in a pun (e.g., ''demittere'' in the sense of depose, and ''sedeo'' in the sense of hold court).</reF></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar's left foot is forward, but inside (in front) of his opponent's leg.]''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14v.jpg|14v-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 32r.jpg|32r-c}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[59] ''This is another lock that will throw you to the ground,<br/>And against such a hold no one is safe.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is another upper bind that is very powerful. And with this I am certain to throw you to the ground. And if I wish I can dislocate your arm. To counter me, you grip your right hand with your left hand. Then your grip will be strong and mine will be weak.</p>
 +
 
 +
''[In the Getty and Paris, the Scholar's right foot is forward.]''
 +
| <p>''This movement is another to strike down the associate to the earth.<br/>Nevertheless, it is not safe because he attempts a similar playing.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14v.jpg|14v-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 32v.jpg|32v-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[60] ''As I see this you will quickly go to the ground,<br/>Of this I am certain, and you won't be getting back up.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-e}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[61] ''I can also throw you to the ground like this,<br/>And once you are on the ground it will go badly for you.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>After I made the cover of my Master, I put my left hand under your right elbow. And my right hand quickly gripped you under your knee in such a way that I could throw you to the ground, and there was no counter that you could do to me.</p>
 +
| <p>''Certainly in this way I can send you a second time<br/>To the ground. Hereafter, &lt;I&gt; myself will approve worse things to you.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14v.jpg|14v-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-f}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 32v.jpg|32v-c}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[62] ''I will give a turn to your dagger,<br/>And in that way it will be quickly taken from you.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>With my right hand I will make a horizontal turn to your dagger, pushing it round close to your arm that I am holding. And your dagger will be mine to control. And then I will deal with you as you deserve.</p>
 +
| <p>''In this way, &lt;I&gt; myself coil your dagger up using the whirlwind,<br/>Because I would capture you, whether you would prevent or you would fight back.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38r.jpg|38r-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 33r.jpg|33r-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[63] ''If I raise your dagger upwards close to your elbow,<br/>You will feel it instantly taken from you.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>If I raise your dagger upwards close to your elbow, I will keep it in my hand and strike you for certain. But I will need to make this play very quickly, to make sure that you cannot counter me with your left hand.</p>
 +
| <p>''Now if I attempt to lift your elbow [and] very own dagger,<br/>You yourself certainly will see it has been suddenly freed.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38r.jpg|38r-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 33r.jpg|33r-c}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:Cod.1324 36r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[64] ''I moved my right hand like this,<br/>And I will make you strike yourself in your thigh with your own dagger.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-d}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 38r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[65] ''Against the Master who covers with both hands<br/>I make this counter as my defense.<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I am the Counter-remedy against the Fourth [Dagger] Remedy Master. And I counter all his plays that came before me. And with one quick wrench like this I will ruin this student’s hand and his master’s too. And if they are well armored the ruin of their hands will be all the more certain.</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''By this means I will now seek the opponent, using both palms<ref>Literally “the two palms”.</ref><br/>In order to defend myself, just as the master does<br/>Who seizes the companion with both hands during wrestling.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[The Paris resembles the Getty illustration.]''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
<br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38r.jpg|38r-c}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-c}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 33v.jpg|33v-b}}
 +
 
 +
|}
 +
{{master subsection end}}
 +
 
 +
{{master subsection begin
 +
| title = 5th Master
 +
| width = 240em
 +
}}
 +
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Getty and PD)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the Paris)}}<br/>by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[66] <em>I want each of my students to know<br/>That you cannot defend against the collar grab unless you move quickly.<br/>And with the strike that I make against your elbow,<br/>I will quickly feel your arm dislocate.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I am the Fifth Dagger Remedy Master who defends against the collar grab made by this player. Before he can strike me with his dagger I destroy his arm like this, because the grip he has on me is actually to my advantage. And I can do all of the covers, holds and binds of the other remedy masters and their students who came before me. And I say this from experience: all who study this art should be aware that you cannot successfully defend the collar grab unless you move quickly.</p>
 +
| <p>''You would grasp my chest. Thus far you have not been able to wound me.<br/>I will, nevertheless, dislocate this, your shoulder, during wrestling.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38r.jpg|38r-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-e}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 33v.jpg|33v-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[67] <em>After striking against your elbow, I will continue on<br/>To quickly seek to find your dagger.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is another way to destroy the arm. And from this play I can move to other plays and holds…</p>
 +
| <p>''I would now strike close by your elbow. You will then move past me,<br/>And I, the strong one, will unexpectedly attempt your dagger.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| rowspan="2" | <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38v.jpg|38v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-f}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 34r.jpg|34r-b}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 16b-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[68] <em>I will get rid of your spear with my arms in this way,<br/>Then I will turn and hit you,<br/>And if I cannot do it this way<br/>Then I will use the technique I described before.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>…Also, if you are pinned by a spear then by making this strike against it you will either unpin yourself or break off the haft from the spearhead.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 16b.jpg|16b-d}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 16b-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[69] <em>If I want to get this spear off me,<br/>I had better hit it hard from above,<br/>So that I will break the staff of your spear<br/>And then I will want to come to the close.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is another way to make you let go, and is also a better method of breaking off the head of a spear…</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| rowspan="2" | <p><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38v.jpg|38v-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 16b.jpg|16b-c}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[70] <em>By striking to your wrist or to your elbow,<br/>I will either dislocate it, or you will quickly let go.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>…Also if I strike you hard in the wrist joint of the hand holding my collar, I am certain to dislocate it unless you let go.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I wish to tell you the counter. As the student strikes down with his arms to dislodge the player's hand, the player quickly withdraws his hand from the student’s collar, and he then quickly strikes the student in the chest with his dagger.</p>
 +
| <p>''Either I will strike over the elbow, or near the fist,<br/>And in this place I will dislocate the wretched one.  Henceforth you will quit the entire chest.''<ref>Note: ''pectora'' is plural, perhaps meant to indicate both halves of the chest.</ref></p>
 +
 
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b.jpg|10b-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 34r.jpg|34r-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[71] <em>I am confident and certain that you will go to the ground,<br/>And I care little or nothing for your dagger.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This play will make you let go of me. And in addition, if I advance my right foot behind your left foot, you will be thrown to the ground without fail. And if this play is not enough, I will try others on your dagger, because my heart and my eyes are never focused anywhere other than upon taking away your dagger quickly and without delay.</p>
 +
| <p>''I am able to safely believe that you will go into the ground now;<br/>Neither will your dagger be able to accomplish harming me.</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38v.jpg|38v-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b.jpg|10b-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 34v.jpg|34v-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[72] <em>I choose to try this method of throwing you to the ground,<br/>And if this does not work I will try a different play.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I will throw you to the ground like this, before your dagger can get near me. And if your dagger comes down the center line to strike at me, I will release my grip and deal with your dagger, so that you will not be able to injure me in any way. Then with the remedy plays I will make you suffer.</p>
 +
| <p>''I put to the test where I would at once lay you sharply on your back.<ref>Or “I put to the test where I would at once bend you back acutely.”</reF><br/>If, perchance, I do not strew you, I will [scribal error] <actually try> something better.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38v.jpg|38v-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b.jpg|10b-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 34v.jpg|34v-b}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[73] <em>You will find out that over my right shoulder<br/>I will not fail to break your arm.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This player had me grabbed by the collar, but before he could strike me with his dagger I quickly seized his left hand with my hands and pulled his arm over my shoulder so as to dislocate it, and then I completely dislocated it. But this play is safer to do in armor than unarmored.</p>
 +
| <p>''I will not have been cheated of breaking the left shoulder;<ref>Or “I will not be deceived while breaking the left shoulder.”</ref><br/>I am holding that which is loaded<ref>Or possibly “weighed”.</ref> down on the right using the leg during wrestling.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15r.jpg|15r-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b.jpg|10b-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 35r.jpg|35r-b}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[74] <em>By the way I seize you and hold you,<br/>I will force you to the ground shoulders first.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>In this way I will hurl you to the ground without fail. And I will surely take your dagger. And if you are armored that may help you, since I will be aiming to take your life with your own dagger. But even if we are armoured, this art will not fail me. And if you are unarmored and very quick, other plays can be made besides this one.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Getty and Paris, the Scholar's right foot is inside (in front) of his opponent's left leg.]''</p>
 +
| <p>''I hold you using this form, and I will catch the lamenting one;<br/>Now, with the leg, you will be strewn as deep into the earth as possible.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15r.jpg|15r-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b.jpg|10b-e}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 35r.jpg|35r-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[75] <em>To take your dagger I make a cover like this,<br/>And then with other plays I will make you suffer.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This cover is very good in armor or without armor. And against any strong man such a cover is good for covering an attack from below as well as from above. And from this play you can enter into a middle bind as shown in the third play of the First Dagger Remedy Master. And if the cover is made in response to an attack from below, the student will put the player into a lower lock also known as “the strong key”, as shown in the sixth play [38] of the Third [Dagger] Remedy Master who plays to the reverse hand attack.</p>
 +
| <p>''Now I make this cover, for which reason <read: in order that> I would be able to take away the dagger,<br/>Not to mention [that] I can strike you using many plays.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15r.jpg|15r-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b.jpg|10b-f}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 35v.jpg|35v-b}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[76] <em>If I can turn this arm of yours,<br/>Then I will force you into the lower lock.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>If I can turn this arm I will be certain to put you into the lower lock also known as “the strong key”. I will however be able to do this more safely if I am armored. I could also do something else against you: if I grip your left hand firmly and seize you under your left knee with my right hand, then I will not lack the strength to put you to the ground.</p>
 +
| <p>''If I can now twist your shoulder while fighting,<br/>I will readily cause [that] you will be overwhelmed in the lower key.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15r.jpg|15r-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a.jpg|11a-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 35v.jpg|35v-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[77] <em>Whether you try to strike at me from above or below,<br/>You will lose your dagger from this crossing.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>With arms crossed I await you without fear. And I don't care whether you come at me from above or below, because however you come at me, you will be bound. You will be locked either in the middle lock or the lower lock. And if I wished to make the plays of the Fourth Dagger Remedy Master, I would cause you great harm with these plays. And I will have no difficulty in taking your dagger.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Getty, the Scholar's left foot is forward.]''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15v.jpg|15v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a.jpg|11a-b}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[78] <em>By holding your arm with my two hands,<br/>I will take away the dagger from you, as you deserve.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This grip is sufficient to prevent you being able to touch me with your dagger. And from here I can do the play that comes after me. And I could also certainly do other plays to you. I disregard the other plays for now, however, because this one is good for me and very fast.</p>
 +
| <p>''Now because I am holding you using both hands during wrestling,<br/>I certainly would take hold of [your] dagger just as if you had truly deserved.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15v.jpg|15v-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a.jpg|11a-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 36r.jpg|36r-b}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[79] <em>The student who came before me did not make this play,<br/>So I show how to take away the dagger in his place.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is the play referred to by the student who came before me, and I take away this dagger as he indicated. And to disarm him I push his dagger downwards and to the right as written above. And then by making a turn with his dagger I will thrust the point into his chest without fail.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Getty and Paris, the Scholar's left foot is forward, and his opponent's right foot is forward.]''</p>
 +
| <p>''Now I teach taking the dagger away while wrestling the associate;<br/>This first student does not know how to play.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15v.jpg|15v-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a.jpg|11a-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 36r.jpg|36r-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 15v-d.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[80] So that this student cannot dislocate my arm, I pull it towards me and bend it. And the farther I pull it towards me and bend it, the better, because in this way I make the counter to the Remedy Master of the close play of the dagger.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15v.jpg|15v-d}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|}
 +
{{master subsection end}}
 +
 
 +
{{master subsection begin
 +
| title = 6th Master
 +
| width = 240em
 +
}}
 +
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:MS Latin 11269 36v-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[81] <em>There is no man who knows more about dagger versus dagger than I.<br/>Whether in armor or without, I will gravely injure you,<br/>And when fighting at the barrier I truly love<br/>To vanquish everyone with these close plays.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
I am the Sixth [Dagger Remedy] Master and I tell you that this cover is good either in armor or without armor. And with this cover I can cover attacks from all directions and enter into all of the holds and binds, and strike to finish, as the students who follow me will show. And each of my students will make this cover, and then they will make the plays shown after, as they are qualified to do.
 +
| <p>''I do not recognize the man with whom I can’t play.<br/>If we both lead while turning dagger in dagger,<br/>Either I would be armed [with both], or by chance we would be without weapons,<br/>And that movement is pleasing, provided that it would be a close play.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16r.jpg|16r-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a.jpg|11a-e}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 36v.jpg|36v-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 16r-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[82] I made the cover of the Sixth [Dagger Remedy] Master who preceded me. And as soon as I have made this grip I will be able to strike you. And because I position my left hand in this way, I will not fail to take away your dagger. I can also put you in the middle bind, which is the third play [3] of the First Dagger Remedy Master. I could also make other plays against you, without abandoning my dagger.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16r.jpg|16r-b}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 16r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[83] <em>From the cover of my Master which is so perfect,<br/>I will strike you in the chest with a half turn of my dagger.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
I have made this half turn from the cover of my Sixth Master and I have quickly positioned myself to strike you. And even if you were armored I would care little, for in that case I would thrust this dagger in your face. However, as you can see, in this case I have thrust it into your chest because you are not armored and you do not know the close range game.
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16r.jpg|16r-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b.jpg|11b-a}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[84] <em>With my Master’s cover and with a half turn to the outside,<br/>I can still strike or bind you or take away your dagger.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
I have not abandoned the cover of my Sixth [Dagger Remedy] Master. I turn my left arm over your right. And moving my right foot at the same time as my left arm I turn myself to the outside. You are now partly bound, and you will have to admit that you will quickly lose your dagger. And I make this play so quickly that I have no concern or fear of your counter.
 +
 
 +
''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown, and both he and his opponent have their right feet forward.]''
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16r.jpg|16r-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b.jpg|11b-b}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[85] <em>From the cover my Master made<br/>With this grip and cover I will give you grief.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
Having made the cover of my Master, I made this grip. And I can strike you whether you are armored or unarmored. And I can also put you into the lower lock of the first scholar of the Fourth Dagger Remedy Master.
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16v.jpg|16v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a.jpg|11a-f}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 16v-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[86] Without abandoning the cover of the Sixth [Dagger Remedy] Master, I make this turn [with my dagger]. Your right hand will lose the dagger, and seeing that you have been reversed, my dagger will quickly strike you, and your dagger will be lost to you. Also I can make a turn with my left arm and make you suffer in the lower lock.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16v.jpg|16v-b}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[87] <em>If you and I are both armored,<br/>I will thrust the knife into your hand, as you can see.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<del>Although I am placed after the counter-remedy to the Sixth Master, I should logically be placed before him, because</del> I am a student of the Sixth [Dagger Remedy] Master and my play belongs to him. And this play makes more sense in armor than unarmored, because if he is armored I can strike him in the hand where he cannot fully protect himself; whereas if he is unarmored, I would aim to strike him in the face or in the chest, or in some other vulnerable place.
 +
 
 +
''[This play has been moved to its proper location as given in Fiore's explanation.]''
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16v.jpg|16v-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a.jpg|12a-a}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[88] <em>With my left hand I will turn you and expose you<br/>And with this counter, I will be able to strike you hard.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
I make the counter-remedy of the Sixth King [Dagger Remedy Master], turning your body with an elbow push, and in this way I can strike you, because with this elbow push that I quickly do, I will be able to defend against many close plays. And this is a particularly good counter-remedy to the all of the holds of the close-range game.
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16v.jpg|16v-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b.jpg|11b-d}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[89] <em>With my left hand placed in my defense as shown,<br/>I will quickly cause you harm with this counter.</em></p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b.jpg|11b-c}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|}
 +
{{master subsection end}}
 +
 
 +
{{master subsection begin
 +
| title = 7th Master
 +
| width = 240em
 +
}}
 +
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="2" |
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[90] <em>If I am armored this is a good cover to choose,<br/>And from here I can enter quickly into the middle bind,<br/>And the fight will be over<br/>For there is no good defense against it.</em></p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''I, well-fortified, make this cover in arms,<br/>And suddenly, I will enter<ref>N.B. “I will enter” begins the fourth line in the Latin. It was moved to fit English sentence structure.</ref> into the middle key, which ends all<br/>Wars; neither is any strong against the conducting of war,<br/>Nor is any opposition able to oppose me.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b.jpg|11b-e}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 36v.jpg|36v-c}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| <p>I am the Seventh [Dagger Remedy] Master and I play with arms crossed. And this cover is better made when armored than unarmored. The plays that I can do from this cover are the plays that came before me, especially the middle bind which is the third play of the first Dagger Remedy Master. Also I can turn you by pushing your right elbow with my left hand. And I can strike you quickly in the head or in the shoulder…</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| rowspan="3" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17r.jpg|17r-a}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="2" |
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[91] <em>In armour this is a very strong cover<br/>Because from here you can bind either above or below;<br/>One way you go to the lower bind,<br/>The other way you go to the upper bind or the middle bind.</em></p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''That movement certainly prevails over the dagger while held in the cross[ing],<br/>And on the other hand it can work above and beneath in armor.<br/>This lower play openly goes to the outside <br/>Bind. The middle [bind] lies below, or perhaps [the] highest.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a.jpg|12a-c}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 37r.jpg|37r-c}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| <p>…And this cover is better for binding than any other cover, and is a very strong cover to make against the dagger.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Paris, this Scholar wears a crown.]''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" rowspan="2" |
 +
| class="noline" rowspan="2" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[92] <em>You will not be able to put me into the middle bind,<br/>Whereas I am going to strike you as I turn you.</em></p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b.jpg|11b-f}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>This is the counter remedy to the plays of the Seventh [Dagger Remedy] Master who came before me. With the push that I make to his right elbow, let me tell you that this counter-remedy is good against all close range plays of the dagger, the poleaxe, and the sword, whether in armor or unarmored. And once I have pushed his elbow I should quickly strike him in the shoulder.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Getty, the Master's right foot is forward.]''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17r.jpg|17r-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|}
 +
{{master subsection end}}
 +
 
 +
{{master subsection begin
 +
| title = 8th Master
 +
| width = 240em
 +
}}
 +
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 17r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[93]<br/><br/><br/><br/>&nbsp;</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I am the Eighth [Dagger Remedy] Master and I cross with my dagger. And this cover is good both armored or unarmored. And some of my plays are shown before me, and some are shown after me…</p>
 +
| <p>''In this way, I carry my dagger while fighting during the cross[ing]. Any defense<br/>Which the dagger offers does not oppose itself in the play,<br/>But I will be strong to lay waste in playing using many moves.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| rowspan="2" | <p><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17r.jpg|17r-c}}
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 37r.jpg|37r-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Cod.1324 31v-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[94] …In the play that is shown before me, three plays back [72], the ''Zugadore'' was struck in his hand with the point of his opponent's dagger. Similarly in this play I could strike downwards to his hand just as in the earlier play I struck upwards to his hand.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Also, I could seize his hand at the wrist with my left hand, and then strike him hard with my right hand, just as you will find demonstrated by the ninth student [108] of the Ninth [Dagger Remedy] Master, who strikes the ''Zugadore'' in the chest. Also, I could do the last play that follows after [109] where I drop my own dagger and take his.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 17r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[95] I am the counter-remedy to the Eighth [Dagger Remedy] Master that preceded me, and to all of his students…</p>
 +
 
 +
''[This counter was moved before [97] and [98] because it is unclear how they relate to the Eight Master.]''
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| rowspan="2" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17r.jpg|17r-d}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[96] <em>After this turn that I make you do<br/>I will strike you and force you to the ground.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>…If I extend my left hand to his elbow, I can push it so strongly that I can strike him obliquely. Also, as I make him turn I can throw my arm around his neck and hurt him in a variety of possible ways.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a.jpg|12a-b}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 17v-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[97] This is a guard that is a strong cover in armor or unarmored. It is a good cover because from it you can quickly put your opponent into a lower lock or “strong key.” This is what is depicted by the sixth play [54] of the Third [Dagger Remedy] Master who defends against the reverse hand strike and who uses his left arm to bind the ''Zugadore''’s right arm.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17v.jpg|17v-a}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 17v-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:Cod.1324 29r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[98] This cover that I make like this with arms crossed is good in armor or unarmored. And my play puts the Zugadore into the lower lock, which is also called the “strong key,” which the scholar who preceded me told you about, namely the sixth play [54] of the Third Master who defends with his right hand against the reverse hand strike. And this play is made similarly to the play that immediately preceded me, but is begun in a slightly different way.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>And our counter–remedy again is the elbow push.</p>
 +
 
 +
''[The Master in the right image is missing both garter and crown.]''
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17v.jpg|17v-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|}
 +
{{master subsection end}}
 +
 
 +
{{master subsection begin
 +
| title = 9th Master
 +
| width = 240em
 +
}}
 +
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[100] <em>From this grip that I have I can do many plays.<br/>Take away the dagger, break, strike or bind.<br/>And the quickest is to take the dagger from your hand,<br/>so as to avoid any risk of harm from the player.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
I am the Ninth King [and Dagger Remedy Master] and I no longer have a dagger. And this grip that I make from the low attack is similar to the grip made by the Fourth King [and Dagger Remedy Master], only this one is made against the low attack instead of the high attack, and my plays are not the same as his. This grip is good whether in armor or unarmored, and from it you can make many good strong plays, as shown below. Whether in armor or unarmored there is no doubt of their effectiveness.
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17v.jpg|17v-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a.jpg|12a-d}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[101] <em>If I rotate the dagger close to your elbow,<br/>Your dagger will be mine for certain.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
I have followed on from the ''presa'' of the Ninth [Dagger Remedy] Master. Taking my right hand from the grip, I seize your dagger as shown and I rotate it upwards close to your elbow. And I will then thrust the point into your face for certain, or I will deal with you as the next student will demonstrate.
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17v.jpg|17v-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a.jpg|12a-e}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 18r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[102] <em>The first student of this Master<br/>Takes away the dagger and makes this play.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
I complete the play of the student who came before me, and from his grip this is how he should finish his play. Other students will make different plays from his grip. Watch those who follow, and you will see their techniques.
 +
| <p>''The student will perhaps be able to make this play of that master [of yours],<br/>And would have snatched the powerful dagger away.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a Master's crown.]''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18r.jpg|18r-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b.jpg|12b-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 37v.jpg|37v-b}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[103] <em>I can dislocate your arm like this,<br/>And I can also bind you in the lower bind.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>My Master's grip has already been demonstrated. Here my right hand leaves his grip. And if I grip you under your elbow, I can dislocate your arm. And also from this grip I can put you into a bind, namely the “strong key” [lower bind], which is one the third King and [Dagger Remedy] Master showed in his plays In his sixth play [38] he shows you how this one is done.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Getty, the Scholar's right foot is forward.]''</p>
 +
| <p>''I can truly dislocate your shoulder in this same way;<br/>Furthermore, I can lead to using the lower key.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18r.jpg|18r-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b.jpg|12b-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38r.jpg|38r-c}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[104] <em>If I can give your arm a half turn,<br/>You will quickly find yourself in the lower bind.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I have arrived at this position from the grip of my Master [Ninth Dagger Remedy Master], and I do not remain in this grip but move into the lower bind, also known as the “strong key.” This I can do without difficulty, and I can then easily take your dagger.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Getty, the Scholar's right foot is forward.]''</p>
 +
| <p>''I prepare to take away your life using the <br/>Lower bind, if by chance I can twist your shoulder.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18r.jpg|18r-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b.jpg|12b-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38r.jpg|38r-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 18r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[105] <em>Without releasing my grip I enter underneath your arm,<br/>And from behind your shoulder I will hurt you grievously.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I have not abandoned the grip of my Master [the Ninth Dagger Remedy Master], but I have quickly entered under his right arm, to dislocate it with this grip. I can do this whether he is wearing armor or not, and once I have him held from behind and in my power, I will show him no mercy as I hurt him.</p>
 +
| <p>''Behold! I crossed beneath the shoulder during play,<br/>And furthermore, I left behind the taking. But I will burden the back.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18r.jpg|18r-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a.jpg|12a-f}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 37v.jpg|37v-c}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[106] <em>Although this play is not often employed,<br/>It can be done well, if you practice it.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I did not abandon the grip of my Master [the Ninth Dagger Remedy Master] and the ''Zugadore'' saw that he could not break my grip on his arm. And as he pressed downwards towards the ground with his dagger, I quickly reached through his legs from behind and grabbed his right hand with my left hand. And once I had a good grip on his hand, I passed behind him. And as you can see in the picture, he cannot dismount his own arm without falling. And I can now also do the play that follows me. If I let go of the dagger with my right hand, and I grab his foot I will send him crashing to the ground, and I cannot fail to take his dagger.</p>
 +
| <p>''It is granted that this play could scarcely be learned by this art,<br/>Yet this one honestly succeeds by means of the practiced man.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18v.jpg|18v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b.jpg|12b-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 43r.jpg|43r-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 18v-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[107] The student who preceded me performed the first part of this play, and I make the finish by driving him into the ground, as has already been explained. Although this play is not commonly performed in the art, I wish to show you that I have a complete knowledge of it. </p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18v.jpg|18v-b}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:Cod.1324 31r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 18v-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[108] I made the cover of my Master [the Ninth Dagger Remedy Master] and then quickly I gripped him in this way with my left hand. And then I drew my dagger and thrust it into his chest. And if I do not have time to draw my dagger, I will make the play that follows me. </p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18v.jpg|18v-c}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 18v-d.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[109] With this play I complete the play of the student who preceded me, who left his [sheathed] dagger where it was and instead decided to take your live dagger. I have already explained how this play is performed.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18v.jpg|18v-d}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" style="text-align:center; vertical-align:middle;" | [No Image]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[110] The Counter-remedy to this Ninth [Dagger Remedy] Master's play is as follows: when the ''Zugadore'' with his left hand has seized your right hand that has the dagger, then you should quickly seize your dagger near the point and strongly draw or pull it back towards you so that he has to let go of it, or alternately press the dagger point into his elbow to make him think twice.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18v.jpg|18v-f}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|}
 +
{{master subsection end}}
 +
{{master end}}
 +
 
 +
{{master begin
 +
| title = Dagger vs. Sword
 +
| width = 240em
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 35a-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[1] <em>I know how to cover cuts and thrusts with my dagger.<br/>Come one by one, that this play will not fail.<br/>And my Scholar will show the proof:<br/>Doing it according to what you find depicted.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
Here begin sword against dagger plays, and you will have a significant advantage if you know how to do these.<ref>Meaning “if you know how to use a dagger to fight against a sword”.</ref> The Master waits in a guard named Boar’s Tusk, a guard that will protect me from both cuts and thrusts. As I beat back<ref>The word Fiore uses is “rebatter” which means “to beat back”. This suggests a hard block, not a gentle parry.</ref> my opponent’s sword, I pass backwards with my right foot, for I know the Narrow Play so well it cannot fail me. Attack me one by one as you wish. None of you will escape as I destroy each of you with this turn of my dagger.<ref>Fiore just writes “with a turn” (“in un voltare”), but I have added language to make it clearer that he is talking about the move with his dagger as well as the footwork.</ref>
 +
| <p><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
Here the sword and the dagger begin to play. The advantage is great to he who knows how to do it. The Master awaits in this guard with the dagger, and the guard is called Boar's Tusk. Come cuts or thrusts, I know how to guard myself from these: I will withdraw my right foot as I deflect. I understand the narrow play so well that I cannot possibly fail. Come one by one whoever wants to work against me, and if you don't flee from me, I will waste you in one turning.
 +
 
 +
''[In the Morgan, the Master is missing his crown.]''
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS M.383 18r.jpg|18r-d}}
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 19r.jpg|19r-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 35a.jpg|35a-a}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 35a-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[2] <em>The proof is found depicted here:<br/>You see that I can strike you without difficulty.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
I have made the cover against the thrust that my Master showed you, and now I quickly strike my opponent in the face or the chest. With dagger versus sword you should always aim to close with your opponent.<ref>Here Fiore literally says “you need the close game”. Note that “zogo stretto” can  mean both “Narrow Play”, or the “Narrow Game”, or simply “close range”. Here I believe the translation “close with your opponent” works best.</ref> Here, since I am at close range I can strike you effectively, and like it or not, you will have to endure it.
 +
 
 +
''[In the Getty, the Scholar's left foot is outside of (behind) his opponent's.]''
 +
| <p>''This is made plain in the picture, constructed with great care, having been pointed out by a witness.<br/>And henceforth you will see how I am able to subdue utterly with the dagger.''</p>
 +
 
 +
My Master makes this cover against the thrust and immediately strikes to the face or to the chest. And with dagger against sword, I always seek the narrow play. Here I am in the narrow and I can strike you well. Like it or not, you must suffer.
 +
 
 +
''[In the Paris, this Scholar is the Master and his left foot is outside of (behind) his opponent's.]''
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS M.383 18v.jpg|18v-a}}
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 19r.jpg|19r-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 35a.jpg|35a-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 20r.jpg|20r-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 35a-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[3] <em>The sword has won against the dagger here,<br/>Because I have turned you and pushed you.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
If the attacker<ref>“Zugadore” means “player”. Here I’ve used “attacker” to make the translation more understandable.</ref> in the previous picture had known how to defend himself, he would have reached across with his left hand and seized the opponent behind his left elbow, turning him in the manner shown here. Then he would have no need of a counter to the remedy of the dagger Master.<ref>Fiore is pointing out that this play is made early, after the opponent has made cover with his dagger but before the opponent has had time to launch a Remedy. Since the Remedy was never launched, no Counter is needed. Note Fiore calls the man with the dagger “the Master who waits in guard with his dagger”. I have shortened this to “dagger Master”.</ref>
 +
| <p>''Your dagger is not strong; I set your back in motion so that I have compelled [you] to turn<br/>Around. You will not be able to reveal to me [your] sad face.''</p>
 +
 
 +
If the Player that came before me had known to do this defense, he would have put his left hand to the Scholar behind his elbow in this way, turning him in the way that is demonstrated here. Then I should have had no need to make the counter to the Master who is in guard with the dagger.
 +
 
 +
''[In the Morgan, the Master is missing his crown.]''
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS M.383 18v.jpg|18v-b}}
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 19r.jpg|19r-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 35a.jpg|35a-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 20r.jpg|20r-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 35a-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[4] <em>If someone would attack me with a sword to my head,<br/>I would make this cover with a quick catch;<br/>I would turn him with the left hand<br/>And then I would strike with a dagger in his back.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
If the dagger Master is attacked with a downward strike to the head, he passes forward immediately making the cover shown, turns his opponent by pushing his elbow, and then strikes him immediately. He can also bind the opponent’s sword with his arm, as shown in the fourth play of the sword in one hand.<ref>See Getty 20v-c and 20v-d.</ref> You will also find this Middle Bind shown in the third play of the dagger,<ref>See Getty 10v-c.</ref> which is made a hands-breadth from the face.<ref>I can see no relevance to Fiore’s comment here that the middle bind is made “a hands-breadth from the face”. The middle bind technique in the dagger section is NOT made close to either your own face or your opponent’s face. It remains a mystery, other than to point out that the entire text of the Getty is written in loose rhyme. Here Fiore chooses the word “spana” to rhyme with the earlier word “mezana”. That appears to me to be the sole reason for its use here.</ref>
 +
| <p>''And whoever would have struck the sword into me and under the crown of the head,<br/>I will have made this covering, the elbow having been seized by the left [hand];<br/>And using my own hand, the back of the one playing would be turned.<br/>Thence the dagger would have struck, his kidneys having been penetrated.''</p>
 +
 
 +
If, to the Master that stands in guard with the dagger against the sword, someone comes attacking with a downward blow to his head, he steps forward and he makes this cover quickly, and from the turn [the Master] pushes his elbow and then he can immediately strike him. Also, he can bind the sword with his arm in the way that the fourth play of the sword in one hand is done, and you can also find the Middle Bind in the third play of the dagger (where the hold is a hand's width from the face).
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS M.383 18v.jpg|18v-c}}
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 19r.jpg|19r-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 35a.jpg|35a-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 20v.jpg|20v-b}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 35b-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[5] <em>Because you have not struck me in the back,<br/>I make this counter without trouble.</em></p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 35b.jpg|35b-a}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 35b-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 19v-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[6] <em>This match is one of dagger to sword:<br/>The sword invites against the dagger that he holds,<br/>And he will demonstrate through his Scholar<br/>The way in which this play may be done.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
This is one way to defeat<ref>Meaning here is a play where the attacker with the dagger is defeated.</ref> dagger against sword. The man with the dagger grabs the man with the sword by the collar<ref>''Cavezo'' means “collar”, that is, the front of the tunic up at the neck. In modern terminology it is a lapel grab.</ref> and warns: “I will strike you with my dagger before you can draw your sword from its scabbard.” The man with the sword says “Try and strike me then, for I am ready.” And as the man with the dagger attacks, the man with the sword responds in the manner shown in the next picture.
 +
| <p><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
This is a match which is of the dagger against the sword. He who has a dagger and holds the swordsman by the chest says "I will strike with my dagger before you draw your sword from the scabbard." He of the sword says "Attack, for I am ready." And with that, the swordsman does that which is depicted hereafter.
 +
 
 +
''[In the Morgan, the Master is missing his crown.]''
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS M.383 18v.jpg|18v-d}}
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 19v.jpg|19v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 35b.jpg|35b-b}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 35b-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 19v-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[7] <em>In this fashion the sword defends against the dagger:<br/>I will strike you with the sword; the dagger can do nothing.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
When the man with the dagger raises his arm to strike me, I immediately press the sheath of my sword against his dagger arm in such a way that his arm is jammed. I then quickly draw my sword, and I can strike him before he has a chance to even touch me with his dagger. I could also take the dagger from his hand using the method of the First Dagger Remedy Master,<ref>See Getty 10v-a.</ref> or I could put him into the middle bind, using the third play of the First Dagger Remedy Master.<ref>See Getty 10v-c.</ref>
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
When he lifts his arm to give it to me with the dagger, instantly I put my scabbard on his dagger arm in such a way that he cannot give me grief. And quickly I draw my sword, and I can strike before he can touch me with his dagger. Also, I can take the dagger from his hand in the same way as does the First Master of dagger. And again, I can bind him in the Middle Bind, which is the third play of the dagger (of the First Master who is Remedy).
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS M.383 17r.jpg|17r-a}}
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 19v.jpg|19v-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 35b.jpg|35b-c}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 19v-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[8] <br/>&nbsp;</p>
 +
 
 +
Here is another way for the sword to defeat the dagger. In this one I hold my sword with its point on the ground, as you see drawn here, and I say to the man with the dagger, who has grabbed me by the collar: “Go ahead and attack me with your dagger from this position. And when you try I will strike against your arm with my sword still in the scabbard, then I will draw my sword as I pass backwards with my right foot, and in this way I will be able to strike you with my sword before you are able to strike me with your dagger.<ref>The conclusion to this play is not illustrated in ''Fior di Battaglia'', but does appear in ''[[Die Blume des Kampfes|Blume des Kampfes]]''; see [[:Page:Cod.5278 202r.png|Cod.5278 202r]], [[:Page:MS B.26 032v.png|MS B.26 32v]], and [[:Page:Cod.10799 199r.jpg|Cod.10799 199r]].</ref>
 +
| <p>''That best moving of what will have been played, and [is] careful in the art.<br/>I would neither cover nor likewise strike the point to that left unprotected.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 19v.jpg|19v-c}}
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 20v.jpg|20v-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 35b-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 19v-d.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[9] <em>This is another odd match:<br/>The sword makes an invitation against the dagger.<br/>The sword will make the play of the Scholar<br/>And will demonstrate that the dagger can do nothing.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
This is a similar defense to the one shown before, although it is done slightly differently. As the man with dagger raises his arm to strike, I quickly raise my sheathed sword up under his dagger, aiming the point of my sheathed sword into his face, while at the same time passing back with my lead foot.<ref>Fiore literally says “returning my foot that is in front to the back”. This refers to a passing step backwards with the right foot.</ref> From here I can strike him as you see drawn in the next picture.
 +
 
 +
''[In the Getty, the Scholar wears a crown.]''
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 19v.jpg|19v-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 35b.jpg|35b-d}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 36a-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 20r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[10] <em>I will strike the eye in your face with my scabbard<br/>And I won't refrain from striking you with the sword.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
This is the continuation of the play of the Master who made the preceding defense. And I am performing it exactly as he said to do it. And as you can plainly see, you will give me no trouble with your dagger.
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | <br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 20r.jpg|20r-a}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 36a.jpg|36a-a}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|}
 +
{{master end}}
 +
 
 +
{{master begin
 +
| title = Sword in One Hand
 +
| width = 240em
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 20r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 20r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[1] Here are three opponents who all want to kill this Master. The first aims to kill him with a thrust. The second intends a cut. The third will throw his sword at the master like a spear. If the Master can perform a mighty deed<ref>A “grande fatto” is something of great worth, like a mighty deed.</ref> and avoid being killed, then God will have indeed blessed him with great skill.<ref>“Tristo” can mean “sad”, but it can also mean “crafty”, “clever”, or “skillful”</ref></p>
 +
| <p>We are three players that wish to strike this Master. One would strike with the point, another the edge, and another wants to throw his sword against the aforesaid Master, so that it will be a great feat indeed if this Master is not killed. May God make him suffer.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 17v.jpg|17v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 20r.jpg|20r-c}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| <p>[2] ''Whether throwing the sword or striking cuts and thrusts,<br/>Nothing will trouble me because of the guard that I hold.<br/>Come one by one whoever wants to go against me<br/>Because I want to contend with them all.<br/>And whoever wants to see covers and strikes,<br/>Taking the sword and binding without fail,<br/>Watch what my Scholars know how to do:<br/>If you don't find a counter, they have no equal.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>You are cowards<ref>“Cativi” means “cowardly wretches”. Here Fiore’s Master is talking directly to the three men who seek his death.</ref> and know little of this art. You are all words without any deeds. I challenge you to come at me one after another, if you dare, and even if there are a hundred of you, I will destroy all of you from this powerful guard. …</p>
 +
| <p>''If a wild one throws a sword, or if<br/>The other would prepare to cut to pieces, still that one would only favor me with the point;<br/>This caution teaches, in order that I would not be ridiculed or alarmed.<br/><br/><br/><br/>''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>You are wicked and of this art you know little; you do things that words cannot describe. Come one by one whoever knows what to do and is able, and even if you are a hundred I will waste all of you with this guard (which is so good and strong). …</p>
 +
| rowspan="2" | <p><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS M.383 17v.jpg|17v-b}}
 +
| rowspan="2" | <p><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 20r.jpg|20r-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 13a.jpg|13a-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 10r.jpg|10r-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 13a-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[3] ''With a step, I have made a cover with my sword<br/>And it has quickly entered into your chest.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>…I will advance my front foot a little off the line, and with my left foot I will step crosswise,<ref>“ala traversa”—crosswise. Here this means sideways.</ref> and as I do so I will cross your swords, beating them aside and leaving you unprotected. I will then strike you without fail. And even if you throw your spear or sword at me, I will beat them all aside in the same manner I described above, stepping<ref>Remember, “passando” might mean “passing” (passing step) or it might mean simply “stepping”.</ref> off the line as you will see me demonstrate in the plays that follow, and which you would do well to study. And even though I am only holding the sword in one hand, I can still perform all of my art, as you will see demonstrated in this book.</p>
 +
| <p>''Taking a step, I cover my limb using my raging sword;<br/>Thence I will penetrate your breast immediately with it.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>…I advance my forward foot slightly out of the way, and with my left I step to the side. I cover myself during that step, beating your swords and finding you uncovered, and I will be certain to strike you. And whether lance or sword is thrown at me, I will beat them all just as I have said, stepping out of the way according to that which you see in my plays hereafter. Watch what I show to you, and with the sword in one hand I will make my art.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 13a.jpg|13a-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 10v.jpg|10v-b}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:MS M.383 19r-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 13b-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[4] ''In order to wound you again with this, my point,<br/>I have added my left hand to the sword.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is a play where if you wish to make this kind of thrust, you should be armoured. If your opponent strikes at you with a thrust or a cut, you first make your cover, and then quickly counter attack as shown.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[The Getty resembles the Pisani Dossi, including the lack of armor.]''</p>
 +
| <p>''In order to do it again, I will strike a bargain with you using my gloomy point;<br/>Then the left hand retains that sword with strength.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is a play in which he who wants to thrust the point wants to be armored. When someone strikes at you with the point, or with the edge, make the cover and immediately thrust this in the way that is depicted.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[The Paris resembles the Pisani Dossi, including the lack of armor.]''</p>
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS M.383 19r.jpg|19r-a}}
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 21v.jpg|21v-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 13b.jpg|13b-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 10v.jpg|10v-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 13b-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[5] ''Here I have struck you in your head<br/>From the cover that I have made so quickly.''</p>
 +
| <p>''Here I struck the forehead, causing a bloody wound,<br/>Because in giving this [wound], I cover myself in rapid motion with a cover.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 13b.jpg|13b-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 11r.jpg|11r-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 14a-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[6] ''Again I have struck your head without stepping<br/>Because of the good cover that I knew to make.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I have rendered you completely unprotected, and now I will easily strike you in the head. And if I choose to pass forward with my rear foot, I can perform close range techniques against you, such as locks, dislocations and grapples.</p>
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I have found you completely uncovered and I have struck you in the head for certain. And if I want to step forward with my rear foot, I can make many narrow plays against you (that is, the binds and breaks of grappling).</p>
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS M.383 17v.jpg|17v-d}}
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 20v.jpg|20v-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 14a.jpg|14a-a}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 13b-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[7] ''In this way, I uncover you to strike you with my point<br/>To defend myself from you from each neglect and shame.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I have done what my teacher<ref>“Magistro” means both “Master” and “Teacher”. The translation “teacher” works well here.</ref> told me to do. That is to say I stepped off the line making a strong cover. And having rendered my opponent unprotected I now easily place a thrust into his face. And with my left hand I will demonstrate that I can take his sword, and send it to the ground.</p>
 +
| <p>''I uncover you in order to strike a bargain with the point extended. I will avenge after this;<br/>The soul having been ground into small pieces, we will be perfected.''<ref>Lit. “made to the fingernails”, an expression meaning to be a perfect person.</ref></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I have done that which the Master has said—that is, I stepped out of the way making a good cover. And I found the player uncovered such that I certainly want to thrust my point in his face. And I want to try this with my left hand, to see if I can make your sword hit the ground.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]''</p>
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS M.383 17v.jpg|17v-c}}
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 20v.jpg|20v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 13b.jpg|13b-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 11v.jpg|11v-b}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 13b-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[8] ''Because of the hand that I have put beneath your hilt,<br/>If your sword doesn't hit the ground, call me feeble.<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
 +
 
 +
From this position I can easily strike or stab you. And if I advance my front foot forward, I can lock you in the middle bind, as shown in the third play of the first Remedy Master of the dagger.<ref>Getty 10v-c</ref> Alternately I can do the play shown next, and strike and lock you as shown there.
 +
 
 +
''[In the Getty, the Scholar's opponent has his right foot forward.]''
 +
| <p>''You would mock me with your voice, and I shall call you blind;<br/>If your sword, when I catch it by the hilt openly,<br/>Will not fall to the ground, your weakness will remain henceforth.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 20v.jpg|20v-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 13b.jpg|13b-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 11r.jpg|11r-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 14a-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[9] ''With my left arm, I have bound your right<br/>And will you be presented with many strikes.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Here both your sword and your arm are effectively trapped, and you will not be able to escape before I strike you as described, because you have shown you know nothing of this play.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 20v.jpg|20v-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 14a.jpg|14a-c}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 14a-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[10] <em>Because of the way in which I have caught your sword,<br/>Quickly I will have your hand empty.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Here I can easily strike you while taking your sword, and by rotating it in your hand I will make you drop it as the only way to prevent yourself being thrown to the ground.</p>
 +
| <p>''I decide to pluck the sword out of your slow hands;<br/>This more-clever hand snatched that of yours in such a manner.''<ref>Romans used dative to describe body parts</ref></p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 21r.jpg|21r-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 14a.jpg|14a-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 11v.jpg|11v-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:MS Latin 11269 12r-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 14a-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[11] ''I will make you turn with the left hand<br/>And in that, I want to give you a great blow.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Here I can strike you from the front, but this is not enough. By gripping your elbow I make you turn away, then I wrap<ref>“Butare” actually means to “cast” or “throw”. I decided “wrap” would work better here.</ref> my sword around your neck from behind, and you will have no defense to this.</p>
 +
| <p>''At any time, with the hand, I would have turned the elbow, turning my sword around.<br/>I make you covered in blood. I cannot be deceived.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 21r.jpg|21r-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 14a.jpg|14a-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 12r.jpg|12r-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 14b-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:MS Latin 11269 12r-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[12] ''Because of the turn that I have given you by your elbow<br/>I believe I have cut you across the throat.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>In the previous drawing I told you I would turn you and then quickly wrap my sword around your neck, as shown here. And if now I fail to cut your throat, then I am a pathetic fool.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[The Getty resembles the Pisani Dossi.]''</p>
 +
| <p>''Now I consider cutting the middle of your neck using the sword;<br/>Then, therefore, I am superior because I throw this forearm back.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 21r.jpg|21r-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 14b.jpg|14b-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 12r.jpg|12r-b}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 14b-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[13] <em>This is a good break of the point on the ground<br/>And in this fashion you will come to be in the narrow.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>You aimed<ref>“Zitassi” means “cast” as in “threw”.</ref> a thrust at me and I beat it to the ground. Do you see how you are now unprotected and can be struck? And I can also turn you and do you even more harm, by striking you from behind.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 21r.jpg|21r-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 14b.jpg|14b-b}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 14b-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[14] <em>I have sending you to the ground in my thoughts:<br/>Again, you are uncovered so that I can strike you.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Because I turned you by pushing your elbow, I have quickly come to this position and from here I can throw you to the ground, where you will no longer be able to fight me or anyone else.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 21v.jpg|21v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 14b.jpg|14b-c}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 14b-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[15] <em>Either your sword is bent or it is broken<br/>And I can strike you from above or from below with mine.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This opponent struck at my head, and I beat his sword to the ground, coming to the position you see depicted here. Now after forcing you to turn away I will aggressively<ref>“Ardito” means “bold”, “passionate” (“ardent”). But here I went after the meaning as I understand it, which is with intensity, thus “aggressively”.</ref> wrap my sword around your neck.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 21v.jpg|21v-b}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 14b.jpg|14b-d}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|}
 +
{{master end}}
 +
 
 +
{{master begin
 +
| title = Sword in Two Hands
 +
| width = 100%
 +
}}
 +
{{master subsection begin
 +
| title = Introduction
 +
| width = 240em
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 22r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 22r-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[1] We are two guards that are similar to each other, and yet each one is a counter to the other. And for all other guards in this art, guards that are similar are counters to each other, with the exception of the guards that stand ready to thrust—the Long Guard, the Short Guard and the Middle Iron Gate. For when it is thrust against thrust the weapon with the longer reach will strike first. And whatever one of these guards can do so can the other.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>And from each guard you can make a “turn in place” or a half turn. A turn in place is when without actually stepping<ref>The expression “stando fermo” translates literally as “remaining firm”. In the context of Fiore’s art I interpret this “volta” when referring to step (footwork) to refer to weight transfers between the two feet with the feet turning slightly on the balls of the feet, but without actually stepping. Used in relation to the crossed swords, I translate “stando fermo” as “maintaining pressure”. In my interpretation this refers to crossed swords in front of the opponent’s sword attack, maintaining strong pressure against his blade, crossing his blade at the “front”, i.e. the incoming sword, and then thrusting to the “back”, i.e. at the opponent’s body. The “volta” or “turn” of the sword involved here is a clockwise ''rotation'' of the sword around its long axis, i.e. a “screwing” motion as you turn the sword from crossguard more vertical to crossguard more horizontal. This motion is of course the Germanic tradition “winden” or “winding” of the sword. Thus I translate “volta stabile” as a “turn in place”.</ref> you can play to the front and then to the rear on the same side. A half turn is when you make a step forwards or backwards and can switch sides to play on the other side from a forwards or backwards position. A full turn is when you circle one foot around the other, one remaining where it is while the other rotates around it.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Furthermore you should know that the sword can make the same three movements, namely stable turn, half turn and full turn.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Both of these guards drawn below are named the Guard of the Lady.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Also, there are four types of movement<ref>Fiore’s word is actually “cose”—“things”. In this context it is better translated as “movements”, “steps” or “footwork”.</ref> in this art, namely passing forwards, returning,<ref>“Tornare” literally means “to return”. Thus it is a “returning” step. Note it does NOT mean “to turn”. In certain instances “tornare” refers simply to a passing step backwards, i.e. the reverse of a passing step forwards. Elsewhere it is used by Fiore to show a second movement that returns along the path the first movement took.</ref> advancing,<ref>“Accressere” means literally “to increase”. The noun form would be “accresso” or “accressimento”. As I interpret it it refers to a shuffle step in any direction where the lead foot moves out away from the body first, resulting in an increase in distance between the feet. Fiore does not include passing steps forward or backward under this term.</ref> and withdrawing.<ref>“Discressere” means literally “to decrease”. The noun form would be “discresso” or “discressimento”. As I interpret it this refers to a shuffle step in any direction where the first foot that moves, moves back towards the body, i.e. the distance between the feet is shortened (decreased). A shuffle step forwards thus is made up of two of Fiore’s “cose”: first an “accresso” as the lead foot moves forward, then a “discresso”, as the rear foot moves forwards too.</ref></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[Text spans both images.]''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 22r.jpg|22r-a}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 22r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 17b-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[2] ''Six Masters we are, and we dispute one to another<br/>Each does something that the others do not:<br/>And every one of them holds his sword in guard;<br/>We will explain and demonstrate that which they are.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''For throwing I am well-prepared,<br/>On a big step I will make a bargain.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>We are six guards and each of us is different from the other, and I am the first to speak of my purpose. My method is to throw my sword. The other guards follow after me. I believe they will tell you themselves about their particular virtues.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 22r.jpg|22r-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17b.jpg|17b-t}}
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17b.jpg|17b-a}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 22r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 17b-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[3] ''Against the grip of hand and also the throw,<br/>With this guard, I know well how to ward.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I am a good guard, in armor or without armor, and against a spear or a sword thrown from the hand, I am confident I will not be harmed, because I know how to beat them aside and thus evade them.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 22r.jpg|22r-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17b.jpg|17b-b}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 22v-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 17b-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[4] ''In order to strike farther and to step stronger<br/>Against armor I want to stand in this way.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I am the guard to use if you want to extend a long thrust, because my grip on the sword increases its reach. I am good to use against you if you and I are armored, because I can make a quick thrust to the front which will not miss you.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 22v.jpg|22v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17b.jpg|17b-c}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 22v-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 17b-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[5] ''Against dagger and against sword, armored<br/>And unarmored, I want to be found in this way.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I am a good guard against sword, axe and dagger if I am armored, because I grip the sword with my left hand at the middle. And this is particularly useful against the dagger, which can do more harm to me at close range than the other weapons.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 22v.jpg|22v-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17b.jpg|17b-d}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 22v-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 17b-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[6] ''This grip is the noble Stance of the Queen:<br/>She defends against cutting and thrusting in every way.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I am named the Guard or Post of the Lady, and<ref>The word Fiore uses is not “and” (“e”) but is “perche”, which usually translates as “because”. But if we translate the line with “because” then it reads “I am named the guard or post of the Lady, because I am distinct from the other sword grips.” That line then makes no sense at all, and certainly does NOT tell us WHY the high guard over the shoulder is named “Guard of the Lady”. I’ve changed it to make more sense.</ref> I am different from the four<ref>Fiore actually says “these other guards” (“queste altra prese”), not “the four sword guards shown above” but I have changed this so that the sentence makes more sense. Fiore is comparing the Guard of the Lady, which is number five out of the six guards shown in this section, with the previous four guards. This section is one of Fiore’s most poorly written passages, very hard to understand and a challenge to translate!</ref> sword guards<ref>Fiore uses the expression “prese de spada” which means literally “grips of the sword”. He means the guards.</ref> that came before me, even though they are themselves different from each other.<ref>This sentence is confusing. I have therefore made an interpretive translation to make sense of the sentence. Here I believe Fiore means that the Guard of the Lady is different from the prior four guards shown, which are all low guards, in that the Guard of the Lady is a high guard (held above the shoulder).</ref> And although the next guard that opposes me seems to be my guard also, you will note that I am not using my sword reversed as a poleaxe, whereas that is how he is using his.<ref>The sixth guard is indeed also the Guard of the Lady but the sword is held reversed so as to use it like a poleaxe. The character in the drawing here is simply pointing out that while you might think the two guards (fifth and sixth) are the same guard (both hold the weapon high on the right shoulder), they are different in that the sixth is wielding the sword reversed like an axe. The text of the sixth guard points out that notwithstanding this, this guard too is named “Guard of the Lady”.</ref></p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 22v.jpg|22v-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17b.jpg|17b-e}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 22v-d.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 17b-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[7] ''This sword I use for a sword and an axe:<ref>For more information about this sword, see Armored Sword 29.</ref><br/>With harness and without, whoever can take me, go ahead.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This sword is being used as both a sword and a poleaxe. And its great force can stop any attack from a lighter weapon. This guard is also the High Guard of the Lady, who with her skill can fool the other guards, because you will think she is going to attack you with a strike, but instead she will attack you with a thrust. All I have to do is raise my arms above my head, and I can then quickly launch a thrust at you.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 22v.jpg|22v-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17b.jpg|17b-f}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 23r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[8] {{red|b=1|Downward Blows}}</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''We are downward blows and we dispute<br/>By cleaving the teeth with proper intention:<br/>We have not delayed in wounding<br/>And we return to guard from move to move.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>We are the downward blows.<ref>Fiore sometimes spells the word “fendente” for the plural, and sometimes “fendenti”.</ref> In this art our method is to cut with precision<ref>“Cum rasone” literally means “with reason”, which makes no sense. I decided to translate this as “with precision”, since “rasone” suggests mental calculation is involved.</ref> from the teeth down to the knee. And we can easily end up in any of the low guards. We are highly effective<ref>Fiore actually says “cum inzegno”—“cleverly”. But there is nothing “clever” about a fendente strike. It is a big downward hit. So I changed this word to “effectively”.</ref> in breaking the other guards, and with each blow we leave a trail<ref>Fiore actually uses the word “sangue segno”—“a sign of blood”, but I think the expression “trail of blood” works better.</ref> of blood. We downward blows strike fast, and thereafter we return to our guard back the way we came.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 23r.jpg|lbl=-|23r-attl}}
 +
 
 +
<p><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 23r.jpg|23r-a}}
 +
| <p><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b.jpg|12b-e}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[9] {{red|b=1|Under Blows}}</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''We are the blows called Under,<br/>Who always seek to strike the hands;<br/>And we dispute from the knees up<br/>And we teach a lesson by returning with downward blows.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>We are the rising blows, and we go from the knee to the middle of the forehead, following the same path that the downward blows follow. And we return<ref>Another use of the “returning” concept—here making it clear that the verb is “return” not “turn” by spelling it “retornamo”—“we return”.</ref> down the same path as we ascend, unless we choose to remain high in the Long Guard.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 23r.jpg|lbl=-|23r-bttl}}
 +
 
 +
<p><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 23r.jpg|23r-b}}
 +
| <p><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b.jpg|12b-f}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 13a-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[10] {{red|b=1|Middle Blows}}</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''We middle blows go thwarting;<br/>From the knee and above we go wounding;<br/>And we beat the thrusts out of the way<br/>And, redoubling the blow, striking is our deal;<br/>And if we of the middle blow enter cleaving,<br/>We waste many people with such blows.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>We are the middle blows, and we are so-called because we go crosswise through the middle of the path of both the downward blows and the rising blows. And we strike with the true edge of the sword from the right, and with the false edge of the sword from the left. And our path could be anywhere between the knee and the head.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 23r.jpg|lbl=-|23r-cttl}}
 +
 
 +
<p><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 23r.jpg|23r-c}}
 +
| <p><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 13a.jpg|13a-a}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 13a-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[11] {{red|b=1|The Thrusts}}</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''Thrusts we are, of greatest offense<br/>And we make our dispute to all strikes;<br/>Venomous we are, more than a serpent,<br/>And we kill more people than any strike;<br/>And our thrusts to the blows do say:<br/>So little do you cut that we sew like a needle.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>We are the cruel and deadly thrusts. Our target is the body’s center line, and we can strike anywhere between the groin and the forehead. And we thrusts can be made in five ways: two of us can be made from high guards, one from each side, and two can be made from low guards, also one from each side. The fifth one comes from a center line guard, and can be made from Middle Iron Gate, the Short Guard, or the Long Guard.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 23r.jpg|lbl=-|23r-dttl}}
 +
 
 +
<p><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 23r.jpg|23r-d}}
 +
| <p><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 13a.jpg|13a-b}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 18a-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[12] {{red|b=1|The Iron Gate (Powerful)}}<ref>“Pulsativa” actually means “good for hitting”. Fiore names only a few of his guards “pulsativa”, namely the ones from which you can strike really hard. Hence my choice of the translation “powerful”.</ref></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''We are called stances and guards by name,<br/>And we are each one similar and contrary to another;<br/>And following the way we stand and are positioned,<br/>We will demonstrate how to make one against another.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''The Full Iron Gate, I am low to the ground<br/>So that I always restrain cuts and thrusts.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Here begin the guards of the two handed sword, of which there are twelve. The first is the low<ref>The word is “tutta” Iron Gate. While this is sometimes translated as “Whole Iron Gate”, “Full Iron Gate” or “Complete Iron Gate” (“tutta” also meaning “all”), none of these translations make much sense to me. I note however that in the Morgan manuscript (Morgan 6r-b) Fiore uses “tuta” to refer to the base of the sword (at the crossguard). Thus in that case “Tuta” or “Tutta” carries the meaning of “at the base”, from where I get my translation “Iron Gate at the base”, or simply “low Iron Gate”.</ref> Iron Gate, which is a very strong guard, and a good guard in which to wait for an attack by every kind of hand-held weapon, whatever its length,<ref>Fiore’s words are “longa e curta” (“long and short”). I’ve liberally translated that as “whatever its length.”</ref> as long as you have a good sword that is not too long. And from this guard if you make cover with a passing step you move to the Narrow Game.<ref>“Strette” literally means “narrow”. At times Fiore uses it to refer to swordplay made when the defender covers (crosses swords) in front of the opponent’s blade with the right foot forward instead of the left. Fiore terms this configuration (both parties’ right foot leading at the crossed swords position, with the defender’s sword crossed in front of the attack), the “Narrow Game”, or “Zogho Stretto”. Why this “game” is “narrow” is beyond the scope of these footnotes.</ref> Or you can exchange thrusts, striking home with yours.<ref>Fiore is referring here to the “scambiar de punta” (“Exchange of Thrusts”) of Getty 26v-a.</ref> Or, as you step, you can beat the opponent’s thrust to the ground.<ref>Fiore is referring here to the “rompere de punta” (“Breaking of the Thrust”) of Getty 26v-c.</ref> And this guard can cover attacks from all angles.</p>
 +
| <p><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''Each one <read: us> calls the position by name, and the deceptive guard.<br/>The second is similar to another, and indeed to the counter.<br/>And just as this has been placed, so we understand similar action.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''I am called the Iron Gate, equal to the earth from all;<br/>I always prepare something again, chop and strike with the point.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Here commence the guards of the sword in two hands, and there are 12 guards, and the first is the Full Iron Gate which stands in great strength and is good for awaiting all hand-held weapons, both extended and withdrawn, as long as she has good sword (not one of too much length). She steps with a cover and goes to the narrow, she exchanges thrusts and she delivers her own; she also beats thrusts to the ground and always goes with steps, and against all blows she makes a cover. And whoever joins a brawl with her will make great defense without fatigue.</p>
 +
| <p><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
<p><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
<p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS M.383 12r.jpg|12r-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 23v.jpg|lbl=-|23v-attl}}
 +
 
 +
<p><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
<p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 23v.jpg|23v-a}}
 +
| <p><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 18a.jpg|18a-t|lbl=18a}}
 +
 
 +
<p>{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 18a.jpg|18a-a|p=1}}</p>
 +
| <p><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 12v.jpg|12v-t|lbl=12v}}
 +
 
 +
<p>{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 12v.jpg|12v-a|p=1}}</p>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 23v-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[14] {{red|b=1|The Stance of the Queen on the Right (Powerful)}}</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''I am the Stance of the Queen, noble and proud<br/>For making defense in every manner;<br/>And whoever wants to contend against me<br/>Will want to find a longer sword than mine.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is the Guard of the Lady,<ref>I have deliberately translated this “Guard of the Lady” and not “Lady’s Guard” so as to leave open the possibility of a link between Donna and the Madonna. “Donna” means a “Lady”, with perhaps a reference to “Our Lady”, the Madonna.</ref> from which you can make all seven of the sword’s strikes and cover them too. And from this guard you can break the other guards with the strong blows you can make, and you can also quickly exchange thrusts. Advance your front foot offline, and then pass diagonally with your rear foot. This will take you to a position where your opponent is unprotected, and you will then be able to quickly strike him.<ref>The last two words “per certo” (“for sure”) serve no purpose other than to rhyme with “discoperto”, so I have omitted them.</ref></p>
 +
| <p><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''Brave, elevated, I am the Lady’s Position, high,<br/>And in any quarter by this manner I defend limbs with fury.<br/><br/><br/>''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is the Stance of the Queen,<ref>“Donna” means noble lady or mistress, and is also the name of the chess piece. I use the latter translation because I believe the name is a reference to the versatility of the guard.</ref> which can make all seven blows of the sword and can also cover all blows. She breaks the other guards through the great blows that she makes, and she is always ready for the exchange of thrusts: the foot which is in front advances out of the way and the one behind steps to the side. And her companion is made uncovered, and that one can immediately strike him for certain.</p>
 +
|
 +
<br/>
 +
 
 +
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS M.383 12r.jpg|12r-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 23v.jpg|lbl=-|23v-bttl}}
 +
 
 +
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 23v.jpg|23v-b}}
 +
|
 +
<br/>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 18a.jpg|18a-b}}
 +
|
 +
<br/>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 12v.jpg|12v-b}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 18a-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[15] {{red|b=1|The Stance of the Window (Fluid)}}</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''I am the royal Stance of the True Window<br/>And I am always ready for the whole art.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is the Window Guard who is always quick, skillful<ref>“Di malizie” can mean “malicious” but can also mean “skillful”. I’ve chosen “skillful” as it makes more sense here.</ref> and deceptive. She is a master at covering and striking. She threatens all opposing guards, whether high guards or low guards. She moves quickly from this guard to other guards to confuse her opponent. And she is a very good guard from which to make powerful thrusts, break the opponent’s thrust or exchange points.</p>
 +
| <p><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''I am this the regal Position, certainly, of the True Window,<br/>And fleeting,<ref>I.e. quick.</ref> I always disclose in accordance with my clear art.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is the Stance of the Casement Window on the right, which is always ready with malice and trickery, and she is the Master of covering and of striking and with all the guards she makes her disputes (with the high and with the low). She often goes from one guard to another in order to fool her companion, and she throws great thrusts, and knows how to break and to exchange them—those plays she can make very well.</p>
 +
| <p><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
<p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS M.383 12r.jpg|12r-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 23v.jpg|lbl=-|23v-cttl}}
 +
 
 +
<p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 23v.jpg|23v-c}}
 +
| <p><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 18a.jpg|18a-c}}
 +
| <p><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 12v.jpg|12v-c}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 18a-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[16] {{red|b=1|The Middle Iron Gate (Stable)}}</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''The Middle Iron Gate, I am strongest<br/>For giving death with thrusts and downward blows:<br/>And by extending my sword, I feel that<br/>From the narrow play I always defend myself.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is Half Iron Door, because it stays in the middle and is a strong guard. But, she wants a long sword. She throws strong thrusts and beats with force the swords upwards, and returns with a downward blow for the head or arms, and returns to its guard. But it is called Door, because it is strong and it is a strong guard that badly it can break without danger, and without coming to the close.</p>
 +
| <p><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''I am the strong Iron, and named<ref>This is an additional instance of “dicor,” which on 19v we identified as a pun (also meaning consecrated) when used to describe the True Cross.</ref> Door<ref>Note that this verse says “janua” rather than “porta” in the previous Iron stance; we’ve rendered “porta” as gate and “janua” as door.</ref> in the Middle,<br/>And I give heavy blows, and I seek death with the point.<br/><br/><br/>''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is the Middle Iron Gate because she stands in the middle, and she is a strong guard but she doesn't want her sword extended. She throws strong thrusts and beats swords upward with strength, and returns with a downward blow through the head or through the arms and then simply returns to her guard. But she is well-named "gate" because she is strong; she is a strong guard that cannot be broken easily without danger and coming to the narrow.</p>
 +
|
 +
<br/>
 +
 
 +
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS M.383 12r.jpg|12r-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 24r.jpg|lbl=-|24r-bttl}}
 +
 
 +
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 24r.jpg|24r-b}}
 +
|
 +
<br/>
 +
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 18a.jpg|18a-d}}
 +
|
 +
<br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 12v.jpg|12v-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 18b-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[17] {{red|b=1|The Extended Stance (Fluid)}}</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''I am the Extended Stance with my short sword<br/>And I often strike the throat with cunning.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This guard is the Long Guard, which is full of deception. She is skilled in probing<ref>The word Fiore uses is actually “tastando”—“tasting”. I’ve translated this as “probing”.</ref> the guards to see if she can deceive her opponent. If she needs to strike the opponent with a thrust, she is well-suited to do it. As for the opponent’s blows, she knows how to avoid them and then strike back with blows of her own. This guard employs deception more than any other guard.</p>
 +
| <p><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''I remain the short sword, but, however, in this Position I am called<br/>Long, very often cutting the neck using this clever device.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is the Extended Stance which is full of deceit; she probes the other guards to see if she can deceive a companion. If she can strike with a thrust, she knows how to do it well; she voids the blows and she can wound when she is able. More than any other guard, her tactic is deception.</p>
 +
|
 +
<p><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
<p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS M.383 12v.jpg|12v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 24r.jpg|lbl=-|24r-attl}}
 +
 
 +
<p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 24r.jpg|24r-a}}
 +
| <p><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 18b.jpg|18b-a}}
 +
| <p><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 13r.jpg|13r-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 18b-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[18] {{red|b=1|The Headband Stance called the Crown (Fluid)}}</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''The Headband Stance, I am called the Crown;<br/>I will pardon no one, not from the edge nor from the point.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is the Forehead Guard,<ref>Frontale means “front” or “forehead” (The “frontale” is the name given to the armor a war horse wears around its head, protecting its forehead all the way down its nose). So the guard could translate as simply the Front Guard. I like the name Forehead Guard because Fiore links it to another part of the head when he says it is also named (by others) the Crown Guard.</ref> called by some instructors<ref>“Magistro” can mean “Master”, or simply “Instructor”.</ref> the Crown Guard. She is a very good guard for crossing swords,<