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  | Gian Galeazzo Visconti (?)
 
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  | [[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|MS M.383]] (1400s)
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  | [[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|MS M.383]] (1400s)
  | [[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|MS Ludwig XV 13]] (1400s)
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  | [[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|MS Ludwig ⅩⅤ 13]] (1400s)
 
  | [[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi MS]] (1409)
 
  | [[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi MS]] (1409)
 
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'''Fiore Furlano de’i Liberi de Cividale d’Austria''' (Fiore delli Liberi, Fiore Furlano, Fiore de Cividale d’Austria; fl. 1381 - 1410) was a late [[century::14th century]] knight, diplomat, and [[fencing master]]. He was born in Cividale del Friuli, a town in the Patriarchal State of Aquileia (in the Friuli region of modern-day Italy), the son of Benedetto and scion of a Liberi house of Premariacco.<ref name="de’i Liberi Morgan">[[Fiore de'i Liberi]]. ''Fior di Battaglia'' [manuscript]. [[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|MS M.383]]. New York City: [[Morgan Library & Museum]], ca. 1400. ff 1r-2r.</ref><ref name="de’i Liberi Getty">[[Fiore de'i Liberi]]. ''Fior di Battaglia'' [manuscript]. [[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|MS Ludwig XV 13]] (ACNO 83.MR.183). Los Angeles: [[J. Paul Getty Museum]], ca. 1400. ff 1r-2r.</ref><ref name="de’i Liberi Pisani Dossi">[[Fiore de'i Liberi]]. ''Flos Duellatorum'' [manuscript]. [[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi MS]]. Italy: Private Collection, 1409. f 1rv.</ref> The term ''Liberi'', while potentially merely a surname, more probably indicates that his family had Imperial immediacy (''Reichsunmittelbarkeit''), either as part of the ''nobili liberi'' (''Edelfrei'', "free nobles"), the Germanic unindentured knightly class which formed the lower tier of nobility in the Middle Ages, or possibly of the rising class of Imperial Free Knights.<ref>He is never given such a surname in any contemporary records of his life, and the term only appears when introducing his family in his own treatises.</ref><ref name="Mondschein 11">Mondschein, p 11.</ref><ref>Howe, Russ. “[http://ejmas.com/jwma/articles/2008/jwmaart_howe_0808.htm Fiore dei Liberi: Origins and Motivations]”. [[Journal of Western Martial Art]]. Electronic Journals of Martial Arts and Sciences, 2008. Retrieved 2015-11-23.</ref> It has been suggested by various historians that Fiore and Benedetto were descended from Cristallo dei Liberi of Premariacco, who was granted immediacy in 1110 by Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich V,<ref>Giusto Fontanini. {{Google books|929Oruf2qScC|Della Eloquenza italiana di monsignor Giusto Fontanini|page=274}}, vol. 3 (in Italian). R. Bernabò, 1736. pp 274-276.</ref><ref>Gian Guiseppe Liruti. {{Google books|swCiIpD6UeIC|Notizie delle vite ed opere scritte da' letterati del Friuli|page=27}}, vol. 4 (in Italian). Alvisopoli, 1830. p 27.</ref><ref>Novati, pp 15-16.</ref> but this has yet to be proven.<ref>Malipiero, p 80.</ref>
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'''Fiore Furlano de’i Liberi de Cividale d’Austria''' (Fiore delli Liberi, Fiore Furlano, Fiore de Cividale d’Austria; fl. 1381 - 1409) was a late [[century::14th century]] knight, diplomat, and [[fencing master]]. He was born in Cividale del Friuli, a town in the Patriarchal State of Aquileia (in the Friuli region of modern-day Italy), the son of Benedetto and scion of a Liberi house of Premariacco.<ref name="de’i Liberi Morgan">[[Fiore de'i Liberi]]. ''Fior di Battaglia'' [manuscript]. [[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|MS M.383]]. New York City: [[Morgan Library & Museum]], ca. 1400. ff 1r-2r.</ref><ref name="de’i Liberi Getty">[[Fiore de'i Liberi]]. ''Fior di Battaglia'' [manuscript]. [[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|MS Ludwig ⅩⅤ 13]] (ACNO 83.MR.183). Los Angeles: [[J. Paul Getty Museum]], ca. 1400. ff 1r-2r.</ref><ref name="de’i Liberi Pisani Dossi">[[Fiore de'i Liberi]]. ''Flos Duellatorum'' [manuscript]. [[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi MS]]. Italy: Private Collection, 1409. f 1rv.</ref> The term ''Liberi'', while potentially merely a surname, more probably indicates that his family had Imperial immediacy (''Reichsunmittelbarkeit''), either as part of the ''nobili liberi'' (''Edelfrei'', "free nobles"), the Germanic unindentured knightly class which formed the lower tier of nobility in the Middle Ages, or possibly of the rising class of Imperial Free Knights.<ref>He is never given such a surname in any contemporary records of his life, and the term only appears when introducing his family in his own treatises.</ref><ref name="Mondschein 11">Mondschein, p 11.</ref><ref>Howe, Russ. “[http://ejmas.com/jwma/articles/2008/jwmaart_howe_0808.htm Fiore dei Liberi: Origins and Motivations]”. [[Journal of Western Martial Art]]. Electronic Journals of Martial Arts and Sciences, 2008. Retrieved 2015-11-23.</ref> It has been suggested by various historians that Fiore and Benedetto were descended from Cristallo dei Liberi of Premariacco, who was granted immediacy in 1110 by Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich V,<ref>Giusto Fontanini. {{Google books|929Oruf2qScC|Della Eloquenza italiana di monsignor Giusto Fontanini|page=274}}, vol. 3 (in Italian). R. Bernabò, 1736. pp 274-276.</ref><ref>Gian Guiseppe Liruti. {{Google books|swCiIpD6UeIC|Notizie delle vite ed opere scritte da' letterati del Friuli|page=27}}, vol. 4 (in Italian). Alvisopoli, 1830. p 27.</ref><ref>Novati, pp 15-16.</ref> but this has yet to be proven.<ref>Malipiero, p 80.</ref>
  
Fiore wrote that he had a natural inclination to the martial arts and began training at a young age, ultimately studying with “countless” masters from both Italic and Germanic lands.<ref name="de’i Liberi Morgan"/><ref name="de’i Liberi Getty"/><ref name="de’i Liberi Pisani Dossi"/> He had ample opportunity to interact with both, being born in the Holy Roman Empire and later traveling widely in the northern Italian states. Unfortunately, not all of these encounters were friendly: Fiore wrote of meeting many “false” or unworthy masters in his travels, most of whom lacked even the limited skill he'd expect in a good student.<ref name="de’i Liberi Pisani Dossi"/> He further mentions that on five separate occasions he was forced to fight [[duel]]s for his honor against certain of these masters who he described as envious because he refused to teach them his art; the duels were all fought with sharp swords, unarmored except for gambesons and chamois gloves, and he won each without injury.<ref name="de’i Liberi Morgan"/><ref name="de’i Liberi Getty"/><ref>15th century jurist [[Paride del Pozzo]], in discussing Italian dueling customs, dismisses unarmored duels as the ignoble domain of the rash and the hot-headed, contrasted with honorable dueling done in armor with the full range of military weapons. This might provide insight into Fiore's disposition as a young man. See Leoni 2012, pp xxiv-xxv.</ref>
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Fiore wrote that he had a natural inclination to the martial arts and began training at a young age, ultimately studying with “countless” masters from both Italic and Germanic lands.<ref name="de’i Liberi Morgan"/><ref name="de’i Liberi Getty"/><ref name="de’i Liberi Pisani Dossi"/> He had ample opportunity to interact with both, being born in the Holy Roman Empire and later traveling widely in the northern Italian states. Unfortunately, not all of these encounters were friendly: Fiore wrote of meeting many “false” or unworthy masters in his travels, most of whom lacked even the limited skill he'd expect in a good student.<ref name="de’i Liberi Pisani Dossi"/> He further mentions that on five separate occasions he was forced to fight [[duel]]s for his honor against certain of these masters who he described as envious because he refused to teach them his art; the duels were all fought with sharp swords, unarmored except for gambesons and chamois gloves, and he won each without injury.<ref name="de’i Liberi Morgan"/><ref name="de’i Liberi Getty"/><ref>15th century jurist [[Paride del Pozzo]], in discussing Italian dueling customs, dismisses unarmored duels as the ignoble domain of the rash and the hot-headed, contrasted with honorable dueling done in armor with the full range of military weapons. This might provide insight into Fiore's disposition as a young man. See Leoni 2012, pp ⅹⅹⅳ-ⅹⅹⅴ.</ref>
  
 
Writing very little on his own career as a commander and master at arms, Fiore laid out his credentials for his readers in other ways. He stated that foremost among the masters who trained him was one [[Johannes Suvenus|Johane dicto Suueno]], who he notes was a disciple of [[Nicholai de Toblem]];<ref name="de’i Liberi Pisani Dossi"/> unfortunately, both names are given in Latin so there is little we can conclude about them other than that they were probably among the Italians and Germans he alludes to, and that one or both were well known in Fiore's time. He further offered an extensive list of the famous ''condottieri'' that he trained, including Piero Paolo del Verde (Peter von Grünen),<ref>[http://www.condottieridiventura.it/index.php/lettera-v/2660-piero-del-verde “PIERO DEL VERDE (Paolo del Verde) Tedesco. Signore di Colle di Val d’Elsa.”]. ''Note biografiche di Capitani di Guerra e di Condottieri di Ventura operanti in Italia nel 1330 - 1550''. Retrieved 2015-11-23.</ref> Niccolo Unricilino (Nikolo von Urslingen),<ref>Leoni, p 7.</ref> Galeazzo Cattaneo dei Grumelli (Galeazzo Gonzaga da Mantova),<ref name="Galeazzo">[http://www.condottieridiventura.it/index.php/lettera-m/1450-galeazzo-da-mantova “GALEAZZO DA MANTOVA (Galeazzo Cattaneo dei Grumelli, Galeazzo Gonzaga) Di Mantova. Secondo alcune fonti, di Grumello nel pavese.”]. ''Note biografiche di Capitani di Guerra e di Condottieri di Ventura operanti in Italia nel 1330 - 1550''. Retrieved 2015-11-23.</ref> Lancillotto Beccaria di Pavia,<ref>[http://www.condottieridiventura.it/index.php/lettera-b/630-lancillotto-beccaria “LANCILLOTTO BECCARIA  (Lanciarotto Beccaria) Di Pavia. Ghibellino. Signore di Serravalle Scrivia, Casei Gerola, Bassignana, Novi Ligure, Voghera, Broni.”]. ''Note biografiche di Capitani di Guerra e di Condottieri di Ventura operanti in Italia nel 1330 - 1550''. Retrieved 2015-11-23.</ref> Giovannino da Baggio di Milano,<ref name="Malipiero 9496">Malipiero, pp 94-96.</ref> and Azzone di Castelbarco,<ref name="Jens">[https://talhoffer.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/fiore-his-master-and-his-students/ Fiore his masters and his students]. ''Hans Talhoffer ~ as seen by Jens P. Kleinau.'' Retrieved 2015-11-23.</ref> and also highlights some of their martial exploits.<ref name="de’i Liberi Morgan"/><ref name="de’i Liberi Getty"/>
 
Writing very little on his own career as a commander and master at arms, Fiore laid out his credentials for his readers in other ways. He stated that foremost among the masters who trained him was one [[Johannes Suvenus|Johane dicto Suueno]], who he notes was a disciple of [[Nicholai de Toblem]];<ref name="de’i Liberi Pisani Dossi"/> unfortunately, both names are given in Latin so there is little we can conclude about them other than that they were probably among the Italians and Germans he alludes to, and that one or both were well known in Fiore's time. He further offered an extensive list of the famous ''condottieri'' that he trained, including Piero Paolo del Verde (Peter von Grünen),<ref>[http://www.condottieridiventura.it/index.php/lettera-v/2660-piero-del-verde “PIERO DEL VERDE (Paolo del Verde) Tedesco. Signore di Colle di Val d’Elsa.”]. ''Note biografiche di Capitani di Guerra e di Condottieri di Ventura operanti in Italia nel 1330 - 1550''. Retrieved 2015-11-23.</ref> Niccolo Unricilino (Nikolo von Urslingen),<ref>Leoni, p 7.</ref> Galeazzo Cattaneo dei Grumelli (Galeazzo Gonzaga da Mantova),<ref name="Galeazzo">[http://www.condottieridiventura.it/index.php/lettera-m/1450-galeazzo-da-mantova “GALEAZZO DA MANTOVA (Galeazzo Cattaneo dei Grumelli, Galeazzo Gonzaga) Di Mantova. Secondo alcune fonti, di Grumello nel pavese.”]. ''Note biografiche di Capitani di Guerra e di Condottieri di Ventura operanti in Italia nel 1330 - 1550''. Retrieved 2015-11-23.</ref> Lancillotto Beccaria di Pavia,<ref>[http://www.condottieridiventura.it/index.php/lettera-b/630-lancillotto-beccaria “LANCILLOTTO BECCARIA  (Lanciarotto Beccaria) Di Pavia. Ghibellino. Signore di Serravalle Scrivia, Casei Gerola, Bassignana, Novi Ligure, Voghera, Broni.”]. ''Note biografiche di Capitani di Guerra e di Condottieri di Ventura operanti in Italia nel 1330 - 1550''. Retrieved 2015-11-23.</ref> Giovannino da Baggio di Milano,<ref name="Malipiero 9496">Malipiero, pp 94-96.</ref> and Azzone di Castelbarco,<ref name="Jens">[https://talhoffer.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/fiore-his-master-and-his-students/ Fiore his masters and his students]. ''Hans Talhoffer ~ as seen by Jens P. Kleinau.'' Retrieved 2015-11-23.</ref> and also highlights some of their martial exploits.<ref name="de’i Liberi Morgan"/><ref name="de’i Liberi Getty"/>
  
The only known historical mentions of Fiore appear in connection with the Aquileian War of Succession, which erupted in 1381 as a coalition of secular nobles from Udine and surrounding cities sought to remove the newly appointed Patriarch (prince-bishop of Aquileia), Philippe II d'Alençon. Fiore seems to have supported the secular nobility against the Cardinal; he traveled to Udine in 1383 and was granted residency in the city on 3 August.<ref>Malipiero, p 84.</ref> On 30 September, the high council tasked him with inspection and maintenance of city's weapons, including the [[artillery]] pieces defending Udine (large crossbows and catapults).<ref name="Mondschein 11"/><ref>Malipiero, p 85.</ref><ref name="Easton">[[Matt Easton|Easton, Matt]]. “[http://www.fioredeiliberi.org/fiore/ Fiore dei Liberi - Fiore di Battaglia - Flos Duellatorum]”. London: Schola Gladiatoria, 2009. Retrieved 2015-11-23.</ref> In February of 1384, he was assigned the task of recruiting a mercenary company to augment Udine's forces and leading them back to the city.<ref>Malipiero, p 86.</ref> This task seems to have been accomplished in three months or less, as on 23 May he appeared before the high council again and was sworn in as a sort of magistrate charged with keeping the peace in one of the city's districts. After May 1384, the historical record is silent on Fiore's activities; the war continued until a new Patriarch was appointed in 1389 and a peace settlement was reached, but it's unclear if Fiore remained involved for the duration. Given that he appears in council records four times in 1383-4, it would be quite odd for him to be completely unmentioned over the subsequent five years if he remained,<ref name="Mondschein 11"/><ref>Malipiero, pp 85-88.</ref> and since his absence from records coincides with a proclamation in July of that year demanding that Udine cease hostilities or face harsh repercussions, it seems more likely that he moved on.
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The only known historical mentions of Fiore appear in connection with the Aquileian War of Succession, which erupted in 1381 as a coalition of secular nobles from Udine and surrounding cities sought to remove the newly appointed Patriarch (prince-bishop of Aquileia), Philippe d'Alençon. Fiore seems to have supported the secular nobility against the Cardinal; he traveled to Udine in 1383 and was granted residency in the city on 3 August.<ref>Malipiero, p 84.</ref> On 30 September, the high council tasked him with inspection and maintenance of city's weapons, including the [[artillery]] pieces defending Udine (large crossbows and catapults).<ref name="Mondschein 11"/><ref>Malipiero, p 85.</ref><ref name="Easton">[[Matt Easton|Easton, Matt]]. “[http://www.fioredeiliberi.org/fiore/ Fiore dei Liberi - Fiore di Battaglia - Flos Duellatorum]”. London: Schola Gladiatoria, 2009. Retrieved 2015-11-23.</ref> In February of 1384, he was assigned the task of recruiting a mercenary company to augment Udine's forces and leading them back to the city.<ref>Malipiero, p 86.</ref> This task seems to have been accomplished in three months or less, as on 23 May he appeared before the high council again and was sworn in as a sort of magistrate charged with keeping the peace in one of the city's districts. After May 1384, the historical record is silent on Fiore's activities; the war continued until a new Patriarch was appointed in 1389 and a peace settlement was reached, but it's unclear if Fiore remained involved for the duration. Given that he appears in council records four times in 1383-4, it would be quite odd for him to be completely unmentioned over the subsequent five years if he remained,<ref name="Mondschein 11"/><ref>Malipiero, pp 85-88.</ref> and since his absence from records coincides with a proclamation in July of that year demanding that Udine cease hostilities or face harsh repercussions, it seems more likely that he moved on.
  
Based on his autobiographical account, Fiore traveled a good deal in northern Italy, teaching fencing and training men for duels. He seems to have been in Perugia in 1381 in this capacity, when his student Peter von Grünen likely fought a duel with Peter Kornwald.<ref>This is the only point when both men are known to have been in Perugia at the same time; Verde died soon after this in 1385. See [https://talhoffer.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/fiore-his-master-and-his-students/ Fiore his masters and his students], ''Hans Talhoffer ~ as seen by Jens P. Kleinau'', in English and [http://www.condottieridiventura.it/index.php/lettera-v/2660-piero-del-verde “PIERO DEL VERDE (Paolo del Verde) Tedesco. Signore di Colle di Val d’Elsa.”] and [http://www.condottieridiventura.it/index.php/lettera-c/971-pietro-della-corona “PIETRO DELLA CORONA (Pietro Cornuald) Tedesco. Signore di Angri.”], ''Note biografiche di Capitani di Guerra e di Condottieri di Ventura operanti in Italia nel 1330 - 1550'', in Italian. Retrieved 2015-11-23.</ref> In 1395, he can be placed in Padua training the mercenary captain Galeazzo Gonzaga of Mantua for a duel with the French marshal Jean II le Maingre (who went by the war name “Boucicaut”). Galeazzo made the challenge when Boucicaut called into question the valor of Italians at the royal court of France, and the duel was ultimately set for Padua on 15 August. Both Francesco Novello da Carrara, Lord of Padua, and Francesco Gonzaga, Lord of Mantua, were in attendance. The duel was to begin with [[spear]]s on [[:category:Mounted Fencing|horseback]], but Boucicaut became impatient and dismounted, attacking Galeazzo before he could mount his own horse. Galeazzo landed a solid blow on the Frenchman’s helmet, but was subsequently disarmed. At this point, Boucicaut called for his poleaxe but the lords intervened to end the duel.<ref>Malipiero, pp 55-58.</ref><ref name="Easton"/><ref name="Galeazzo"/>
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Based on his autobiographical account, Fiore traveled a good deal in northern Italy, teaching fencing and training men for duels. He seems to have been in Perugia in 1381 in this capacity, when his student Peter von Grünen likely fought a duel with Peter Kornwald.<ref>This is the only point when both men are known to have been in Perugia at the same time; Verde died soon after this in 1385. See [https://talhoffer.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/fiore-his-master-and-his-students/ Fiore his masters and his students], ''Hans Talhoffer ~ as seen by Jens P. Kleinau'', in English and [http://www.condottieridiventura.it/index.php/lettera-v/2660-piero-del-verde “PIERO DEL VERDE (Paolo del Verde) Tedesco. Signore di Colle di Val d’Elsa.”] and [http://www.condottieridiventura.it/index.php/lettera-c/971-pietro-della-corona “PIETRO DELLA CORONA (Pietro Cornuald) Tedesco. Signore di Angri.”], ''Note biografiche di Capitani di Guerra e di Condottieri di Ventura operanti in Italia nel 1330 - 1550'', in Italian. Retrieved 2015-11-23.</ref> In 1395, he can be placed in Padua training the mercenary captain Galeazzo Gonzaga of Mantua for a duel with the French marshal Jean le Maingre (who went by the war name “Boucicaut”). Galeazzo made the challenge when Boucicaut called into question the valor of Italians at the royal court of France, and the duel was ultimately set for Padua on 15 August. Both Francesco Novello da Carrara, Lord of Padua, and Francesco Gonzaga, Lord of Mantua, were in attendance. The duel was to begin with [[spear]]s on [[:category:Mounted Fencing|horseback]], but Boucicaut became impatient and dismounted, attacking Galeazzo before he could mount his own horse. Galeazzo landed a solid blow on the Frenchman’s helmet, but was subsequently disarmed. At this point, Boucicaut called for his poleaxe but the lords intervened to end the duel.<ref>Malipiero, pp 55-58.</ref><ref name="Easton"/><ref name="Galeazzo"/>
  
 
Fiore surfaces again in Pavia in 1399, this time training Giovannino da Baggio for a duel with a German squire named Sirano. It was fought on 24 June and attended by Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan, as well as the Duchess and other nobles. The duel was to consist of three bouts of mounted lance followed by three bouts each of dismounted [[poleaxe]], [[estoc]], and [[dagger]]. They ultimately rode two additional passes and on the fifth, Baggio impaled Sirano’s horse through the chest, slaying the horse but losing his lance in the process. They fought the other nine bouts as scheduled, and due to the strength of their armor (and the fact that all of the weapons were blunted), both combatants reportedly emerged from these exchanges unharmed.<ref name="Malipiero 9496"/><ref name="Mondschein 12">Mondschein, p 12.</ref>
 
Fiore surfaces again in Pavia in 1399, this time training Giovannino da Baggio for a duel with a German squire named Sirano. It was fought on 24 June and attended by Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan, as well as the Duchess and other nobles. The duel was to consist of three bouts of mounted lance followed by three bouts each of dismounted [[poleaxe]], [[estoc]], and [[dagger]]. They ultimately rode two additional passes and on the fifth, Baggio impaled Sirano’s horse through the chest, slaying the horse but losing his lance in the process. They fought the other nine bouts as scheduled, and due to the strength of their armor (and the fact that all of the weapons were blunted), both combatants reportedly emerged from these exchanges unharmed.<ref name="Malipiero 9496"/><ref name="Mondschein 12">Mondschein, p 12.</ref>
  
Fiore was likely involved in at least one other duel that year, that of his final student Azzone di Castelbarco and Giovanni degli Ordelaffi, as the latter is known to have died in 1399.<ref>Malipiero, p 97.</ref> After Castelbarco’s duel, Fiore’s activities are unclear. Based on the allegiances of the nobles that he trained in the 1390s, he seems to have been associated with the ducal court of Milan in the latter part of his career.<ref name="Easton"/> Some time in the first years of the 1400s, Fiore composed a fencing treatise in Italian and Latin called "The Flower of Battle" (rendered variously as ''Fior di Battaglia'', ''Florius de Arte Luctandi'', and ''Flos Duellatorum''). The briefest version of the text is dated to 1409 and indicates that it was a labor of six months and great personal effort;<ref name="de’i Liberi Pisani Dossi"/> as evidence suggests that at least two longer versions were composed some time before this,<ref>Fiore states in the preface to the [[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi MS]] that he had studied combat for fifty years, whereas the comparable statement in the [[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|MS M.383]] and [[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|MS Ludwig.XV.13]] mention the slightly shorter "forty years and more".</ref> we may assume that he devoted a considerable amount of time to writing during this decade.
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Fiore was likely involved in at least one other duel that year, that of his final student Azzone di Castelbarco and Giovanni degli Ordelaffi, as the latter is known to have died in 1399.<ref>Malipiero, p 97.</ref> After Castelbarco’s duel, Fiore’s activities are unclear. Based on the allegiances of the nobles that he trained in the 1390s, he seems to have been associated with the ducal court of Milan in the latter part of his career.<ref name="Easton"/> Some time in the first years of the 1400s, Fiore composed a fencing treatise in Italian and Latin called "The Flower of Battle" (rendered variously as ''Fior di Battaglia'', ''Florius de Arte Luctandi'', and ''Flos Duellatorum''). The briefest version of the text is dated to 1409 and indicates that it was a labor of six months and great personal effort;<ref name="de’i Liberi Pisani Dossi"/> as evidence suggests that at least two longer versions were composed some time before this,<ref>Fiore states in the preface to the [[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi MS]] that he had studied combat for fifty years, whereas the comparable statement in the [[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|MS M.383]] and [[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|MS Ludwig ⅩⅤ 13]] mention the slightly shorter "forty years and more".</ref> we may assume that he devoted a considerable amount of time to writing during this decade.
  
Beyond this, nothing certain is known of Fiore's activities in the 15th century. [[Francesco Novati]] and [[D. Luigi Zanutto]] both assume that some time before 1409 he accepted an appointment as court fencing master to Niccolò III d’Este, Marquis of Ferrara, Modena, and Parma; presumably he would have made this change when Milan fell into disarray in 1402, though Zanutto went so far as to speculate that he trained Niccolò for his 1399 passage at arms.<ref>Zanutto, pp 211-212.</ref> However, while the records of the d’Este library indicate the presence of two versions of "the Flower of Battle", it seems more likely that the manuscripts were written as a diplomatic gift to Ferrara from Milan when they made peace in 1404.<ref name="Mondschein 12"/><ref name="Easton"/> C. A. Blengini di Torricella stated that late in life he made his way to Paris, France, where he could be placed teaching fencing in 1418 and creating a copy of a [[fencing manual]] located there in 1420. Though he attributes these facts to Novati, no publication verifying them has yet been located and this anecdote may be entirely spurious.<ref>In 1907, fencing master C. A. Blengini di Torricella mentioned that “In 1904, a historical work by [[Francesco Novati]], Director of the Academy in Milano and Gaffuri, Director of the graphical institute in Bergamo was published… These two prominent scholars uncovered documents, found in different archives, …''Rules for Fencing'' were printed by Fiore dei Liberi in 1420… And how could then dei Liberi have taught fencing lessons in Paris in 1418?” (translated from Norwegian by [[Roger Norling]]). See Blengini, di Torricella C. A. ''Haandbog i Fægtning med Floret, Kaarde, Sabel, Forsvar med Sabel mod Bajonet og Sabelhugning tilhest: Med forklarende Tegninger og en Oversigt over Fægtekunstens Historie og Udvikling.'' 1907. p 28.{{full}}</ref>
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Beyond this, nothing certain is known of Fiore's activities in the 15th century. [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Luigi Zanutto]] both assume that some time before 1409 he accepted an appointment as court fencing master to Niccolò d’Este, Marquis of Ferrara, Modena, and Parma; presumably he would have made this change when Milan fell into disarray in 1402, though Zanutto went so far as to speculate that he trained Niccolò for his 1399 passage at arms.<ref>Zanutto, pp 211-212.</ref> However, while the records of the d’Este library indicate the presence of two versions of "the Flower of Battle", it seems more likely that the manuscripts were written as a diplomatic gift to Ferrara from Milan when they made peace in 1404.<ref name="Mondschein 12"/><ref name="Easton"/> C. A. Blengini di Torricella stated that late in life he made his way to Paris, France, where he could be placed teaching fencing in 1418 and creating a copy of a [[fencing manual]] located there in 1420. Though he attributes these facts to Novati, no publication verifying them has yet been located and this anecdote may be entirely spurious.<ref>In 1907, fencing master C. A. Blengini di Torricella mentioned that “In 1904, a historical work by [[Francesco Novati]], Director of the Academy in Milano and Gaffuri, Director of the graphical institute in Bergamo was published… These two prominent scholars uncovered documents, found in different archives, …''Rules for Fencing'' were printed by Fiore dei Liberi in 1420… And how could then dei Liberi have taught fencing lessons in Paris in 1418?” (translated from Norwegian by [[Roger Norling]]). See Blengini, di Torricella C. A. ''Haandbog i Fægtning med Floret, Kaarde, Sabel, Forsvar med Sabel mod Bajonet og Sabelhugning tilhest: Med forklarende Tegninger og en Oversigt over Fægtekunstens Historie og Udvikling.'' 1907. p 28.{{full}}</ref>
  
 
The time and place of Fiore's death remain unknown.
 
The time and place of Fiore's death remain unknown.
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== Treatise ==
 
== Treatise ==
  
The d'Este family owned three manuscripts by Fiore during the 15th century,<ref>There are two records in the [https://archive.org/details/giornalestoricod14toriuoft/page/18/mode/2up 1436 catalog] and two records in the [https://books.google.com/books?id=yz5FAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA219 1467 catalog], but only one of the manuscript descriptions is similar between the catalogs. The 1436 catalog lists one unbound Latin manuscript and one Italian manuscript in red leather; the 1467 catalog lists two Latin manuscripts, one of which was only 15 unbound folia (probably the same as the one from 1436) and one of which was 58 folia bound in white leather. From this, we might speculate that the Getty manuscript was present in 1436, the Paris manuscript in 1467, and the third (very short) manuscript is currently unknown to us. If there were an error in the 1467 catalog, then the unknown manuscript could be the Pisani Dossi, which currently consists of 35 unbound folia.</ref> and a total of four copies survive to the present. Of these, the [[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|MS Ludwig XV 13]] (Getty) and the [[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi MS]] (Novati) are both dedicated to Niccolò III d'Este and state that they were written at his request and according to his design. The [[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|MS M.383]] (Morgan), on the other hand, lacks a dedication and claims to have been laid out according to his own intelligence, while the [[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|MS Latin 11269]] (Paris) lost any dedication it might have had along with its prologue. Each of the extant copies of the ''Flower of Battle'' follows a different order, though each of these pairs contains strong similarities to each other in order of presentation.  
+
The d'Este family owned at least three manuscripts by Fiore during the 15th century,<ref>There are two records in the [https://archive.org/details/giornalestoricod14toriuoft/page/18/mode/2up 1436 catalog] and two records in the [https://books.google.com/books?id=yz5FAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA219 1467 catalog], but only one of the manuscript descriptions is similar between the catalogs. The 1436 catalog lists one unbound Latin manuscript and one Italian manuscript in red leather; the 1467 catalog lists two Latin manuscripts, one of which was only 15 unbound folia (probably the same as the one from 1436) and one of which was 58 folia bound in white leather. From this, we might speculate that the Getty manuscript was present in 1436, the Paris manuscript in 1467, and the third (very short) manuscript is currently unknown to us. If there were an error in the 1467 catalog, then the unknown manuscript could be the Pisani Dossi, which currently consists of 35 unbound folia.</ref> and a total of four copies survive to the present. Of these, the [[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|MS Ludwig ⅩⅤ 13]] (Getty) and the [[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi MS]] (Novati) are both dedicated to Niccolò d'Este and state that they were written at his request and according to his design. The [[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|MS M.383]] (Morgan), on the other hand, lacks a dedication and claims to have been laid out according to his own intelligence, while the [[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|MS Latin 11269]] (Paris) lost any dedication it might have had along with its prologue. Each of the extant copies of the ''Flower of Battle'' follows a different order, though each of these pairs contains strong similarities to each other in order of presentation.  
  
In addition, Philippo di Vadi's manuscript from the 1480s, whose second half is essentially a redaction of the ''Flower of Battle'', provides a valuable fifth point of reference when considering Fiore's teachings. (These is also a 17th century copy of the Getty's preface, transcribed by Apostolo Zeno, but it contributes little to our understanding of the text.)
+
In addition, Philippo di Vadi's manuscript from the 1480s, whose second half is essentially a redaction of the ''Flower of Battle'', provides a valuable fifth point of reference when considering Fiore's teachings. (These is also a 17th century copy of the Morgan's preface, transcribed by Apostolo Zeno, but it contributes little to our understanding of the text.)
  
 
The major sections of the work include: ''abrazare'' or [[grappling]]; ''[[dagger|daga]]'', including both unarmed defenses against the dagger and plays of dagger against dagger; ''spada a un mano'', the use of the [[longsword|sword]] in one hand (also called "the sword without the buckler"); ''spada a dui mani'', the use of the sword in two hands; ''spada en arme'', the use of the sword in [[armor]] (primarily techniques from the [[halfsword|shortened sword]]); ''azza'', plays of the [[poleaxe]] in armor; ''lancia'', [[spear]] and staff plays; and mounted combat (including the spear, the sword, and mounted grappling). Brief bridging sections serve to connect each of these, covering such topics as ''bastoncello'', or plays of a [[club (weapon)|small stick or baton]] against unarmed and dagger-wielding opponents; plays of sword vs. dagger; plays of staff and dagger and of two clubs and a dagger; and the use of the [[spear|chiavarina]] against a man on horseback.
 
The major sections of the work include: ''abrazare'' or [[grappling]]; ''[[dagger|daga]]'', including both unarmed defenses against the dagger and plays of dagger against dagger; ''spada a un mano'', the use of the [[longsword|sword]] in one hand (also called "the sword without the buckler"); ''spada a dui mani'', the use of the sword in two hands; ''spada en arme'', the use of the sword in [[armor]] (primarily techniques from the [[halfsword|shortened sword]]); ''azza'', plays of the [[poleaxe]] in armor; ''lancia'', [[spear]] and staff plays; and mounted combat (including the spear, the sword, and mounted grappling). Brief bridging sections serve to connect each of these, covering such topics as ''bastoncello'', or plays of a [[club (weapon)|small stick or baton]] against unarmed and dagger-wielding opponents; plays of sword vs. dagger; plays of staff and dagger and of two clubs and a dagger; and the use of the [[spear|chiavarina]] against a man on horseback.
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The format of instruction is largely consistent across all copies of the treatise. Each section begins with a group of Masters (or Teachers), figures in golden crowns who each demonstrate a particular guard for use with their weapon. These are followed by a master called ''Remedio'' ("Remedy") who demonstrates a defensive technique against some basic attack (usually how to use one of the listed guards to defend), and then by his various Scholars (or Students), figures wearing golden garters on their legs who demonstrate iterations and variations of this remedy. After the scholars there is typically a master called ''Contrario'' ("Counter" or "Contrary"), wearing both crown and garter, who demonstrates how to counter the master's remedy (and those of his scholars), who is likewise sometimes followed by his own scholars in garters. In rare cases, a fourth type of master appears called ''Contra-Contrario'' ("Counter-counter"), who likewise wears the crown and garter and demonstrates how to defeat the master's counter. Some sections feature multiple master remedies or master counters, while some have only one. While the crowns and garters are used across all extant versions of the treatise, the specific implementation of the system varies; all versions include at least a few apparently errors in assignation of crowns and garters, and there are many cases in which an illustration in one manuscript will only feature a scholar's garter where the corresponding illustration in another also includes a master's crown (depending on the instance, this may either be intentional or merely an error in the art). Alone of the four versions, the Morgan seeks to further expand the system by coloring the metallic portions of the master or scholar's weapon silver, while that of the player is left uncolored; this is also imperfectly-executed, but seems to have been intended as a visual indicator of which weapon belongs to which figure.
 
The format of instruction is largely consistent across all copies of the treatise. Each section begins with a group of Masters (or Teachers), figures in golden crowns who each demonstrate a particular guard for use with their weapon. These are followed by a master called ''Remedio'' ("Remedy") who demonstrates a defensive technique against some basic attack (usually how to use one of the listed guards to defend), and then by his various Scholars (or Students), figures wearing golden garters on their legs who demonstrate iterations and variations of this remedy. After the scholars there is typically a master called ''Contrario'' ("Counter" or "Contrary"), wearing both crown and garter, who demonstrates how to counter the master's remedy (and those of his scholars), who is likewise sometimes followed by his own scholars in garters. In rare cases, a fourth type of master appears called ''Contra-Contrario'' ("Counter-counter"), who likewise wears the crown and garter and demonstrates how to defeat the master's counter. Some sections feature multiple master remedies or master counters, while some have only one. While the crowns and garters are used across all extant versions of the treatise, the specific implementation of the system varies; all versions include at least a few apparently errors in assignation of crowns and garters, and there are many cases in which an illustration in one manuscript will only feature a scholar's garter where the corresponding illustration in another also includes a master's crown (depending on the instance, this may either be intentional or merely an error in the art). Alone of the four versions, the Morgan seeks to further expand the system by coloring the metallic portions of the master or scholar's weapon silver, while that of the player is left uncolored; this is also imperfectly-executed, but seems to have been intended as a visual indicator of which weapon belongs to which figure.
  
The concordance below includes Zeno's transcription of the Getty preface for reference, and then drops the (thereafter empty) column in favor of a second illustration column for the main body of the treatise. Generally only the right-side column will contain illustrations—the left-side column will only contain additional content when when the text describes an illustration that spans the width of the page in the manuscripts, or when there are significant discrepancies between the available illustrations (in such cases, they sometimes display two stages of the same technique and will be placed in "chronological" order if possible). The illustrations from the Getty, Morgan, and Paris are taken from high-resolution scans supplied by those institutions, whereas the illustrations of the Pisani Dossi are taken from Novati's 1902 facsimile (scanned by Wiktenauer). There are likewise two translation columns, with the the two manuscripts dedicated to Niccolò on the left and the two undedicated manuscripts on the right; in both columns, the short text of the PD and Paris will come first, followed by the longer paragraphs of the Getty and Morgan.
+
The concordance below includes Zeno's transcription of the Morgan preface for reference, and then drops the (thereafter empty) column in favor of a second illustration column for the main body of the treatise. (The Zeno transcript is in the first transcription column even though it's the youngest source so that the others can remain in the same position throughout.) Generally only the right-side column will contain illustrations—the left-side column will only contain additional content when when the text describes an illustration that spans the width of the page in the manuscripts, or when there are significant discrepancies between the available illustrations (in such cases, they sometimes display two stages of the same technique and will be placed in "chronological" order if possible). The illustrations from the Getty, Morgan, and Paris are taken from high-resolution scans supplied by those institutions, whereas the illustrations of the Pisani Dossi are taken from Novati's 1902 facsimile (scanned by Wiktenauer). There are likewise two translation columns, with the the two manuscripts dedicated to Niccolò on the left and the two undedicated manuscripts on the right; in both columns, the short text of the PD and Paris will come first, followed by the longer paragraphs of the Getty and Morgan.
  
 
{{master begin
 
{{master begin
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! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Getty)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Getty)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Morgan)}}<br/>by [[translator::Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Morgan)}}<br/>by [[translator::Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS XXIV)|San Daniele del Friuli Transcription]] (1699){{edit index| Fior di Battaglia (MS XXIV)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS XXIV)|San Daniele del Friuli Transcription]] (1699)<br/>by [[D. Luigi Zanutto]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
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<p>As a young man I<ref>I have translated the entire Prologue into the first person “I”, rather than use the third person “Fiore”, so as to make it more friendly and direct to read.</ref> desired to learn armed fighting,<ref>“Armiçare” or “Armizare” means the art of armed fighting or fighting with weapons. Fiore refers to his martial art as both “L’Arte d’Armizare” (Art of Armed Combat) and “La Scientia d’Armizare” (Science of Armed Combat). However, you should note that the words ''Arte'' and ''Scientia'' do not necessarily have their modern meanings. ''Arte'' may mean simply “skill” and the word “''Scientia''” may mean simply “knowledge”. Thus “the skill and knowledge of armed fighting”.</ref> including the art of fighting in the lists<ref>Fiore is comparing the two kinds of fighting: sport/tournament (“combatter a sbarra”—“in the lists”) and mortal combat (“combatter adoltrança”—“to the death”). To fight “in the lists” was not however without serious risks of injury and/or death. Medieval knights took these tournaments very seriously as matters of honor, and renown was won and lost in such events. Fiore also appears to include duels of honor in his term “in sbara”. The fights he describes below include duels of honor.</ref> with spear, poleaxe, sword, dagger and unarmed grappling, on foot and on horseback, armored and unarmored.</p>
 
<p>As a young man I<ref>I have translated the entire Prologue into the first person “I”, rather than use the third person “Fiore”, so as to make it more friendly and direct to read.</ref> desired to learn armed fighting,<ref>“Armiçare” or “Armizare” means the art of armed fighting or fighting with weapons. Fiore refers to his martial art as both “L’Arte d’Armizare” (Art of Armed Combat) and “La Scientia d’Armizare” (Science of Armed Combat). However, you should note that the words ''Arte'' and ''Scientia'' do not necessarily have their modern meanings. ''Arte'' may mean simply “skill” and the word “''Scientia''” may mean simply “knowledge”. Thus “the skill and knowledge of armed fighting”.</ref> including the art of fighting in the lists<ref>Fiore is comparing the two kinds of fighting: sport/tournament (“combatter a sbarra”—“in the lists”) and mortal combat (“combatter adoltrança”—“to the death”). To fight “in the lists” was not however without serious risks of injury and/or death. Medieval knights took these tournaments very seriously as matters of honor, and renown was won and lost in such events. Fiore also appears to include duels of honor in his term “in sbara”. The fights he describes below include duels of honor.</ref> with spear, poleaxe, sword, dagger and unarmed grappling, on foot and on horseback, armored and unarmored.</p>
 
| <p>Fiore Friulano de Cividale d'Austria, the son of Sir Benedetto of the noble house of the Liberi of Premariacco in the diocese of the Patriarchate of Aquileia, in his youth wanted to learn fencing and the art of combat in the barriers (that is, to the death); of lance, ax, sword, and dagger, and of wrestling, on foot and on horse, in armor and without armor.</p>
 
| <p>Fiore Friulano de Cividale d'Austria, the son of Sir Benedetto of the noble house of the Liberi of Premariacco in the diocese of the Patriarchate of Aquileia, in his youth wanted to learn fencing and the art of combat in the barriers (that is, to the death); of lance, ax, sword, and dagger, and of wrestling, on foot and on horse, in armor and without armor.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:MS XXIV 783r.jpg|2|lbl=783r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1r.jpg|1r.1|lbl=1r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1r.jpg|1r.1|lbl=1r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.1|lbl=1r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.1|lbl=1r}}
| <p>Fiore Furlan di Civida dostria che ſo di Mis(sier) Benedeto della Nobil Casata delli liberi di Premergiaz della Diocesi dello Patriarchado de Aquilegia in sua zoventù volse imprendar ad armizare, e arte di combater in sbara zoè a oltranza, de lanza, azza, spada e daga, e de abrazar a pè, e a cavallo in arme, e senza arme.</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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| <p> In addition I wanted to study how weapons were made,<ref>“tempere di ferri” means literally “the tempering of iron”. I have translated this liberally to “the construction of weapons” to more clearly reflect what I believe Fiore means here. See also fn. 37 below.</ref> and the characteristics of each weapon for both offense and defense, particularly as they applied to mortal combat.</p>
 
| <p> In addition I wanted to study how weapons were made,<ref>“tempere di ferri” means literally “the tempering of iron”. I have translated this liberally to “the construction of weapons” to more clearly reflect what I believe Fiore means here. See also fn. 37 below.</ref> and the characteristics of each weapon for both offense and defense, particularly as they applied to mortal combat.</p>
 
| <p>Also he wanted to know of the temper of iron, and the qualities of each weapon, as much for defense as for offense, and most of all matters of mortal combat.</p>
 
| <p>Also he wanted to know of the temper of iron, and the qualities of each weapon, as much for defense as for offense, and most of all matters of mortal combat.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:MS XXIV 783r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1r.jpg|1r.2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1r.jpg|1r.2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.2|lbl=-}}
| <p>Anchora volse saver temperar de ferri, e fateze de zaseuna arma, e cusì a defendere, como a offendere e maxime e cose da combattere a oltranza.</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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<p>And these secrets will give you mastery of attack and defense, and make you invincible, for victory comes easily to a man who has the skill and mastery described above.</p>
 
<p>And these secrets will give you mastery of attack and defense, and make you invincible, for victory comes easily to a man who has the skill and mastery described above.</p>
 
| <p>Also other marvelous and occult things that are apparent to few men in the world, and are very true things and very great for offense and defense, and things that cannot fail you, so easy are they to do, which art and mystery is described above.</p>
 
| <p>Also other marvelous and occult things that are apparent to few men in the world, and are very true things and very great for offense and defense, and things that cannot fail you, so easy are they to do, which art and mystery is described above.</p>
| <p>{{section|Page:MS M.383 1r.jpg|1r.3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS M.383 1r.jpg|1r.4|lbl=-|p=1}}</p>
+
| {{section|Page:MS XXIV 783r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
| <p>{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.4|lbl=-|p=1}}</p>
+
|
| <p>La qual arte e magistero ch' è ditto di sopra,</p>
+
{{section|Page:MS M.383 1r.jpg|1r.3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS M.383 1r.jpg|1r.4|lbl=-|p=1}}
 +
|  
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.4|lbl=-|p=1}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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| <p>I learned these skills from many German and Italian<ref>It is important to remember that when Fiore refers to “Germans” and “Italians” he is referring to language/cultures and not referring to nation states. Neither “Germany” nor “Italy” existed at this time.</ref> masters and their senior students, in many provinces and many cities, and at great personal cost and expense.</p>
 
| <p>I learned these skills from many German and Italian<ref>It is important to remember that when Fiore refers to “Germans” and “Italians” he is referring to language/cultures and not referring to nation states. Neither “Germany” nor “Italy” existed at this time.</ref> masters and their senior students, in many provinces and many cities, and at great personal cost and expense.</p>
 
| <p>And the aforesaid Fiore did learn the aforesaid things from many German masters. Also from many Italians in many provinces and in many cities, with great fatigue and with great expense, and by the grace of God from so many masters and scholars.</p>
 
| <p>And the aforesaid Fiore did learn the aforesaid things from many German masters. Also from many Italians in many provinces and in many cities, with great fatigue and with great expense, and by the grace of God from so many masters and scholars.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:MS XXIV 783r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1r.jpg|1r.5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1r.jpg|1r.5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.5|lbl=-}}
| <p>ebbe ditto Fiore, si à imprese le ditte cose de molli magistri todeschi. Anchora de molti Ytaliani in molte provintie et in molte xitade cum grandissima fadiga e cum grande spese: e per la gracia de Dìo de tanti magistri e scolari,</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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<p>And below are the names and a little of the history of some of the noblemen who have been my students, and who were obliged to fight at the barrier.</p>
 
<p>And below are the names and a little of the history of some of the noblemen who have been my students, and who were obliged to fight at the barrier.</p>
 
| <p>And in so many courts of great lords, princes, dukes, marquises and counts, knights, and squires did he undertake this art, that the aforesaid Fiore was more and more times retained by many lords and knights and squires for learning from the aforesaid Fiore to do the art of fencing and of combat in the barriers to the bitter end, which art he demonstrated to many Italians and Germans and other great lords that were obliged to combat in the barriers (and also to countless that were not obliged to combat). And of some that have been my scholars that have been obliged to combat in the barriers, of these I wish to name and make here a remembrance.</p>
 
| <p>And in so many courts of great lords, princes, dukes, marquises and counts, knights, and squires did he undertake this art, that the aforesaid Fiore was more and more times retained by many lords and knights and squires for learning from the aforesaid Fiore to do the art of fencing and of combat in the barriers to the bitter end, which art he demonstrated to many Italians and Germans and other great lords that were obliged to combat in the barriers (and also to countless that were not obliged to combat). And of some that have been my scholars that have been obliged to combat in the barriers, of these I wish to name and make here a remembrance.</p>
 +
|
 +
{{section|Page:MS XXIV 783r.jpg|6|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS XXIV 783v.jpg|1|lbl=783v|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1r.jpg|1r.6|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1r.jpg|1r.6|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.6|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.6|lbl=-}}
| <p>e in corte de grandi Signori, Principi, Duchi, Marchesi e Conti, Cavalieri e Scudieri intanto à impresa questa arte, chella ditto Fiore è stalo più rolle requisido da motti Signori caratieri e scudieri per imprender dal dillo Fiore si fatta arte de armizar e de combater in sbara a altranxa, la quale arte ello à mostrado a più Ytaliani e todeschi e altri grandi Signori che hanno debuto combatter in sbara: e anchora a infiniti che non hanno debuto combatter: e de alguni che sona stati me scolari, che hanno debudo combatere in sbara ne voglia fare a qui memoria e nome :</p>
 
 
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| <p>The first of them was the noble and gallant knight Piero del Verde<ref>Piero del Verde (Getty), Piero dal Verde (Morgan), (lit. “Peter of the Green”), also named elsewhere as Paolo del Verde, Pietro del Verde and Pietro von Grünen, was a recorded German condottiero (mercenary) captain who died in 1384. His birth date is not known.</ref> who fought Piero della Corona.<ref>Piero della Corona (Getty), Piero dalla Corona (Morgan) (lit “Peter of the Crown”), also named elsewhere as Pietro della Corona, Peter Kornwald, Pietro Cornuald, was another recorded German ''condottiero'' (mercenary) captain who died in 1391. His birth date is not known.</ref> Both were German, and the fight took place in Perosa.<ref>Perosa/Perusia is now known as Perugia. It is situated about 100 miles north of Rome. The date of this duel is estimated between 1379 and 1381, when both knights are recorded as present in this region.</ref></p>
 
| <p>The first of them was the noble and gallant knight Piero del Verde<ref>Piero del Verde (Getty), Piero dal Verde (Morgan), (lit. “Peter of the Green”), also named elsewhere as Paolo del Verde, Pietro del Verde and Pietro von Grünen, was a recorded German condottiero (mercenary) captain who died in 1384. His birth date is not known.</ref> who fought Piero della Corona.<ref>Piero della Corona (Getty), Piero dalla Corona (Morgan) (lit “Peter of the Crown”), also named elsewhere as Pietro della Corona, Peter Kornwald, Pietro Cornuald, was another recorded German ''condottiero'' (mercenary) captain who died in 1391. His birth date is not known.</ref> Both were German, and the fight took place in Perosa.<ref>Perosa/Perusia is now known as Perugia. It is situated about 100 miles north of Rome. The date of this duel is estimated between 1379 and 1381, when both knights are recorded as present in this region.</ref></p>
 
| <p>And the first notable and gallant knight is Sir Peter von Grünen, who was obliged to combat with Sir Peter Kornwald (who were both Germans). And the battle was required to be at Perugia.</p>
 
| <p>And the first notable and gallant knight is Sir Peter von Grünen, who was obliged to combat with Sir Peter Kornwald (who were both Germans). And the battle was required to be at Perugia.</p>
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| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.7|lbl=-}}
| <p>Ello primo notabel e gajardo cavaliero ſo Mis(sier) Piero dal Verde che debea combater cum Mis(sier) Piero de la Corona che foreno (en)trambe dui todeschi: e la battaglia debea esser a Perosa.</p>
 
 
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who this person was.</ref> The field of battle for this fight was Imola.<ref name="Imola">The city of Imola is about 120 miles south-west of Venice.</ref></p>
 
who this person was.</ref> The field of battle for this fight was Imola.<ref name="Imola">The city of Imola is about 120 miles south-west of Venice.</ref></p>
 
| <p>Also the valiant knight Sir Nikolo [illegible] (the German), who was obliged to combat with Nicolo (the English), and the field was given at Imola.</p>
 
| <p>Also the valiant knight Sir Nikolo [illegible] (the German), who was obliged to combat with Nicolo (the English), and the field was given at Imola.</p>
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| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.8|lbl=-}}
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| <p>Next was the well-known, valiant and gallant knight Galeazzo de Capitani da Grimello, known as da Mantova,<ref>Galeazzo de Capitani da Grimello da Mantova (Getty), Galeaz delli capitani de Grimello chiamado da Montoa (Morgan), also named Galeazzo de Mantova (eng. Mantua), Galeazzo Cattaneo dei Grumelli, and Galeazzo Gonzaga, was an Italian condottiero captain who died in 1406. We do not know his birth.
 
| <p>Next was the well-known, valiant and gallant knight Galeazzo de Capitani da Grimello, known as da Mantova,<ref>Galeazzo de Capitani da Grimello da Mantova (Getty), Galeaz delli capitani de Grimello chiamado da Montoa (Morgan), also named Galeazzo de Mantova (eng. Mantua), Galeazzo Cattaneo dei Grumelli, and Galeazzo Gonzaga, was an Italian condottiero captain who died in 1406. We do not know his birth.
  
Significantly Galeazzo fought two duels against Buzichardo de Fraza, also known as Boucicault, one in 1395 that was stopped by the supervising Lord where the parties were evenly matched, and one in 1406, where Galeazzo defeated Boucicault. To be able to say that one of his students defeated the mighty Boucicault in single combat would have looked very impressive on Fiore’s resume.</ref> who was obliged to fight the valiant knight Buçichardo de Fraca.<ref>Buçichardo de Fraca (Getty), Briçichardo  de Franza (Morgan), named elsewhere as Buzichardo de Fraza, also known as Boucicault, or Jean II Le Maingre (1364-1421), was a French military general who was honored by King Charles VI as Marshall of France in 1391, and was a knight of great renown for his military skill, and his strength and athleticism in single combat. Apparently at a dinner at which both Boucicault and Galeazzo were present, Boucicault insulted Italians claiming he could beat any Italian knight in single combat. Galeazzo accepted the challenge, and the two fought with spears on foot in 1395, a duel that was a draw, when it was halted by the supervising lord, Francesco Gonzaga, Lord of Mantova. The enmity was not forgotten however, and the two repeated their duel in 1406, this time on horseback with lances, at which time Boucicault was defeated by Galeazzo.</ref> The field of battle for this fight was Padova.<ref>Padova (Padua) is about 20 miles west of Venice.</ref></p>
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Significantly Galeazzo fought two duels against Buzichardo de Fraza, also known as Boucicault, one in 1395 that was stopped by the supervising Lord where the parties were evenly matched, and one in 1406, where Galeazzo defeated Boucicault. To be able to say that one of his students defeated the mighty Boucicault in single combat would have looked very impressive on Fiore’s resume.</ref> who was obliged to fight the valiant knight Buçichardo de Fraca.<ref>Buçichardo de Fraca (Getty), Briçichardo  de Franza (Morgan), named elsewhere as Buzichardo de Fraza, also known as Boucicault, or Jean Le Maingre (1364-1421), was a French military general who was honored by King Charles VI as Marshall of France in 1391, and was a knight of great renown for his military skill, and his strength and athleticism in single combat. Apparently at a dinner at which both Boucicault and Galeazzo were present, Boucicault insulted Italians claiming he could beat any Italian knight in single combat. Galeazzo accepted the challenge, and the two fought with spears on foot in 1395, a duel that was a draw, when it was halted by the supervising lord, Francesco Gonzaga, Lord of Mantova. The enmity was not forgotten however, and the two repeated their duel in 1406, this time on horseback with lances, at which time Boucicault was defeated by Galeazzo.</ref> The field of battle for this fight was Padova.<ref>Padova (Padua) is about 20 miles west of Venice.</ref></p>
| <p>Also the notable, valiant, and gallant knight Sir Galeazzo Cattaneo dei Grumelli, called da Mantua, who was obliged to combat with the valiant knight Sir Boucicault (Jean II le Maingre) of France, and the field was at Padua.</p>
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| <p>Also the notable, valiant, and gallant knight Sir Galeazzo Cattaneo dei Grumelli, called da Mantua, who was obliged to combat with the valiant knight Sir Boucicault (Jean le Maingre) of France, and the field was at Padua.</p>
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| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1r.jpg|1r.9|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.9|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.9|lbl=-}}
| <p>Anchora ello notabel valoroso e gaiarda caraliera Mis(sier) Galeazo de li capitani de Grimello chiamato da Mantoa che debea combatter cum la cavaliero valoroso Mis(sier) Brizichardo de Franza ello campo ſo a Padoa.</p>
 
 
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| <p>Next was the valiant squire<ref>A squire was a nobleman who was trained and skilled in the knightly arts, but who had not yet been knighted. Note the fighting abilities of the squire were not necessarily any different from the knight proper.</ref> Lancillotto da Becharia de Pavia,<ref>Lancillotto da Becharia de Pavia (Getty), Lanzilotto de Boecharia da Pavia (Morgan), also called Lancilotto Beccaria was an Italian condottiero captain who died in 1418. We do not know his birthdate.</ref> who exchanged six strikes with a sharpened steel lance<ref>Notice that although these are “sporting events” they were using real spears.</ref> against the valiant German knight Baldassarro,<ref>Baldassarro (Getty), Baldesar (Morgan) refers to the German knight Balthasar von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen (1336-1385)</ref> in a fight that took place in the lists at Imola.<ref name="Imola"/></p>
 
| <p>Next was the valiant squire<ref>A squire was a nobleman who was trained and skilled in the knightly arts, but who had not yet been knighted. Note the fighting abilities of the squire were not necessarily any different from the knight proper.</ref> Lancillotto da Becharia de Pavia,<ref>Lancillotto da Becharia de Pavia (Getty), Lanzilotto de Boecharia da Pavia (Morgan), also called Lancilotto Beccaria was an Italian condottiero captain who died in 1418. We do not know his birthdate.</ref> who exchanged six strikes with a sharpened steel lance<ref>Notice that although these are “sporting events” they were using real spears.</ref> against the valiant German knight Baldassarro,<ref>Baldassarro (Getty), Baldesar (Morgan) refers to the German knight Balthasar von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen (1336-1385)</ref> in a fight that took place in the lists at Imola.<ref name="Imola"/></p>
 
| <p>Also the valiant squire Lancillotto Beccaria of Pavia. That was 6 thrusts of soft-iron lance on horseback against the valiant knight Sir Balthasar von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen (a German), and also obliged to combat in the list, and this was at Imola.</p>
 
| <p>Also the valiant squire Lancillotto Beccaria of Pavia. That was 6 thrusts of soft-iron lance on horseback against the valiant knight Sir Balthasar von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen (a German), and also obliged to combat in the list, and this was at Imola.</p>
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| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1v.jpg|1v.1|lbl=1v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.10|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.10|lbl=-}}
| <p>Anchora allo valoroso sendero Lanzilotto de' Beccharia de Pavia: che ſe VI punte de lanza a ferri moladi a carallo cantra el valente caralero Mis(sier) Baldesar todesco: e anchora debevano combaterr in sbara, e questo ſo a Imola.</p>
 
 
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| <p>Next was the valiant squire Gioanino da Bavo,<ref>Gioanino de Bavo (Getty), Zohanni de Baio (Morgan), also named Giovannino da Baio likely refers to the French knight Jean de Bayeux, who is recorded as being in the area at this time.</ref> from Milan, who, in the castle in Pavia,<ref>The city of Pavia is 20 miles south of Milan.</ref> fought three passes with a sharpened steel lance, against the valiant German squire Sram.<ref>The identity of the German squire named Sram (Getty and Morgan), Schraam, or Schramm, is not known.</ref> And then on foot he fought three passes with the axe, three with the sword and three with the dagger, in the presence of the very noble prince and lord the Duke of Milan, and his lady the Duchess, and numerous other lords and ladies.</p>
 
| <p>Next was the valiant squire Gioanino da Bavo,<ref>Gioanino de Bavo (Getty), Zohanni de Baio (Morgan), also named Giovannino da Baio likely refers to the French knight Jean de Bayeux, who is recorded as being in the area at this time.</ref> from Milan, who, in the castle in Pavia,<ref>The city of Pavia is 20 miles south of Milan.</ref> fought three passes with a sharpened steel lance, against the valiant German squire Sram.<ref>The identity of the German squire named Sram (Getty and Morgan), Schraam, or Schramm, is not known.</ref> And then on foot he fought three passes with the axe, three with the sword and three with the dagger, in the presence of the very noble prince and lord the Duke of Milan, and his lady the Duchess, and numerous other lords and ladies.</p>
 
| <p>Also the valiant squire Giovannino da Baggio of Milan, who in the castle in Pavia, with the valiant squire Sirano (the German), struck three thrusts of soft-iron lance on horseback. And then on foot he made three blows of axe, and three blows of sword, and three blows of dagger, in the presence of the most noble lord Duke of Milan, and of the lady Duchess, and of countless other lords and lady.</p>
 
| <p>Also the valiant squire Giovannino da Baggio of Milan, who in the castle in Pavia, with the valiant squire Sirano (the German), struck three thrusts of soft-iron lance on horseback. And then on foot he made three blows of axe, and three blows of sword, and three blows of dagger, in the presence of the most noble lord Duke of Milan, and of the lady Duchess, and of countless other lords and lady.</p>
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| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1v.jpg|1v.2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1v.jpg|1v.2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.11|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.11|lbl=-}}
| <p>Anchora ello valoroso sendero Iohamniu de Bajo de Melano che ſe in Paria in lo castello contra ello valente schudero .&nbsp;.&nbsp;.&nbsp;.&nbsp;. todesco tre punte di lanza a ferri moladi a cavallo et poi ſe a pe tri colpi de azza e tri colpi de spada e tri colpi de daga in presenza dello nobilissimo Signor Ducha de Milano e de Madonna la Duchessa e de altri infiniti Signori e donne.</p>
 
 
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| <p>Next was the cautious knight Sir Açço da Castell Barcho,<ref>Açço da Castell Barcho (Getty), Azo da Castelbarcho (Morgan), refers to Azzone Francesco di Castelbarco, an Italian condottiero captain who died in 1410. We do not know his birthdate.</ref> who was obliged to fight one pass against Çuanne di Ordelaffi,<ref>Çuanne di Ordelaffi (Getty), Zohanni di li Ordelaffig (Morgan) refers to Giovanni Ordelaffi, an Italian condottiero captain (1355-1399).</ref> and another pass against the valiant and good knight Sir Jacomo di Boson,<ref>Jacomo di Boson (Getty), Jacomo de Besen (Morgan), or Giacomo da Boson, likely refers to the German nobleman Jakob von Bozen.</ref> the location chosen by his eminence the Duke of Milan.</p>
 
| <p>Next was the cautious knight Sir Açço da Castell Barcho,<ref>Açço da Castell Barcho (Getty), Azo da Castelbarcho (Morgan), refers to Azzone Francesco di Castelbarco, an Italian condottiero captain who died in 1410. We do not know his birthdate.</ref> who was obliged to fight one pass against Çuanne di Ordelaffi,<ref>Çuanne di Ordelaffi (Getty), Zohanni di li Ordelaffig (Morgan) refers to Giovanni Ordelaffi, an Italian condottiero captain (1355-1399).</ref> and another pass against the valiant and good knight Sir Jacomo di Boson,<ref>Jacomo di Boson (Getty), Jacomo de Besen (Morgan), or Giacomo da Boson, likely refers to the German nobleman Jakob von Bozen.</ref> the location chosen by his eminence the Duke of Milan.</p>
 
| <p>Also the cautious knight Sir Azzone di Castelbarco, who once was obliged to combat with Sir Giovanni di Ordelaffi. And another time with the valiant and virtuous knight Sir Giacomo da Boson, and the field was set at the pleasure of the lord Duke of Milan.</p>
 
| <p>Also the cautious knight Sir Azzone di Castelbarco, who once was obliged to combat with Sir Giovanni di Ordelaffi. And another time with the valiant and virtuous knight Sir Giacomo da Boson, and the field was set at the pleasure of the lord Duke of Milan.</p>
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{{section|Page:MS XXIV 783v.jpg|6|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS XXIV 783ar.jpg|1|lbl=783ar|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1v.jpg|1v.3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1v.jpg|1v.3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.12|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.12|lbl=-}}
| <p>Anchora ello cauteloso cavalero Mis(sier) Azo de Castelbarcho che debera una volta combatter cum Mis(sier) Iohanni de li Ordelaffi</p>
 
 
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<p>Also I say that to whom I have taught this art, I have taught secretly, that there was no person other than the scholar and some close relative of his. Also that those who were present had sworn with sacrament that they would not reveal any play that they had seen from me, Fiore.</p>
 
<p>Also I say that to whom I have taught this art, I have taught secretly, that there was no person other than the scholar and some close relative of his. Also that those who were present had sworn with sacrament that they would not reveal any play that they had seen from me, Fiore.</p>
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| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1v.jpg|1v.4|lbl=-}}
| <p>{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.13|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 01v - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|1v.1|lbl=1v|p=1}}</p>
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| <p>ed altri che io Fiore ho amagistradi, e sono molto contento, perchè sono stato bene rimunerato e si o aibudo lo honore e lo amore di miei scolari e di lor parenti. Anchora diga che a chi iò insignada questa arte io lò insignada ocullamente e chello no glie stado persona altra che lo scolare e alguno di stretto suo parente. Anehora che a quelli che gli sono stadi anno aibiulo sacramento de non apalesar nesuno zogho che loro abiano rezudo de mi Fiore,</p>
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{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.13|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 01v - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|1v.1|lbl=1v|p=1}}
 
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a foundation garment.</ref> and without any other armor except for a pair of leather gloves; and this happened because I refused to practice with them or teach them anything of my art.</p>
 
a foundation garment.</ref> and without any other armor except for a pair of leather gloves; and this happened because I refused to practice with them or teach them anything of my art.</p>
 
| <p>And most of all have I been wary of fencing masters and of their scholars. And they (that is, the masters), out of envy, challenged me to play at swords of sharpened edge and point, in arming jacket but without any other armor save for a pair of chamois gloves, and all of this was because I did not wish to practice with them, nor did I wish to teach them anything of my art.</p>
 
| <p>And most of all have I been wary of fencing masters and of their scholars. And they (that is, the masters), out of envy, challenged me to play at swords of sharpened edge and point, in arming jacket but without any other armor save for a pair of chamois gloves, and all of this was because I did not wish to practice with them, nor did I wish to teach them anything of my art.</p>
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| {{section|Page:MS XXIV 783ar.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1v.jpg|1v.5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1v.jpg|1v.5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 01v - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|1v.2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 01v - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|1v.2|lbl=-}}
| <p>e maximamente me ho guardado da magistri scrimiduri e de soi scolari. E loro per invidia, zoè li magistri manno convidado a zugar a spada da taglio ed a punta in zuparello da armar senza altra arma salrvo che un paio de guanti da camera …</p>
 
 
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injured.</ref></p>
 
injured.</ref></p>
 
| <p>And this incident, that I was so required, occurred 5 times. And 5 times, for my honor, I convened to play in strange places, without relatives and without friends, having no hope in anything other than in God, in the art, and in me, Fiore, and in my sword. And by the grace of God, I, Fiore, remained with honor and without lesions in my person.</p>
 
| <p>And this incident, that I was so required, occurred 5 times. And 5 times, for my honor, I convened to play in strange places, without relatives and without friends, having no hope in anything other than in God, in the art, and in me, Fiore, and in my sword. And by the grace of God, I, Fiore, remained with honor and without lesions in my person.</p>
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| {{section|Page:MS XXIV 783ar.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1v.jpg|1v.6|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1v.jpg|1v.6|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 01v - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|1v.3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 01v - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|1v.3|lbl=-}}
| <p>e questo accidente e stado V rolte, che sono stada requisido: e V rolte per mio honor ma conregnudo zugar in loghi strani senza parenti e senza amisi, non abiando speranza di altri che in Dio, in larle e in mi Fiore e in la mia spada: e per la gracia de Dio io Fiore sono nomato con honore in questa arte.</p>
 
 
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| <p>I tell my students who have to fight at the barrier that fighting at the barrier is significantly less dangerous than fighting with live swords wearing only padded jackets, because when you fight with sharp swords, if you fail to cover one single strike you will likely die.</p>
 
| <p>I tell my students who have to fight at the barrier that fighting at the barrier is significantly less dangerous than fighting with live swords wearing only padded jackets, because when you fight with sharp swords, if you fail to cover one single strike you will likely die.</p>
 
| <p>Also I, Fiore, said to my students that were obliged to combat in the barriers that combat in the barriers is a far lesser peril than combat with sword of sharp edge and point in arming jackets. Because for him that plays at sharp swords, on a single cover that fails, that blow gives him death.</p>
 
| <p>Also I, Fiore, said to my students that were obliged to combat in the barriers that combat in the barriers is a far lesser peril than combat with sword of sharp edge and point in arming jackets. Because for him that plays at sharp swords, on a single cover that fails, that blow gives him death.</p>
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<p>Also, there is another thing: that only on rare occasions does someone perish because of grabs and holds. Thus I say that I would sooner combat three times in the barriers than just one time with sharp swords, as I said above.</p>
 
<p>Also, there is another thing: that only on rare occasions does someone perish because of grabs and holds. Thus I say that I would sooner combat three times in the barriers than just one time with sharp swords, as I said above.</p>
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| <p>Now I should add that a man may fight at the barrier well armored, with a knowledge of the art of combat,<ref>In addition to “L’Arte d’Armizare” (the art of armed fighting), L’Arte del Combattere (the art of combat) is a second name Fiore gives to his art.</ref> and may have all the advantages possible to have, but if he lacks courage he may as well just go ahead and hang himself. Having said that, I can say that by the grace of God none of my students have ever lost at the barrier. On the contrary, they have always acquitted themselves honorably.<ref>If they never lost and always acquitted themselves honorably, then presumably they always either won or drew.</ref></p>
 
| <p>Now I should add that a man may fight at the barrier well armored, with a knowledge of the art of combat,<ref>In addition to “L’Arte d’Armizare” (the art of armed fighting), L’Arte del Combattere (the art of combat) is a second name Fiore gives to his art.</ref> and may have all the advantages possible to have, but if he lacks courage he may as well just go ahead and hang himself. Having said that, I can say that by the grace of God none of my students have ever lost at the barrier. On the contrary, they have always acquitted themselves honorably.<ref>If they never lost and always acquitted themselves honorably, then presumably they always either won or drew.</ref></p>
 
| <p>And I say that a man being well-armored for combat in the barriers, and knowing the art of combat, and having all the advantages that he can take, if he is not valiant then he will wish to hang himself. Well can I say that, for the grace of God, none of my scholars in this art have been lost—that always they remained with honor is this art.</p>
 
| <p>And I say that a man being well-armored for combat in the barriers, and knowing the art of combat, and having all the advantages that he can take, if he is not valiant then he will wish to hang himself. Well can I say that, for the grace of God, none of my scholars in this art have been lost—that always they remained with honor is this art.</p>
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| <p>I should also point out that the noble knights and squires to whom I showed my art of combat have been very satisfied with my teaching, and have never wanted any other instructor but me.</p>
 
| <p>I should also point out that the noble knights and squires to whom I showed my art of combat have been very satisfied with my teaching, and have never wanted any other instructor but me.</p>
 
| <p>Also I say that I predict that these lords, knights, and squires to whom I have demonstrated this art of combat are content with my teachings, and did not wish any other master than the aforesaid Fiore.</p>
 
| <p>Also I say that I predict that these lords, knights, and squires to whom I have demonstrated this art of combat are content with my teachings, and did not wish any other master than the aforesaid Fiore.</p>
| <p>{{section|Page:MS M.383 1v.jpg|1v.10|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS M.383 2r.jpg|2r.1|lbl=2r|p=1}}</p>
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| <p>In addition let me just say that none of my students, including those mentioned above, have ever owned a book about the art of combat, except for Galeazzo da Mantova. And he put it well when he said that without books you cannot be either a good teacher or a good student of this art. And I can confirm it to be true, that this art is so vast that there is no one in the world with a memory large enough to be able to retain even a quarter of it. And it should also be pointed out that a man who knows no more than a quarter of the art has no right to call himself a Master.</p>
 
| <p>In addition let me just say that none of my students, including those mentioned above, have ever owned a book about the art of combat, except for Galeazzo da Mantova. And he put it well when he said that without books you cannot be either a good teacher or a good student of this art. And I can confirm it to be true, that this art is so vast that there is no one in the world with a memory large enough to be able to retain even a quarter of it. And it should also be pointed out that a man who knows no more than a quarter of the art has no right to call himself a Master.</p>
 
| <p>Also I say that none of these scholars here named had any book about the art of combat other than Sir Galeazzo di Mantua. Well did he say that without books no one will ever be a good master nor scholar in this art. And I, Fiore, confirm it: this art is so long that there is no man in the world with such a great memory that he can hold in mind, without books, even a fourth part of this art. And I grant that not knowing more than the fourth part of this art, I would not be a master.</p>
 
| <p>Also I say that none of these scholars here named had any book about the art of combat other than Sir Galeazzo di Mantua. Well did he say that without books no one will ever be a good master nor scholar in this art. And I, Fiore, confirm it: this art is so long that there is no man in the world with such a great memory that he can hold in mind, without books, even a fourth part of this art. And I grant that not knowing more than the fourth part of this art, I would not be a master.</p>
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| <p>Now I, Fiore, although I can read and write and draw, and although I have books about this art, and have studied it for 40 years and more, do not myself claim to be a perfect Master in this art, (although I am considered so by some of the fine noblemen who have been my students). But I will say this: if, instead of studying the Art of Armed Combat for 40 years, I had spent 40 years studying law, papal decrees,<ref>The word is decretali (Decretals). A Decretal is a Papal Constitution in letter form, i.e., a written decree from a Pope stating the Church’s legal position on a specific legal or moral issue.</ref> and medicine, then I would be ranked a Doctor in all three of these disciplines. And you should also know that in order to study the science of arms<ref>''Scientia d’Armizare'' is Fiore’s other term for his ''Arte d’Armizare''. ''Scientia'' means science or knowledge. Thus ''Scientia d’Armizare'' could translate as “Knowledge of Armed Combat” or “Science of Armed Combat.”</ref> I have endured great hardship, expended great effort and incurred great expense, all so as to be a perfect student of this art.</p>
 
| <p>Now I, Fiore, although I can read and write and draw, and although I have books about this art, and have studied it for 40 years and more, do not myself claim to be a perfect Master in this art, (although I am considered so by some of the fine noblemen who have been my students). But I will say this: if, instead of studying the Art of Armed Combat for 40 years, I had spent 40 years studying law, papal decrees,<ref>The word is decretali (Decretals). A Decretal is a Papal Constitution in letter form, i.e., a written decree from a Pope stating the Church’s legal position on a specific legal or moral issue.</ref> and medicine, then I would be ranked a Doctor in all three of these disciplines. And you should also know that in order to study the science of arms<ref>''Scientia d’Armizare'' is Fiore’s other term for his ''Arte d’Armizare''. ''Scientia'' means science or knowledge. Thus ''Scientia d’Armizare'' could translate as “Knowledge of Armed Combat” or “Science of Armed Combat.”</ref> I have endured great hardship, expended great effort and incurred great expense, all so as to be a perfect student of this art.</p>
 
| <p>Thus I, Fiore, knowing how to read and to write and to draw, and having books on this art, and having studied it for 40 years and more, yet I am not a very perfect master in this art. (Though I am well-held, by the great lords that have been my students, to be a good and perfect master in this art.) And I do say that if I had studied 40 years in civil law, in canon law, and in medicine, as I have studied in the art of fencing, then I would be a doctor in those three sciences. But in this science of fencing I have had great contentions and strain and expenses just to be a good scholar (as we said of others).</p>
 
| <p>Thus I, Fiore, knowing how to read and to write and to draw, and having books on this art, and having studied it for 40 years and more, yet I am not a very perfect master in this art. (Though I am well-held, by the great lords that have been my students, to be a good and perfect master in this art.) And I do say that if I had studied 40 years in civil law, in canon law, and in medicine, as I have studied in the art of fencing, then I would be a doctor in those three sciences. But in this science of fencing I have had great contentions and strain and expenses just to be a good scholar (as we said of others).</p>
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<p>In doing this I have followed the instructions given to me by the nobleman I respect the most, who is greater in martial virtue than any other I know, and who is more deserving of my book because of his nobility than any other nobleman I could ever meet, namely, the illustrious and most excellent noble, the all-powerful prince, Sir NICCOLO, Marquis of Este, Lord of the noble cities of Ferrara, Modena, Reggio, Parma and others, and to whom may God grant long life and future prosperity, and victory over all of his enemies. AMEN.</p>
 
<p>In doing this I have followed the instructions given to me by the nobleman I respect the most, who is greater in martial virtue than any other I know, and who is more deserving of my book because of his nobility than any other nobleman I could ever meet, namely, the illustrious and most excellent noble, the all-powerful prince, Sir NICCOLO, Marquis of Este, Lord of the noble cities of Ferrara, Modena, Reggio, Parma and others, and to whom may God grant long life and future prosperity, and victory over all of his enemies. AMEN.</p>
 
| <p>Considering, as I said before, that in this art I could find few masters in the world, and wishing that there be made a memory of me in this art, I will put all the art (and all things that I know of iron and of temper and of other things) in a book, following that which we know how to do for the best and for the most clarity.</p>
 
| <p>Considering, as I said before, that in this art I could find few masters in the world, and wishing that there be made a memory of me in this art, I will put all the art (and all things that I know of iron and of temper and of other things) in a book, following that which we know how to do for the best and for the most clarity.</p>
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| <p>I am going to lay out this book according to the preferences of my lord Marquis, and since I will be careful to leave nothing out, I am sure that my lord will appreciate it, due to his great nobility and courtesy.<ref>It is not clear here whether Fiore is saying he actually consulted with Niccolo III of Este prior to the creation of the book, that Niccolo indicated how he wants the book laid out, and that Fiore has decided to lay it out exactly as Niccolo has asked for it to be done, or simply that he knows what Niccolo likes.</ref></p>
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| <p>I am going to lay out this book according to the preferences of my lord Marquis, and since I will be careful to leave nothing out, I am sure that my lord will appreciate it, due to his great nobility and courtesy.<ref>It is not clear here whether Fiore is saying he actually consulted with Niccolo of Este prior to the creation of the book, that Niccolo indicated how he wants the book laid out, and that Fiore has decided to lay it out exactly as Niccolo has asked for it to be done, or simply that he knows what Niccolo likes.</ref></p>
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| <p>I will begin with grappling,<ref>I translate ''Abrazare'' or ''Abracare'' as “grappling” rather than “wrestling”, since wrestling suggests ground-fighting, and there is no ground fighting in Fiore’s system.</ref> of which there are two types: grappling for fun,<ref>The word ''solaço''  means “pleasure”. Fiore means grappling for sport. Fiore is distinguishing between fighting for fun and fighting to the death.</ref> or grappling in earnest,<ref>The expression ''da ira'' means “in anger”. Fiore is contrasting this with grappling for fun. Thus I have translated ''ira'' as “earnest”.</ref> by which I mean mortal combat, where you need to employ all the cunning, deceit<ref>Both ''ingano'' and ''falsita'' mean “deceit”. It is not clear why Fiore uses both, but any difference in these two words are lost in translation. I therefore translated ''ingano'' as “cunning” so that there were still three words as in the original.</ref> and viciousness<ref>The word ''crudelita'' means “cruelty”. I prefer the word “viciousness” here.</ref> you can muster. My focus is on mortal combat, and on showing you step by step how to gain and defend against the most common holds when you are fighting for your life.</p>
 
| <p>I will begin with grappling,<ref>I translate ''Abrazare'' or ''Abracare'' as “grappling” rather than “wrestling”, since wrestling suggests ground-fighting, and there is no ground fighting in Fiore’s system.</ref> of which there are two types: grappling for fun,<ref>The word ''solaço''  means “pleasure”. Fiore means grappling for sport. Fiore is distinguishing between fighting for fun and fighting to the death.</ref> or grappling in earnest,<ref>The expression ''da ira'' means “in anger”. Fiore is contrasting this with grappling for fun. Thus I have translated ''ira'' as “earnest”.</ref> by which I mean mortal combat, where you need to employ all the cunning, deceit<ref>Both ''ingano'' and ''falsita'' mean “deceit”. It is not clear why Fiore uses both, but any difference in these two words are lost in translation. I therefore translated ''ingano'' as “cunning” so that there were still three words as in the original.</ref> and viciousness<ref>The word ''crudelita'' means “cruelty”. I prefer the word “viciousness” here.</ref> you can muster. My focus is on mortal combat, and on showing you step by step how to gain and defend against the most common holds when you are fighting for your life.</p>
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| <p>If you wish to grapple you should first assess whether your opponent is stronger or bigger than you, as well as whether he is much younger or older than you. You should also note whether he takes up any formal grappling guards<ref>The taking of guards would suggest he has some training and thus some skill in grappling.</ref> Make sure you consider these things first.</p>
 
| <p>If you wish to grapple you should first assess whether your opponent is stronger or bigger than you, as well as whether he is much younger or older than you. You should also note whether he takes up any formal grappling guards<ref>The taking of guards would suggest he has some training and thus some skill in grappling.</ref> Make sure you consider these things first.</p>
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| <p>And whether you are stronger or weaker than your opponent, be sure in either case that you know how to use the grapples and binds<ref>The words are ''prese'' (“holds”, “grips” or grapples”) and ''ligadure'' (“locks” or “binds”).</ref> against him, and how to defend yourself from the grapples your opponent attacks you with.</p>
 
| <p>And whether you are stronger or weaker than your opponent, be sure in either case that you know how to use the grapples and binds<ref>The words are ''prese'' (“holds”, “grips” or grapples”) and ''ligadure'' (“locks” or “binds”).</ref> against him, and how to defend yourself from the grapples your opponent attacks you with.</p>
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| <p>If your opponent is not wearing armor, be sure to strike him in the most vulnerable and dangerous places, for example the eyes, the nose, the larynx,<ref>''inle femine sottol mento'' means literally “in the soft part below the chin”. Fiore means the throat/larynx.</ref> or the flanks.<ref>The ''fianchi'', the “flanks”, are the unprotected (“soft”) areas of the side of the torso, below the lower ribs but above the hips.</ref> And whether fighting in or out of armor, be sure that you employ grapples and binds that flow naturally together.</p>
 
| <p>If your opponent is not wearing armor, be sure to strike him in the most vulnerable and dangerous places, for example the eyes, the nose, the larynx,<ref>''inle femine sottol mento'' means literally “in the soft part below the chin”. Fiore means the throat/larynx.</ref> or the flanks.<ref>The ''fianchi'', the “flanks”, are the unprotected (“soft”) areas of the side of the torso, below the lower ribs but above the hips.</ref> And whether fighting in or out of armor, be sure that you employ grapples and binds that flow naturally together.</p>
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| <p>In addition, to be a good grappler you need eight attributes,<ref>''Viii'' chose means literally “eight things”.</ref> as follows: [1] strength, [2] speed, [3] knowledge, by which I mean [3] knowing superior holds; [4] Knowing how to break  apart  arms  and  legs; [5] Knowing locks, that is how to bind the arms of a man in such a way as to render him powerless to defend himself and unable to escape; [6] Knowing how to strike to the most vulnerable points; [7] Knowing how to throw someone to the ground without danger to yourself. And finally [8] Knowing how to dislocate arms and legs in various ways.<ref>Note: attributes numbers 4 and 8 seem to be the same attribute. This is noted especially because in the earlier Pisani Dossi manuscript Fiore tells us there are {{dec|u|seven}} attributes (not eight as here in the Getty). ''Roture'' (“breaking”), ''Romper'' (“tearing apart”) and ''Dislogar'' (“dislocating”) arms and legs appear here to be duplicative.</ref></p>
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| <p>In addition, to be a good grappler you need eight attributes,<ref>'''' chose means literally “eight things”.</ref> as follows: [1] strength, [2] speed, [3] knowledge, by which I mean [3] knowing superior holds; [4] Knowing how to break  apart  arms  and  legs; [5] Knowing locks, that is how to bind the arms of a man in such a way as to render him powerless to defend himself and unable to escape; [6] Knowing how to strike to the most vulnerable points; [7] Knowing how to throw someone to the ground without danger to yourself. And finally [8] Knowing how to dislocate arms and legs in various ways.<ref>Note: attributes numbers 4 and 8 seem to be the same attribute. This is noted especially because in the earlier Pisani Dossi manuscript Fiore tells us there are {{dec|u|seven}} attributes (not eight as here in the Getty). ''Roture'' (“breaking”), ''Romper'' (“tearing apart”) and ''Dislogar'' (“dislocating”) arms and legs appear here to be duplicative.</ref></p>
  
 
<p>As required, I will address all of these things step by step through the text and the drawings in this book.</p>
 
<p>As required, I will address all of these things step by step through the text and the drawings in this book.</p>
 
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| <p>{{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 01v - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|1v.16|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 02r - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|2r.1|lbl=2r|p=1}}</p>
 
 
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| <p>Now that I have discussed some general rules for grappling, I will discuss the grappling guards. There are a variety of grappling guards, some better than others. But there are four guards that are the best whether in or out of armor, although I advise you not to wait in them for too long, due to the rapid changes that take place when you are grappling.</p>
 
| <p>Now that I have discussed some general rules for grappling, I will discuss the grappling guards. There are a variety of grappling guards, some better than others. But there are four guards that are the best whether in or out of armor, although I advise you not to wait in them for too long, due to the rapid changes that take place when you are grappling.</p>
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<p>You will need to learn the guards of the Masters, how to distinguish the Students from the Players and the Players from the Masters, and finally the difference between the Remedy and the Counter. While a Counter will usually be presented after<ref>''Dredo'' means “Behind” but in this context it translates better as “after”, be cause we can see from the way the manuscript is laid out that the remedies are shown first, and the counters later.</ref> the Remedies are shown, sometimes there will be a special “Remedy”<ref>The “Special” Remedy that comes at the very end, that Fiore is referring to is a Counter to the Counter, which, as you will see below, Fiore calls ''Contra-contrario'' or the “Counter-counter”.</ref> that comes last of all. But let me make this clearer for you.</p>
 
<p>You will need to learn the guards of the Masters, how to distinguish the Students from the Players and the Players from the Masters, and finally the difference between the Remedy and the Counter. While a Counter will usually be presented after<ref>''Dredo'' means “Behind” but in this context it translates better as “after”, be cause we can see from the way the manuscript is laid out that the remedies are shown first, and the counters later.</ref> the Remedies are shown, sometimes there will be a special “Remedy”<ref>The “Special” Remedy that comes at the very end, that Fiore is referring to is a Counter to the Counter, which, as you will see below, Fiore calls ''Contra-contrario'' or the “Counter-counter”.</ref> that comes last of all. But let me make this clearer for you.</p>
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| <p>The four guards or “posts” are easy to learn. Sometimes you’ll take a guard and face your opponent without making contact, waiting to see what your opponent will do. These are called the posts or guards of the first Masters of Battle.<ref>Literally “Masters of the Battle” or “Masters of the Fight”.</ref> And these masters wear a golden crown on their head, to signify that the guards they wait in provide them with a superior defense. And these four guards are best suited to apply the principles of my art of armed fighting, which is why these Masters choose to wait in these particular guards.</p>
 
| <p>The four guards or “posts” are easy to learn. Sometimes you’ll take a guard and face your opponent without making contact, waiting to see what your opponent will do. These are called the posts or guards of the first Masters of Battle.<ref>Literally “Masters of the Battle” or “Masters of the Fight”.</ref> And these masters wear a golden crown on their head, to signify that the guards they wait in provide them with a superior defense. And these four guards are best suited to apply the principles of my art of armed fighting, which is why these Masters choose to wait in these particular guards.</p>
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| <p>Whether you call it a “post” or a “guard”, you are referring to the same stance. As a “guard” it is used defensively, that is you use it to protect yourself and defend yourself from the strikes of your opponent. As a “post” it is used offensively, that is, you use it to position yourself in such a way in relation to your opponent that you can attack him without danger to yourself.</p>
 
| <p>Whether you call it a “post” or a “guard”, you are referring to the same stance. As a “guard” it is used defensively, that is you use it to protect yourself and defend yourself from the strikes of your opponent. As a “post” it is used offensively, that is, you use it to position yourself in such a way in relation to your opponent that you can attack him without danger to yourself.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 02r - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|2r.5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 02r - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|2r.5|lbl=-}}
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| <p>The next Master who follows the four guards comes to respond to these guards and to defend himself against a Player who makes attacks that flow from the four beginning guards shown earlier. And this Master also wears a crown, but he is named the Second Master of Battle.<ref>Fiore just calls him the “Second Master”, but Fiore means by this that he is the Second Master of Battle.</ref> He is also known as the Remedy Master, because he carefully selects his response to attacks flowing from the posts referred to above, and makes remedies that prevent him from getting struck.</p>
 
| <p>The next Master who follows the four guards comes to respond to these guards and to defend himself against a Player who makes attacks that flow from the four beginning guards shown earlier. And this Master also wears a crown, but he is named the Second Master of Battle.<ref>Fiore just calls him the “Second Master”, but Fiore means by this that he is the Second Master of Battle.</ref> He is also known as the Remedy Master, because he carefully selects his response to attacks flowing from the posts referred to above, and makes remedies that prevent him from getting struck.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 02r - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|2r.6|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 02r - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|2r.6|lbl=-}}
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| <p>This second or Remedy Master has a group of Students<ref>Fiore here calls them ''Zugadori'' (Players) rather than ''Scolari'' (Students), but that is confusing, because the way the manuscript is visually structured, the students of the Remedy Master who wear the golden garter are named ''Scolari'' (Students), not ''Zugadori'' (Players). The ''Zugadori'' are drawn without any garter at all. Therefore here I translate ''zugadori'' as Students (''Scolari''), so as to be consistent with what is drawn.</ref> under him, who demonstrate the plays taught by the Remedy Master that follow the cover or grapple that he shows first as his remedy. And these Students wear a garter<ref>''Divisa'' means literally “device” but also refers to a uniform or insignia that marks a person's rank or position. I have chosen to translate the word ''divisa'' as “garter”. In the PD, Fiore refers to the golden ribbon worn around one leg by the Students as a ''lista doro''. A ''lista'' is a strip of material, like a ribbon, garter or scarf. ''Doro'' means ''D’oro'' -  “of gold.”</ref> under their knee, to identify themselves. These Students will demonstrate all the remedies of the Remedy Master, until a third Master of Battle appears, who will show the Counters to the Remedy Master and his Students.</p>
 
| <p>This second or Remedy Master has a group of Students<ref>Fiore here calls them ''Zugadori'' (Players) rather than ''Scolari'' (Students), but that is confusing, because the way the manuscript is visually structured, the students of the Remedy Master who wear the golden garter are named ''Scolari'' (Students), not ''Zugadori'' (Players). The ''Zugadori'' are drawn without any garter at all. Therefore here I translate ''zugadori'' as Students (''Scolari''), so as to be consistent with what is drawn.</ref> under him, who demonstrate the plays taught by the Remedy Master that follow the cover or grapple that he shows first as his remedy. And these Students wear a garter<ref>''Divisa'' means literally “device” but also refers to a uniform or insignia that marks a person's rank or position. I have chosen to translate the word ''divisa'' as “garter”. In the PD, Fiore refers to the golden ribbon worn around one leg by the Students as a ''lista doro''. A ''lista'' is a strip of material, like a ribbon, garter or scarf. ''Doro'' means ''D’oro'' -  “of gold.”</ref> under their knee, to identify themselves. These Students will demonstrate all the remedies of the Remedy Master, until a third Master of Battle appears, who will show the Counters to the Remedy Master and his Students.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 02r - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|2r.7|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 02r - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|2r.7|lbl=-}}
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| <p>And because he can defeat the Remedy Master and his students, this Third Master wears both the symbol of the Remedy Master—a golden crown, and the symbol of his students—a golden garter below the knee. And this King is named the Third Master of Battle, and he is also named the Counter Master, because he makes counters to the Remedy Master and his students.<ref>Fiore actually writes “The Remedy Master and his plays, but since the Counter Master also defects the Remedy Master’s students, who show all the plays, I decided to translate it as above.</ref></p>
 
| <p>And because he can defeat the Remedy Master and his students, this Third Master wears both the symbol of the Remedy Master—a golden crown, and the symbol of his students—a golden garter below the knee. And this King is named the Third Master of Battle, and he is also named the Counter Master, because he makes counters to the Remedy Master and his students.<ref>Fiore actually writes “The Remedy Master and his plays, but since the Counter Master also defects the Remedy Master’s students, who show all the plays, I decided to translate it as above.</ref></p>
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| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 02r - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|2r.8|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 02r - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|2r.8|lbl=-}}
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| <p>Finally let me tell you that in a few sections of this Art we will find a Fourth Master (or King) who can defeat the Third Master of Battle (the Counter to the Remedy). And this King, the Fourth Master, is named the Fourth Master of Battle. He is also known as the Counter-Counter Master. Be aware however that in this Art few plays will ever go past the Third Master of Battle, for to do so is very risky. But enough about this.</p>
 
| <p>Finally let me tell you that in a few sections of this Art we will find a Fourth Master (or King) who can defeat the Third Master of Battle (the Counter to the Remedy). And this King, the Fourth Master, is named the Fourth Master of Battle. He is also known as the Counter-Counter Master. Be aware however that in this Art few plays will ever go past the Third Master of Battle, for to do so is very risky. But enough about this.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 02r - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|2r.9|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 02r - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|2r.9|lbl=-}}
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| <p>As I have explained above, the guards of the Abrazare (shown by the First Master of Battle), the Second Master of Battle (the Remedy Master) and his Students, the Third Master of Battle (the Counter Remedy, that is the counter to the Second Master of Battle and his Students), and the Fourth Master of Battle (named the Counter-counter Master), represent the foundation of my Art of Grappling whether in and out of armor. Furthermore, these four Masters of Battle and their Students are also the foundation of the Art of the Spear, which has its own guards, Masters and Students. The same is true for the Art of the Pole-axe, the Sword in One Hand, the Sword in Two Hands and the Dagger.</p>
 
| <p>As I have explained above, the guards of the Abrazare (shown by the First Master of Battle), the Second Master of Battle (the Remedy Master) and his Students, the Third Master of Battle (the Counter Remedy, that is the counter to the Second Master of Battle and his Students), and the Fourth Master of Battle (named the Counter-counter Master), represent the foundation of my Art of Grappling whether in and out of armor. Furthermore, these four Masters of Battle and their Students are also the foundation of the Art of the Spear, which has its own guards, Masters and Students. The same is true for the Art of the Pole-axe, the Sword in One Hand, the Sword in Two Hands and the Dagger.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 02r - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|2r.10|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 02r - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|2r.10|lbl=-}}
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| <p> In summary, these Masters of Battle and their Students, identified by their various devices, although first presented as governing principles of my Art of Grappling, are actually the foundation of my entire Art of Armed Fighting, whether on foot or on horseback, and whether in or out of armor.<ref>I’ve rearranged the sentences here to make my translation clearer. Thus the red and blue letters in the original don’t match up at all in my translation.</ref></p>
 
| <p> In summary, these Masters of Battle and their Students, identified by their various devices, although first presented as governing principles of my Art of Grappling, are actually the foundation of my entire Art of Armed Fighting, whether on foot or on horseback, and whether in or out of armor.<ref>I’ve rearranged the sentences here to make my translation clearer. Thus the red and blue letters in the original don’t match up at all in my translation.</ref></p>
 +
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| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 02r - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|2r.11|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 02r - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|2r.11|lbl=-}}
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| <p>And my purpose in structuring my art in this way is to make my system<ref>Fiore actually says ''libro'' (“book”), but I’ve changed it to “system”.</ref> easier to learn, by using the same principles of the guards, the Master, the Remedy and the Counter throughout it, just as you see first in the section on Grappling.</p>
 
| <p>And my purpose in structuring my art in this way is to make my system<ref>Fiore actually says ''libro'' (“book”), but I’ve changed it to “system”.</ref> easier to learn, by using the same principles of the guards, the Master, the Remedy and the Counter throughout it, just as you see first in the section on Grappling.</p>
 +
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| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 02r - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|2r.12|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 02r - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|2r.12|lbl=-}}
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| <p>And the text,<ref>The word ''Rubriche'' means writing in red ink. I chose to translate this word simply as “text”.</ref> the drawings and the plays will so clearly show you my art, that you will have no trouble understanding it.</p>
 
| <p>And the text,<ref>The word ''Rubriche'' means writing in red ink. I chose to translate this word simply as “text”.</ref> the drawings and the plays will so clearly show you my art, that you will have no trouble understanding it.</p>
 +
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| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 02r - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|2r.13|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 02r - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|2r.13|lbl=-}}
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| <p>Now let’s move on to study the actual drawings, the plays and the text, and you will see that I have spoken truly.</p>
 
| <p>Now let’s move on to study the actual drawings, the plays and the text, and you will see that I have spoken truly.</p>
 +
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| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 02r - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|2r.14|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 02r - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|2r.14|lbl=-}}
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| <p>We commence this book following my intellect, in such a way that anyone can know to understand easily. And we make comparison of five things. That is, 1) of masters that stand in guard, and 2) of masters (and of masters) that are remedy, and 3) of scholars, and 4) of players, and 5) of contraries to masters and to scholars. The masters stand in positions, that is, guards—that which are called both positions and guards. Positions are called such because they position one, and guards are called such because they guard one from an enemy, and as such, they are called positions and guards for their strength, that poorly will one be able to break the positions on purpose without coming to danger.</p>
 
| <p>We commence this book following my intellect, in such a way that anyone can know to understand easily. And we make comparison of five things. That is, 1) of masters that stand in guard, and 2) of masters (and of masters) that are remedy, and 3) of scholars, and 4) of players, and 5) of contraries to masters and to scholars. The masters stand in positions, that is, guards—that which are called both positions and guards. Positions are called such because they position one, and guards are called such because they guard one from an enemy, and as such, they are called positions and guards for their strength, that poorly will one be able to break the positions on purpose without coming to danger.</p>
 +
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| {{section|Page:MS M.383 2r.jpg|2r.5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 2r.jpg|2r.5|lbl=-}}
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| <p>The masters that stand in guard stand one against the other without touching one weapon against the other, and here the masters will bear crowns on their heads. The other crowned masters that will be after them also bear crowns, and they are called Masters Remedy. Those that here play with these masters and with their scholars are called players. And the scholars of these Masters Remedy bear a device under the knee, and initiate the cover and holds following what the Master Remedy does, and doing such plays that the Master Remedy knows how to do. At the end will be found the counter of the Master Remedy and of his scholars. And this counter bears a crown on his head and a device under the knee because he is the counter of the Master and of the scholars, and as such he bears the devices of both the Master Remedy and all his scholars. In some plays the counter will be found immediately after the remedy, and in some plays the counter will be found after all the plays of the Master Remedy. Know that here the counter which is made to the Master Remedy, that the counter breaks all of the plays of that cover or grip that he makes. In the following, you will find them well-depicted and -written so that can be easily understood.</p>
 
| <p>The masters that stand in guard stand one against the other without touching one weapon against the other, and here the masters will bear crowns on their heads. The other crowned masters that will be after them also bear crowns, and they are called Masters Remedy. Those that here play with these masters and with their scholars are called players. And the scholars of these Masters Remedy bear a device under the knee, and initiate the cover and holds following what the Master Remedy does, and doing such plays that the Master Remedy knows how to do. At the end will be found the counter of the Master Remedy and of his scholars. And this counter bears a crown on his head and a device under the knee because he is the counter of the Master and of the scholars, and as such he bears the devices of both the Master Remedy and all his scholars. In some plays the counter will be found immediately after the remedy, and in some plays the counter will be found after all the plays of the Master Remedy. Know that here the counter which is made to the Master Remedy, that the counter breaks all of the plays of that cover or grip that he makes. In the following, you will find them well-depicted and -written so that can be easily understood.</p>
 +
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| {{section|Page:MS M.383 2r.jpg|2r.6|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 2r.jpg|2r.6|lbl=-}}
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Line 573: Line 580:
  
 
<p>And in this way you can see all the art of fencing in this book, that cannot ever fail you, so well-worded are the explanations about the depicted figures.</p>
 
<p>And in this way you can see all the art of fencing in this book, that cannot ever fail you, so well-worded are the explanations about the depicted figures.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS M.383 2r.jpg|2r.7|lbl=-}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS M.383 2r.jpg|2r.7|lbl=-}}
| class="noline" |
 
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
Line 591: Line 598:
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the Pisani Dossi)}}<br/>by [[translator::Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the Pisani Dossi)}}<br/>by [[translator::Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[Paris does not contain Preface]</p>
 
! <p>[Paris does not contain Preface]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS XXIV)|San Daniele del Friuli Transcription]] (1699){{edit index| Fior di Battaglia (MS XXIV)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS XXIV)|San Daniele del Friuli Transcription]] (1699)<br/>by [[D. Luigi Zanutto]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
Line 689: Line 696:
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Pisani Dossi)}}<br/>by [[translator::Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Pisani Dossi)}}<br/>by [[translator::Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[Paris does not contain Preface]</p>
 
! <p>[Paris does not contain Preface]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS XXIV)|San Daniele del Friuli Transcription]] (1699){{edit index| Fior di Battaglia (MS XXIV)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS XXIV)|San Daniele del Friuli Transcription]] (1699)<br/>by [[D. Luigi Zanutto]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
Line 708: Line 715:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>And this present gloss will recite all our knowledge and our understanding of all that we have seen from many masters and scholars and fencers, and from dukes, princes, marquises, counts, knights, and squires, and from countless other men of diverse provinces, and also things that we discovered ourself. There will also be guards of all weapons, and plays, and covers, and strikes, and holds, and binds, and breaks, and dislocations of arms and legs, and torsions and lesions—in the most perilous places—following that which the master of this art wishes.</p>
+
| <p>And this present gloss will recite all our knowledge and our understanding of all that we have experienced from many masters and scholars and fencers, and from dukes, princes, marquises, counts, knights, and squires, and from countless other men of diverse provinces, and also things that we discovered ourself. There will also be guards of all weapons, and plays, and covers, and strikes, and holds, and binds, and breaks, and dislocations of arms and legs, and torsions and lesions—in the most perilous places—following that which the master of this art wishes.</p>
  
 
<p>So poorly can one keep in mind without books and writing this large art that there will never be a good student without books. How, then, could there be a good master? I, the aforementioned Fiore, have seen a thousand men calling themselves masters, though not four among them were good students, and of those four none would be a good teacher.</p>
 
<p>So poorly can one keep in mind without books and writing this large art that there will never be a good student without books. How, then, could there be a good master? I, the aforementioned Fiore, have seen a thousand men calling themselves masters, though not four among them were good students, and of those four none would be a good teacher.</p>
Line 1,119: Line 1,126:
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>''{{rating|B|PD}} by [[translator::Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty}} by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>''{{rating|B|PD}} by [[translator::Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty}} by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
! <p>{{rating|C|Paris}} by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]</p>
+
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris}} by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]]{{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]]{{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="10" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 16r.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="11" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|400px|center]]
| rowspan="10" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="11" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 16r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>''We are four animals with these features:<br/>Whoever wants to fence makes comparisons to us;<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>''We are four animals with these features:<br/>Whoever wants to fence makes comparisons to us;<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
| <p>''Behold! we are four distinguished animals with these [traits]<br/>Who, for instance, strongly reminds [that] he is able in arms;<br/>He wants to be clear/bright and even shining brightly with honesty.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>''Behold! we are four distinguished animals with these [traits]<br/>Who, for instance, strongly reminds [that] he is able in arms;<br/>He wants to be clear/bright and even shining brightly with honesty.''</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-c|lbl=17a}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-c|lbl=17a}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-c|lbl=1v}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-c|lbl=1v}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>''And whoever will have a good portion of our virtues<br/>Will have honor in weapons, as bespeaks the art.<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>''And whoever will have a good portion of our virtues<br/>Will have honor in weapons, as bespeaks the art.<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
| <p>''He undertakes the lessons for himself, [and] determines which [are for] harming.<br/>Impress the evidence made known upon your spirit. Thenceforth<br/>That [evidence] of arms will have been taught before among friends.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>''He undertakes the lessons for himself, [and] determines which [are for] harming.<br/>Impress the evidence made known upon your spirit. Thenceforth<br/>That [evidence] of arms will have been taught before among friends.''</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-d|lbl=-}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-d|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-d|lbl=-}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-d|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,152: Line 1,159:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>{{red|b=1|Prudence/Wisdom}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>{{red|b=1|Prudence/Wisdom}}</p>
  
 
<p>''No creature sees better than me, the Lynx.<br/>And I always set things in order with compass and measure.''</p>
 
<p>''No creature sees better than me, the Lynx.<br/>And I always set things in order with compass and measure.''</p>
| <p>{{red|b=1|Prudence}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>{{red|b=1|Prudence}}</p>
  
 
<p>''Everything born under the sky will be discerned with [my] eyes; I, the lynx,<br/>I conquer [by] measurement whatever it pleases [me] to attempt.</p>
 
<p>''Everything born under the sky will be discerned with [my] eyes; I, the lynx,<br/>I conquer [by] measurement whatever it pleases [me] to attempt.</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|32r-1|lbl=-}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|32r-1|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-t|lbl=-}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-tttl|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-t|lbl=-}}
+
 
 +
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-t|lbl=-}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-tttl|lbl=-}}
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-t|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,172: Line 1,183:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>{{red|b=1|Celerity/Speed}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>{{red|b=1|Celerity/Speed}}</p>
  
 
<p>''I, the tiger, am so swift to run and to wheel<br/>That even the bolt from the sky cannot overtake me.''</p>
 
<p>''I, the tiger, am so swift to run and to wheel<br/>That even the bolt from the sky cannot overtake me.''</p>
| <p>{{red|b=1|Quickness}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>{{red|b=1|Quickness}}</p>
  
 
<p>''I am quick in the hunt and roll the quick ones back in their orbit,<br/>Nor in my running will the lightning overcome the tiger.</p>
 
<p>''I am quick in the hunt and roll the quick ones back in their orbit,<br/>Nor in my running will the lightning overcome the tiger.</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|32r-3|lbl=-}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|32r-3|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-a|lbl=-}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-attl|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-a|lbl=-}}
+
 
 +
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-a|lbl=-}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-attl|lbl=-}}
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-a|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,192: Line 1,207:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>{{red|b=1|Audacity/Daring}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>{{red|b=1|Audacity/Daring}}</p>
  
 
<p>''None carries a more ardent heart than me, the lion,<br/>But to everyone I make an invitation to battle.''</p>
 
<p>''None carries a more ardent heart than me, the lion,<br/>But to everyone I make an invitation to battle.''</p>
| <p>{{red|b=1|Courage}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>{{red|b=1|Courage}}</p>
  
 
<p>''I am the quadruped, the strong crown; my brave things,<br/>For instance, are the foundation of every axis. Now conquers the lion of the heart;<br/>[...] Therefore, we call whomsoever to arms.</p>
 
<p>''I am the quadruped, the strong crown; my brave things,<br/>For instance, are the foundation of every axis. Now conquers the lion of the heart;<br/>[...] Therefore, we call whomsoever to arms.</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|32r-5|lbl=-}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|32r-5|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-b|lbl=-}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-bttl|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-b|lbl=-}}
+
 
 +
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-b|lbl=-}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-bttl|lbl=-}}
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-b|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,212: Line 1,231:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>{{red|b=1|Fortitude/Strength}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>{{red|b=1|Fortitude/Strength}}</p>
  
 
<p>''I am the elephant and I carry a castle as cargo,<br/>And I do not kneel nor lose my footing.''</p>
 
<p>''I am the elephant and I carry a castle as cargo,<br/>And I do not kneel nor lose my footing.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>{{red|b=1|Strength}}</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|32r-7|lbl=-}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-ettl|lbl=-}}
  
<p>I am the Elephant and I carry a castle in my care, and I neither fall to my knees nor lose my footing.<ref>“Ne perdo vargo” means literally “I do not lose my way”. From the Bestiaries however we understand that what the Elephant never does is fall over. In the Bestiaries we are told the Elephant has no knees and if it once lies down can never get up again. Thus Fiore’s Elephant stands for stability and sure-footedness. The Aberdeen Bestiary reads as follows: “[Of the elephant] ... no larger animal is seen. The Persians and Indians, carried in wooden towers on their backs, fight with javelins as from a wall. ...The elephant has this characteristic: if it falls down, it cannot rise. But it falls when it leans on a tree in order to sleep, for it has no joints in its knees. A hunter cuts part of the way through the tree, so that when the elephant leans against it, elephant and tree will fall together.”</ref></p>
+
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-e|lbl=-}}
| <p>{{red|b=1|Strength}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-ettl|lbl=-}}
|
+
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|32r-7|lbl=-}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-e|lbl=-}}
  
<p><br/><br/></p>
 
  
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|32r-8|lbl=-}}
+
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-e|lbl=-}}
+
|-
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-e|lbl=-}}
+
| <p>I am the Elephant and I carry a castle in my care, and I neither fall to my knees nor lose my footing.<ref>“Ne perdo vargo” means literally “I do not lose my way”. From the Bestiaries however we understand that what the Elephant never does is fall over. In the Bestiaries we are told the Elephant has no knees and if it once lies down can never get up again. Thus Fiore’s Elephant stands for stability and sure-footedness. The Aberdeen Bestiary reads as follows: “[Of the elephant] ... no larger animal is seen. The Persians and Indians, carried in wooden towers on their backs, fight with javelins as from a wall. ...The elephant has this characteristic: if it falls down, it cannot rise. But it falls when it leans on a tree in order to sleep, for it has no joints in its knees. A hunter cuts part of the way through the tree, so that when the elephant leans against it, elephant and tree will fall together.”</ref></p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|32r-8|lbl=-}}
 +
|  
 +
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,255: Line 1,282:
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Getty and PD)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
+
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the Paris)}}<br/>by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]</p>
+
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]]{{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]]{{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,273: Line 1,300:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" |  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-a.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-a.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[2] {{red|b=1|[The Long Guard]}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[2] {{red|b=1|[The Long Guard]}}</p>
  
 
<p>''I am ready to show you how I win with my holds,<br/>And if I don’t leave you wondering what happened, you can count yourself lucky.''</p>
 
<p>''I am ready to show you how I win with my holds,<br/>And if I don’t leave you wondering what happened, you can count yourself lucky.''</p>
| <p><br/></p>
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
  
 
<p>''Even if you capture me, I would win; I am truly prepared.<br/>If I do not deceive you, you will be able to benefit for a short while.''</p>
 
<p>''Even if you capture me, I would win; I am truly prepared.<br/>If I do not deceive you, you will be able to benefit for a short while.''</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
<br/>
+
 
 
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-a}}
 
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-a}}
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
<br/>
+
 
 
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-a}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-a}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>I am ''Posta Longa'' and I seek you like this. And in response to the first grapple that you attempt on me I will bring my right arm up under your left arm. And I will then execute the first play of Grappling. And with that lock I will force you to the ground. And if that lock looks like it will fail me, then I will switch to one of the other locks that follow.</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>I am ''Posta Longa'' and I seek you like this. And in response to the first grapple that you attempt on me I will bring my right arm up under your left arm. And I will then execute the first play of Grappling. And with that lock I will force you to the ground. And if that lock looks like it will fail me, then I will switch to one of the other locks that follow.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-a}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-a}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" |  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-b.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-b.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[3] {{red|b=1|[The Boar's Tooth]}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[3] {{red|b=1|[The Boar's Tooth]}}</p>
  
 
<p>''I seek to reverse the fight,<br/>And from this position I will force you to the ground.''</p>
 
<p>''I seek to reverse the fight,<br/>And from this position I will force you to the ground.''</p>
| <p><br/></p>
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
  
 
<p>''I seek to shift, <for> which reason I would be able to deceive you well.<br/>Henceforth, I would turn you, using the speeding chest, through the dirt.''</p>
 
<p>''I seek to shift, <for> which reason I would be able to deceive you well.<br/>Henceforth, I would turn you, using the speeding chest, through the dirt.''</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
<br/>
+
 
 
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-b}}
 
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-b}}
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
<br/>
+
 
 
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-b}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-b}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>I counter you with ''Dente di Zenghiaro''. And with this move I am sure to break your grip. And from this guard I can transition to ''Porta di Ferro'', which will force you to the ground. And if my plan fails me because of your defense, I will seek other ways to hurt you, for example with breaks, binds and dislocations, as you see depicted in these drawings.</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>I counter you with ''Dente di Zenghiaro''. And with this move I am sure to break your grip. And from this guard I can transition to ''Porta di Ferro'', which will force you to the ground. And if my plan fails me because of your defense, I will seek other ways to hurt you, for example with breaks, binds and dislocations, as you see depicted in these drawings.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-b}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-c.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-c.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[4] {{red|b=1|[The Iron Gate]}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[4] {{red|b=1|[The Iron Gate]}}</p>
  
 
<p>''If you fail to beat me with your skill, I believe<br/>That with my power I will hurt you, or worse.''</p>
 
<p>''If you fail to beat me with your skill, I believe<br/>That with my power I will hurt you, or worse.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
  
<p>I wait for you without moving in ''Porta di Ferro'', ready to grapple with all of my skill. And this guard can be applied not only in the art of grappling, but also in the art of the Spear, the Poleaxe, the Sword, and the Dagger. For I am ''Porta di Ferro'', full of danger. Those who oppose me will always end up in pain and suffering. And as for those of you who come against me trying to get your hands on me, I will force you to the ground.</p>
+
<p>''If you do not conquer with a trick, I can, of course, believe [that]<br/>By my strength, that one &lt;that is, you&gt; will suffer many calamities.''</p>
| <p><br/></p>
+
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-c}}
 +
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-c}}
  
<p>''If you do not conquer with a trick, I can, of course, believe [that]<br/>By my strength, that one <that is, you> will suffer many calamities.''</p>
+
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>I wait for you without moving in ''Porta di Ferro'', ready to grapple with all of my skill. And this guard can be applied not only in the art of grappling, but also in the art of the Spear, the Poleaxe, the Sword, and the Dagger. For I am ''Porta di Ferro'', full of danger. Those who oppose me will always end up in pain and suffering. And as for those of you who come against me trying to get your hands on me, I will force you to the ground.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-c}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/>
 
 
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-c}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
<br/>
 
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-c}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
<br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-c}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-d.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-d.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[5] {{red|b=1|[The Guard of the Forehead]}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[5] {{red|b=1|[The Guard of the Forehead]}}</p>
  
 
<p>''I advance upon you with my arms well forward<br/>To lay hands on you in a variety of ways.''</p>
 
<p>''I advance upon you with my arms well forward<br/>To lay hands on you in a variety of ways.''</p>
 
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
<p>I am ''Posta Frontale'', used to get my hands on you. Now if I come against you in this guard, you may lay hands on me. But I will then move from this guard, and with skill I will take you down to ''Porta di Ferro''. Then I will make you suffer as if you had fallen into the depths of hell. And I will serve you so effectively with locks and dislocations, that you will quickly acknowledge my superiority. And as long as I don’t forget my skills, I will gain my superior holds.</p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
  
 
<p>''Behold!  I am coming, eager to overcome by means of the stretched shoulder,<br/>In order that I gain for myself a powerful capturing during the playing.''</p>
 
<p>''Behold!  I am coming, eager to overcome by means of the stretched shoulder,<br/>In order that I gain for myself a powerful capturing during the playing.''</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
<br/>
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-d}}
 
|
 
<br/>
 
 
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-d}}
 
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-d}}
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
<br/>
+
 
 
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-d}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-d}}
 +
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>I am ''Posta Frontale'', used to get my hands on you. Now if I come against you in this guard, you may lay hands on me. But I will then move from this guard, and with skill I will take you down to ''Porta di Ferro''. Then I will make you suffer as if you had fallen into the depths of hell. And I will serve you so effectively with locks and dislocations, that you will quickly acknowledge my superiority. And as long as I don’t forget my skills, I will gain my superior holds.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-d}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-a.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[6] ''With this move I will either force you to the ground<br/>Or else your left arm will be dislocated.''</p>
 
 
<p>This is the first play of ''Abrazare'' and from every grappling guard you can arrive at this play, and from this position, proceed as follows: jam his right inside elbow with your left hand, and bring your right hand up behind and against his left elbow as shown. Now quickly make the second play, that is to say, having gripped him like this, turn your body to the left, and as a result he either goes to the ground or his arm will be dislocated.</p>
 
| <p>''In this way, I, using a capturing, would make you touch the earth.<br/>I will dislocate your left shoulder, or perhaps the other.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
+
|  
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-a}}
+
|  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-a}}
+
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39r.jpg|39r-b}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Cod.1324 29r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-b.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-a.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[7] ''Either I will make you kiss the ground with your mouth,<br/>Or I will force you into the lower lock.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[6] ''With this move I will either force you to the ground<br/>Or else your left arm will be dislocated.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''In this way, I, using a capturing, would make you touch the earth.<br/>I will dislocate your left shoulder, or perhaps the other.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-a}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39r.jpg|39r-b}}
  
<p>As the Scholar of the First ''Abrazare'' Remedy Master says, I am certain to put this man to the ground, either by breaking or dislocating his left arm. And if the ''Zugadore'' who fights with the First ''Abrazare'' Remedy Master takes his left hand off the shoulder of the Remedy Master in order to make a defense, then I will quickly let go of his right arm with my left hand and instead seize his left leg with my left hand, and grip his throat with my right hand in order to throw him to the ground, as you see depicted in the third play.</p>
+
|-
| <p>''I would compel you, ugly, to lick the ground with your mouth;<br/>Not to mention I would even make you, wretched, enter the lowest key.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>This is the first play of ''Abrazare'' and from every grappling guard you can arrive at this play, and from this position, proceed as follows: jam his right inside elbow with your left hand, and bring your right hand up behind and against his left elbow as shown. Now quickly make the second play, that is to say, having gripped him like this, turn your body to the left, and as a result he either goes to the ground or his arm will be dislocated.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-a}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]''</p>
+
|-
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39r.jpg|39r-d}}
 
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-c.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[8] ''And I will put you on the ground on your back,<br/>And I will not let you back up again without injury.''</p>
 
 
<p>The scholar that came before me speaks truly that from his hold he will force his opponent to the ground or dislocate his left arm. As he told you, if the ''Zugadore'' takes away his left hand from the shoulder of the Remedy Master, then the Remedy Master transitions to the Third Play, as you see depicted here. Thus, the First play and the Second play are really one single play, where the Remedy Master forces the ''Zugadore'' to the ground with a turn of his body, while in this Third play the ''Zugadore'' is thrown to the ground onto his back.</p>
 
| <p>''I would throw you, without pause, into the farthest earth up to the kidneys.<br/>Without you being able to rise from ominous punishment at all.''<ref>''Nec sine'' is an emphatic, not a negation.</ref></p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39v.jpg|39v-b}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Cod.1324 29r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-d.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-b.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[9] ''Even if you were a master of grappling,<br/>I will force you to the ground with this technique.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[7] ''Either I will make you kiss the ground with your mouth,<br/>Or I will force you into the lower lock.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''I would compel you, ugly, to lick the ground with your mouth;<br/>Not to mention I would even make you, wretched, enter the lowest key.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-b}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39r.jpg|39r-d}}
  
<p>This is the Fourth Play of ''Abrazare'', by which the ''Scholaro'' [Student] can easily force the ''Zugadore'' to the ground. And if he cannot force him to ground like this, he will seek other plays and techniques and use other methods, as you will see depicted below. You should know that the plays and the techniques will not always work in every situation, so if you do not have a good hold, you should quickly seek one, so as not to let your opponent gain any advantage over you.</p>
+
|-
| <p>''In this way, I would make you sink down to the earth using a capturing,<br/>If you were being better during the entire playing by the masters.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>As the Scholar of the First ''Abrazare'' Remedy Master says, I am certain to put this man to the ground, either by breaking or dislocating his left arm. And if the ''Zugadore'' who fights with the First ''Abrazare'' Remedy Master takes his left hand off the shoulder of the Remedy Master in order to make a defense, then I will quickly let go of his right arm with my left hand and instead seize his left leg with my left hand, and grip his throat with my right hand in order to throw him to the ground, as you see depicted in the third play.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]''</p>
+
|-
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]</p>
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39v.jpg|39v-d}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-e.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[10] ''With the grips that I have on you above and below,<br/>I will break open your head on the ground.''</p>
 
 
<p>This grip that I make with my right hand at your throat will bring you pain and suffering, and with it I will force you to the ground. Also let me tell you that if I seize you under your left knee with my right hand, I will be even more certain of driving you into the ground.</p>
 
| <p>''Because of capturing, <by> wrestling above and below<br/>You will pound the earth with the top of your head. The fates will not refuse.''</p>
 
 
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-e}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40r.jpg|40r-b}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r-b.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-c.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[11] ''Your hand in my face is well placed,<br/>But I will now show you some other moves.<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[8] ''And I will put you on the ground on your back,<br/>And I will not let you back up again without injury.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''I would throw you, without pause, into the farthest earth up to the kidneys.<br/>Without you being able to rise from ominous punishment at all.''<ref>''Nec sine'' is an emphatic, not a negation.</ref></p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-c}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39v.jpg|39v-b}}
  
<p>I am the counter of the Fifth Play [10] that is shown earlier. And let me explain that if with my right hand I push up the elbow of his hand that seeks to harm me, I will turn him in such a way that either I will force him to the ground, as you see here depicted, or I will gain a hold or a lock, and so I will have little concern for his grappling skills.</p>
+
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>The scholar that came before me speaks truly that from his hold he will force his opponent to the ground or dislocate his left arm. As he told you, if the ''Zugadore'' takes away his left hand from the shoulder of the Remedy Master, then the Remedy Master transitions to the Third Play, as you see depicted here. Thus, the First play and the Second play are really one single play, where the Remedy Master forces the ''Zugadore'' to the ground with a turn of his body, while in this Third play the ''Zugadore'' is thrown to the ground onto his back.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-c}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>''[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]''</p>
+
|-
| <p>''I served up the palms to the face.<ref>''Apposui'' is clearly “I served up,” but with the convention that the captions are spoken by the wearer of the crown or garter, this makes little sense (as the palms are in the face of that person). Further, the Pisani Dossi text reverses the speaker.</ref> But still I cheerfully moved<br/>Those [palms] from that place, <in order that> I would therefore be able to<br/>Bury you using the other capturing.''</p>
+
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-f}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40r.jpg|40r-c}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-a.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[12] ''By putting my head under your arm,<br/>I will easily throw you to the ground.''</p>
 
 
<p>From this hold that I have gained, and by the way I hold you, I will lift you off the ground with my strength and throw you down under my feet head first with your body following. And as far as I am concerned, you will not be able to counter me.</p>
 
| <p>''You, confused one, will be spread on the ground (like a tarp) in sadness and disorder;<br/>This, because I am holding [your arm] on the left <and put> the head of this person <that is, me> under the shoulder.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40v.jpg|40v-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-b.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-d.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[13] ''Because of my thumb pressing under your left ear,<br/>Your hold on me is failing, as you can see depicted here.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[9] ''Even if you were a master of grappling,<br/>I will force you to the ground with this technique.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''In this way, I would make you sink down to the earth using a capturing,<br/>If you were being better during the entire playing by the masters.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-d}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39v.jpg|39v-d}}
  
<p>When I press my thumb under your ear you will feel so much pain that you will go to the ground for sure, or I will make other hold or lock that will be worse than torture for you. The counter that can be made is the Sixth play [11] made against the Fifth Play [10] when he puts his hand underneath his opponent’s elbow. This counter can certainly be done to me here.</p>
+
|-
| <p>''{{highlight|I but hold}} this finger to the left ear during wrestling,<br/>In order that you destroy the capturing by which you were keeping the upper hand on me.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>This is the Fourth Play of ''Abrazare'', by which the ''Scholaro'' [Student] can easily force the ''Zugadore'' to the ground. And if he cannot force him to ground like this, he will seek other plays and techniques and use other methods, as you will see depicted below. You should know that the plays and the techniques will not always work in every situation, so if you do not have a good hold, you should quickly seek one, so as not to let your opponent gain any advantage over you.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-d}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]''</p>
+
|-
 +
|
 +
| <p>[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
+
|
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-d}}
+
|
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-b}}
+
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40v.jpg|40v-d}}
+
|-
 +
| rowspan="3" |
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[10] ''With the grips that I have on you above and below,<br/>I will break open your head on the ground.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''Because of capturing, &lt;by&gt; wrestling above and below<br/>You will pound the earth with the top of your head. The fates will not refuse.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |  
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-e}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40r.jpg|40r-b}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p>This grip that I make with my right hand at your throat will bring you pain and suffering, and with it I will force you to the ground. Also let me tell you that if I seize you under your left knee with my right hand, I will be even more certain of driving you into the ground.</p>
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-c.png|400px|center]]
+
| class="noline" |
| <p>[14] ''With great cunning you grabbed me from behind,<br/>But this move will throw you to the ground without fail.''</p>
+
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-a}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>You seized me from behind in order to throw me to the ground, and I turned like this. And if I fail to throw you to the ground you will have a lucky escape. This play is a good finishing move, but unless this is done quickly, this remedy will fail.</p>
+
|-
| <p>''<If you>, Traitor, by your art have seized me from behind,<br/>This capturing nevertheless puts <and buries> you in the deepest ground.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]</p>
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41r.jpg|41r-a}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-d.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[15] ''This is a grappling move that involves the ''Gambarola'',<br/>But be aware that this move will not always work.''</p>
 
 
<p>This is a play that involves a throw over the leg [''Gambarola''] which is a risky move in grappling. So if you want to make this leg throw successfully, you will need to do it with power and speed.</p>
 
| <p>''Here, meanwhile, the play of turning of legs is discussed.<br/>{{highlight|However, it}} is not suitable; it often fails at holding.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41r.jpg|41r-c}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-e.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r-b.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[16] ''This is a good hold to practice,<br/>For I can hold you without you being able to harm me.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[11] ''Your hand in my face is well placed,<br/>But I will now show you some other moves.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''I served up the palms to the face.<ref>''Apposui'' is clearly “I served up,” but with the convention that the captions are spoken by the wearer of the crown or garter, this makes little sense (as the palms are in the face of that person). Further, the Pisani Dossi text reverses the speaker.</ref> But still I cheerfully moved<br/>Those [palms] from that place, &lt;in order that&gt; I would therefore be able to<br/>Bury you using the other capturing.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-f}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40r.jpg|40r-c}}
  
<p>This is a finishing move and it is a good way to hold someone, because they cannot defend themselves. For the counter, the one who is being held should move as quickly as he can over to a wall or a post and drive himself backwards against it so that the man holding him breaks his head or his back against the aforementioned wall or post.</p>
+
|-
| <p>''By the joint, thought and mind, the capturing is called Outsider.<br/>In this way, at last, I will force you, gloomy one, to endure.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>I am the counter of the Fifth Play [10] that is shown earlier. And let me explain that if with my right hand I push up the elbow of his hand that seeks to harm me, I will turn him in such a way that either I will force him to the ground, as you see here depicted, or I will gain a hold or a lock, and so I will have little concern for his grappling skills.</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
<br/><br/>
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-b}}
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-c}}
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-e}}
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41v.jpg|41v-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|
+
| <p>[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]</p>
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-f.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[17] ''I will strike you so hard in the groin<br/>That all of your strength will be taken away.''</p>
 
 
 
<p>This student strikes his opponent with a knee to the groin to gain advantage in order to throw him to the ground. To make the counter, when your opponent comes in quickly to strike you in the groin with his knee, seize his right leg under the knee with your right hand, and throw him to the ground.</p>
 
| <p>''In this way, &lt;I&gt; myself would destroy your testicles with a hard<br/>Knee, so that no strength will be present in the heart.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-f}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41v.jpg|41v-d}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-a.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[18] ''I'll give you so much pain and suffering to your nose<br/>That I will immediately make you let go of me.''</p>
 
 
<p>If you seize me with both your arms underneath mine, I will strike with both my hands into your face. And even if you were well armored this would still make you let go. The counter of this play is to place your right hand under the left elbow of your opponent and push hard upwards, and you will be able to free yourself.</p>
 
| <p>''I will redouble so many<ref>''Tot'': so many, such a number.</ref> pains which your nose is suffering<br/>That I believe you will quickly release me [who {{highlight|am}}] fighting with you.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42r.jpg|42r-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-b.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-a.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[19] ''No doubt about it, with this move I will free myself<br/>And with this counter you will be thrown to the ground.<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[12] ''By putting my head under your arm,<br/>I will easily throw you to the ground.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''You, confused one, will be spread on the ground (like a tarp) in sadness and disorder;<br/>This, because I am holding [your arm] on the left &lt;and put&gt; the head of this person &lt;that is, me&gt; under the shoulder.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-a}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40v.jpg|40v-a}}
  
<p>This shows how I make the counter to the thirteenth play [18]. As you can see his hands have been removed from my face. And from this hold, if I fail to throw him to the ground I will be worthy of your disdain.</p>
+
|-
 
+
| class="noline" | <p>From this hold that I have gained, and by the way I hold you, I will lift you off the ground with my strength and throw you down under my feet head first with your body following. And as far as I am concerned, you will not be able to counter me.</p>
<p>''[In the Getty, the master grabs the scholar's right elbow rather than his left wrist.]''</p>
+
| class="noline" |
| <p>''I set up your limbs using a similar capturing (and so we demonstrate).<br/>Nevertheless, <you>, miserable ruined one, will depart<br/>By means of the counter, as you will duly see if you examine [it] by the light of day.''</p>
+
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-c}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>''[In the Paris, the Master is missing his crown.]''</p>
+
|-
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42r.jpg|42r-d}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-c.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[20] ''I will hurt you under your chin so badly<br/>That you will quickly find yourself thrown onto your back.''</p>
 
 
<p>If you come to grips with both your arms underneath your opponent's, then you can attack his face as you see depicted, especially if his face is not protected. You can also transition from here into the third play of grappling.</p>
 
| <p>''And I drag many pains to you below your chin,<br/>So that I touch the farthest earth with the sorrowful kidneys.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42v.jpg|42v-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| rowspan="3" |
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[13] ''Because of my thumb pressing under your left ear,<br/>Your hold on me is failing, as you can see depicted here.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''{{highlight|I but hold}} this finger to the left ear during wrestling,<br/>In order that you destroy the capturing by which you were keeping the upper hand on me.''</p>
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | <p>[21] ''With your hands in my face you can cause me trouble,<br/>But with this counter to your eyes, I will cause you even more trouble.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-b}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40v.jpg|40v-d}}
  
<p>This is the counter to the fourteenth play [20], and to any other play where my opponent has his hands in my face while grappling with me. If his face is unprotected, I push my thumbs into his eyes. If his face is protected, I push up under his elbow and quickly move to a ''presa'' or a ''ligadura''.</p>
+
|-
 
+
| class="noline" | <p>When I press my thumb under your ear you will feel so much pain that you will go to the ground for sure, or I will make other hold or lock that will be worse than torture for you. The counter that can be made is the Sixth play [11] made against the Fifth Play [10] when he puts his hand underneath his opponent’s elbow. This counter can certainly be done to me here.</p>
<p>''[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]''</p>
+
| class="noline" |
| class="noline" | <p>''Here, by this twin play, you press the face with the hand.<br/>But the counter, thenceforth, will injure the eye more greatly.''</p>
+
| class="noline" |
 
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-d}}
<p>''[In the Paris, the Master is missing his crown.]''</p>
 
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-d}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-d}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42v.jpg|42v-d}}
 
 
|}
 
{{master end}}
 
 
{{master begin
 
| title = Baton
 
| width = 240em
 
}}
 
{| class="master"
 
|-
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Getty and PD)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draf Translation (from the Paris)}}<br/>by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
 
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]]{{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]]{{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-e.png|400px|center]]
+
| <p>[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]</p>
| <p>[1] ''With a short staff I bind your neck,<br/>And if I fail to put you into the ground, you can count yourself lucky.''</p>
 
 
 
<p>See how with a short staff I hold you bound by your neck. And from here if I wish to throw you to the ground I will have little trouble doing so. And if I choose to do worse to you I can keep this strong bind applied. And you will not be able to counter this play.</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-e}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-f.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-c.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[2] ''If this short staff play does not put you on the ground,<br/>Then I will have no faith in the effectiveness of this art.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[14] ''With great cunning you grabbed me from behind,<br/>But this move will throw you to the ground without fail.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''&lt;If you&gt;, Traitor, by your art have seized me from behind,<br/>This capturing nevertheless puts &lt;and buries&gt; you in the deepest ground.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-c}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41r.jpg|41r-a}}
  
<p>If you were well armored then I would prefer to make this play against you than the previous one. Now that I have caught you between your legs with the short staff, you are stuck riding it like a horse, but you won't be trapped like this long before I turn you upside down onto your back.</p>
+
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>You seized me from behind in order to throw me to the ground, and I turned like this. And if I fail to throw you to the ground you will have a lucky escape. This play is a good finishing move, but unless this is done quickly, this remedy will fail.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-a}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
''[In the Getty, the Scholar steps between his opponent's legs.]''
+
|-
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| <br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-f}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[3] I am the Student of the Sixth Remedy Master of the Daga, who counters in this way with his dagger. And it is in his honor that I make this cover with my short staff. And from here I will rise quickly to my feet and I will make the plays of my Master. And this cover that I have made with a short staff can also be done with a hood. And the counter to this move is the same counter shown by my Master [in the dagger section].</p>
 
 
<p>''[Based on the description, the placement of this illustration is probably an error and it more likely belongs to the following play.]''</p>
 
|
 
|
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-c}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| rowspan="3" |
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[15] ''This is a grappling move that involves the ''Gambarola'',<br/>But be aware that this move will not always work.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''Here, meanwhile, the play of turning of legs is discussed.<br/>{{highlight|However, it}} is not suitable; it often fails at holding.''</p>
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v-d.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | <p>[4] I have taken this remedy from the Eighth Remedy Master of the Dagger, and I can defend myself armed only with this short staff. And having made this cover I rise to my feet, and I can then make all of the plays of my Master. And I could defend myself in this way equally well with a hood or a piece of rope. And the counter to this move is the same counter shown by my Master.</p>
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-d}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41r.jpg|41r-c}}
  
<p>''[Based on the description, the placement of this illustration is probably an error and it more likely belongs to the previous play.]''</p>
+
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>This is a play that involves a throw over the leg [''Gambarola''] which is a risky move in grappling. So if you want to make this leg throw successfully, you will need to do it with power and speed.</p>
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-d}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-b}}
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
|}
 
{{master end}}
 
 
{{master begin
 
| title = Dagger
 
| width = 100%
 
}}
 
{{master subsection begin
 
| title = Introduction
 
| width = 240em
 
}}
 
{| class="master"
 
|-
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Complete Translation (from the Getty and PD)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the Paris)}}<br/>by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
 
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]]{{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]]{{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| style="text-align:center; vertical-align:middle;" | [No illustration]
 
| <p>[1] <section begin="dagger 1"/>These five figures are the guards of the dagger; and some are good in armor; and some are good without armor; and some are good both in or out of armor; and some are good in armor but not good without armor; and all these are displayed below.<section end="dagger 1"/></p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-t}}
+
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-e.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[2] <section begin="dagger 2"/>{{red|b=1|[Full Iron Gate, Single]}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[16] ''This is a good hold to practice,<br/>For I can hold you without you being able to harm me.''</p>
<p>I am Full Iron Gate Single. And I am good in armour and without armour, because I can ward off an attack with or without moving to grapple. And I can play with or without a dagger when I make my covers.</p><section end="dagger 2"/>
+
| class="noline" | <p>''By the joint, thought and mind, the capturing is called Outsider.<br/>In this way, at last, I will force you, gloomy one, to endure.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-e}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41v.jpg|41v-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>This is a finishing move and it is a good way to hold someone, because they cannot defend themselves. For the counter, the one who is being held should move as quickly as he can over to a wall or a post and drive himself backwards against it so that the man holding him breaks his head or his back against the aforementioned wall or post.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-c}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-a}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="3" |
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[17] ''I will strike you so hard in the groin<br/>That all of your strength will be taken away.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''In this way, &lt;I&gt; myself would destroy your testicles with a hard<br/>Knee, so that no strength will be present in the heart.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-f}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41v.jpg|41v-d}}
 +
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>This student strikes his opponent with a knee to the groin to gain advantage in order to throw him to the ground. To make the counter, when your opponent comes in quickly to strike you in the groin with his knee, seize his right leg under the knee with your right hand, and throw him to the ground.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-d}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[3] <section begin="dagger 3"/>{{red|b=1|[Full Iron Door, Doubled]}}</p>
 
 
<p>I am Full Iron Gate Doubled, and I am good in armour and without armour, but in all situations I am better in armour than without armour, and with a guard like this I cannot use a dagger.</p><section end="dagger 3"/>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-b}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="3" |
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[18] ''I'll give you so much pain and suffering to your nose<br/>That I will immediately make you let go of me.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''I will redouble so many<ref>''Tot'': so many, such a number.</ref> pains which your nose is suffering<br/>That I believe you will quickly release me [who {{highlight|am}}] fighting with you.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-a}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42r.jpg|42r-a}}
 +
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>If you seize me with both your arms underneath mine, I will strike with both my hands into your face. And even if you were well armored this would still make you let go. The counter of this play is to place your right hand under the left elbow of your opponent and push hard upwards, and you will be able to free yourself.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-a}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r-e.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[4] <section begin="dagger 4"/>{{red|b=1|[Middle Iron Gate, Doubled]}}</p>
 
 
<p>I am Middle Iron Gate with dagger in hand and I am doubled, and I am better and more strong than any of the others, and I am good in armour and without armour, and I can cover low and high on either side.</p><section end="dagger 4"/>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-e}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r-f.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-b.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[5] <section begin="dagger 5"/>{{red|b=1|[Full Iron Door, Doubled and Crossed]}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[19] ''No doubt about it, with this move I will free myself<br/>And with this counter you will be thrown to the ground.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''I set up your limbs using a similar capturing (and so we demonstrate).<br/>Nevertheless, &lt;you&gt;, miserable ruined one, will depart<br/>By means of the counter, as you will duly see if you examine [it] by the light of day.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-b}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42r.jpg|42r-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>This shows how I make the counter to the thirteenth play [18]. As you can see his hands have been removed from my face. And from this hold, if I fail to throw him to the ground I will be worthy of your disdain.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>And I am Full Iron Gate with the arms crossed and doubled. And I am like a mighty fortress, and in armour I am especially strong. But without armour I am not sufficient, because I cannot cover long.</p><section end="dagger 5"/>
+
|-
 +
| <p>[In the Getty, the master grabs the scholar's right elbow rather than his left wrist.]</p>
 +
| <p>[In the Paris, the Master is missing his crown.]</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
|
 
<br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-f}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-c.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[6] <section begin="dagger 6"/>{{red|b=1|[Middle Iron Gate, Doubled and Crossed]}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[20] ''I will hurt you under your chin so badly<br/>That you will quickly find yourself thrown onto your back.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''And I drag many pains to you below your chin,<br/>So that I touch the farthest earth with the sorrowful kidneys.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-c}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42v.jpg|42v-a}}
  
<p>And I am Middle Iron Gate doubled and crossed [with dagger]. And I am good in armour but not without armour, because I cannot cover long, but I can cover above and below, from the right and the left, with or without a dagger.</p><section end="dagger 6"/>
+
|-
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p>If you come to grips with both your arms underneath your opponent's, then you can attack his face as you see depicted, especially if his face is not protected. You can also transition from here into the third play of grappling.</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
<br/>
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-c}}
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-c}}
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" |
 
| style="text-align:center; vertical-align:middle;" rowspan="2" | [No illustration]
 
| <p>[7] <section begin="dagger 7"/>I am the noble weapon named the dagger who plays at very close range, and he who understands my malice and my art will also gain a good understanding of many other weapons. And since I finish my fight fiercely and quickly, there is no man who can stand against my method. Whoever witnesses my deeds of arms will see me make covers and thrusts as I move to grapple, and will see me take away the dagger by dislocating and binding arms, and against me neither weapons nor armour will be of any use.<section end="dagger 7"/></p>
 
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
| <p>[8] <section begin="dagger 8"/>Everyone should take care when facing the perilous dagger, and your arms, hands and elbows must go quickly against it, to do these five things, namely: take away the dagger; strike; dislocate the arms; bind the arms; and force your opponent to the ground. And never fail to do one or the other of these five things; And may he who seeks to defend himself protect himself in this way.<section end="dagger 8"/></p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
|
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-a}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="4" |  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| rowspan="4" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v-a.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[9] <section begin="dagger 9"/>With the ''fendente'' I can strike to the head and the body from the elbow up to the top of the head. But below the elbow I cannot be sure that I can make this strike without danger, and therefore I am reluctant to strike lower.<section end="dagger 9"/></p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[21] ''With your hands in my face you can cause me trouble,<br/>But with this counter to your eyes, I will cause you even more trouble.''</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p>''Here, by this twin play, you press the face with the hand.<br/>But the counter, thenceforth, will injure the eye more greatly.''</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-b}}
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-d}}
|  
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42v.jpg|42v-d}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[10] <section begin="dagger 10"/>From the left (reverse) side, you can strike from the elbow to end at the temple of the head. And these are called the ''colpi mezani'' (middle strikes). And these reverse strikes from the left cannot be delivered if you are still waiting to make cover against your opponent’s attack.<section end="dagger 10"/></p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>This is the counter to the fourteenth play [20], and to any other play where my opponent has his hands in my face while grappling with me. If his face is unprotected, I push my thumbs into his eyes. If his face is protected, I push up under his elbow and quickly move to a ''presa'' or a ''ligadura''.</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-c}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-d}}
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[11] <section begin="dagger 11"/>From the right side you can strike or cover if needed, and your target ranges from the elbows to the temples of the head. And this strike is more safely made from the right side than made from the left side.<section end="dagger 11"/></p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p>[In the Paris, the Master is missing his crown.]</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-d}}
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |
|
+
| class="noline" |  
 +
 
 +
|}
 +
{{master end}}
  
 +
{{master begin
 +
| title = Baton
 +
| width = 240em
 +
}}
 +
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[12] <section begin="dagger 12"/>The dagger that goes through the middle towards the head strikes below the chest and never higher. And while striking you should at all times make cover with your left hand.<section end="dagger 12"/></p>
+
! <p>Illustrations</p>
|  
+
! <p>Illustrations</p>
|  
+
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-e}}
+
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
|  
+
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
|  
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="3" |
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[1] ''With a short staff I bind your neck,<br/>And if I fail to put you into the ground, you can count yourself lucky.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-e}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>See how with a short staff I hold you bound by your neck. And from here if I wish to throw you to the ground I will have little trouble doing so. And if I choose to do worse to you I can keep this strong bind applied. And you will not be able to counter this play.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |  
 +
| class="noline" |  
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-a}}
 +
| class="noline" |  
 +
| class="noline" |  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[13] <section begin="dagger 13"/>''After taking away your dagger, to signify my victory<br/>I hold it in my raised hand in this manner.''</p>
 
 
<p>In my right hand I hold your dagger, and I gained it through my skill, which is so good that if you draw a dagger on me, I will take it from your hand. And I know well how to strike to finish you, no matter what advantage you might have.</p><section end="dagger 13"/>
 
| <p>''Now sealed with the palm, thus I carry the safe dagger.<br/>With my hands I would lift [the dagger] itself, all having been carried.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
+
|  
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r.jpg|10r-a}}
+
|  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-a}}
+
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21r.jpg|21r-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r-b.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-f.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[14] <section begin="dagger 14"/>''Because I triumph over those who fight with me,<br/>I carry torn-off broken arms as a decoration.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[2] ''If this short staff play does not put you on the ground,<br/>Then I will have no faith in the effectiveness of this art.''</p>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-f}}
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>I choose to symbolize my skill with the broken arms I carry. And I do not lie when I tell you that I have broken and dislocated many arms in my life. And whoever chooses to go against my art, will find me always ready to use that art against him.</p><section end="dagger 14"/>
+
|-
| <p>''Whereas I would overcome all which can war with me;<br/>Distinguished, I carry before me broken arms in [my] hands.</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>If you were well armored then I would prefer to make this play against you than the previous one. Now that I have caught you between your legs with the short staff, you are stuck riding it like a horse, but you won't be trapped like this long before I turn you upside down onto your back.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
 +
|-
 +
| <p>[In the Getty, the Scholar steps between his opponent's legs.]</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r.jpg|10r-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21r.jpg|21r-b}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[15] <section begin="dagger 15"/>''Locking the arms of all opponents<br/>In such a way that none can safely extend their right hand,<br/>To show my success I carry a pair of keys in my hand.''</p>
 
 
<p>I am the Master of the unlocking and locking of the arms of those who choose to oppose me. I will cause them great pain and suffering with my techniques of binding and dislocating. And therefore I carry these keys to signify the value of my art.</p><section end="dagger 15"/>
 
| <p>''Nailing together the arms of all fighting in the region<br/>In such a way that they would not be able to extend the safe right,<br/>Now happily I thus collect two keys in my hands.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r.jpg|10r-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21r.jpg|21r-c}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| rowspan="2" |
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[3] I am the Student of the Sixth Remedy Master of the Daga, who counters in this way with his dagger. And it is in his honor that I make this cover with my short staff. And from here I will rise quickly to my feet and I will make the plays of my Master. And this cover that I have made with a short staff can also be done with a hood. And the counter to this move is the same counter shown by my Master [in the dagger section].</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-c}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 +
|-
 +
| <p>[Based on the description, the placement of this illustration is probably an error and it more likely belongs to the following play.]</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="3" |
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v-d.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[4] I have taken this remedy from the Eighth Remedy Master of the Dagger, and I can defend myself armed only with this short staff. And having made this cover I rise to my feet, and I can then make all of the plays of my Master. And I could defend myself in this way equally well with a hood or a piece of rope. And the counter to this move is the same counter shown by my Master.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-d}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[Based on the description, the placement of this illustration is probably an error and it more likely belongs to the previous play.]</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| class="noline" | <p>[16] <section begin="dagger 16"/>''You ask how I force others to the ground under my feet with such prowess,<br/>I tell you that because I grapple each man and throw him down;<br/>The victory palm is appropriately held in my right hand.''</p>
 
 
<p>You ask how it is that I have this man held under my feet. Thousands have suffered this fate because of my art of Abrazare. And I carry the victory palm in my right hand, because no one can stand up to my grappling skills.</p><section end="dagger 16"/>
 
| class="noline" | <p>''You ask why I, boasting, ruined so great [a person] with [my] feet:<br/>Because by wrestling men of courage, I assert to lay them all low;<br/>Certainly the palm is extended to stand on our right.''</p>
 
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
<br/><br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r.jpg|10r-d}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-d}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21r.jpg|21r-d}}
 
  
 
|}
 
|}
{{master subsection end}}
+
{{master end}}
  
 +
{{master begin
 +
| title = Dagger
 +
| width = 100%
 +
}}
 
{{master subsection begin
 
{{master subsection begin
  | title = 1st Master
+
  | title = Introduction
 
  | width = 240em
 
  | width = 240em
 
}}
 
}}
Line 1,908: Line 1,974:
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating|B|Complete Translation (from the Getty and PD)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
+
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the Paris)}}<br/>by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]</p>
+
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]]{{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]]{{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a-e.png|400px|center]]
+
| style="text-align:center; vertical-align:middle;" | [No illustration]
| <p>[17] <section begin="dagger 17"/>''I am the First Master of the Dagger, full of guile,<br/>And with my left hand I will wind the dagger around your arm,<br/>And truth to tell I can make many other plays,<br/>And my students will do them cunningly.''</p>
+
| <p>[1] These five figures are the guards of the dagger; and some are good in armor; and some are good without armor; and some are good both in or out of armor; and some are good in armor but not good without armor; and all these are displayed below.</p>
 
+
|
<p>I am the first master and I am called Remedy, because I know how to remedy so well that you cannot harm me whereas I on the contrary can strike you and hurt you. And I cannot make a better play against you than to make your dagger go to the ground, by turning my hand to the left.</p><section end="dagger 17"/>
+
|
| <p>''The first master of the dagger, I am called caution itself;<br/>At any time, the left hand having been extended to lift the dagger away.''</p>
+
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-t}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10v.jpg|10v-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-e}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21v.jpg|21v-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a-f.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[18] <section begin="dagger 18"/>''If I make a turn around your arm with my dagger,<br/>I will strike you in the chest, and it will not be taken from me.''</p>
+
| <p>[2] {{red|b=1|[Full Iron Gate, Single]}}</p>
 
+
<p>I am Full Iron Gate Single. And I am good in armour and without armour, because I can ward off an attack with or without moving to grapple. And I can play with or without a dagger when I make my covers.</p>
<p>I will turn my dagger around your arm. And because of this counter you will not be able to take the dagger from me. And also with this turn I can drive it into your chest without a doubt.</p><section end="dagger 18"/>
+
|  
| <p>''Truly I sweep the dagger away around your shoulder.<br/>Not wasting that [attack], I would pulp you, miserable, in the chest.''</p>
+
|
 
+
|
 +
<br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-a}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10v.jpg|10v-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-f}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21v.jpg|21v-d}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-a.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r-b.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[19] <section begin="dagger 19"/>''With your right arm locked under my left,<br/>I can cause you much harm while keeping you trapped.''</p>
+
| <p>[3] {{red|b=1|[Full Iron Door, Doubled]}}</p>
  
<p>I will lock your arm in the middle bind, and I will do it in such a way that you will not be able to give me any trouble. And if I wish to put you to the ground I will do so with little effort, and you will have no chance of escaping.</p>
+
<p>I am Full Iron Gate Doubled, and I am good in armour and without armour, but in all situations I am better in armour than without armour, and with a guard like this I cannot use a dagger.</p>
 
 
''[In the Getty, the Scholar steps with his left foot in front of his opponent's right, not behind.]''<section end="dagger 19"/>
 
| <p>''And behold your right [arm] confined under my left<br/>Shoulder. Far too many misfortunes delay you, the imprisoned one.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10v.jpg|10v-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 24r.jpg|24r-a}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-b.png|400px|center]]
+
<br/>
| <p>[20] <section begin="dagger 20"/>''If you wind around my arm and try to lock it in this way,<br/>I will put you in the lower bind and this hold will make things hard for you.''</p>
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-b}}
 
 
<p>I make the counter to the play that came before me. You can see the kind of position that I have put him in. I will break his arm or quickly throw him to the ground.</p><section end="dagger 20"/>
 
| <p>''It is permitted that you hold me pressed hard inward, the lower key having been retained [and]<br/>Then pressed hard, [which] will harm the shoulder.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10v.jpg|10v-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 24r.jpg|24r-d}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-c.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r-e.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[21] <section begin="dagger 21"/><em>If I can turn this arm of yours,<br/>I will make you suffer with a middle bind.</em></p>
+
| <p>[4] {{red|b=1|[Middle Iron Gate, Doubled]}}</p>
  
<p>This is a good cover from which to take the dagger from your hand, and with this grip I will be able to bind you well. And this art is so effective that if I place my right hand under your right knee, then I will put you to the ground.</p><section end="dagger 21"/>
+
<p>I am Middle Iron Gate with dagger in hand and I am doubled, and I am better and more strong than any of the others, and I am good in armour and without armour, and I can cover low and high on either side.</p>
| <p>''If I myself can now turn the shoulder using the hands,<br/>You, sad, will remain eternally in that middle key.''</p>
+
|  
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-e}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r.jpg|11r-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 24v.jpg|24v-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-d.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r-f.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[22] <section begin="dagger 22"/><em>You will not make me suffer in the middle bind<br/>When I meet you with this counter and make you let go.</em></p>
+
| <p>[5] {{red|b=1|[Full Iron Door, Doubled and Crossed]}}</p>
  
<p>I make the counter to the play that came before me, so that you will not be able to throw me to the ground, nor take the dagger from me, nor bind me either. You will have to let go, or else you will be quickly stabbed by my dagger.</p><section end="dagger 22"/>
+
<p>And I am Full Iron Gate with the arms crossed and doubled. And I am like a mighty fortress, and in armour I am especially strong. But without armour I am not sufficient, because I cannot cover long.</p>
| <p>''You will not make [me] endure in the middle key. But now,<br/>By means of that my<ref>Possibly a scribal error—the first sentence seems to be missing a “me” and the second has one it doesn’t need.</ref> counter, it is convenient for you if you will yield to me.''</p>
+
|  
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-f}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r.jpg|11r-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 24v.jpg|24v-d}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[23] <section begin="dagger 23"/>This is a play with no counter, and it is inevitable that the player will go to the ground and lose his dagger if the student performs this technique as depicted. And when the player is thrown to the ground, the student can finish him in various ways.<section end="dagger 23"/></p>
+
| <p>[6] {{red|b=1|[Middle Iron Gate, Doubled and Crossed]}}</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>And I am Middle Iron Gate doubled and crossed [with dagger]. And I am good in armour but not without armour, because I cannot cover long, but I can cover above and below, from the right and the left, with or without a dagger.</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r.jpg|11r-c}}
+
<br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-c}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="2" |  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| style="text-align:center; vertical-align:middle;" rowspan="2" | [No illustration]
| <p>[24] <section begin="dagger 24"/>This play is rarely used in the art of the dagger, yet it is an additional defense to know. For after beating aside the attack in this way, the scholar can then strike with a counter to the ribs or the stomach.<section end="dagger 24"/></p>
+
| <p>[7] I am the noble weapon named the dagger who plays at very close range, and he who understands my malice and my art will also gain a good understanding of many other weapons. And since I finish my fight fiercely and quickly, there is no man who can stand against my method. Whoever witnesses my deeds of arms will see me make covers and thrusts as I move to grapple, and will see me take away the dagger by dislocating and binding arms, and against me neither weapons nor armour will be of any use.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r.jpg|11r-d}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-f}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-d.png|400px|center]]
+
| <p>[8] Everyone should take care when facing the perilous dagger, and your arms, hands and elbows must go quickly against it, to do these five things, namely: take away the dagger; strike; dislocate the arms; bind the arms; and force your opponent to the ground. And never fail to do one or the other of these five things; And may he who seeks to defend himself protect himself in this way.</p>
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v-a.jpg|400px|center]]
+
|
| <p>[25] <section begin="dagger 25"/><em>This bind is easy for me to do<br/>And from it I will be able to strike you in the back.</em></p>
+
|
 
+
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-a}}
<p>I am a counter to the First Dagger Remedy Master. Woe to he who remedies with techniques that allow his left hand to be seized. And from this hold I will be able to drive the dagger into his back.</p>
 
 
 
''[These two illustrations seem to show the beginning and end of the technique.]''<section end="dagger 25"/>
 
| <p>''It is neither labor nor pain to me to make a persistent bind,<br/>By which route now I will be able to injure you,<br/>And possibly I will strike your kidneys with a great wound.''</p>
 
 
 
<p>''[The Paris resembles the Getty.]''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v.jpg|11v-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 44r.jpg|44r-b}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| rowspan="4" |
 +
| rowspan="4" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[9] With the ''fendente'' I can strike to the head and the body from the elbow up to the top of the head. But below the elbow I cannot be sure that I can make this strike without danger, and therefore I am reluctant to strike lower.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-e.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[26] <section begin="dagger 26"/><em>I make the counter-counter to the First Master,<br/>For the counter-counter is a fine master.</em><section end="dagger 26"/></p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-b}}
 
|  
 
|  
|
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-e}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| <p>[10] From the left (reverse) side, you can strike from the elbow to end at the temple of the head. And these are called the ''colpi mezani'' (middle strikes). And these reverse strikes from the left cannot be delivered if you are still waiting to make cover against your opponent’s attack.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-f.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[27] <section begin="dagger 27"/><em>I make the counter-counter against the First Master,<br/>And I will be first to take away the dagger every time.</em><section end="dagger 27"/></p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-c}}
 
|  
 
|  
|
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-f}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| <p>[11] From the right side you can strike or cover if needed, and your target ranges from the elbows to the temples of the head. And this strike is more safely made from the right side than made from the left side.</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:MS Latin 11269 43v-a.png|400px|center]]
+
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-d}}
| <p>[28] <section begin="dagger 28"/><em>I counter the First Dagger Master<br/>And I will strike your arm from above.</em></p>
 
 
 
<p>''[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]''</p><section end="dagger 28"/>
 
| <p>''I am of the first king; you retain the dagger, openly<br/>I make the counter. This is well known [to] strike the shoulder.''<ref>The illustration clearly shows a thrust to the arm, not the shoulder.</ref></p>
 
 
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 43v.jpg|43v-b}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| <p>[12] The dagger that goes through the middle towards the head strikes below the chest and never higher. And while striking you should at all times make cover with your left hand.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-b.png|400px|center]]
+
|  
| <p>[29] <section begin="dagger 29"/><em>I make the counter to the First Master<br/>With this cover I will hurt him and worse.</em></p>
+
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-e}}
 
 
<p>I am also the counter of the First Dagger Remedy Master, and when his student grips me like this [10], I will strike him, and make him let go. And if he tries to do other plays against me, I will counter him without hesitation.</p><section end="dagger 29"/>
 
| <p>''I certainly keep the counter of the first master,<br/>And I will now prove this covering using many bad things.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v.jpg|11v-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 43r.jpg|43r-d}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-c.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[30] <section begin="dagger 30"/><em>In the previous counter I told you that you could hurt him and worse;<br/>Here I show you how this can be done.</em></p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[13] ''After taking away your dagger, to signify my victory<br/>I hold it in my raised hand in this manner.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''Now sealed with the palm, thus I carry the safe dagger.<br/>With my hands I would lift [the dagger] itself, all having been carried.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-a}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21r.jpg|21r-a}}
  
<p>This flows from the counter referred to in the previous play. It also flows from the counter referred to two plays back [10], where the Counter Remedy Master has trapped the hand of his opponent with his dagger, and where he told you that he can drive the dagger into his opponent’s back. My play comes from that play, but where he says you drive the dagger into your opponent’s back, I drive it into his chest. But this still flows from the previous play, even though I choose to finish it differently.</p>
+
|-
 
+
| class="noline" | <p>In my right hand I hold your dagger, and I gained it through my skill, which is so good that if you draw a dagger on me, I will take it from your hand. And I know well how to strike to finish you, no matter what advantage you might have.</p>
''[In the Getty, the Master's right foot is outside (in front) of his opponent's left foot.]''<section end="dagger 30"/>
+
| class="noline" |
| <p>''Using a counter to the former, which threatens many evils,<br/>I direct myself in these circumstances so that I would strike the associate with a deadly wound.''</p>
+
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r.jpg|10r-a}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v.jpg|11v-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 43v.jpg|43v-d}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:MS Latin 11269 25r-a.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-e.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r-b.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[31] <section begin="dagger 31"/><em>I am well placed and positioned to force you to the ground;<br/>If you do not know the counter, I will throw you down immediately.</em></p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[14] ''Because I triumph over those who fight with me,<br/>I carry torn-off broken arms as a decoration.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''Whereas I would overcome all which can war with me;<br/>Distinguished, I carry before me broken arms in [my] hands.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-b}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21r.jpg|21r-b}}
  
<p>I am the student of the first Master of [Dagger] Remedies. And with this grip I seek to take your dagger and bind your arm, and since I do not believe that you know how to counter me, I will do this to you without delay.</p>
+
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>I choose to symbolize my skill with the broken arms I carry. And I do not lie when I tell you that I have broken and dislocated many arms in my life. And whoever chooses to go against my art, will find me always ready to use that art against him.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r.jpg|10r-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
''[The Getty resembles the Paris. These two illustrations may show progressive stages of the technique.]''<section end="dagger 31"/>
+
|-
| <p>''I am ready now to beat you, gloomy, into the ground.<br/>And if the counter would miss, I would do this to you readily.''</p>
+
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v.jpg|11v-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-e}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 25r.jpg|25r-a}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-f.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[32] <section begin="dagger 32"/><em>I make the counter like this,<br/>And I know well how to strike you from here.</em></p>
 
 
<p>I counter you like this, so that you will neither take my dagger nor bind my arm, and my dagger and I will remain at liberty. And then I will be able to strike you when you let go of me in such a way that you will have no defense.</p><section end="dagger 32"/>
 
| <p>''Now I do this counter quickly; you see duly just as it were.<br/>The spirit becoming enflamed, I would then beat your limbs.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12r.jpg|12r-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-f}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 25r.jpg|25r-d}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-a.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[33] <section begin="dagger 33"/><em>To make a much stronger cover I cross my arms in this manner;<br/>And from here I can do all the previous remedies.</em></p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[15] ''Locking the arms of all opponents<br/>In such a way that none can safely extend their right hand,<br/>To show my success I carry a pair of keys in my hand.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''Nailing together the arms of all fighting in the region<br/>In such a way that they would not be able to extend the safe right,<br/>Now happily I thus collect two keys in my hands.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-c}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21r.jpg|21r-c}}
  
<p>This cover is known to be much stronger and I make it so as to be able to obstruct you with various plays. And you cannot overcome such a strong cover, because two arms can easily oppose one arm.</p><section end="dagger 33"/>
+
|-
| <p>''I cover myself using great bodily strength, as you see the movements.<br/>I attack in this way before anyone can bring about anything.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>I am the Master of the unlocking and locking of the arms of those who choose to oppose me. I will cause them great pain and suffering with my techniques of binding and dislocating. And therefore I carry these keys to signify the value of my art.</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |
|  
+
| class="noline" |
<br/><br/>
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r.jpg|10r-c}}
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12r.jpg|12r-b}}
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-a}}
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 25v.jpg|25v-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-b.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[34] <section begin="dagger 34"/><em>With this counter the previous cover will meet with failure;<br/>After I have made you turn I will strike you with my dagger.</em></p>
 
 
<p>This is the counter to the cover that came before, that I told you was much stronger. And I will turn him with my left hand. Having turned him, I will not fail to strike him.</p><section end="dagger 34"/>
 
| <p>''Now, by means of this counter, I cheat the earlier plays<br/>In such a way, and I would turn you behind in order to wreck you <that is, bring you to ruin> with wounds.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12r.jpg|12r-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 25v.jpg|25v-d}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-c.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[35] <section begin="dagger 35"/><em>Since my Master’s technique will not fail me,<br/>I will break your arm over my shoulder.</em></p>
 
 
<p>With this excellent presa that I have made against you, I will not fail to break your arm over my left shoulder. And afterwards I can strike you with your own dagger, since this play will not fail me.</p><section end="dagger 35"/>
 
| <p>''Because of how that master now brings about the taking,<br/>I believe you will not withdraw without shoulders having been broken.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12r.jpg|12r-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 23r.jpg|23r-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| class="noline" rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-d.png|400px|center]]
+
| class="noline" rowspan="3" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[36] <section begin="dagger 36"/><em>You will not break my arm over your shoulder,<br/>For with my counter I will throw you to the ground.</em></p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[16] ''You ask how I force others to the ground under my feet with such prowess,<br/>I tell you that because I grapple each man and throw him down;<br/>The victory palm is appropriately held in my right hand.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''You ask why I, boasting, ruined so great [a person] with [my] feet:<br/>Because by wrestling men of courage, I assert to lay them all low;<br/>Certainly the palm is extended to stand on our right.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-d}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21r.jpg|21r-d}}
  
<p>I make this counter to you who in the previous play intended to break my arm over your shoulder. I will throw you to the ground to your death with great force and you will cause me no further injury.</p><section end="dagger 36"/>
+
|-
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p>You ask how it is that I have this man held under my feet. Thousands have suffered this fate because of my art of Abrazare. And I carry the victory palm in my right hand, because no one can stand up to my grappling skills.</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
<br/><br/>
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r.jpg|10r-d}}
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12v.jpg|12v-a}}
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-d}}
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-e.png|400px|center]]
+
| class="noline" |  
| <p>[37] <section begin="dagger 37"/><em>Your dagger will quickly be taken from you,<br/>When I twist it upwards close by your elbow.</em></p>
+
| class="noline" |  
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>I am in a good position to take the dagger from your hand, and to do it I push the point upwards, close to your elbow. And you will lose it, and I will quickly strike you with it. I took the dagger in this way because I was not able to bend your arm.</p><section end="dagger 37"/>
+
|}
| <p>''I seize the dagger using a sudden violent whirling motion near the elbow;<br/>Yet before [that], I strongly turn the lower arms.''<ref>Alternative with accusatives in opposite order: “I would seize the arm(s) in front suddenly / &lt;I&gt; the strong one would bring the dagger around in a violent whirling motion close by the elbow.”</ref></p>
+
{{master subsection end}}
  
|  
+
{{master subsection begin
|  
+
| title = 1st Master
<br/><br/>
+
| width = 240em
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12v.jpg|12v-b}}
+
}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-e}}
+
{| class="master"
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 23r.jpg|23r-c}}
+
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-f.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a-e.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[38] <section begin="dagger 38"/><em>My dagger will not be taken by your turning it,<br/>And I will strike you with it without fail.</em></p>
+
| <p>[17] ''I am the First Master of the Dagger, full of guile,<br/>And with my left hand I will wind the dagger around your arm,<br/>And truth to tell I can make many other plays,<br/>And my students will do them cunningly.''</p>
  
<p>I make the counter of the play that came before, so that you will not be able to take my dagger in that way. I will press my dagger into your hand, to make you let go, and with the cruel point I will strike you for your trouble.</p><section end="dagger 38"/>
+
<p>I am the first master and I am called Remedy, because I know how to remedy so well that you cannot harm me whereas I on the contrary can strike you and hurt you. And I cannot make a better play against you than to make your dagger go to the ground, by turning my hand to the left.</p>
 +
| <p>''The first master of the dagger, I am called caution itself;<br/>At any time, the left hand having been extended to lift the dagger away.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
|
+
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
<br/><br/>
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10v.jpg|10v-a}}
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12v.jpg|12v-c}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-e}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-f}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21v.jpg|21v-a}}
|  
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-a.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a-f.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[39] <section begin="dagger 39"/><em>I will have no problem making you fall to the ground,<br/>But you will have a major problem trying to get up.</em></p>
+
| <p>[18] ''If I make a turn around your arm with my dagger,<br/>I will strike you in the chest, and it will not be taken from me.''</p>
  
<p>In this way you will be driven into the ground, and you will not be able to make any defense or counter. And I will quickly make the dagger that you hold in your hand go far from you, because of my skillful knowledge of this art.</p>
+
<p>I will turn my dagger around your arm. And because of this counter you will not be able to take the dagger from me. And also with this turn I can drive it into your chest without a doubt.</p>
 +
| <p>''Truly I sweep the dagger away around your shoulder.<br/>Not wasting that [attack], I would pulp you, miserable, in the chest.''</p>
  
''[In the Getty and Paris, the Scholar steps outside of his opponent's right leg.]''<section end="dagger 39"/>
 
| <p>''It is not any work to me, laying you out fallen.<br/>You will not be able to rise free[ly] without a large wound.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12v.jpg|12v-d}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10v.jpg|10v-b}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-a}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-f}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 23v.jpg|23v-a}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21v.jpg|21v-d}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| class="noline" |  
+
|  
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-a.png|400px|center]]
| class="noline" | <p>[40] <section begin="dagger 40"/><em>I do not want to fall to the ground with the previous play,<br/>So with this grip I will take away all of your strength.</em></p>
+
| <p>[19] ''With your right arm locked under my left,<br/>I can cause you much harm while keeping you trapped.''</p>
  
<p>What you plan to do cannot always be done. I am the counter of the scholar who came before, and this counter will make him look very foolish, because in this way I will make him let go my leg. And I will drive the dagger into his face to demonstrate that he is indeed a great fool.</p><section end="dagger 40"/>
+
<p>I will lock your arm in the middle bind, and I will do it in such a way that you will not be able to give me any trouble. And if I wish to put you to the ground I will do so with little effort, and you will have no chance of escaping.</p>
  
''[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]''
+
''[In the Getty, the Scholar steps with his left foot in front of his opponent's right, not behind.]''
| class="noline" |
+
| <p>''And behold your right [arm] confined under my left<br/>Shoulder. Far too many misfortunes delay you, the imprisoned one.''</p>
| class="noline" |  
+
|  
| class="noline" |  
+
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r.jpg|13r-a}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10v.jpg|10v-c}}
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-b}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-a}}
| class="noline" |  
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 24r.jpg|24r-a}}
  
|}
+
|-
{{master subsection end}}
+
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[20] ''If you wind around my arm and try to lock it in this way,<br/>I will put you in the lower bind and this hold will make things hard for you.''</p>
  
{{master subsection begin
+
<p>I make the counter to the play that came before me. You can see the kind of position that I have put him in. I will break his arm or quickly throw him to the ground.</p>
| title = 2nd Master
+
| <p>''It is permitted that you hold me pressed hard inward, the lower key having been retained [and]<br/>Then pressed hard, [which] will harm the shoulder.''</p>
| width = 240em
+
|  
}}
+
|  
{| class="master"
+
<br/><br/>
|-
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10v.jpg|10v-d}}
! <p>Illustrations</p>
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-b}}
! <p>Illustrations</p>
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 24r.jpg|24r-d}}
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Getty and PD)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the Paris)}}<br/>by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
 
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]]{{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]]{{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-c.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-c.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[41] ''And I make cover with arms crossed,<br/>And I can make all the previous remedies,<br/>Nor will I fail to cover any of the backhand strikes,<br/>For I can do them all, one by one.''</p>
+
| <p>[21] <em>If I can turn this arm of yours,<br/>I will make you suffer with a middle bind.</em></p>
  
<p>I play with my arms crossed, and can make all the remedies that were previously shown. And if we were both armoured, you could not make a better cover. No other crowned [Dagger] Remedy Master makes a stronger cover than I, for I can play both to the right and to the left, and I can cross from both underneath and from above.</p>
+
<p>This is a good cover from which to take the dagger from your hand, and with this grip I will be able to bind you well. And this art is so effective that if I place my right hand under your right knee, then I will put you to the ground.</p>
 +
| <p>''If I myself can now turn the shoulder using the hands,<br/>You, sad, will remain eternally in that middle key.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
+
<br/><br/>
 
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r.jpg|11r-a}}
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r.jpg|13r-b}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-c}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-c}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 24v.jpg|24v-a}}
|  
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-d.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-d.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[42] ''You won’t be able to make the plays that came before, nor the plays from the backhand strikes [that follow],<br/>Because with this counter, your cover will be completely lost.''</p>
+
| <p>[22] <em>You will not make me suffer in the middle bind<br/>When I meet you with this counter and make you let go.</em></p>
  
<p>I counter the [Dagger] Remedy Master who made the cross before me, so he will not be able to cause me any problems with his crossing. I will give a push to his elbow to make him turn, and then I will quickly strike him.</p>
+
<p>I make the counter to the play that came before me, so that you will not be able to throw me to the ground, nor take the dagger from me, nor bind me either. You will have to let go, or else you will be quickly stabbed by my dagger.</p>
 +
| <p>''You will not make [me] endure in the middle key. But now,<br/>By means of that my<ref>Possibly a scribal error—the first sentence seems to be missing a “me” and the second has one it doesn’t need.</ref> counter, it is convenient for you if you will yield to me.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p><br/><br/><br/></p>
+
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r.jpg|11r-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 24v.jpg|24v-d}}
  
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r.jpg|13r-c}}
+
|-
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-d}}
+
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[23] This is a play with no counter, and it is inevitable that the player will go to the ground and lose his dagger if the student performs this technique as depicted. And when the player is thrown to the ground, the student can finish him in various ways.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r.jpg|11r-c}}
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-e.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[43] ''Take the dagger, dislocate your arm, bind you,<br/>Or throw you to the ground–I can do all of these things.''</p>
+
| <p>[24] This play is rarely used in the art of the dagger, yet it is an additional defense to know. For after beating aside the attack in this way, the scholar can then strike with a counter to the ribs or the stomach.</p>
 
+
|
<p>I believe that this very strong grapple is fatal to anyone, because I can break your arm, throw you to the ground, or take your dagger. I can also hold you bound in the upper bind. And as a result of these four things, you will be unable to get away.</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r.jpg|11r-d}}
 
|  
 
|  
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r.jpg|13r-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-e}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-d.png|400px|center]]
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-f.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v-a.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[44] ''As for the four plays you mentioned, you won’t be able to do any of them to me,<br/>And with this counter I will throw you to the ground.''</p>
+
| <p>[25] <em>This bind is easy for me to do<br/>And from it I will be able to strike you in the back.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I am a counter to the First Dagger Remedy Master. Woe to he who remedies with techniques that allow his left hand to be seized. And from this hold I will be able to drive the dagger into his back.</p>
 +
 
 +
''[These two illustrations seem to show the beginning and end of the technique.]''
 +
| <p>''It is neither labor nor pain to me to make a persistent bind,<br/>By which route now I will be able to injure you,<br/>And possibly I will strike your kidneys with a great wound.''</p>
  
<p>I know the counter to the previous play. And with this grapple I will counter all four of the plays he said he could do before. And as soon as he sees me, I will throw him to the ground, for this grapple is strong and fierce.</p>
+
<p>''[The Paris resembles the Getty.]''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p><br/><br/></p>
+
<br/><br/>
 
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v.jpg|11v-a}}
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13v.jpg|13v-a}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-d}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-f}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 44r.jpg|44r-b}}
|  
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:MS Latin 11269 23v-c.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[26] <em>I make the counter-counter to the First Master,<br/>For the counter-counter is a fine master.</em></p>
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>''I certainly cover myself during wrestling using arms as in the cross.<br/>And I can make sport with all the first rules.<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-e}}
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 23v.jpg|23v-c}}
 
 
|-
 
| class="noline" |
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Latin 11269 22r-b.png|400px|center]]
 
| class="noline" |
 
| class="noline" | <p>''By this counter your covering is refuted; and behold:<br/>Neither the play of the reversed palm, nor the prior [plays]<br/>Accomplish. Then you, miserable one, will die lying on your back.''</p>
 
| class="noline" |
 
| class="noline" |
 
| class="noline" |
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 22r.jpg|22r-b}}
 
 
|}
 
{{master subsection end}}
 
 
{{master subsection begin
 
| title = 3rd Master
 
| width = 240em
 
}}
 
{| class="master"
 
|-
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Complete Translation (from the Getty and PD)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the Paris)}}<br/>by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
 
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]]{{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]]{{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-a.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-f.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[45] <section begin="dagger 45"/><em>Here begin the powerful plays of the backhand attack,<ref>Or "backhand cover"</ref><br/>Through which many have been killed.<br/>And the plays of my scholars will follow,<br/>And so we begin the defense to the backhand attack.<ref>Or "of the backhand cover"</ref></em><section end="dagger 45"/></p>
+
| <p>[27] <em>I make the counter-counter against the First Master,<br/>And I will be first to take away the dagger every time.</em></p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-a}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-f}}
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-b.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:MS Latin 11269 43v-a.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[46] <section begin="dagger 46"/><em>With this play of the Master, your dagger will be taken<br/>And I will strike you a mortal blow.</em><section end="dagger 46"/></p>
+
| <p>[28] <em>I counter the First Dagger Master<br/>And I will strike your arm from above.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]''</p>
 +
| <p>''I am of the first king; you retain the dagger, openly<br/>I make the counter. This is well known [to] strike the shoulder.''<ref>The illustration clearly shows a thrust to the arm, not the shoulder.</ref></p>
 +
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
|
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-a}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-b}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 43v.jpg|43v-b}}
|  
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-c.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-b.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[47] <section begin="dagger 47"/><em>Here I believe I will throw you to the ground.<br/>First I will do this to you, and then I will do worse to you.</em></p>
+
| <p>[29] <em>I make the counter to the First Master<br/>With this cover I will hurt him and worse.</em></p>
  
<p>Here begin the plays of the reverse strikes,<ref>Or "reverse cover"</ref> through which countless men have lost their lives. And the plays of my scholars will follow, demonstrating the cover made with the right hand. This play depicted is easy to do, and in this way I will throw this man into the ground.</p>
+
<p>I am also the counter of the First Dagger Remedy Master, and when his student grips me like this [10], I will strike him, and make him let go. And if he tries to do other plays against me, I will counter him without hesitation.</p>
 
+
| <p>''I certainly keep the counter of the first master,<br/>And I will now prove this covering using many bad things.''</p>
<p>''[In the Getty, this Scholar is the Master.]''</p><section end="dagger 47"/>
 
| <p>''I believe you, treacherous one, will now indeed touch the earth.<br/>And itself <read: I> would do worse to you, henceforth lying dead.''</p>
 
 
 
<p>''[In the Paris, this Scholar is the Master.]''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13v.jpg|13v-b}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v.jpg|11v-b}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-c}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-b}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 22r.jpg|22r-c}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 43r.jpg|43r-d}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-d.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-c.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[48] <section begin="dagger 48"/><em>You will go to the ground because of your lack of knowledge,<br/>And in armour this is a particularly safe throw.</em></p>
+
| <p>[30] <em>In the previous counter I told you that you could hurt him and worse;<br/>Here I show you how this can be done.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This flows from the counter referred to in the previous play. It also flows from the counter referred to two plays back [10], where the Counter Remedy Master has trapped the hand of his opponent with his dagger, and where he told you that he can drive the dagger into his opponent’s back. My play comes from that play, but where he says you drive the dagger into your opponent’s back, I drive it into his chest. But this still flows from the previous play, even though I choose to finish it differently.</p>
  
<p>With this method you will be driven into the ground. And I could not make a safer throw, being armoured. But even without armour, there is nothing you can do. And even if you were strong and powerful, I would still be able to do this to you.</p><section end="dagger 48"/>
+
''[In the Getty, the Master's right foot is outside (in front) of his opponent's left foot.]''
| <p>''You, incautious one, will touch the earth with [your] chest prostrated.<br/>This armor-wearer will more safely impart the play.''</p>
+
| <p>''Using a counter to the former, which threatens many evils,<br/>I direct myself in these circumstances so that I would strike the associate with a deadly wound.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13v.jpg|13v-c}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v.jpg|11v-c}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-d}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-c}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 22v.jpg|22v-a}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 43v.jpg|43v-d}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| [[File:MS Latin 11269 25r-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[31] <em>I am well placed and positioned to force you to the ground;<br/>If you do not know the counter, I will throw you down immediately.</em></p>
 +
 +
<p>I am the student of the first Master of [Dagger] Remedies. And with this grip I seek to take your dagger and bind your arm, and since I do not believe that you know how to counter me, I will do this to you without delay.</p>
 +
 +
''[The Getty resembles the Paris. These two illustrations may show progressive stages of the technique.]''
 +
| <p>''I am ready now to beat you, gloomy, into the ground.<br/>And if the counter would miss, I would do this to you readily.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-e.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[49] <section begin="dagger 49"/><em>This leads to a broken ruined arm,<br/>As you will find out when I have you in this hold.</em></p>
 
 
<p>You will go to the ground and your arm will be dislocated by the skill of my crowned Master. And there is not one counter that you can do to me, for I hold you like this…</p><section end="dagger 49"/>
 
| <p>''Each is able to break the shoulder of the associate in wrestling, as I comprehend.<br/>It will be pleasing to know whatever has been imparted.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
| rowspan="2" |
 
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13v.jpg|13v-d}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v.jpg|11v-d}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-e}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-e}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 22v.jpg|22v-c}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 25r.jpg|25r-a}}
 
+
 
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-f.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-f.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[50] <section begin="dagger 50"/><em>I will have no trouble dislocating your arm<br/>And I will easily take your dagger from you.</em></p>
+
| <p>[32] <em>I make the counter like this,<br/>And I know well how to strike you from here.</em></p>
  
<p>…and will make you suffer greatly.<section end="dagger 50"/></p>
+
<p>I counter you like this, so that you will neither take my dagger nor bind my arm, and my dagger and I will remain at liberty. And then I will be able to strike you when you let go of me in such a way that you will have no defense.</p>
 +
| <p>''Now I do this counter quickly; you see duly just as it were.<br/>The spirit becoming enflamed, I would then beat your limbs.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-f}}
+
<br/><br/>
|  
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12r.jpg|12r-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-f}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 25r.jpg|25r-d}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-a.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-a.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[51] <section begin="dagger 51"/><em>This is another powerful dislocation<br/>From which I will be able to kill you with your own dagger.</em></p>
+
| <p>[33] <em>To make a much stronger cover I cross my arms in this manner;<br/>And from here I can do all the previous remedies.</em></p>
  
<p>This is a lock that has no counter and no defense. And in this way I can take your dagger, and it will be no trouble to bind or dislocate your arm. You will not be able to get away without my permission. And I can ruin your arm if I choose.</p><section end="dagger 51"/>
+
<p>This cover is known to be much stronger and I make it so as to be able to obstruct you with various plays. And you cannot overcome such a strong cover, because two arms can easily oppose one arm.</p>
| <p>''He was able to dislocate<ref>''Denodare'' appears to be a technical term for breaking or dislocating limbs; appears only in Ducange.</ref> the shoulder of any companion for himself,<br/>And sentence him to death with the point of the dagger.''</p>
+
| <p>''I cover myself using great bodily strength, as you see the movements.<br/>I attack in this way before anyone can bring about anything.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14r.jpg|14r-a}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12r.jpg|12r-b}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a.jpg|9a-a}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-a}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 31r.jpg|31r-a}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 25v.jpg|25v-a}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-b.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-b.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[52] <section begin="dagger 52"/><em>I take your dagger as I wish,<br/>And now if I choose, I can bind you in the lower lock.</em></p>
+
| <p>[34] <em>With this counter the previous cover will meet with failure;<br/>After I have made you turn I will strike you with my dagger.</em></p>
  
<p>You will lose your dagger by the way I hold you. And after taking your dagger I can bind you. and make you suffer in the lower lock, which is one of the key binds, and which I will use on you. And whoever is put into this lock cannot escape, because of the great pain and suffering they will be forced to endure.</p><section end="dagger 52"/>
+
<p>This is the counter to the cover that came before, that I told you was much stronger. And I will turn him with my left hand. Having turned him, I will not fail to strike him.</p>
| <p>''I now take hold of your dagger, nor can I be mistaken.<br/>And if I want, I am able to bind you, who is [sic] being overthrown <read: thrown back> in the key.''</p>
+
| <p>''Now, by means of this counter, I cheat the earlier plays<br/>In such a way, and I would turn you behind in order to wreck you <that is, bring you to ruin> with wounds.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14r.jpg|14r-b}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12r.jpg|12r-c}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a.jpg|9a-b}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-b}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 31r.jpg|31r-c}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 25v.jpg|25v-d}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-c.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-c.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[53] <section begin="dagger 53"/><em>I will turn your dagger upwards with my right arm,<br/>And I will quickly bind you in the lower lock.</em><section end="dagger 53"/></p>
+
| <p>[35] <em>Since my Master’s technique will not fail me,<br/>I will break your arm over my shoulder.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>With this excellent presa that I have made against you, I will not fail to break your arm over my left shoulder. And afterwards I can strike you with your own dagger, since this play will not fail me.</p>
 +
| <p>''Because of how that master now brings about the taking,<br/>I believe you will not withdraw without shoulders having been broken.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
<br/><br/>
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a.jpg|9a-c}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12r.jpg|12r-d}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 23r.jpg|23r-a}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-d.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-d.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[54] <section begin="dagger 54"/><em>This is called the strong lower lock,<br/>And it is a bind with a great risk of death<br/>But this lock, truth to tell,<br/>If not properly applied can be escaped from.</em></p>
+
| <p>[36] <em>You will not break my arm over your shoulder,<br/>For with my counter I will throw you to the ground.</em></p>
  
<p>This is called the lower lock, also known as the “strong key”, and from this bind I can kill you, whether you are armoured or unarmoured, because from here I can strike you in all of your most vulnerable places. And no one can escape from this bind. And if you are put into it, as depicted in the drawing, there you will remain enduring much pain and suffering.</p><section end="dagger 54"/>
+
<p>I make this counter to you who in the previous play intended to break my arm over your shoulder. I will throw you to the ground to your death with great force and you will cause me no further injury.</p>
| <p>''The lower key is brought under the strong name;<br/>It is the bind of death by means of excessive distinction.<br/>If any enters into this, he will hardly prevail to escape this.''</p>
+
|  
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12v.jpg|12v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-d}}
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14r.jpg|14r-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a.jpg|9a-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 31v.jpg|31v-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Latin 11269 31v-c.png|400px|center]]
+
|  
| class="noline" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-e.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-e.png|400px|center]]
| class="noline" | <p>[55] <section begin="dagger 55"/><em>This is how to do the counter to the Master's cover to the reverse strike,<ref>Or "Master's reverse cover"</ref><br/>And with this bind I will make you drop to the ground on your knees.</em></p>
+
| <p>[37] <em>Your dagger will quickly be taken from you,<br/>When I twist it upwards close by your elbow.</em></p>
  
<p>This is the counter to the Third Daga Remedy Master, who covers the reverse attack.<ref>Or "with the reverse cover"</ref> I have made this bind against him. Whether he is armoured or unarmoured, this bind is strong and secure. And if I trap a man who is unarmoured in this way, I will ruin his hand and dislocate it. And the pain will be so great I will make him kneel at my feet. And should I wish to strike him, this I can also do.</p>
+
<p>I am in a good position to take the dagger from your hand, and to do it I push the point upwards, close to your elbow. And you will lose it, and I will quickly strike you with it. I took the dagger in this way because I was not able to bend your arm.</p>
 +
| <p>''I seize the dagger using a sudden violent whirling motion near the elbow;<br/>Yet before [that], I strongly turn the lower arms.''<ref>Alternative with accusatives in opposite order: “I would seize the arm(s) in front suddenly / &lt;I&gt; the strong one would bring the dagger around in a violent whirling motion close by the elbow.”</ref></p>
  
<p>''[In the Getty, the Master's left foot is forward.]''</p><section end="dagger 55"/>
+
|  
| class="noline" | <p>''I, the efficient counter of the master, during this wrestling<br/>Finish whomever by means of the reverse palm of the hand;<br/>And you will sink down on bended knee by means of this taking.''</p>
+
|  
| class="noline" |  
+
<br/><br/>
| class="noline" |  
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12v.jpg|12v-b}}
<br/><br/><br/>
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-e}}
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14r.jpg|14r-d}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 23r.jpg|23r-c}}
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a.jpg|9a-e}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 31v.jpg|31v-c}}
 
  
|}
+
|-
{{master subsection end}}
+
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[38] <em>My dagger will not be taken by your turning it,<br/>And I will strike you with it without fail.</em></p>
  
{{master subsection begin
+
<p>I make the counter of the play that came before, so that you will not be able to take my dagger in that way. I will press my dagger into your hand, to make you let go, and with the cruel point I will strike you for your trouble.</p>
| title = 4th Master
+
|  
| width = 240em
+
|  
}}
 
{| class="master"
 
|-
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Getty and PD)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the Paris)}}<br/>by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
 
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]]{{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]]{{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-a.png|400px|center]]
+
<br/><br/>
| <p>[56] ''I am a Master who covers with both hands,<br/>And I can hurt you from above or below.<br/>If I give a turn to your shoulder without releasing your arm,<br/>Then in this way I and my students will put you in great pain.''</p>
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12v.jpg|12v-c}}
 
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-f}}
<p>I am the Fourth [Dagger Remedy] Master, and I play from this grip. From covers like this my students will hurt many…</p>
 
| <p>''Using both hands, &lt;I&gt; the master now take hold of the associate.<br/>From above and beneath, I am able to injure you with a weapon.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
| rowspan="2" |
 
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14v.jpg|14v-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 32r.jpg|32r-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-b.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-a.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[57] <em>My Master spoke truly and unerringly:<br/>I can take your dagger, while you cannot escape.</em></p>
+
| <p>[39] <em>I will have no problem making you fall to the ground,<br/>But you will have a major problem trying to get up.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>In this way you will be driven into the ground, and you will not be able to make any defense or counter. And I will quickly make the dagger that you hold in your hand go far from you, because of my skillful knowledge of this art.</p>
  
<p>…And if I turn to the right without releasing your arm, I will take your dagger and put you in great pain.</p>
+
''[In the Getty and Paris, the Scholar steps outside of his opponent's right leg.]''
 +
| <p>''It is not any work to me, laying you out fallen.<br/>You will not be able to rise free[ly] without a large wound.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-b}}
+
<br/><br/>
|  
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12v.jpg|12v-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 23v.jpg|23v-a}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 14v-b.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| class="noline" |
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-c.png|400px|center]]
+
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[58] ''I am well positioned to force you to the ground,<br/>And if you don't end up with a broken head, you can count yourself lucky.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[40] <em>I do not want to fall to the ground with the previous play,<br/>So with this grip I will take away all of your strength.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>What you plan to do cannot always be done. I am the counter of the scholar who came before, and this counter will make him look very foolish, because in this way I will make him let go my leg. And I will drive the dagger into his face to demonstrate that he is indeed a great fool.</p>
  
<p>This is an upper bind that locks you up very well. I will take your dagger from you and throw you to the ground. And I can also dislocate your arm. If however you grip your right hand with your left hand, then you can counter me and make me let go of you.</p>
+
''[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]''
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r.jpg|13r-a}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>''[These two illustrations may show the beginning and end of the technique.]''</p>
+
|}
| <p>''I am certainly prepared in order to cast you down into the earth.<br/>And I will give many evils to your head, if it remains because of courage.''<ref>''Demittere mentem'' is recorded (by Bantam dictionary) as an idiom meaning “to lose heart”. Possibly ''mente sedebit'' is referencing this, in a pun (e.g., ''demittere'' in the sense of depose, and ''sedeo'' in the sense of hold court).</reF></p>
+
{{master subsection end}}
  
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar's left foot is forward, but inside (in front) of his opponent's leg.]''</p>
+
{{master subsection begin
|  
+
| title = 2nd Master
|  
+
| width = 240em
<br/><br/>
+
}}
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14v.jpg|14v-b}}
+
{| class="master"
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-c}}
+
|-
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 32r.jpg|32r-c}}
+
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09-d.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-c.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[59] ''This is another lock that will throw you to the ground,<br/>And against such a hold no one is safe.''</p>
+
| <p>[41] ''And I make cover with arms crossed,<br/>And I can make all the previous remedies,<br/>Nor will I fail to cover any of the backhand strikes,<br/>For I can do them all, one by one.''</p>
  
<p>This is another upper bind that is very powerful. And with this I am certain to throw you to the ground. And if I wish I can dislocate your arm. To counter me, you grip your right hand with your left hand. Then your grip will be strong and mine will be weak.</p>
+
<p>I play with my arms crossed, and can make all the remedies that were previously shown. And if we were both armoured, you could not make a better cover. No other crowned [Dagger] Remedy Master makes a stronger cover than I, for I can play both to the right and to the left, and I can cross from both underneath and from above.</p>
 
 
''[In the Getty and Paris, the Scholar's right foot is forward.]''
 
| <p>''This movement is another to strike down the associate to the earth.<br/>Nevertheless, it is not safe because he attempts a similar playing.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
+
| <p><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14v.jpg|14v-c}}
+
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-d}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r.jpg|13r-b}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 32v.jpg|32v-a}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-c}}
 +
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-e.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-d.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[60] ''As I see this you will quickly go to the ground,<br/>Of this I am certain, and you won't be getting back up.''</p>
+
| <p>[42] ''You won’t be able to make the plays that came before, nor the plays from the backhand strikes [that follow],<br/>Because with this counter, your cover will be completely lost.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I counter the [Dagger] Remedy Master who made the cross before me, so he will not be able to cause me any problems with his crossing. I will give a push to his elbow to make him turn, and then I will quickly strike him.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p><br/><br/><br/></p>
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-e}}
+
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r.jpg|13r-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-d}}
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-f.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-e.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[61] ''I can also throw you to the ground like this,<br/>And once you are on the ground it will go badly for you.''</p>
+
| <p>[43] ''Take the dagger, dislocate your arm, bind you,<br/>Or throw you to the ground–I can do all of these things.''</p>
  
<p>After I made the cover of my Master, I put my left hand under your right elbow. And my right hand quickly gripped you under your knee in such a way that I could throw you to the ground, and there was no counter that you could do to me.</p>
+
<p>I believe that this very strong grapple is fatal to anyone, because I can break your arm, throw you to the ground, or take your dagger. I can also hold you bound in the upper bind. And as a result of these four things, you will be unable to get away.</p>
| <p>''Certainly in this way I can send you a second time<br/>To the ground. Hereafter, &lt;I&gt; myself will approve worse things to you.''</p>
+
|
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r.jpg|13r-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-e}}
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14v.jpg|14v-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-f}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 32v.jpg|32v-c}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-a.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-f.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[62] ''I will give a turn to your dagger,<br/>And in that way it will be quickly taken from you.''</p>
+
| <p>[44] ''As for the four plays you mentioned, you won’t be able to do any of them to me,<br/>And with this counter I will throw you to the ground.''</p>
  
<p>With my right hand I will make a horizontal turn to your dagger, pushing it round close to your arm that I am holding. And your dagger will be mine to control. And then I will deal with you as you deserve.</p>
+
<p>I know the counter to the previous play. And with this grapple I will counter all four of the plays he said he could do before. And as soon as he sees me, I will throw him to the ground, for this grapple is strong and fierce.</p>
| <p>''In this way, &lt;I&gt; myself coil your dagger up using the whirlwind,<br/>Because I would capture you, whether you would prevent or you would fight back.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
+
| <p><br/><br/></p>
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38r.jpg|38r-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 33r.jpg|33r-a}}
 
  
|-  
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13v.jpg|13v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-f}}
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-b.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[63] ''If I raise your dagger upwards close to your elbow,<br/>You will feel it instantly taken from you.''</p>
 
  
<p>If I raise your dagger upwards close to your elbow, I will keep it in my hand and strike you for certain. But I will need to make this play very quickly, to make sure that you cannot counter me with your left hand.</p>
+
|-
| <p>''Now if I attempt to lift your elbow [and] very own dagger,<br/>You yourself certainly will see it has been suddenly freed.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| [[File:MS Latin 11269 23v-c.png|400px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
+
| <p>''I certainly cover myself during wrestling using arms as in the cross.<br/>And I can make sport with all the first rules.<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38r.jpg|38r-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 33r.jpg|33r-c}}
 
 
 
|-
 
| [[File:Cod.1324 36r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-d.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[64] ''I moved my right hand like this,<br/>And I will make you strike yourself in your thigh with your own dagger.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-d}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 23v.jpg|23v-c}}
|
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 38r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| class="noline" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-c.png|400px|center]]
 
| class="noline" | <p>[65] ''Against the Master who covers with both hands<br/>I make this counter as my defense.<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
 
 
<p>I am the Counter-remedy against the Fourth [Dagger] Remedy Master. And I counter all his plays that came before me. And with one quick wrench like this I will ruin this student’s hand and his master’s too. And if they are well armored the ruin of their hands will be all the more certain.</p>
 
| class="noline" | <p>''By this means I will now seek the opponent, using both palms<ref>Literally “the two palms”.</ref><br/>In order to defend myself, just as the master does<br/>Who seizes the companion with both hands during wrestling.''</p>
 
 
<p>''[The Paris resembles the Getty illustration.]''</p>
 
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Latin 11269 22r-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''By this counter your covering is refuted; and behold:<br/>Neither the play of the reversed palm, nor the prior [plays]<br/>Accomplish. Then you, miserable one, will die lying on your back.''</p>
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
<br/><br/><br/>
+
| class="noline" |  
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38r.jpg|38r-c}}
+
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-c}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 22r.jpg|22r-b}}
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 33v.jpg|33v-b}}
 
  
 
|}
 
|}
Line 2,666: Line 2,667:
  
 
{{master subsection begin
 
{{master subsection begin
  | title = 5th Master
+
  | title = 3rd Master
 
  | width = 240em
 
  | width = 240em
 
}}
 
}}
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Dagger/5th master}}
+
{| class="master"
{{master subsection end}}
+
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
{{master subsection begin
+
|-
| title = 6th Master
+
|
| width = 240em
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-a.png|400px|center]]
}}
+
| <p>[45] <em>Here begin the powerful plays of the backhand attack,<ref>Or "backhand cover"</ref><br/>Through which many have been killed.<br/>And the plays of my scholars will follow,<br/>And so we begin the defense to the backhand attack.<ref>Or "of the backhand cover"</ref></em></p>
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Dagger/6th master}}
+
|  
{{master subsection end}}
+
|  
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-a}}
 +
|
  
{{master subsection begin
+
|-
| title = 7th Master
+
|
| width = 240em
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-b.png|400px|center]]
}}
+
| <p>[46] <em>With this play of the Master, your dagger will be taken<br/>And I will strike you a mortal blow.</em></p>
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Dagger/7th master}}
+
|
{{master subsection end}}
+
|  
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-b}}
 +
|
  
{{master subsection begin
+
|-
| title = 8th Master
+
|  
| width = 240em
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-c.png|400px|center]]
}}
+
| <p>[47] <em>Here I believe I will throw you to the ground.<br/>First I will do this to you, and then I will do worse to you.</em></p>
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Dagger/8th master}}
+
 
{{master subsection end}}
+
<p>Here begin the plays of the reverse strikes,<ref>Or "reverse cover"</ref> through which countless men have lost their lives. And the plays of my scholars will follow, demonstrating the cover made with the right hand. This play depicted is easy to do, and in this way I will throw this man into the ground.</p>
  
{{master subsection begin
+
<p>''[In the Getty, this Scholar is the Master.]''</p>
| title = 9th Master
+
| <p>''I believe you, treacherous one, will now indeed touch the earth.<br/>And itself <read: I> would do worse to you, henceforth lying dead.''</p>
| width = 240em
 
}}
 
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Dagger/9th master}}
 
{{master subsection end}}
 
{{master end}}
 
  
{{master begin
+
<p>''[In the Paris, this Scholar is the Master.]''</p>
| title = Dagger vs. Sword
+
|
| width = 240em
+
|
}}
+
<br/><br/>
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Sword vs. Dagger}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13v.jpg|13v-b}}
{{master end}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 22r.jpg|22r-c}}
  
{{master begin
+
|-
| title = Sword in One Hand
+
|  
| width = 240em
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-d.png|400px|center]]
}}
+
| <p>[48] <em>You will go to the ground because of your lack of knowledge,<br/>And in armour this is a particularly safe throw.</em></p>
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Sword in One Hand}}
 
{{master end}}
 
  
{{master begin
+
<p>With this method you will be driven into the ground. And I could not make a safer throw, being armoured. But even without armour, there is nothing you can do. And even if you were strong and powerful, I would still be able to do this to you.</p>
| title = Sword in Two Hands
+
| <p>''You, incautious one, will touch the earth with [your] chest prostrated.<br/>This armor-wearer will more safely impart the play.''</p>
| width = 100%
+
|  
}}
+
|  
{{master subsection begin
+
<br/><br/>
| title = Introduction
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13v.jpg|13v-c}}
| width = 240em
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-d}}
}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 22v.jpg|22v-a}}
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Sword in Two Hands}}
 
{{master subsection end}}
 
  
{{master subsection begin
+
|-
| title = Wide Plays
+
|  
| width = 240em
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-e.png|400px|center]]
}}
+
| <p>[49] <em>This leads to a broken ruined arm,<br/>As you will find out when I have you in this hold.</em></p>
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Sword in Two Hands/Wide Play}}
 
{{master subsection end}}
 
  
{{master subsection begin
+
<p>You will go to the ground and your arm will be dislocated by the skill of my crowned Master. And there is not one counter that you can do to me, for I hold you like this…</p>
| title = Close Plays
+
| <p>''Each is able to break the shoulder of the associate in wrestling, as I comprehend.<br/>It will be pleasing to know whatever has been imparted.''</p>
| width = 240em
+
|  
}}
+
| rowspan="2" |
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Sword in Two Hands/Narrow Play}}
+
<br/><br/>
{{master subsection end}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13v.jpg|13v-d}}
{{master end}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-e}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 22v.jpg|22v-c}}
  
{{master begin
+
|-
| title = Sword vs. Spear
+
|
| width = 240em
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-f.png|400px|center]]
}}
+
| <p>[50] <em>I will have no trouble dislocating your arm<br/>And I will easily take your dagger from you.</em></p>
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Sword vs. Spear}}
 
{{master end}}
 
  
{{master begin
+
<p>…and will make you suffer greatly.</p>
| title = Sword in Armor
+
|  
| width = 240em
+
|  
}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-f}}
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Sword in Armor}}
+
|
{{master end}}
+
 
 
+
|-
{{master begin
+
|  
| title = Axe in Armor
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-a.png|400px|center]]
| width = 240em
+
| <p>[51] <em>This is another powerful dislocation<br/>From which I will be able to kill you with your own dagger.</em></p>
}}
+
 
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Poleaxe}}
+
<p>This is a lock that has no counter and no defense. And in this way I can take your dagger, and it will be no trouble to bind or dislocate your arm. You will not be able to get away without my permission. And I can ruin your arm if I choose.</p>
{{master end}}
+
| <p>''He was able to dislocate<ref>''Denodare'' appears to be a technical term for breaking or dislocating limbs; appears only in Ducange.</ref> the shoulder of any companion for himself,<br/>And sentence him to death with the point of the dagger.''</p>
 
+
|  
{{master begin
+
|  
| title = Spear
+
<br/><br/>
| width = 240em
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14r.jpg|14r-a}}
}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a.jpg|9a-a}}
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Spear}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 31r.jpg|31r-a}}
{{master end}}
+
 
 
+
|-
{{master begin
+
|
| title = Spear vs. Other Weapons
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-b.png|400px|center]]
| width = 240em
+
| <p>[52] <em>I take your dagger as I wish,<br/>And now if I choose, I can bind you in the lower lock.</em></p>
}}
+
 
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Spear vs. Other Weapons}}
+
<p>You will lose your dagger by the way I hold you. And after taking your dagger I can bind you. and make you suffer in the lower lock, which is one of the key binds, and which I will use on you. And whoever is put into this lock cannot escape, because of the great pain and suffering they will be forced to endure.</p>
{{master end}}
+
| <p>''I now take hold of your dagger, nor can I be mistaken.<br/>And if I want, I am able to bind you, who is [sic] being overthrown <read: thrown back> in the key.''</p>
 
+
|
{{master begin
+
|
| title = Mounted Fencing
+
<br/><br/>
| width = 240em
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14r.jpg|14r-b}}
}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a.jpg|9a-b}}
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Mounted Fencing}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 31r.jpg|31r-c}}
{{master end}}
+
 
 
+
|-
{{master begin
+
|
  | title = Copyright and License Summary
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-c.png|400px|center]]
  | width = 100%
+
| <p>[53] <em>I will turn your dagger upwards with my right arm,<br/>And I will quickly bind you in the lower lock.</em></p>
}}
+
|
For further information, including transcription and translation notes, see the [[Talk:{{PAGENAME}}|discussion page]].
+
|
 
+
|
<section begin="sourcebox"/>{{sourcebox header}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a.jpg|9a-c}}
{{sourcebox
+
|
| work        = Illustrations (Getty)
+
 
| authors    = [[J. Paul Getty Museum]]
+
|-
| source link =  
+
|
| source title= Digital images courtesy of the Getty's [http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObjectDetails?artobj=1706 Open Content Program]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-d.png|400px|center]]
| license    = permission
+
| <p>[54] <em>This is called the strong lower lock,<br/>And it is a bind with a great risk of death<br/>But this lock, truth to tell,<br/>If not properly applied can be escaped from.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is called the lower lock, also known as the “strong key”, and from this bind I can kill you, whether you are armoured or unarmoured, because from here I can strike you in all of your most vulnerable places. And no one can escape from this bind. And if you are put into it, as depicted in the drawing, there you will remain enduring much pain and suffering.</p>
 +
| <p>''The lower key is brought under the strong name;<br/>It is the bind of death by means of excessive distinction.<br/>If any enters into this, he will hardly prevail to escape this.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14r.jpg|14r-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a.jpg|9a-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 31v.jpg|31v-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Latin 11269 31v-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[55] <em>This is how to do the counter to the Master's cover to the reverse strike,<ref>Or "Master's reverse cover"</ref><br/>And with this bind I will make you drop to the ground on your knees.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is the counter to the Third Daga Remedy Master, who covers the reverse attack.<ref>Or "with the reverse cover"</ref> I have made this bind against him. Whether he is armoured or unarmoured, this bind is strong and secure. And if I trap a man who is unarmoured in this way, I will ruin his hand and dislocate it. And the pain will be so great I will make him kneel at my feet. And should I wish to strike him, this I can also do.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Getty, the Master's left foot is forward.]''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''I, the efficient counter of the master, during this wrestling<br/>Finish whomever by means of the reverse palm of the hand;<br/>And you will sink down on bended knee by means of this taking.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
<br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14r.jpg|14r-d}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a.jpg|9a-e}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 31v.jpg|31v-c}}
 +
 
 +
|}
 +
{{master subsection end}}
 +
 
 +
{{master subsection begin
 +
| title = 4th Master
 +
| width = 240em
 +
}}
 +
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[56] ''I am a Master who covers with both hands,<br/>And I can hurt you from above or below.<br/>If I give a turn to your shoulder without releasing your arm,<br/>Then in this way I and my students will put you in great pain.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I am the Fourth [Dagger Remedy] Master, and I play from this grip. From covers like this my students will hurt many…</p>
 +
| <p>''Using both hands, &lt;I&gt; the master now take hold of the associate.<br/>From above and beneath, I am able to injure you with a weapon.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| rowspan="2" |
 +
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14v.jpg|14v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 32r.jpg|32r-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[57] <em>My Master spoke truly and unerringly:<br/>I can take your dagger, while you cannot escape.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>…And if I turn to the right without releasing your arm, I will take your dagger and put you in great pain.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-b}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 14v-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[58] ''I am well positioned to force you to the ground,<br/>And if you don't end up with a broken head, you can count yourself lucky.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is an upper bind that locks you up very well. I will take your dagger from you and throw you to the ground. And I can also dislocate your arm. If however you grip your right hand with your left hand, then you can counter me and make me let go of you.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[These two illustrations may show the beginning and end of the technique.]''</p>
 +
| <p>''I am certainly prepared in order to cast you down into the earth.<br/>And I will give many evils to your head, if it remains because of courage.''<ref>''Demittere mentem'' is recorded (by Bantam dictionary) as an idiom meaning “to lose heart”. Possibly ''mente sedebit'' is referencing this, in a pun (e.g., ''demittere'' in the sense of depose, and ''sedeo'' in the sense of hold court).</reF></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar's left foot is forward, but inside (in front) of his opponent's leg.]''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14v.jpg|14v-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 32r.jpg|32r-c}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[59] ''This is another lock that will throw you to the ground,<br/>And against such a hold no one is safe.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is another upper bind that is very powerful. And with this I am certain to throw you to the ground. And if I wish I can dislocate your arm. To counter me, you grip your right hand with your left hand. Then your grip will be strong and mine will be weak.</p>
 +
 
 +
''[In the Getty and Paris, the Scholar's right foot is forward.]''
 +
| <p>''This movement is another to strike down the associate to the earth.<br/>Nevertheless, it is not safe because he attempts a similar playing.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14v.jpg|14v-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 32v.jpg|32v-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[60] ''As I see this you will quickly go to the ground,<br/>Of this I am certain, and you won't be getting back up.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-e}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[61] ''I can also throw you to the ground like this,<br/>And once you are on the ground it will go badly for you.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>After I made the cover of my Master, I put my left hand under your right elbow. And my right hand quickly gripped you under your knee in such a way that I could throw you to the ground, and there was no counter that you could do to me.</p>
 +
| <p>''Certainly in this way I can send you a second time<br/>To the ground. Hereafter, &lt;I&gt; myself will approve worse things to you.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14v.jpg|14v-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-f}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 32v.jpg|32v-c}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[62] ''I will give a turn to your dagger,<br/>And in that way it will be quickly taken from you.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>With my right hand I will make a horizontal turn to your dagger, pushing it round close to your arm that I am holding. And your dagger will be mine to control. And then I will deal with you as you deserve.</p>
 +
| <p>''In this way, &lt;I&gt; myself coil your dagger up using the whirlwind,<br/>Because I would capture you, whether you would prevent or you would fight back.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38r.jpg|38r-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 33r.jpg|33r-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[63] ''If I raise your dagger upwards close to your elbow,<br/>You will feel it instantly taken from you.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>If I raise your dagger upwards close to your elbow, I will keep it in my hand and strike you for certain. But I will need to make this play very quickly, to make sure that you cannot counter me with your left hand.</p>
 +
| <p>''Now if I attempt to lift your elbow [and] very own dagger,<br/>You yourself certainly will see it has been suddenly freed.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38r.jpg|38r-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 33r.jpg|33r-c}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:Cod.1324 36r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[64] ''I moved my right hand like this,<br/>And I will make you strike yourself in your thigh with your own dagger.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-d}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 38r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[65] ''Against the Master who covers with both hands<br/>I make this counter as my defense.<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I am the Counter-remedy against the Fourth [Dagger] Remedy Master. And I counter all his plays that came before me. And with one quick wrench like this I will ruin this student’s hand and his master’s too. And if they are well armored the ruin of their hands will be all the more certain.</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''By this means I will now seek the opponent, using both palms<ref>Literally “the two palms”.</ref><br/>In order to defend myself, just as the master does<br/>Who seizes the companion with both hands during wrestling.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[The Paris resembles the Getty illustration.]''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
<br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38r.jpg|38r-c}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-c}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 33v.jpg|33v-b}}
 +
 
 +
|}
 +
{{master subsection end}}
 +
 
 +
{{master subsection begin
 +
| title = 5th Master
 +
| width = 240em
 +
}}
 +
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Getty and PD)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the Paris)}}<br/>by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[66] <em>I want each of my students to know<br/>That you cannot defend against the collar grab unless you move quickly.<br/>And with the strike that I make against your elbow,<br/>I will quickly feel your arm dislocate.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I am the Fifth Dagger Remedy Master who defends against the collar grab made by this player. Before he can strike me with his dagger I destroy his arm like this, because the grip he has on me is actually to my advantage. And I can do all of the covers, holds and binds of the other remedy masters and their students who came before me. And I say this from experience: all who study this art should be aware that you cannot successfully defend the collar grab unless you move quickly.</p>
 +
| <p>''You would grasp my chest. Thus far you have not been able to wound me.<br/>I will, nevertheless, dislocate this, your shoulder, during wrestling.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38r.jpg|38r-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-e}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 33v.jpg|33v-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[67] <em>After striking against your elbow, I will continue on<br/>To quickly seek to find your dagger.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is another way to destroy the arm. And from this play I can move to other plays and holds…</p>
 +
| <p>''I would now strike close by your elbow. You will then move past me,<br/>And I, the strong one, will unexpectedly attempt your dagger.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| rowspan="2" | <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38v.jpg|38v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-f}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 34r.jpg|34r-b}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 16b-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[68] <em>I will get rid of your spear with my arms in this way,<br/>Then I will turn and hit you,<br/>And if I cannot do it this way<br/>Then I will use the technique I described before.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>…Also, if you are pinned by a spear then by making this strike against it you will either unpin yourself or break off the haft from the spearhead.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 16b.jpg|16b-d}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 16b-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[69] <em>If I want to get this spear off me,<br/>I had better hit it hard from above,<br/>So that I will break the staff of your spear<br/>And then I will want to come to the close.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is another way to make you let go, and is also a better method of breaking off the head of a spear…</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| rowspan="2" | <p><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38v.jpg|38v-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 16b.jpg|16b-c}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[70] <em>By striking to your wrist or to your elbow,<br/>I will either dislocate it, or you will quickly let go.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>…Also if I strike you hard in the wrist joint of the hand holding my collar, I am certain to dislocate it unless you let go.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I wish to tell you the counter. As the student strikes down with his arms to dislodge the player's hand, the player quickly withdraws his hand from the student’s collar, and he then quickly strikes the student in the chest with his dagger.</p>
 +
| <p>''Either I will strike over the elbow, or near the fist,<br/>And in this place I will dislocate the wretched one.  Henceforth you will quit the entire chest.''<ref>Note: ''pectora'' is plural, perhaps meant to indicate both halves of the chest.</ref></p>
 +
 
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b.jpg|10b-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 34r.jpg|34r-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[71] <em>I am confident and certain that you will go to the ground,<br/>And I care little or nothing for your dagger.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This play will make you let go of me. And in addition, if I advance my right foot behind your left foot, you will be thrown to the ground without fail. And if this play is not enough, I will try others on your dagger, because my heart and my eyes are never focused anywhere other than upon taking away your dagger quickly and without delay.</p>
 +
| <p>''I am able to safely believe that you will go into the ground now;<br/>Neither will your dagger be able to accomplish harming me.</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38v.jpg|38v-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b.jpg|10b-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 34v.jpg|34v-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[72] <em>I choose to try this method of throwing you to the ground,<br/>And if this does not work I will try a different play.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I will throw you to the ground like this, before your dagger can get near me. And if your dagger comes down the center line to strike at me, I will release my grip and deal with your dagger, so that you will not be able to injure me in any way. Then with the remedy plays I will make you suffer.</p>
 +
| <p>''I put to the test where I would at once lay you sharply on your back.<ref>Or “I put to the test where I would at once bend you back acutely.”</reF><br/>If, perchance, I do not strew you, I will [scribal error] <actually try> something better.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38v.jpg|38v-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b.jpg|10b-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 34v.jpg|34v-b}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[73] <em>You will find out that over my right shoulder<br/>I will not fail to break your arm.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This player had me grabbed by the collar, but before he could strike me with his dagger I quickly seized his left hand with my hands and pulled his arm over my shoulder so as to dislocate it, and then I completely dislocated it. But this play is safer to do in armor than unarmored.</p>
 +
| <p>''I will not have been cheated of breaking the left shoulder;<ref>Or “I will not be deceived while breaking the left shoulder.”</ref><br/>I am holding that which is loaded<ref>Or possibly “weighed”.</ref> down on the right using the leg during wrestling.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15r.jpg|15r-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b.jpg|10b-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 35r.jpg|35r-b}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[74] <em>By the way I seize you and hold you,<br/>I will force you to the ground shoulders first.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>In this way I will hurl you to the ground without fail. And I will surely take your dagger. And if you are armored that may help you, since I will be aiming to take your life with your own dagger. But even if we are armoured, this art will not fail me. And if you are unarmored and very quick, other plays can be made besides this one.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Getty and Paris, the Scholar's right foot is inside (in front) of his opponent's left leg.]''</p>
 +
| <p>''I hold you using this form, and I will catch the lamenting one;<br/>Now, with the leg, you will be strewn as deep into the earth as possible.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15r.jpg|15r-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b.jpg|10b-e}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 35r.jpg|35r-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[75] <em>To take your dagger I make a cover like this,<br/>And then with other plays I will make you suffer.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This cover is very good in armor or without armor. And against any strong man such a cover is good for covering an attack from below as well as from above. And from this play you can enter into a middle bind as shown in the third play of the First Dagger Remedy Master. And if the cover is made in response to an attack from below, the student will put the player into a lower lock also known as “the strong key”, as shown in the sixth play [38] of the Third [Dagger] Remedy Master who plays to the reverse hand attack.</p>
 +
| <p>''Now I make this cover, for which reason <read: in order that> I would be able to take away the dagger,<br/>Not to mention [that] I can strike you using many plays.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15r.jpg|15r-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b.jpg|10b-f}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 35v.jpg|35v-b}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[76] <em>If I can turn this arm of yours,<br/>Then I will force you into the lower lock.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>If I can turn this arm I will be certain to put you into the lower lock also known as “the strong key”. I will however be able to do this more safely if I am armored. I could also do something else against you: if I grip your left hand firmly and seize you under your left knee with my right hand, then I will not lack the strength to put you to the ground.</p>
 +
| <p>''If I can now twist your shoulder while fighting,<br/>I will readily cause [that] you will be overwhelmed in the lower key.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15r.jpg|15r-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a.jpg|11a-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 35v.jpg|35v-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[77] <em>Whether you try to strike at me from above or below,<br/>You will lose your dagger from this crossing.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>With arms crossed I await you without fear. And I don't care whether you come at me from above or below, because however you come at me, you will be bound. You will be locked either in the middle lock or the lower lock. And if I wished to make the plays of the Fourth Dagger Remedy Master, I would cause you great harm with these plays. And I will have no difficulty in taking your dagger.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Getty, the Scholar's left foot is forward.]''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15v.jpg|15v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a.jpg|11a-b}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[78] <em>By holding your arm with my two hands,<br/>I will take away the dagger from you, as you deserve.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This grip is sufficient to prevent you being able to touch me with your dagger. And from here I can do the play that comes after me. And I could also certainly do other plays to you. I disregard the other plays for now, however, because this one is good for me and very fast.</p>
 +
| <p>''Now because I am holding you using both hands during wrestling,<br/>I certainly would take hold of [your] dagger just as if you had truly deserved.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15v.jpg|15v-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a.jpg|11a-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 36r.jpg|36r-b}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[79] <em>The student who came before me did not make this play,<br/>So I show how to take away the dagger in his place.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is the play referred to by the student who came before me, and I take away this dagger as he indicated. And to disarm him I push his dagger downwards and to the right as written above. And then by making a turn with his dagger I will thrust the point into his chest without fail.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Getty and Paris, the Scholar's left foot is forward, and his opponent's right foot is forward.]''</p>
 +
| <p>''Now I teach taking the dagger away while wrestling the associate;<br/>This first student does not know how to play.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15v.jpg|15v-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a.jpg|11a-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 36r.jpg|36r-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 15v-d.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[80] So that this student cannot dislocate my arm, I pull it towards me and bend it. And the farther I pull it towards me and bend it, the better, because in this way I make the counter to the Remedy Master of the close play of the dagger.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15v.jpg|15v-d}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|}
 +
{{master subsection end}}
 +
 
 +
{{master subsection begin
 +
| title = 6th Master
 +
| width = 240em
 +
}}
 +
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:MS Latin 11269 36v-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[81] <em>There is no man who knows more about dagger versus dagger than I.<br/>Whether in armor or without, I will gravely injure you,<br/>And when fighting at the barrier I truly love<br/>To vanquish everyone with these close plays.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
I am the Sixth [Dagger Remedy] Master and I tell you that this cover is good either in armor or without armor. And with this cover I can cover attacks from all directions and enter into all of the holds and binds, and strike to finish, as the students who follow me will show. And each of my students will make this cover, and then they will make the plays shown after, as they are qualified to do.
 +
| <p>''I do not recognize the man with whom I can’t play.<br/>If we both lead while turning dagger in dagger,<br/>Either I would be armed [with both], or by chance we would be without weapons,<br/>And that movement is pleasing, provided that it would be a close play.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16r.jpg|16r-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a.jpg|11a-e}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 36v.jpg|36v-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 16r-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[82] I made the cover of the Sixth [Dagger Remedy] Master who preceded me. And as soon as I have made this grip I will be able to strike you. And because I position my left hand in this way, I will not fail to take away your dagger. I can also put you in the middle bind, which is the third play [3] of the First Dagger Remedy Master. I could also make other plays against you, without abandoning my dagger.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16r.jpg|16r-b}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 16r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[83] <em>From the cover of my Master which is so perfect,<br/>I will strike you in the chest with a half turn of my dagger.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
I have made this half turn from the cover of my Sixth Master and I have quickly positioned myself to strike you. And even if you were armored I would care little, for in that case I would thrust this dagger in your face. However, as you can see, in this case I have thrust it into your chest because you are not armored and you do not know the close range game.
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16r.jpg|16r-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b.jpg|11b-a}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[84] <em>With my Master’s cover and with a half turn to the outside,<br/>I can still strike or bind you or take away your dagger.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
I have not abandoned the cover of my Sixth [Dagger Remedy] Master. I turn my left arm over your right. And moving my right foot at the same time as my left arm I turn myself to the outside. You are now partly bound, and you will have to admit that you will quickly lose your dagger. And I make this play so quickly that I have no concern or fear of your counter.
 +
 
 +
''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown, and both he and his opponent have their right feet forward.]''
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16r.jpg|16r-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b.jpg|11b-b}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[85] <em>From the cover my Master made<br/>With this grip and cover I will give you grief.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
Having made the cover of my Master, I made this grip. And I can strike you whether you are armored or unarmored. And I can also put you into the lower lock of the first scholar of the Fourth Dagger Remedy Master.
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16v.jpg|16v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a.jpg|11a-f}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 16v-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[86] Without abandoning the cover of the Sixth [Dagger Remedy] Master, I make this turn [with my dagger]. Your right hand will lose the dagger, and seeing that you have been reversed, my dagger will quickly strike you, and your dagger will be lost to you. Also I can make a turn with my left arm and make you suffer in the lower lock.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16v.jpg|16v-b}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[87] <em>If you and I are both armored,<br/>I will thrust the knife into your hand, as you can see.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<del>Although I am placed after the counter-remedy to the Sixth Master, I should logically be placed before him, because</del> I am a student of the Sixth [Dagger Remedy] Master and my play belongs to him. And this play makes more sense in armor than unarmored, because if he is armored I can strike him in the hand where he cannot fully protect himself; whereas if he is unarmored, I would aim to strike him in the face or in the chest, or in some other vulnerable place.
 +
 
 +
''[This play has been moved to its proper location as given in Fiore's explanation.]''
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16v.jpg|16v-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a.jpg|12a-a}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[88] <em>With my left hand I will turn you and expose you<br/>And with this counter, I will be able to strike you hard.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
I make the counter-remedy of the Sixth King [Dagger Remedy Master], turning your body with an elbow push, and in this way I can strike you, because with this elbow push that I quickly do, I will be able to defend against many close plays. And this is a particularly good counter-remedy to the all of the holds of the close-range game.
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16v.jpg|16v-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b.jpg|11b-d}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[89] <em>With my left hand placed in my defense as shown,<br/>I will quickly cause you harm with this counter.</em></p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b.jpg|11b-c}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|}
 +
{{master subsection end}}
 +
 
 +
{{master subsection begin
 +
| title = 7th Master
 +
| width = 240em
 +
}}
 +
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="2" |
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[90] <em>If I am armored this is a good cover to choose,<br/>And from here I can enter quickly into the middle bind,<br/>And the fight will be over<br/>For there is no good defense against it.</em></p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''I, well-fortified, make this cover in arms,<br/>And suddenly, I will enter<ref>N.B. “I will enter” begins the fourth line in the Latin. It was moved to fit English sentence structure.</ref> into the middle key, which ends all<br/>Wars; neither is any strong against the conducting of war,<br/>Nor is any opposition able to oppose me.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b.jpg|11b-e}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 36v.jpg|36v-c}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| <p>I am the Seventh [Dagger Remedy] Master and I play with arms crossed. And this cover is better made when armored than unarmored. The plays that I can do from this cover are the plays that came before me, especially the middle bind which is the third play of the first Dagger Remedy Master. Also I can turn you by pushing your right elbow with my left hand. And I can strike you quickly in the head or in the shoulder…</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| rowspan="3" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17r.jpg|17r-a}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="2" |
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[91] <em>In armour this is a very strong cover<br/>Because from here you can bind either above or below;<br/>One way you go to the lower bind,<br/>The other way you go to the upper bind or the middle bind.</em></p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''That movement certainly prevails over the dagger while held in the cross[ing],<br/>And on the other hand it can work above and beneath in armor.<br/>This lower play openly goes to the outside <br/>Bind. The middle [bind] lies below, or perhaps [the] highest.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a.jpg|12a-c}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 37r.jpg|37r-c}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| <p>…And this cover is better for binding than any other cover, and is a very strong cover to make against the dagger.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Paris, this Scholar wears a crown.]''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" rowspan="2" |
 +
| class="noline" rowspan="2" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[92] <em>You will not be able to put me into the middle bind,<br/>Whereas I am going to strike you as I turn you.</em></p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b.jpg|11b-f}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>This is the counter remedy to the plays of the Seventh [Dagger Remedy] Master who came before me. With the push that I make to his right elbow, let me tell you that this counter-remedy is good against all close range plays of the dagger, the poleaxe, and the sword, whether in armor or unarmored. And once I have pushed his elbow I should quickly strike him in the shoulder.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Getty, the Master's right foot is forward.]''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17r.jpg|17r-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|}
 +
{{master subsection end}}
 +
 
 +
{{master subsection begin
 +
| title = 8th Master
 +
| width = 240em
 +
}}
 +
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 17r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[93]<br/><br/><br/><br/>&nbsp;</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I am the Eighth [Dagger Remedy] Master and I cross with my dagger. And this cover is good both armored or unarmored. And some of my plays are shown before me, and some are shown after me…</p>
 +
| <p>''In this way, I carry my dagger while fighting during the cross[ing]. Any defense<br/>Which the dagger offers does not oppose itself in the play,<br/>But I will be strong to lay waste in playing using many moves.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| rowspan="2" | <p><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17r.jpg|17r-c}}
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 37r.jpg|37r-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Cod.1324 31v-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[94] …In the play that is shown before me, three plays back [72], the ''Zugadore'' was struck in his hand with the point of his opponent's dagger. Similarly in this play I could strike downwards to his hand just as in the earlier play I struck upwards to his hand.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Also, I could seize his hand at the wrist with my left hand, and then strike him hard with my right hand, just as you will find demonstrated by the ninth student [108] of the Ninth [Dagger Remedy] Master, who strikes the ''Zugadore'' in the chest. Also, I could do the last play that follows after [109] where I drop my own dagger and take his.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 17r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[95] I am the counter-remedy to the Eighth [Dagger Remedy] Master that preceded me, and to all of his students…</p>
 +
 
 +
''[This counter was moved before [97] and [98] because it is unclear how they relate to the Eight Master.]''
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| rowspan="2" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17r.jpg|17r-d}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[96] <em>After this turn that I make you do<br/>I will strike you and force you to the ground.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>…If I extend my left hand to his elbow, I can push it so strongly that I can strike him obliquely. Also, as I make him turn I can throw my arm around his neck and hurt him in a variety of possible ways.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a.jpg|12a-b}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 17v-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[97] This is a guard that is a strong cover in armor or unarmored. It is a good cover because from it you can quickly put your opponent into a lower lock or “strong key.” This is what is depicted by the sixth play [54] of the Third [Dagger Remedy] Master who defends against the reverse hand strike and who uses his left arm to bind the ''Zugadore''’s right arm.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17v.jpg|17v-a}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 17v-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:Cod.1324 29r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[98] This cover that I make like this with arms crossed is good in armor or unarmored. And my play puts the Zugadore into the lower lock, which is also called the “strong key,” which the scholar who preceded me told you about, namely the sixth play [54] of the Third Master who defends with his right hand against the reverse hand strike. And this play is made similarly to the play that immediately preceded me, but is begun in a slightly different way.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>And our counter–remedy again is the elbow push.</p>
 +
 
 +
''[The Master in the right image is missing both garter and crown.]''
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17v.jpg|17v-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|}
 +
{{master subsection end}}
 +
 
 +
{{master subsection begin
 +
| title = 9th Master
 +
| width = 240em
 +
}}
 +
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[100] <em>From this grip that I have I can do many plays.<br/>Take away the dagger, break, strike or bind.<br/>And the quickest is to take the dagger from your hand,<br/>so as to avoid any risk of harm from the player.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
I am the Ninth King [and Dagger Remedy Master] and I no longer have a dagger. And this grip that I make from the low attack is similar to the grip made by the Fourth King [and Dagger Remedy Master], only this one is made against the low attack instead of the high attack, and my plays are not the same as his. This grip is good whether in armor or unarmored, and from it you can make many good strong plays, as shown below. Whether in armor or unarmored there is no doubt of their effectiveness.
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17v.jpg|17v-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a.jpg|12a-d}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[101] <em>If I rotate the dagger close to your elbow,<br/>Your dagger will be mine for certain.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
I have followed on from the ''presa'' of the Ninth [Dagger Remedy] Master. Taking my right hand from the grip, I seize your dagger as shown and I rotate it upwards close to your elbow. And I will then thrust the point into your face for certain, or I will deal with you as the next student will demonstrate.
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17v.jpg|17v-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a.jpg|12a-e}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 18r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[102] <em>The first student of this Master<br/>Takes away the dagger and makes this play.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
I complete the play of the student who came before me, and from his grip this is how he should finish his play. Other students will make different plays from his grip. Watch those who follow, and you will see their techniques.
 +
| <p>''The student will perhaps be able to make this play of that master [of yours],<br/>And would have snatched the powerful dagger away.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a Master's crown.]''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18r.jpg|18r-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b.jpg|12b-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 37v.jpg|37v-b}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[103] <em>I can dislocate your arm like this,<br/>And I can also bind you in the lower bind.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>My Master's grip has already been demonstrated. Here my right hand leaves his grip. And if I grip you under your elbow, I can dislocate your arm. And also from this grip I can put you into a bind, namely the “strong key” [lower bind], which is one the third King and [Dagger Remedy] Master showed in his plays In his sixth play [38] he shows you how this one is done.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Getty, the Scholar's right foot is forward.]''</p>
 +
| <p>''I can truly dislocate your shoulder in this same way;<br/>Furthermore, I can lead to using the lower key.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18r.jpg|18r-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b.jpg|12b-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38r.jpg|38r-c}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[104] <em>If I can give your arm a half turn,<br/>You will quickly find yourself in the lower bind.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I have arrived at this position from the grip of my Master [Ninth Dagger Remedy Master], and I do not remain in this grip but move into the lower bind, also known as the “strong key.” This I can do without difficulty, and I can then easily take your dagger.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Getty, the Scholar's right foot is forward.]''</p>
 +
| <p>''I prepare to take away your life using the <br/>Lower bind, if by chance I can twist your shoulder.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18r.jpg|18r-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b.jpg|12b-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38r.jpg|38r-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 18r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[105] <em>Without releasing my grip I enter underneath your arm,<br/>And from behind your shoulder I will hurt you grievously.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I have not abandoned the grip of my Master [the Ninth Dagger Remedy Master], but I have quickly entered under his right arm, to dislocate it with this grip. I can do this whether he is wearing armor or not, and once I have him held from behind and in my power, I will show him no mercy as I hurt him.</p>
 +
| <p>''Behold! I crossed beneath the shoulder during play,<br/>And furthermore, I left behind the taking. But I will burden the back.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18r.jpg|18r-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a.jpg|12a-f}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 37v.jpg|37v-c}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[106] <em>Although this play is not often employed,<br/>It can be done well, if you practice it.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I did not abandon the grip of my Master [the Ninth Dagger Remedy Master] and the ''Zugadore'' saw that he could not break my grip on his arm. And as he pressed downwards towards the ground with his dagger, I quickly reached through his legs from behind and grabbed his right hand with my left hand. And once I had a good grip on his hand, I passed behind him. And as you can see in the picture, he cannot dismount his own arm without falling. And I can now also do the play that follows me. If I let go of the dagger with my right hand, and I grab his foot I will send him crashing to the ground, and I cannot fail to take his dagger.</p>
 +
| <p>''It is granted that this play could scarcely be learned by this art,<br/>Yet this one honestly succeeds by means of the practiced man.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18v.jpg|18v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b.jpg|12b-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 43r.jpg|43r-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 18v-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[107] The student who preceded me performed the first part of this play, and I make the finish by driving him into the ground, as has already been explained. Although this play is not commonly performed in the art, I wish to show you that I have a complete knowledge of it. </p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18v.jpg|18v-b}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:Cod.1324 31r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 18v-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[108] I made the cover of my Master [the Ninth Dagger Remedy Master] and then quickly I gripped him in this way with my left hand. And then I drew my dagger and thrust it into his chest. And if I do not have time to draw my dagger, I will make the play that follows me. </p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18v.jpg|18v-c}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 18v-d.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[109] With this play I complete the play of the student who preceded me, who left his [sheathed] dagger where it was and instead decided to take your live dagger. I have already explained how this play is performed.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18v.jpg|18v-d}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" style="text-align:center; vertical-align:middle;" | [No Image]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[110] The Counter-remedy to this Ninth [Dagger Remedy] Master's play is as follows: when the ''Zugadore'' with his left hand has seized your right hand that has the dagger, then you should quickly seize your dagger near the point and strongly draw or pull it back towards you so that he has to let go of it, or alternately press the dagger point into his elbow to make him think twice.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18v.jpg|18v-f}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|}
 +
{{master subsection end}}
 +
{{master end}}
 +
 
 +
{{master begin
 +
| title = Dagger vs. Sword
 +
| width = 240em
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>