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Difference between revisions of "Fiore de'i Liberi"

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The format of instruction is largely consistent across all copies of the treatise. Each section begins with a group of Masters (or Teachers), figures in golden crowns who each demonstrate a particular guard for use with their weapon. These are followed by a master called ''Remedio'' ("Remedy") who demonstrates a defensive technique against some basic attack (usually how to use one of the listed guards to defend), and then by his various Scholars (or Students), figures wearing golden garters on their legs who demonstrate iterations and variations of this remedy. After the scholars there is typically a master called ''Contrario'' ("Counter" or "Contrary"), wearing both crown and garter, who demonstrates how to counter the master's remedy (and those of his scholars), who is likewise sometimes followed by his own scholars in garters. In rare cases, a fourth type of master appears called ''Contra-Contrario'' ("Counter-counter"), who likewise wears the crown and garter and demonstrates how to defeat the master's counter. Some sections feature multiple master remedies or master counters, while some have only one. While the crowns and garters are used across all extant versions of the treatise, the specific implementation of the system varies; all versions include at least a few apparently errors in assignation of crowns and garters, and there are many cases in which an illustration in one manuscript will only feature a scholar's garter where the corresponding illustration in another also includes a master's crown (depending on the instance, this may either be intentional or merely an error in the art). Alone of the four versions, the Morgan seeks to further expand the system by coloring the metallic portions of the master or scholar's weapon silver, while that of the player is left uncolored; this is also imperfectly-executed, but seems to have been intended as a visual indicator of which weapon belongs to which figure.
 
The format of instruction is largely consistent across all copies of the treatise. Each section begins with a group of Masters (or Teachers), figures in golden crowns who each demonstrate a particular guard for use with their weapon. These are followed by a master called ''Remedio'' ("Remedy") who demonstrates a defensive technique against some basic attack (usually how to use one of the listed guards to defend), and then by his various Scholars (or Students), figures wearing golden garters on their legs who demonstrate iterations and variations of this remedy. After the scholars there is typically a master called ''Contrario'' ("Counter" or "Contrary"), wearing both crown and garter, who demonstrates how to counter the master's remedy (and those of his scholars), who is likewise sometimes followed by his own scholars in garters. In rare cases, a fourth type of master appears called ''Contra-Contrario'' ("Counter-counter"), who likewise wears the crown and garter and demonstrates how to defeat the master's counter. Some sections feature multiple master remedies or master counters, while some have only one. While the crowns and garters are used across all extant versions of the treatise, the specific implementation of the system varies; all versions include at least a few apparently errors in assignation of crowns and garters, and there are many cases in which an illustration in one manuscript will only feature a scholar's garter where the corresponding illustration in another also includes a master's crown (depending on the instance, this may either be intentional or merely an error in the art). Alone of the four versions, the Morgan seeks to further expand the system by coloring the metallic portions of the master or scholar's weapon silver, while that of the player is left uncolored; this is also imperfectly-executed, but seems to have been intended as a visual indicator of which weapon belongs to which figure.
  
The concordance below includes Zeno's transcription of the Getty preface for reference, and then drops the (thereafter empty) column in favor of a second illustration column for the main body of the treatise. Generally only the right-side column will contain illustrations—the left-side column will only contain additional content when when the text describes an illustration that spans the width of the page in the manuscripts, or when there are significant discrepancies between the available illustrations (in such cases, they sometimes display two stages of the same technique and will be placed in "chronological" order if possible). The illustrations from the Getty, Morgan, and Paris are taken from high-resolution scans supplied by those institutions, whereas the illustrations of the Pisani Dossi are taken from Novati's 1902 facsimile (scanned by Wiktenauer). There are likewise two translation columns, with the the two manuscripts dedicated to Niccolò on the left and the two undedicated manuscripts on the right; in both columns, the short text of the PD and Paris will come first, followed by the longer paragraphs of the Getty and Morgan.
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The concordance below includes Zeno's transcription of the Morgan preface for reference, and then drops the (thereafter empty) column in favor of a second illustration column for the main body of the treatise. (The Zeno transcript is in the first transcription column even though it's the youngest source so that the others can remain in the same position throughout.) Generally only the right-side column will contain illustrations—the left-side column will only contain additional content when when the text describes an illustration that spans the width of the page in the manuscripts, or when there are significant discrepancies between the available illustrations (in such cases, they sometimes display two stages of the same technique and will be placed in "chronological" order if possible). The illustrations from the Getty, Morgan, and Paris are taken from high-resolution scans supplied by those institutions, whereas the illustrations of the Pisani Dossi are taken from Novati's 1902 facsimile (scanned by Wiktenauer). There are likewise two translation columns, with the the two manuscripts dedicated to Niccolò on the left and the two undedicated manuscripts on the right; in both columns, the short text of the PD and Paris will come first, followed by the longer paragraphs of the Getty and Morgan.
  
 
{{master begin
 
{{master begin
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! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Getty)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Getty)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Morgan)}}<br/>by [[translator::Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Morgan)}}<br/>by [[translator::Michael Chidester]]</p>
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! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS XXIV)|San Daniele del Friuli Transcription]] (1699)<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS XXIV)|San Daniele del Friuli Transcription]] (1699)<br/>by [[Luigi Zanutto]]</p>
 
 
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
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<p>As a young man I<ref>I have translated the entire Prologue into the first person “I”, rather than use the third person “Fiore”, so as to make it more friendly and direct to read.</ref> desired to learn armed fighting,<ref>“Armiçare” or “Armizare” means the art of armed fighting or fighting with weapons. Fiore refers to his martial art as both “L’Arte d’Armizare” (Art of Armed Combat) and “La Scientia d’Armizare” (Science of Armed Combat). However, you should note that the words ''Arte'' and ''Scientia'' do not necessarily have their modern meanings. ''Arte'' may mean simply “skill” and the word “''Scientia''” may mean simply “knowledge”. Thus “the skill and knowledge of armed fighting”.</ref> including the art of fighting in the lists<ref>Fiore is comparing the two kinds of fighting: sport/tournament (“combatter a sbarra”—“in the lists”) and mortal combat (“combatter adoltrança”—“to the death”). To fight “in the lists” was not however without serious risks of injury and/or death. Medieval knights took these tournaments very seriously as matters of honor, and renown was won and lost in such events. Fiore also appears to include duels of honor in his term “in sbara”. The fights he describes below include duels of honor.</ref> with spear, poleaxe, sword, dagger and unarmed grappling, on foot and on horseback, armored and unarmored.</p>
 
<p>As a young man I<ref>I have translated the entire Prologue into the first person “I”, rather than use the third person “Fiore”, so as to make it more friendly and direct to read.</ref> desired to learn armed fighting,<ref>“Armiçare” or “Armizare” means the art of armed fighting or fighting with weapons. Fiore refers to his martial art as both “L’Arte d’Armizare” (Art of Armed Combat) and “La Scientia d’Armizare” (Science of Armed Combat). However, you should note that the words ''Arte'' and ''Scientia'' do not necessarily have their modern meanings. ''Arte'' may mean simply “skill” and the word “''Scientia''” may mean simply “knowledge”. Thus “the skill and knowledge of armed fighting”.</ref> including the art of fighting in the lists<ref>Fiore is comparing the two kinds of fighting: sport/tournament (“combatter a sbarra”—“in the lists”) and mortal combat (“combatter adoltrança”—“to the death”). To fight “in the lists” was not however without serious risks of injury and/or death. Medieval knights took these tournaments very seriously as matters of honor, and renown was won and lost in such events. Fiore also appears to include duels of honor in his term “in sbara”. The fights he describes below include duels of honor.</ref> with spear, poleaxe, sword, dagger and unarmed grappling, on foot and on horseback, armored and unarmored.</p>
 
| <p>Fiore Friulano de Cividale d'Austria, the son of Sir Benedetto of the noble house of the Liberi of Premariacco in the diocese of the Patriarchate of Aquileia, in his youth wanted to learn fencing and the art of combat in the barriers (that is, to the death); of lance, ax, sword, and dagger, and of wrestling, on foot and on horse, in armor and without armor.</p>
 
| <p>Fiore Friulano de Cividale d'Austria, the son of Sir Benedetto of the noble house of the Liberi of Premariacco in the diocese of the Patriarchate of Aquileia, in his youth wanted to learn fencing and the art of combat in the barriers (that is, to the death); of lance, ax, sword, and dagger, and of wrestling, on foot and on horse, in armor and without armor.</p>
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| {{section|Page:MS XXIV 783r.jpg|2|lbl=783r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1r.jpg|1r.1|lbl=1r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1r.jpg|1r.1|lbl=1r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.1|lbl=1r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.1|lbl=1r}}
| <p>Fiore Furlan di Civida dostria che ſo di Mis(sier) Benedeto della Nobil Casata delli liberi di Premergiaz della Diocesi dello Patriarchado de Aquilegia in sua zoventù volse imprendar ad armizare, e arte di combater in sbara zoè a oltranza, de lanza, azza, spada e daga, e de abrazar a pè, e a cavallo in arme, e senza arme.</p>
 
 
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| <p> In addition I wanted to study how weapons were made,<ref>“tempere di ferri” means literally “the tempering of iron”. I have translated this liberally to “the construction of weapons” to more clearly reflect what I believe Fiore means here. See also fn. 37 below.</ref> and the characteristics of each weapon for both offense and defense, particularly as they applied to mortal combat.</p>
 
| <p> In addition I wanted to study how weapons were made,<ref>“tempere di ferri” means literally “the tempering of iron”. I have translated this liberally to “the construction of weapons” to more clearly reflect what I believe Fiore means here. See also fn. 37 below.</ref> and the characteristics of each weapon for both offense and defense, particularly as they applied to mortal combat.</p>
 
| <p>Also he wanted to know of the temper of iron, and the qualities of each weapon, as much for defense as for offense, and most of all matters of mortal combat.</p>
 
| <p>Also he wanted to know of the temper of iron, and the qualities of each weapon, as much for defense as for offense, and most of all matters of mortal combat.</p>
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| {{section|Page:MS XXIV 783r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1r.jpg|1r.2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1r.jpg|1r.2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.2|lbl=-}}
| <p>Anchora volse saver temperar de ferri, e fateze de zaseuna arma, e cusì a defendere, como a offendere e maxime e cose da combattere a oltranza.</p>
 
 
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<p>And these secrets will give you mastery of attack and defense, and make you invincible, for victory comes easily to a man who has the skill and mastery described above.</p>
 
<p>And these secrets will give you mastery of attack and defense, and make you invincible, for victory comes easily to a man who has the skill and mastery described above.</p>
 
| <p>Also other marvelous and occult things that are apparent to few men in the world, and are very true things and very great for offense and defense, and things that cannot fail you, so easy are they to do, which art and mystery is described above.</p>
 
| <p>Also other marvelous and occult things that are apparent to few men in the world, and are very true things and very great for offense and defense, and things that cannot fail you, so easy are they to do, which art and mystery is described above.</p>
| <p>{{section|Page:MS M.383 1r.jpg|1r.3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS M.383 1r.jpg|1r.4|lbl=-|p=1}}</p>
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| {{section|Page:MS XXIV 783r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
| <p>{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.4|lbl=-|p=1}}</p>
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| <p>La qual arte e magistero ch' è ditto di sopra,</p>
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{{section|Page:MS M.383 1r.jpg|1r.3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS M.383 1r.jpg|1r.4|lbl=-|p=1}}
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{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.4|lbl=-|p=1}}
 
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| <p>I learned these skills from many German and Italian<ref>It is important to remember that when Fiore refers to “Germans” and “Italians” he is referring to language/cultures and not referring to nation states. Neither “Germany” nor “Italy” existed at this time.</ref> masters and their senior students, in many provinces and many cities, and at great personal cost and expense.</p>
 
| <p>I learned these skills from many German and Italian<ref>It is important to remember that when Fiore refers to “Germans” and “Italians” he is referring to language/cultures and not referring to nation states. Neither “Germany” nor “Italy” existed at this time.</ref> masters and their senior students, in many provinces and many cities, and at great personal cost and expense.</p>
 
| <p>And the aforesaid Fiore did learn the aforesaid things from many German masters. Also from many Italians in many provinces and in many cities, with great fatigue and with great expense, and by the grace of God from so many masters and scholars.</p>
 
| <p>And the aforesaid Fiore did learn the aforesaid things from many German masters. Also from many Italians in many provinces and in many cities, with great fatigue and with great expense, and by the grace of God from so many masters and scholars.</p>
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| {{section|Page:MS XXIV 783r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1r.jpg|1r.5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1r.jpg|1r.5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.5|lbl=-}}
| <p>ebbe ditto Fiore, si à imprese le ditte cose de molli magistri todeschi. Anchora de molti Ytaliani in molte provintie et in molte xitade cum grandissima fadiga e cum grande spese: e per la gracia de Dìo de tanti magistri e scolari,</p>
 
 
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<p>And below are the names and a little of the history of some of the noblemen who have been my students, and who were obliged to fight at the barrier.</p>
 
<p>And below are the names and a little of the history of some of the noblemen who have been my students, and who were obliged to fight at the barrier.</p>
 
| <p>And in so many courts of great lords, princes, dukes, marquises and counts, knights, and squires did he undertake this art, that the aforesaid Fiore was more and more times retained by many lords and knights and squires for learning from the aforesaid Fiore to do the art of fencing and of combat in the barriers to the bitter end, which art he demonstrated to many Italians and Germans and other great lords that were obliged to combat in the barriers (and also to countless that were not obliged to combat). And of some that have been my scholars that have been obliged to combat in the barriers, of these I wish to name and make here a remembrance.</p>
 
| <p>And in so many courts of great lords, princes, dukes, marquises and counts, knights, and squires did he undertake this art, that the aforesaid Fiore was more and more times retained by many lords and knights and squires for learning from the aforesaid Fiore to do the art of fencing and of combat in the barriers to the bitter end, which art he demonstrated to many Italians and Germans and other great lords that were obliged to combat in the barriers (and also to countless that were not obliged to combat). And of some that have been my scholars that have been obliged to combat in the barriers, of these I wish to name and make here a remembrance.</p>
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{{section|Page:MS XXIV 783r.jpg|6|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS XXIV 783v.jpg|1|lbl=783v|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1r.jpg|1r.6|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1r.jpg|1r.6|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.6|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.6|lbl=-}}
| <p>e in corte de grandi Signori, Principi, Duchi, Marchesi e Conti, Cavalieri e Scudieri intanto à impresa questa arte, chella ditto Fiore è stalo più rolle requisido da motti Signori caratieri e scudieri per imprender dal dillo Fiore si fatta arte de armizar e de combater in sbara a altranxa, la quale arte ello à mostrado a più Ytaliani e todeschi e altri grandi Signori che hanno debuto combatter in sbara: e anchora a infiniti che non hanno debuto combatter: e de alguni che sona stati me scolari, che hanno debudo combatere in sbara ne voglia fare a qui memoria e nome :</p>
 
 
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| <p>The first of them was the noble and gallant knight Piero del Verde<ref>Piero del Verde (Getty), Piero dal Verde (Morgan), (lit. “Peter of the Green”), also named elsewhere as Paolo del Verde, Pietro del Verde and Pietro von Grünen, was a recorded German condottiero (mercenary) captain who died in 1384. His birth date is not known.</ref> who fought Piero della Corona.<ref>Piero della Corona (Getty), Piero dalla Corona (Morgan) (lit “Peter of the Crown”), also named elsewhere as Pietro della Corona, Peter Kornwald, Pietro Cornuald, was another recorded German ''condottiero'' (mercenary) captain who died in 1391. His birth date is not known.</ref> Both were German, and the fight took place in Perosa.<ref>Perosa/Perusia is now known as Perugia. It is situated about 100 miles north of Rome. The date of this duel is estimated between 1379 and 1381, when both knights are recorded as present in this region.</ref></p>
 
| <p>The first of them was the noble and gallant knight Piero del Verde<ref>Piero del Verde (Getty), Piero dal Verde (Morgan), (lit. “Peter of the Green”), also named elsewhere as Paolo del Verde, Pietro del Verde and Pietro von Grünen, was a recorded German condottiero (mercenary) captain who died in 1384. His birth date is not known.</ref> who fought Piero della Corona.<ref>Piero della Corona (Getty), Piero dalla Corona (Morgan) (lit “Peter of the Crown”), also named elsewhere as Pietro della Corona, Peter Kornwald, Pietro Cornuald, was another recorded German ''condottiero'' (mercenary) captain who died in 1391. His birth date is not known.</ref> Both were German, and the fight took place in Perosa.<ref>Perosa/Perusia is now known as Perugia. It is situated about 100 miles north of Rome. The date of this duel is estimated between 1379 and 1381, when both knights are recorded as present in this region.</ref></p>
 
| <p>And the first notable and gallant knight is Sir Peter von Grünen, who was obliged to combat with Sir Peter Kornwald (who were both Germans). And the battle was required to be at Perugia.</p>
 
| <p>And the first notable and gallant knight is Sir Peter von Grünen, who was obliged to combat with Sir Peter Kornwald (who were both Germans). And the battle was required to be at Perugia.</p>
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| {{section|Page:MS XXIV 783v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1r.jpg|1r.7|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1r.jpg|1r.7|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.7|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.7|lbl=-}}
| <p>Ello primo notabel e gajardo cavaliero ſo Mis(sier) Piero dal Verde che debea combater cum Mis(sier) Piero de la Corona che foreno (en)trambe dui todeschi: e la battaglia debea esser a Perosa.</p>
 
 
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who this person was.</ref> The field of battle for this fight was Imola.<ref name="Imola">The city of Imola is about 120 miles south-west of Venice.</ref></p>
 
who this person was.</ref> The field of battle for this fight was Imola.<ref name="Imola">The city of Imola is about 120 miles south-west of Venice.</ref></p>
 
| <p>Also the valiant knight Sir Nikolo [illegible] (the German), who was obliged to combat with Nicolo (the English), and the field was given at Imola.</p>
 
| <p>Also the valiant knight Sir Nikolo [illegible] (the German), who was obliged to combat with Nicolo (the English), and the field was given at Imola.</p>
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| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1r.jpg|1r.8|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1r.jpg|1r.8|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.8|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.8|lbl=-}}
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Significantly Galeazzo fought two duels against Buzichardo de Fraza, also known as Boucicault, one in 1395 that was stopped by the supervising Lord where the parties were evenly matched, and one in 1406, where Galeazzo defeated Boucicault. To be able to say that one of his students defeated the mighty Boucicault in single combat would have looked very impressive on Fiore’s resume.</ref> who was obliged to fight the valiant knight Buçichardo de Fraca.<ref>Buçichardo de Fraca (Getty), Briçichardo  de Franza (Morgan), named elsewhere as Buzichardo de Fraza, also known as Boucicault, or Jean Ⅱ Le Maingre (1364-1421), was a French military general who was honored by King Charles VI as Marshall of France in 1391, and was a knight of great renown for his military skill, and his strength and athleticism in single combat. Apparently at a dinner at which both Boucicault and Galeazzo were present, Boucicault insulted Italians claiming he could beat any Italian knight in single combat. Galeazzo accepted the challenge, and the two fought with spears on foot in 1395, a duel that was a draw, when it was halted by the supervising lord, Francesco Gonzaga, Lord of Mantova. The enmity was not forgotten however, and the two repeated their duel in 1406, this time on horseback with lances, at which time Boucicault was defeated by Galeazzo.</ref> The field of battle for this fight was Padova.<ref>Padova (Padua) is about 20 miles west of Venice.</ref></p>
 
Significantly Galeazzo fought two duels against Buzichardo de Fraza, also known as Boucicault, one in 1395 that was stopped by the supervising Lord where the parties were evenly matched, and one in 1406, where Galeazzo defeated Boucicault. To be able to say that one of his students defeated the mighty Boucicault in single combat would have looked very impressive on Fiore’s resume.</ref> who was obliged to fight the valiant knight Buçichardo de Fraca.<ref>Buçichardo de Fraca (Getty), Briçichardo  de Franza (Morgan), named elsewhere as Buzichardo de Fraza, also known as Boucicault, or Jean Ⅱ Le Maingre (1364-1421), was a French military general who was honored by King Charles VI as Marshall of France in 1391, and was a knight of great renown for his military skill, and his strength and athleticism in single combat. Apparently at a dinner at which both Boucicault and Galeazzo were present, Boucicault insulted Italians claiming he could beat any Italian knight in single combat. Galeazzo accepted the challenge, and the two fought with spears on foot in 1395, a duel that was a draw, when it was halted by the supervising lord, Francesco Gonzaga, Lord of Mantova. The enmity was not forgotten however, and the two repeated their duel in 1406, this time on horseback with lances, at which time Boucicault was defeated by Galeazzo.</ref> The field of battle for this fight was Padova.<ref>Padova (Padua) is about 20 miles west of Venice.</ref></p>
 
| <p>Also the notable, valiant, and gallant knight Sir Galeazzo Cattaneo dei Grumelli, called da Mantua, who was obliged to combat with the valiant knight Sir Boucicault (Jean Ⅱ le Maingre) of France, and the field was at Padua.</p>
 
| <p>Also the notable, valiant, and gallant knight Sir Galeazzo Cattaneo dei Grumelli, called da Mantua, who was obliged to combat with the valiant knight Sir Boucicault (Jean Ⅱ le Maingre) of France, and the field was at Padua.</p>
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| {{section|Page:MS XXIV 783v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1r.jpg|1r.9|lbl=-}}
 
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| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.9|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.9|lbl=-}}
| <p>Anchora ello notabel valoroso e gaiarda caraliera Mis(sier) Galeazo de li capitani de Grimello chiamato da Mantoa che debea combatter cum la cavaliero valoroso Mis(sier) Brizichardo de Franza ello campo ſo a Padoa.</p>
 
 
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| <p>Next was the valiant squire<ref>A squire was a nobleman who was trained and skilled in the knightly arts, but who had not yet been knighted. Note the fighting abilities of the squire were not necessarily any different from the knight proper.</ref> Lancillotto da Becharia de Pavia,<ref>Lancillotto da Becharia de Pavia (Getty), Lanzilotto de Boecharia da Pavia (Morgan), also called Lancilotto Beccaria was an Italian condottiero captain who died in 1418. We do not know his birthdate.</ref> who exchanged six strikes with a sharpened steel lance<ref>Notice that although these are “sporting events” they were using real spears.</ref> against the valiant German knight Baldassarro,<ref>Baldassarro (Getty), Baldesar (Morgan) refers to the German knight Balthasar von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen (1336-1385)</ref> in a fight that took place in the lists at Imola.<ref name="Imola"/></p>
 
| <p>Next was the valiant squire<ref>A squire was a nobleman who was trained and skilled in the knightly arts, but who had not yet been knighted. Note the fighting abilities of the squire were not necessarily any different from the knight proper.</ref> Lancillotto da Becharia de Pavia,<ref>Lancillotto da Becharia de Pavia (Getty), Lanzilotto de Boecharia da Pavia (Morgan), also called Lancilotto Beccaria was an Italian condottiero captain who died in 1418. We do not know his birthdate.</ref> who exchanged six strikes with a sharpened steel lance<ref>Notice that although these are “sporting events” they were using real spears.</ref> against the valiant German knight Baldassarro,<ref>Baldassarro (Getty), Baldesar (Morgan) refers to the German knight Balthasar von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen (1336-1385)</ref> in a fight that took place in the lists at Imola.<ref name="Imola"/></p>
 
| <p>Also the valiant squire Lancillotto Beccaria of Pavia. That was 6 thrusts of soft-iron lance on horseback against the valiant knight Sir Balthasar von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen (a German), and also obliged to combat in the list, and this was at Imola.</p>
 
| <p>Also the valiant squire Lancillotto Beccaria of Pavia. That was 6 thrusts of soft-iron lance on horseback against the valiant knight Sir Balthasar von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen (a German), and also obliged to combat in the list, and this was at Imola.</p>
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| <p>Anchora allo valoroso sendero Lanzilotto de' Beccharia de Pavia: che ſe VI punte de lanza a ferri moladi a carallo cantra el valente caralero Mis(sier) Baldesar todesco: e anchora debevano combaterr in sbara, e questo ſo a Imola.</p>
 
 
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| <p>Next was the valiant squire Gioanino da Bavo,<ref>Gioanino de Bavo (Getty), Zohanni de Baio (Morgan), also named Giovannino da Baio likely refers to the French knight Jean de Bayeux, who is recorded as being in the area at this time.</ref> from Milan, who, in the castle in Pavia,<ref>The city of Pavia is 20 miles south of Milan.</ref> fought three passes with a sharpened steel lance, against the valiant German squire Sram.<ref>The identity of the German squire named Sram (Getty and Morgan), Schraam, or Schramm, is not known.</ref> And then on foot he fought three passes with the axe, three with the sword and three with the dagger, in the presence of the very noble prince and lord the Duke of Milan, and his lady the Duchess, and numerous other lords and ladies.</p>
 
| <p>Next was the valiant squire Gioanino da Bavo,<ref>Gioanino de Bavo (Getty), Zohanni de Baio (Morgan), also named Giovannino da Baio likely refers to the French knight Jean de Bayeux, who is recorded as being in the area at this time.</ref> from Milan, who, in the castle in Pavia,<ref>The city of Pavia is 20 miles south of Milan.</ref> fought three passes with a sharpened steel lance, against the valiant German squire Sram.<ref>The identity of the German squire named Sram (Getty and Morgan), Schraam, or Schramm, is not known.</ref> And then on foot he fought three passes with the axe, three with the sword and three with the dagger, in the presence of the very noble prince and lord the Duke of Milan, and his lady the Duchess, and numerous other lords and ladies.</p>
 
| <p>Also the valiant squire Giovannino da Baggio of Milan, who in the castle in Pavia, with the valiant squire Sirano (the German), struck three thrusts of soft-iron lance on horseback. And then on foot he made three blows of axe, and three blows of sword, and three blows of dagger, in the presence of the most noble lord Duke of Milan, and of the lady Duchess, and of countless other lords and lady.</p>
 
| <p>Also the valiant squire Giovannino da Baggio of Milan, who in the castle in Pavia, with the valiant squire Sirano (the German), struck three thrusts of soft-iron lance on horseback. And then on foot he made three blows of axe, and three blows of sword, and three blows of dagger, in the presence of the most noble lord Duke of Milan, and of the lady Duchess, and of countless other lords and lady.</p>
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| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.11|lbl=-}}
| <p>Anchora ello valoroso sendero Iohamniu de Bajo de Melano che ſe in Paria in lo castello contra ello valente schudero .&nbsp;.&nbsp;.&nbsp;.&nbsp;. todesco tre punte di lanza a ferri moladi a cavallo et poi ſe a pe tri colpi de azza e tri colpi de spada e tri colpi de daga in presenza dello nobilissimo Signor Ducha de Milano e de Madonna la Duchessa e de altri infiniti Signori e donne.</p>
 
 
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| <p>Next was the cautious knight Sir Açço da Castell Barcho,<ref>Açço da Castell Barcho (Getty), Azo da Castelbarcho (Morgan), refers to Azzone Francesco di Castelbarco, an Italian condottiero captain who died in 1410. We do not know his birthdate.</ref> who was obliged to fight one pass against Çuanne di Ordelaffi,<ref>Çuanne di Ordelaffi (Getty), Zohanni di li Ordelaffig (Morgan) refers to Giovanni Ordelaffi, an Italian condottiero captain (1355-1399).</ref> and another pass against the valiant and good knight Sir Jacomo di Boson,<ref>Jacomo di Boson (Getty), Jacomo de Besen (Morgan), or Giacomo da Boson, likely refers to the German nobleman Jakob von Bozen.</ref> the location chosen by his eminence the Duke of Milan.</p>
 
| <p>Next was the cautious knight Sir Açço da Castell Barcho,<ref>Açço da Castell Barcho (Getty), Azo da Castelbarcho (Morgan), refers to Azzone Francesco di Castelbarco, an Italian condottiero captain who died in 1410. We do not know his birthdate.</ref> who was obliged to fight one pass against Çuanne di Ordelaffi,<ref>Çuanne di Ordelaffi (Getty), Zohanni di li Ordelaffig (Morgan) refers to Giovanni Ordelaffi, an Italian condottiero captain (1355-1399).</ref> and another pass against the valiant and good knight Sir Jacomo di Boson,<ref>Jacomo di Boson (Getty), Jacomo de Besen (Morgan), or Giacomo da Boson, likely refers to the German nobleman Jakob von Bozen.</ref> the location chosen by his eminence the Duke of Milan.</p>
 
| <p>Also the cautious knight Sir Azzone di Castelbarco, who once was obliged to combat with Sir Giovanni di Ordelaffi. And another time with the valiant and virtuous knight Sir Giacomo da Boson, and the field was set at the pleasure of the lord Duke of Milan.</p>
 
| <p>Also the cautious knight Sir Azzone di Castelbarco, who once was obliged to combat with Sir Giovanni di Ordelaffi. And another time with the valiant and virtuous knight Sir Giacomo da Boson, and the field was set at the pleasure of the lord Duke of Milan.</p>
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{{section|Page:MS XXIV 783v.jpg|6|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS XXIV 783ar.jpg|1|lbl=783ar|p=1}}
 
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| {{section|Page:MS M.383 1v.jpg|1v.3|lbl=-}}
 
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| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 01r.jpg|1r.12|lbl=-}}
| <p>Anchora ello cauteloso cavalero Mis(sier) Azo de Castelbarcho che debera una volta combatter cum Mis(sier) Iohanni de li Ordelaffi</p>
 
 
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<p>Also I say that to whom I have taught this art, I have taught secretly, that there was no person other than the scholar and some close relative of his. Also that those who were present had sworn with sacrament that they would not reveal any play that they had seen from me, Fiore.</p>
 
<p>Also I say that to whom I have taught this art, I have taught secretly, that there was no person other than the scholar and some close relative of his. Also that those who were present had sworn with sacrament that they would not reveal any play that they had seen from me, Fiore.</p>
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| <p>ed altri che io Fiore ho amagistradi, e sono molto contento, perchè sono stato bene rimunerato e si o aibudo lo honore e lo amore di miei scolari e di lor parenti. Anchora diga che a chi iò insignada questa arte io lò insignada ocullamente e chello no glie stado persona altra che lo scolare e alguno di stretto suo parente. Anehora che a quelli che gli sono stadi anno aibiulo sacramento de non apalesar nesuno zogho che loro abiano rezudo de mi Fiore,</p>
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a foundation garment.</ref> and without any other armor except for a pair of leather gloves; and this happened because I refused to practice with them or teach them anything of my art.</p>
 
a foundation garment.</ref> and without any other armor except for a pair of leather gloves; and this happened because I refused to practice with them or teach them anything of my art.</p>
 
| <p>And most of all have I been wary of fencing masters and of their scholars. And they (that is, the masters), out of envy, challenged me to play at swords of sharpened edge and point, in arming jacket but without any other armor save for a pair of chamois gloves, and all of this was because I did not wish to practice with them, nor did I wish to teach them anything of my art.</p>
 
| <p>And most of all have I been wary of fencing masters and of their scholars. And they (that is, the masters), out of envy, challenged me to play at swords of sharpened edge and point, in arming jacket but without any other armor save for a pair of chamois gloves, and all of this was because I did not wish to practice with them, nor did I wish to teach them anything of my art.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 01v - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|1v.2|lbl=-}}
| <p>e maximamente me ho guardado da magistri scrimiduri e de soi scolari. E loro per invidia, zoè li magistri manno convidado a zugar a spada da taglio ed a punta in zuparello da armar senza altra arma salrvo che un paio de guanti da camera …</p>
 
 
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injured.</ref></p>
 
injured.</ref></p>
 
| <p>And this incident, that I was so required, occurred 5 times. And 5 times, for my honor, I convened to play in strange places, without relatives and without friends, having no hope in anything other than in God, in the art, and in me, Fiore, and in my sword. And by the grace of God, I, Fiore, remained with honor and without lesions in my person.</p>
 
| <p>And this incident, that I was so required, occurred 5 times. And 5 times, for my honor, I convened to play in strange places, without relatives and without friends, having no hope in anything other than in God, in the art, and in me, Fiore, and in my sword. And by the grace of God, I, Fiore, remained with honor and without lesions in my person.</p>
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| {{section|Page:MS XXIV 783ar.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
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| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 01v - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|1v.3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 01v - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|1v.3|lbl=-}}
| <p>e questo accidente e stado V rolte, che sono stada requisido: e V rolte per mio honor ma conregnudo zugar in loghi strani senza parenti e senza amisi, non abiando speranza di altri che in Dio, in larle e in mi Fiore e in la mia spada: e per la gracia de Dio io Fiore sono nomato con honore in questa arte.</p>
 
 
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| <p>I tell my students who have to fight at the barrier that fighting at the barrier is significantly less dangerous than fighting with live swords wearing only padded jackets, because when you fight with sharp swords, if you fail to cover one single strike you will likely die.</p>
 
| <p>I tell my students who have to fight at the barrier that fighting at the barrier is significantly less dangerous than fighting with live swords wearing only padded jackets, because when you fight with sharp swords, if you fail to cover one single strike you will likely die.</p>
 
| <p>Also I, Fiore, said to my students that were obliged to combat in the barriers that combat in the barriers is a far lesser peril than combat with sword of sharp edge and point in arming jackets. Because for him that plays at sharp swords, on a single cover that fails, that blow gives him death.</p>
 
| <p>Also I, Fiore, said to my students that were obliged to combat in the barriers that combat in the barriers is a far lesser peril than combat with sword of sharp edge and point in arming jackets. Because for him that plays at sharp swords, on a single cover that fails, that blow gives him death.</p>
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<p>Also, there is another thing: that only on rare occasions does someone perish because of grabs and holds. Thus I say that I would sooner combat three times in the barriers than just one time with sharp swords, as I said above.</p>
 
<p>Also, there is another thing: that only on rare occasions does someone perish because of grabs and holds. Thus I say that I would sooner combat three times in the barriers than just one time with sharp swords, as I said above.</p>
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| <p>Now I should add that a man may fight at the barrier well armored, with a knowledge of the art of combat,<ref>In addition to “L’Arte d’Armizare” (the art of armed fighting), L’Arte del Combattere (the art of combat) is a second name Fiore gives to his art.</ref> and may have all the advantages possible to have, but if he lacks courage he may as well just go ahead and hang himself. Having said that, I can say that by the grace of God none of my students have ever lost at the barrier. On the contrary, they have always acquitted themselves honorably.<ref>If they never lost and always acquitted themselves honorably, then presumably they always either won or drew.</ref></p>
 
| <p>Now I should add that a man may fight at the barrier well armored, with a knowledge of the art of combat,<ref>In addition to “L’Arte d’Armizare” (the art of armed fighting), L’Arte del Combattere (the art of combat) is a second name Fiore gives to his art.</ref> and may have all the advantages possible to have, but if he lacks courage he may as well just go ahead and hang himself. Having said that, I can say that by the grace of God none of my students have ever lost at the barrier. On the contrary, they have always acquitted themselves honorably.<ref>If they never lost and always acquitted themselves honorably, then presumably they always either won or drew.</ref></p>
 
| <p>And I say that a man being well-armored for combat in the barriers, and knowing the art of combat, and having all the advantages that he can take, if he is not valiant then he will wish to hang himself. Well can I say that, for the grace of God, none of my scholars in this art have been lost—that always they remained with honor is this art.</p>
 
| <p>And I say that a man being well-armored for combat in the barriers, and knowing the art of combat, and having all the advantages that he can take, if he is not valiant then he will wish to hang himself. Well can I say that, for the grace of God, none of my scholars in this art have been lost—that always they remained with honor is this art.</p>
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| <p>I should also point out that the noble knights and squires to whom I showed my art of combat have been very satisfied with my teaching, and have never wanted any other instructor but me.</p>
 
| <p>I should also point out that the noble knights and squires to whom I showed my art of combat have been very satisfied with my teaching, and have never wanted any other instructor but me.</p>
 
| <p>Also I say that I predict that these lords, knights, and squires to whom I have demonstrated this art of combat are content with my teachings, and did not wish any other master than the aforesaid Fiore.</p>
 
| <p>Also I say that I predict that these lords, knights, and squires to whom I have demonstrated this art of combat are content with my teachings, and did not wish any other master than the aforesaid Fiore.</p>
| <p>{{section|Page:MS M.383 1v.jpg|1v.10|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS M.383 2r.jpg|2r.1|lbl=2r|p=1}}</p>
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| <p>In addition let me just say that none of my students, including those mentioned above, have ever owned a book about the art of combat, except for Galeazzo da Mantova. And he put it well when he said that without books you cannot be either a good teacher or a good student of this art. And I can confirm it to be true, that this art is so vast that there is no one in the world with a memory large enough to be able to retain even a quarter of it. And it should also be pointed out that a man who knows no more than a quarter of the art has no right to call himself a Master.</p>
 
| <p>In addition let me just say that none of my students, including those mentioned above, have ever owned a book about the art of combat, except for Galeazzo da Mantova. And he put it well when he said that without books you cannot be either a good teacher or a good student of this art. And I can confirm it to be true, that this art is so vast that there is no one in the world with a memory large enough to be able to retain even a quarter of it. And it should also be pointed out that a man who knows no more than a quarter of the art has no right to call himself a Master.</p>
 
| <p>Also I say that none of these scholars here named had any book about the art of combat other than Sir Galeazzo di Mantua. Well did he say that without books no one will ever be a good master nor scholar in this art. And I, Fiore, confirm it: this art is so long that there is no man in the world with such a great memory that he can hold in mind, without books, even a fourth part of this art. And I grant that not knowing more than the fourth part of this art, I would not be a master.</p>
 
| <p>Also I say that none of these scholars here named had any book about the art of combat other than Sir Galeazzo di Mantua. Well did he say that without books no one will ever be a good master nor scholar in this art. And I, Fiore, confirm it: this art is so long that there is no man in the world with such a great memory that he can hold in mind, without books, even a fourth part of this art. And I grant that not knowing more than the fourth part of this art, I would not be a master.</p>
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| <p>Now I, Fiore, although I can read and write and draw, and although I have books about this art, and have studied it for 40 years and more, do not myself claim to be a perfect Master in this art, (although I am considered so by some of the fine noblemen who have been my students). But I will say this: if, instead of studying the Art of Armed Combat for 40 years, I had spent 40 years studying law, papal decrees,<ref>The word is decretali (Decretals). A Decretal is a Papal Constitution in letter form, i.e., a written decree from a Pope stating the Church’s legal position on a specific legal or moral issue.</ref> and medicine, then I would be ranked a Doctor in all three of these disciplines. And you should also know that in order to study the science of arms<ref>''Scientia d’Armizare'' is Fiore’s other term for his ''Arte d’Armizare''. ''Scientia'' means science or knowledge. Thus ''Scientia d’Armizare'' could translate as “Knowledge of Armed Combat” or “Science of Armed Combat.”</ref> I have endured great hardship, expended great effort and incurred great expense, all so as to be a perfect student of this art.</p>
 
| <p>Now I, Fiore, although I can read and write and draw, and although I have books about this art, and have studied it for 40 years and more, do not myself claim to be a perfect Master in this art, (although I am considered so by some of the fine noblemen who have been my students). But I will say this: if, instead of studying the Art of Armed Combat for 40 years, I had spent 40 years studying law, papal decrees,<ref>The word is decretali (Decretals). A Decretal is a Papal Constitution in letter form, i.e., a written decree from a Pope stating the Church’s legal position on a specific legal or moral issue.</ref> and medicine, then I would be ranked a Doctor in all three of these disciplines. And you should also know that in order to study the science of arms<ref>''Scientia d’Armizare'' is Fiore’s other term for his ''Arte d’Armizare''. ''Scientia'' means science or knowledge. Thus ''Scientia d’Armizare'' could translate as “Knowledge of Armed Combat” or “Science of Armed Combat.”</ref> I have endured great hardship, expended great effort and incurred great expense, all so as to be a perfect student of this art.</p>
 
| <p>Thus I, Fiore, knowing how to read and to write and to draw, and having books on this art, and having studied it for 40 years and more, yet I am not a very perfect master in this art. (Though I am well-held, by the great lords that have been my students, to be a good and perfect master in this art.) And I do say that if I had studied 40 years in civil law, in canon law, and in medicine, as I have studied in the art of fencing, then I would be a doctor in those three sciences. But in this science of fencing I have had great contentions and strain and expenses just to be a good scholar (as we said of others).</p>
 
| <p>Thus I, Fiore, knowing how to read and to write and to draw, and having books on this art, and having studied it for 40 years and more, yet I am not a very perfect master in this art. (Though I am well-held, by the great lords that have been my students, to be a good and perfect master in this art.) And I do say that if I had studied 40 years in civil law, in canon law, and in medicine, as I have studied in the art of fencing, then I would be a doctor in those three sciences. But in this science of fencing I have had great contentions and strain and expenses just to be a good scholar (as we said of others).</p>
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<p>In doing this I have followed the instructions given to me by the nobleman I respect the most, who is greater in martial virtue than any other I know, and who is more deserving of my book because of his nobility than any other nobleman I could ever meet, namely, the illustrious and most excellent noble, the all-powerful prince, Sir NICCOLO, Marquis of Este, Lord of the noble cities of Ferrara, Modena, Reggio, Parma and others, and to whom may God grant long life and future prosperity, and victory over all of his enemies. AMEN.</p>
 
<p>In doing this I have followed the instructions given to me by the nobleman I respect the most, who is greater in martial virtue than any other I know, and who is more deserving of my book because of his nobility than any other nobleman I could ever meet, namely, the illustrious and most excellent noble, the all-powerful prince, Sir NICCOLO, Marquis of Este, Lord of the noble cities of Ferrara, Modena, Reggio, Parma and others, and to whom may God grant long life and future prosperity, and victory over all of his enemies. AMEN.</p>
 
| <p>Considering, as I said before, that in this art I could find few masters in the world, and wishing that there be made a memory of me in this art, I will put all the art (and all things that I know of iron and of temper and of other things) in a book, following that which we know how to do for the best and for the most clarity.</p>
 
| <p>Considering, as I said before, that in this art I could find few masters in the world, and wishing that there be made a memory of me in this art, I will put all the art (and all things that I know of iron and of temper and of other things) in a book, following that which we know how to do for the best and for the most clarity.</p>
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| <p>I am going to lay out this book according to the preferences of my lord Marquis, and since I will be careful to leave nothing out, I am sure that my lord will appreciate it, due to his great nobility and courtesy.<ref>It is not clear here whether Fiore is saying he actually consulted with Niccolo Ⅲ of Este prior to the creation of the book, that Niccolo indicated how he wants the book laid out, and that Fiore has decided to lay it out exactly as Niccolo has asked for it to be done, or simply that he knows what Niccolo likes.</ref></p>
 
| <p>I am going to lay out this book according to the preferences of my lord Marquis, and since I will be careful to leave nothing out, I am sure that my lord will appreciate it, due to his great nobility and courtesy.<ref>It is not clear here whether Fiore is saying he actually consulted with Niccolo Ⅲ of Este prior to the creation of the book, that Niccolo indicated how he wants the book laid out, and that Fiore has decided to lay it out exactly as Niccolo has asked for it to be done, or simply that he knows what Niccolo likes.</ref></p>
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| <p>I will begin with grappling,<ref>I translate ''Abrazare'' or ''Abracare'' as “grappling” rather than “wrestling”, since wrestling suggests ground-fighting, and there is no ground fighting in Fiore’s system.</ref> of which there are two types: grappling for fun,<ref>The word ''solaço''  means “pleasure”. Fiore means grappling for sport. Fiore is distinguishing between fighting for fun and fighting to the death.</ref> or grappling in earnest,<ref>The expression ''da ira'' means “in anger”. Fiore is contrasting this with grappling for fun. Thus I have translated ''ira'' as “earnest”.</ref> by which I mean mortal combat, where you need to employ all the cunning, deceit<ref>Both ''ingano'' and ''falsita'' mean “deceit”. It is not clear why Fiore uses both, but any difference in these two words are lost in translation. I therefore translated ''ingano'' as “cunning” so that there were still three words as in the original.</ref> and viciousness<ref>The word ''crudelita'' means “cruelty”. I prefer the word “viciousness” here.</ref> you can muster. My focus is on mortal combat, and on showing you step by step how to gain and defend against the most common holds when you are fighting for your life.</p>
 
| <p>I will begin with grappling,<ref>I translate ''Abrazare'' or ''Abracare'' as “grappling” rather than “wrestling”, since wrestling suggests ground-fighting, and there is no ground fighting in Fiore’s system.</ref> of which there are two types: grappling for fun,<ref>The word ''solaço''  means “pleasure”. Fiore means grappling for sport. Fiore is distinguishing between fighting for fun and fighting to the death.</ref> or grappling in earnest,<ref>The expression ''da ira'' means “in anger”. Fiore is contrasting this with grappling for fun. Thus I have translated ''ira'' as “earnest”.</ref> by which I mean mortal combat, where you need to employ all the cunning, deceit<ref>Both ''ingano'' and ''falsita'' mean “deceit”. It is not clear why Fiore uses both, but any difference in these two words are lost in translation. I therefore translated ''ingano'' as “cunning” so that there were still three words as in the original.</ref> and viciousness<ref>The word ''crudelita'' means “cruelty”. I prefer the word “viciousness” here.</ref> you can muster. My focus is on mortal combat, and on showing you step by step how to gain and defend against the most common holds when you are fighting for your life.</p>
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| <p>If you wish to grapple you should first assess whether your opponent is stronger or bigger than you, as well as whether he is much younger or older than you. You should also note whether he takes up any formal grappling guards<ref>The taking of guards would suggest he has some training and thus some skill in grappling.</ref> Make sure you consider these things first.</p>
 
| <p>If you wish to grapple you should first assess whether your opponent is stronger or bigger than you, as well as whether he is much younger or older than you. You should also note whether he takes up any formal grappling guards<ref>The taking of guards would suggest he has some training and thus some skill in grappling.</ref> Make sure you consider these things first.</p>
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| <p>And whether you are stronger or weaker than your opponent, be sure in either case that you know how to use the grapples and binds<ref>The words are ''prese'' (“holds”, “grips” or grapples”) and ''ligadure'' (“locks” or “binds”).</ref> against him, and how to defend yourself from the grapples your opponent attacks you with.</p>
 
| <p>And whether you are stronger or weaker than your opponent, be sure in either case that you know how to use the grapples and binds<ref>The words are ''prese'' (“holds”, “grips” or grapples”) and ''ligadure'' (“locks” or “binds”).</ref> against him, and how to defend yourself from the grapples your opponent attacks you with.</p>
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| <p>If your opponent is not wearing armor, be sure to strike him in the most vulnerable and dangerous places, for example the eyes, the nose, the larynx,<ref>''inle femine sottol mento'' means literally “in the soft part below the chin”. Fiore means the throat/larynx.</ref> or the flanks.<ref>The ''fianchi'', the “flanks”, are the unprotected (“soft”) areas of the side of the torso, below the lower ribs but above the hips.</ref> And whether fighting in or out of armor, be sure that you employ grapples and binds that flow naturally together.</p>
 
| <p>If your opponent is not wearing armor, be sure to strike him in the most vulnerable and dangerous places, for example the eyes, the nose, the larynx,<ref>''inle femine sottol mento'' means literally “in the soft part below the chin”. Fiore means the throat/larynx.</ref> or the flanks.<ref>The ''fianchi'', the “flanks”, are the unprotected (“soft”) areas of the side of the torso, below the lower ribs but above the hips.</ref> And whether fighting in or out of armor, be sure that you employ grapples and binds that flow naturally together.</p>
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| <p>Now that I have discussed some general rules for grappling, I will discuss the grappling guards. There are a variety of grappling guards, some better than others. But there are four guards that are the best whether in or out of armor, although I advise you not to wait in them for too long, due to the rapid changes that take place when you are grappling.</p>
 
| <p>Now that I have discussed some general rules for grappling, I will discuss the grappling guards. There are a variety of grappling guards, some better than others. But there are four guards that are the best whether in or out of armor, although I advise you not to wait in them for too long, due to the rapid changes that take place when you are grappling.</p>
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<p>You will need to learn the guards of the Masters, how to distinguish the Students from the Players and the Players from the Masters, and finally the difference between the Remedy and the Counter. While a Counter will usually be presented after<ref>''Dredo'' means “Behind” but in this context it translates better as “after”, be cause we can see from the way the manuscript is laid out that the remedies are shown first, and the counters later.</ref> the Remedies are shown, sometimes there will be a special “Remedy”<ref>The “Special” Remedy that comes at the very end, that Fiore is referring to is a Counter to the Counter, which, as you will see below, Fiore calls ''Contra-contrario'' or the “Counter-counter”.</ref> that comes last of all. But let me make this clearer for you.</p>
 
<p>You will need to learn the guards of the Masters, how to distinguish the Students from the Players and the Players from the Masters, and finally the difference between the Remedy and the Counter. While a Counter will usually be presented after<ref>''Dredo'' means “Behind” but in this context it translates better as “after”, be cause we can see from the way the manuscript is laid out that the remedies are shown first, and the counters later.</ref> the Remedies are shown, sometimes there will be a special “Remedy”<ref>The “Special” Remedy that comes at the very end, that Fiore is referring to is a Counter to the Counter, which, as you will see below, Fiore calls ''Contra-contrario'' or the “Counter-counter”.</ref> that comes last of all. But let me make this clearer for you.</p>
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| <p>The four guards or “posts” are easy to learn. Sometimes you’ll take a guard and face your opponent without making contact, waiting to see what your opponent will do. These are called the posts or guards of the first Masters of Battle.<ref>Literally “Masters of the Battle” or “Masters of the Fight”.</ref> And these masters wear a golden crown on their head, to signify that the guards they wait in provide them with a superior defense. And these four guards are best suited to apply the principles of my art of armed fighting, which is why these Masters choose to wait in these particular guards.</p>
 
| <p>The four guards or “posts” are easy to learn. Sometimes you’ll take a guard and face your opponent without making contact, waiting to see what your opponent will do. These are called the posts or guards of the first Masters of Battle.<ref>Literally “Masters of the Battle” or “Masters of the Fight”.</ref> And these masters wear a golden crown on their head, to signify that the guards they wait in provide them with a superior defense. And these four guards are best suited to apply the principles of my art of armed fighting, which is why these Masters choose to wait in these particular guards.</p>
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| <p>Whether you call it a “post” or a “guard”, you are referring to the same stance. As a “guard” it is used defensively, that is you use it to protect yourself and defend yourself from the strikes of your opponent. As a “post” it is used offensively, that is, you use it to position yourself in such a way in relation to your opponent that you can attack him without danger to yourself.</p>
 
| <p>Whether you call it a “post” or a “guard”, you are referring to the same stance. As a “guard” it is used defensively, that is you use it to protect yourself and defend yourself from the strikes of your opponent. As a “post” it is used offensively, that is, you use it to position yourself in such a way in relation to your opponent that you can attack him without danger to yourself.</p>
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| <p>The next Master who follows the four guards comes to respond to these guards and to defend himself against a Player who makes attacks that flow from the four beginning guards shown earlier. And this Master also wears a crown, but he is named the Second Master of Battle.<ref>Fiore just calls him the “Second Master”, but Fiore means by this that he is the Second Master of Battle.</ref> He is also known as the Remedy Master, because he carefully selects his response to attacks flowing from the posts referred to above, and makes remedies that prevent him from getting struck.</p>
 
| <p>The next Master who follows the four guards comes to respond to these guards and to defend himself against a Player who makes attacks that flow from the four beginning guards shown earlier. And this Master also wears a crown, but he is named the Second Master of Battle.<ref>Fiore just calls him the “Second Master”, but Fiore means by this that he is the Second Master of Battle.</ref> He is also known as the Remedy Master, because he carefully selects his response to attacks flowing from the posts referred to above, and makes remedies that prevent him from getting struck.</p>
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| <p>This second or Remedy Master has a group of Students<ref>Fiore here calls them ''Zugadori'' (Players) rather than ''Scolari'' (Students), but that is confusing, because the way the manuscript is visually structured, the students of the Remedy Master who wear the golden garter are named ''Scolari'' (Students), not ''Zugadori'' (Players). The ''Zugadori'' are drawn without any garter at all. Therefore here I translate ''zugadori'' as Students (''Scolari''), so as to be consistent with what is drawn.</ref> under him, who demonstrate the plays taught by the Remedy Master that follow the cover or grapple that he shows first as his remedy. And these Students wear a garter<ref>''Divisa'' means literally “device” but also refers to a uniform or insignia that marks a person's rank or position. I have chosen to translate the word ''divisa'' as “garter”. In the PD, Fiore refers to the golden ribbon worn around one leg by the Students as a ''lista doro''. A ''lista'' is a strip of material, like a ribbon, garter or scarf. ''Doro'' means ''D’oro'' -  “of gold.”</ref> under their knee, to identify themselves. These Students will demonstrate all the remedies of the Remedy Master, until a third Master of Battle appears, who will show the Counters to the Remedy Master and his Students.</p>
 
| <p>This second or Remedy Master has a group of Students<ref>Fiore here calls them ''Zugadori'' (Players) rather than ''Scolari'' (Students), but that is confusing, because the way the manuscript is visually structured, the students of the Remedy Master who wear the golden garter are named ''Scolari'' (Students), not ''Zugadori'' (Players). The ''Zugadori'' are drawn without any garter at all. Therefore here I translate ''zugadori'' as Students (''Scolari''), so as to be consistent with what is drawn.</ref> under him, who demonstrate the plays taught by the Remedy Master that follow the cover or grapple that he shows first as his remedy. And these Students wear a garter<ref>''Divisa'' means literally “device” but also refers to a uniform or insignia that marks a person's rank or position. I have chosen to translate the word ''divisa'' as “garter”. In the PD, Fiore refers to the golden ribbon worn around one leg by the Students as a ''lista doro''. A ''lista'' is a strip of material, like a ribbon, garter or scarf. ''Doro'' means ''D’oro'' -  “of gold.”</ref> under their knee, to identify themselves. These Students will demonstrate all the remedies of the Remedy Master, until a third Master of Battle appears, who will show the Counters to the Remedy Master and his Students.</p>
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| <p>And because he can defeat the Remedy Master and his students, this Third Master wears both the symbol of the Remedy Master—a golden crown, and the symbol of his students—a golden garter below the knee. And this King is named the Third Master of Battle, and he is also named the Counter Master, because he makes counters to the Remedy Master and his students.<ref>Fiore actually writes “The Remedy Master and his plays, but since the Counter Master also defects the Remedy Master’s students, who show all the plays, I decided to translate it as above.</ref></p>
 
| <p>And because he can defeat the Remedy Master and his students, this Third Master wears both the symbol of the Remedy Master—a golden crown, and the symbol of his students—a golden garter below the knee. And this King is named the Third Master of Battle, and he is also named the Counter Master, because he makes counters to the Remedy Master and his students.<ref>Fiore actually writes “The Remedy Master and his plays, but since the Counter Master also defects the Remedy Master’s students, who show all the plays, I decided to translate it as above.</ref></p>
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| <p>Finally let me tell you that in a few sections of this Art we will find a Fourth Master (or King) who can defeat the Third Master of Battle (the Counter to the Remedy). And this King, the Fourth Master, is named the Fourth Master of Battle. He is also known as the Counter-Counter Master. Be aware however that in this Art few plays will ever go past the Third Master of Battle, for to do so is very risky. But enough about this.</p>
 
| <p>Finally let me tell you that in a few sections of this Art we will find a Fourth Master (or King) who can defeat the Third Master of Battle (the Counter to the Remedy). And this King, the Fourth Master, is named the Fourth Master of Battle. He is also known as the Counter-Counter Master. Be aware however that in this Art few plays will ever go past the Third Master of Battle, for to do so is very risky. But enough about this.</p>
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| <p>As I have explained above, the guards of the Abrazare (shown by the First Master of Battle), the Second Master of Battle (the Remedy Master) and his Students, the Third Master of Battle (the Counter Remedy, that is the counter to the Second Master of Battle and his Students), and the Fourth Master of Battle (named the Counter-counter Master), represent the foundation of my Art of Grappling whether in and out of armor. Furthermore, these four Masters of Battle and their Students are also the foundation of the Art of the Spear, which has its own guards, Masters and Students. The same is true for the Art of the Pole-axe, the Sword in One Hand, the Sword in Two Hands and the Dagger.</p>
 
| <p>As I have explained above, the guards of the Abrazare (shown by the First Master of Battle), the Second Master of Battle (the Remedy Master) and his Students, the Third Master of Battle (the Counter Remedy, that is the counter to the Second Master of Battle and his Students), and the Fourth Master of Battle (named the Counter-counter Master), represent the foundation of my Art of Grappling whether in and out of armor. Furthermore, these four Masters of Battle and their Students are also the foundation of the Art of the Spear, which has its own guards, Masters and Students. The same is true for the Art of the Pole-axe, the Sword in One Hand, the Sword in Two Hands and the Dagger.</p>
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| <p> In summary, these Masters of Battle and their Students, identified by their various devices, although first presented as governing principles of my Art of Grappling, are actually the foundation of my entire Art of Armed Fighting, whether on foot or on horseback, and whether in or out of armor.<ref>I’ve rearranged the sentences here to make my translation clearer. Thus the red and blue letters in the original don’t match up at all in my translation.</ref></p>
 
| <p> In summary, these Masters of Battle and their Students, identified by their various devices, although first presented as governing principles of my Art of Grappling, are actually the foundation of my entire Art of Armed Fighting, whether on foot or on horseback, and whether in or out of armor.<ref>I’ve rearranged the sentences here to make my translation clearer. Thus the red and blue letters in the original don’t match up at all in my translation.</ref></p>
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| <p>And my purpose in structuring my art in this way is to make my system<ref>Fiore actually says ''libro'' (“book”), but I’ve changed it to “system”.</ref> easier to learn, by using the same principles of the guards, the Master, the Remedy and the Counter throughout it, just as you see first in the section on Grappling.</p>
 
| <p>And my purpose in structuring my art in this way is to make my system<ref>Fiore actually says ''libro'' (“book”), but I’ve changed it to “system”.</ref> easier to learn, by using the same principles of the guards, the Master, the Remedy and the Counter throughout it, just as you see first in the section on Grappling.</p>
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| <p>And the text,<ref>The word ''Rubriche'' means writing in red ink. I chose to translate this word simply as “text”.</ref> the drawings and the plays will so clearly show you my art, that you will have no trouble understanding it.</p>
 
| <p>And the text,<ref>The word ''Rubriche'' means writing in red ink. I chose to translate this word simply as “text”.</ref> the drawings and the plays will so clearly show you my art, that you will have no trouble understanding it.</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 02r - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|2r.13|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 02r - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|2r.13|lbl=-}}
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 540: Line 547:
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p>Now let’s move on to study the actual drawings, the plays and the text, and you will see that I have spoken truly.</p>
 
| <p>Now let’s move on to study the actual drawings, the plays and the text, and you will see that I have spoken truly.</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 02r - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|2r.14|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Getty Ms. Ludwig XV 13 02r - Fiore dei Liberi - Decorated Text Page - Google Art Project.jpg|2r.14|lbl=-}}
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 551: Line 558:
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p>We commence this book following my intellect, in such a way that anyone can know to understand easily. And we make comparison of five things. That is, 1) of masters that stand in guard, and 2) of masters (and of masters) that are remedy, and 3) of scholars, and 4) of players, and 5) of contraries to masters and to scholars. The masters stand in positions, that is, guards—that which are called both positions and guards. Positions are called such because they position one, and guards are called such because they guard one from an enemy, and as such, they are called positions and guards for their strength, that poorly will one be able to break the positions on purpose without coming to danger.</p>
 
| <p>We commence this book following my intellect, in such a way that anyone can know to understand easily. And we make comparison of five things. That is, 1) of masters that stand in guard, and 2) of masters (and of masters) that are remedy, and 3) of scholars, and 4) of players, and 5) of contraries to masters and to scholars. The masters stand in positions, that is, guards—that which are called both positions and guards. Positions are called such because they position one, and guards are called such because they guard one from an enemy, and as such, they are called positions and guards for their strength, that poorly will one be able to break the positions on purpose without coming to danger.</p>
 +
|
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 2r.jpg|2r.5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 2r.jpg|2r.5|lbl=-}}
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 561: Line 568:
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p>The masters that stand in guard stand one against the other without touching one weapon against the other, and here the masters will bear crowns on their heads. The other crowned masters that will be after them also bear crowns, and they are called Masters Remedy. Those that here play with these masters and with their scholars are called players. And the scholars of these Masters Remedy bear a device under the knee, and initiate the cover and holds following what the Master Remedy does, and doing such plays that the Master Remedy knows how to do. At the end will be found the counter of the Master Remedy and of his scholars. And this counter bears a crown on his head and a device under the knee because he is the counter of the Master and of the scholars, and as such he bears the devices of both the Master Remedy and all his scholars. In some plays the counter will be found immediately after the remedy, and in some plays the counter will be found after all the plays of the Master Remedy. Know that here the counter which is made to the Master Remedy, that the counter breaks all of the plays of that cover or grip that he makes. In the following, you will find them well-depicted and -written so that can be easily understood.</p>
 
| <p>The masters that stand in guard stand one against the other without touching one weapon against the other, and here the masters will bear crowns on their heads. The other crowned masters that will be after them also bear crowns, and they are called Masters Remedy. Those that here play with these masters and with their scholars are called players. And the scholars of these Masters Remedy bear a device under the knee, and initiate the cover and holds following what the Master Remedy does, and doing such plays that the Master Remedy knows how to do. At the end will be found the counter of the Master Remedy and of his scholars. And this counter bears a crown on his head and a device under the knee because he is the counter of the Master and of the scholars, and as such he bears the devices of both the Master Remedy and all his scholars. In some plays the counter will be found immediately after the remedy, and in some plays the counter will be found after all the plays of the Master Remedy. Know that here the counter which is made to the Master Remedy, that the counter breaks all of the plays of that cover or grip that he makes. In the following, you will find them well-depicted and -written so that can be easily understood.</p>
 +
|
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 2r.jpg|2r.6|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 2r.jpg|2r.6|lbl=-}}
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 573: Line 580:
  
 
<p>And in this way you can see all the art of fencing in this book, that cannot ever fail you, so well-worded are the explanations about the depicted figures.</p>
 
<p>And in this way you can see all the art of fencing in this book, that cannot ever fail you, so well-worded are the explanations about the depicted figures.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS M.383 2r.jpg|2r.7|lbl=-}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS M.383 2r.jpg|2r.7|lbl=-}}
| class="noline" |
 
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
Line 591: Line 598:
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the Pisani Dossi)}}<br/>by [[translator::Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the Pisani Dossi)}}<br/>by [[translator::Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[Paris does not contain Preface]</p>
 
! <p>[Paris does not contain Preface]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS XXIV)|San Daniele del Friuli Transcription]] (1699)<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS XXIV)|San Daniele del Friuli Transcription]] (1699)<br/>by [[Luigi Zanutto]]</p>
 
 
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
Line 689: Line 696:
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Pisani Dossi)}}<br/>by [[translator::Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Pisani Dossi)}}<br/>by [[translator::Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[Paris does not contain Preface]</p>
 
! <p>[Paris does not contain Preface]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS XXIV)|San Daniele del Friuli Transcription]] (1699)<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS XXIV)|San Daniele del Friuli Transcription]] (1699)<br/>by [[Luigi Zanutto]]</p>
 
 
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
Line 1,120: Line 1,127:
 
! <p>''{{rating|B|PD}} by [[translator::Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty}} by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>''{{rating|B|PD}} by [[translator::Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty}} by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Paris}} by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Paris}} by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]]{{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]]{{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,257: Line 1,264:
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Getty and PD)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Getty and PD)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the Paris)}}<br/>by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the Paris)}}<br/>by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]]{{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]]{{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,629: Line 1,636:
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Getty and PD)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Getty and PD)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draf Translation (from the Paris)}}<br/>by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draf Translation (from the Paris)}}<br/>by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]]{{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]]{{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,704: Line 1,711:
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Complete Translation (from the Getty and PD)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Complete Translation (from the Getty and PD)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the Paris)}}<br/>by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the Paris)}}<br/>by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]]{{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]]{{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,910: Line 1,917:
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Complete Translation (from the Getty and PD)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Complete Translation (from the Getty and PD)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the Paris)}}<br/>by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the Paris)}}<br/>by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]]{{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]]{{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,263: Line 2,270:
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Getty and PD)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Getty and PD)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the Paris)}}<br/>by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the Paris)}}<br/>by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]]{{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]]{{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,357: Line 2,364:
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Complete Translation (from the Getty and PD)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Complete Translation (from the Getty and PD)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the Paris)}}<br/>by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the Paris)}}<br/>by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
+
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]]{{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]]{{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,520: Line 2,527:
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Getty and PD)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Getty and PD)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the Paris)}}<br/>by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the Paris)}}<br/>by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]</p>
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
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! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
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! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]]{{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
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! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
 
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Revision as of 03:27, 1 April 2021

Fiore Furlano de’i Liberi

This man appears sporadically throughout both the Getty and Pisani Dossi MSS, and may be a representation of Fiore himself.
Born Cividale del Friuli
Relative(s) Benedetto de’i Liberi (father)
Occupation
Nationality Friulian
Patron
  • Gian Galeazzo Visconti (?)
  • Niccolò Ⅲ d’Este (?)
Influences
Influenced Philippo di Vadi
Genres
Language
Notable work(s) The Flower of Battle
Manuscript(s)
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations

Fiore Furlano de’i Liberi de Cividale d’Austria (Fiore delli Liberi, Fiore Furlano, Fiore de Cividale d’Austria; fl. 1381 - 1409) was a late 14th century knight, diplomat, and fencing master. He was born in Cividale del Friuli, a town in the Patriarchal State of Aquileia (in the Friuli region of modern-day Italy), the son of Benedetto and scion of a Liberi house of Premariacco.[1][2][3] The term Liberi, while potentially merely a surname, more probably indicates that his family had Imperial immediacy (Reichsunmittelbarkeit), either as part of the nobili liberi (Edelfrei, "free nobles"), the Germanic unindentured knightly class which formed the lower tier of nobility in the Middle Ages, or possibly of the rising class of Imperial Free Knights.[4][5][6] It has been suggested by various historians that Fiore and Benedetto were descended from Cristallo dei Liberi of Premariacco, who was granted immediacy in 1110 by Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich V,[7][8][9] but this has yet to be proven.[10]

Fiore wrote that he had a natural inclination to the martial arts and began training at a young age, ultimately studying with “countless” masters from both Italic and Germanic lands.[1][2][3] He had ample opportunity to interact with both, being born in the Holy Roman Empire and later traveling widely in the northern Italian states. Unfortunately, not all of these encounters were friendly: Fiore wrote of meeting many “false” or unworthy masters in his travels, most of whom lacked even the limited skill he'd expect in a good student.[3] He further mentions that on five separate occasions he was forced to fight duels for his honor against certain of these masters who he described as envious because he refused to teach them his art; the duels were all fought with sharp swords, unarmored except for gambesons and chamois gloves, and he won each without injury.[1][2][11]

Writing very little on his own career as a commander and master at arms, Fiore laid out his credentials for his readers in other ways. He stated that foremost among the masters who trained him was one Johane dicto Suueno, who he notes was a disciple of Nicholai de Toblem;[3] unfortunately, both names are given in Latin so there is little we can conclude about them other than that they were probably among the Italians and Germans he alludes to, and that one or both were well known in Fiore's time. He further offered an extensive list of the famous condottieri that he trained, including Piero Paolo del Verde (Peter von Grünen),[12] Niccolo Unricilino (Nikolo von Urslingen),[13] Galeazzo Cattaneo dei Grumelli (Galeazzo Gonzaga da Mantova),[14] Lancillotto Beccaria di Pavia,[15] Giovannino da Baggio di Milano,[16] and Azzone di Castelbarco,[17] and also highlights some of their martial exploits.[1][2]

The only known historical mentions of Fiore appear in connection with the Aquileian War of Succession, which erupted in 1381 as a coalition of secular nobles from Udine and surrounding cities sought to remove the newly appointed Patriarch (prince-bishop of Aquileia), Philippe Ⅱ d'Alençon. Fiore seems to have supported the secular nobility against the Cardinal; he traveled to Udine in 1383 and was granted residency in the city on 3 August.[18] On 30 September, the high council tasked him with inspection and maintenance of city's weapons, including the artillery pieces defending Udine (large crossbows and catapults).[5][19][20] In February of 1384, he was assigned the task of recruiting a mercenary company to augment Udine's forces and leading them back to the city.[21] This task seems to have been accomplished in three months or less, as on 23 May he appeared before the high council again and was sworn in as a sort of magistrate charged with keeping the peace in one of the city's districts. After May 1384, the historical record is silent on Fiore's activities; the war continued until a new Patriarch was appointed in 1389 and a peace settlement was reached, but it's unclear if Fiore remained involved for the duration. Given that he appears in council records four times in 1383-4, it would be quite odd for him to be completely unmentioned over the subsequent five years if he remained,[5][22] and since his absence from records coincides with a proclamation in July of that year demanding that Udine cease hostilities or face harsh repercussions, it seems more likely that he moved on.

Based on his autobiographical account, Fiore traveled a good deal in northern Italy, teaching fencing and training men for duels. He seems to have been in Perugia in 1381 in this capacity, when his student Peter von Grünen likely fought a duel with Peter Kornwald.[23] In 1395, he can be placed in Padua training the mercenary captain Galeazzo Gonzaga of Mantua for a duel with the French marshal Jean Ⅱ le Maingre (who went by the war name “Boucicaut”). Galeazzo made the challenge when Boucicaut called into question the valor of Italians at the royal court of France, and the duel was ultimately set for Padua on 15 August. Both Francesco Novello da Carrara, Lord of Padua, and Francesco Gonzaga, Lord of Mantua, were in attendance. The duel was to begin with spears on horseback, but Boucicaut became impatient and dismounted, attacking Galeazzo before he could mount his own horse. Galeazzo landed a solid blow on the Frenchman’s helmet, but was subsequently disarmed. At this point, Boucicaut called for his poleaxe but the lords intervened to end the duel.[24][20][14]

Fiore surfaces again in Pavia in 1399, this time training Giovannino da Baggio for a duel with a German squire named Sirano. It was fought on 24 June and attended by Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan, as well as the Duchess and other nobles. The duel was to consist of three bouts of mounted lance followed by three bouts each of dismounted poleaxe, estoc, and dagger. They ultimately rode two additional passes and on the fifth, Baggio impaled Sirano’s horse through the chest, slaying the horse but losing his lance in the process. They fought the other nine bouts as scheduled, and due to the strength of their armor (and the fact that all of the weapons were blunted), both combatants reportedly emerged from these exchanges unharmed.[16][25]

Fiore was likely involved in at least one other duel that year, that of his final student Azzone di Castelbarco and Giovanni degli Ordelaffi, as the latter is known to have died in 1399.[26] After Castelbarco’s duel, Fiore’s activities are unclear. Based on the allegiances of the nobles that he trained in the 1390s, he seems to have been associated with the ducal court of Milan in the latter part of his career.[20] Some time in the first years of the 1400s, Fiore composed a fencing treatise in Italian and Latin called "The Flower of Battle" (rendered variously as Fior di Battaglia, Florius de Arte Luctandi, and Flos Duellatorum). The briefest version of the text is dated to 1409 and indicates that it was a labor of six months and great personal effort;[3] as evidence suggests that at least two longer versions were composed some time before this,[27] we may assume that he devoted a considerable amount of time to writing during this decade.

Beyond this, nothing certain is known of Fiore's activities in the 15th century. Francesco Novati and Luigi Zanutto both assume that some time before 1409 he accepted an appointment as court fencing master to Niccolò Ⅲ d’Este, Marquis of Ferrara, Modena, and Parma; presumably he would have made this change when Milan fell into disarray in 1402, though Zanutto went so far as to speculate that he trained Niccolò for his 1399 passage at arms.[28] However, while the records of the d’Este library indicate the presence of two versions of "the Flower of Battle", it seems more likely that the manuscripts were written as a diplomatic gift to Ferrara from Milan when they made peace in 1404.[25][20] C. A. Blengini di Torricella stated that late in life he made his way to Paris, France, where he could be placed teaching fencing in 1418 and creating a copy of a fencing manual located there in 1420. Though he attributes these facts to Novati, no publication verifying them has yet been located and this anecdote may be entirely spurious.[29]

The time and place of Fiore's death remain unknown.

Despite the extent and complexity of his writings, Fiore de’i Liberi does not seem to have been a very significant master in the evolution of fencing in Central Europe. That field was instead dominated by the traditions of two masters of the subsequent generation: Johannes Liechtenauer in the Holy Roman Empire and Filippo di Bartolomeo Dardi in the Italian states. Even so, there are a number of later treatises which bear strong resemblance to his work, including the writings of Philippo di Vadi and Ludwig VI von Eyb. This may be due to the direct influence of Fiore or his writings, or it may instead indicate that the older tradition of Johane and Nicholai survived and spread outside of Fiore's direct line.

Treatise

The d'Este family owned three manuscripts by Fiore during the 15th century,[30] and a total of four copies survive to the present. Of these, the MS Ludwig XV 13 (Getty) and the Pisani Dossi MS (Novati) are both dedicated to Niccolò Ⅲ d'Este and state that they were written at his request and according to his design. The MS M.383 (Morgan), on the other hand, lacks a dedication and claims to have been laid out according to his own intelligence, while the MS Latin 11269 (Paris) lost any dedication it might have had along with its prologue. Each of the extant copies of the Flower of Battle follows a different order, though each of these pairs contains strong similarities to each other in order of presentation.

In addition, Philippo di Vadi's manuscript from the 1480s, whose second half is essentially a redaction of the Flower of Battle, provides a valuable fifth point of reference when considering Fiore's teachings. (These is also a 17th century copy of the Morgan's preface, transcribed by Apostolo Zeno, but it contributes little to our understanding of the text.)

The major sections of the work include: abrazare or grappling; daga, including both unarmed defenses against the dagger and plays of dagger against dagger; spada a un mano, the use of the sword in one hand (also called "the sword without the buckler"); spada a dui mani, the use of the sword in two hands; spada en arme, the use of the sword in armor (primarily techniques from the shortened sword); azza, plays of the poleaxe in armor; lancia, spear and staff plays; and mounted combat (including the spear, the sword, and mounted grappling). Brief bridging sections serve to connect each of these, covering such topics as bastoncello, or plays of a small stick or baton against unarmed and dagger-wielding opponents; plays of sword vs. dagger; plays of staff and dagger and of two clubs and a dagger; and the use of the chiavarina against a man on horseback.

The format of instruction is largely consistent across all copies of the treatise. Each section begins with a group of Masters (or Teachers), figures in golden crowns who each demonstrate a particular guard for use with their weapon. These are followed by a master called Remedio ("Remedy") who demonstrates a defensive technique against some basic attack (usually how to use one of the listed guards to defend), and then by his various Scholars (or Students), figures wearing golden garters on their legs who demonstrate iterations and variations of this remedy. After the scholars there is typically a master called Contrario ("Counter" or "Contrary"), wearing both crown and garter, who demonstrates how to counter the master's remedy (and those of his scholars), who is likewise sometimes followed by his own scholars in garters. In rare cases, a fourth type of master appears called Contra-Contrario ("Counter-counter"), who likewise wears the crown and garter and demonstrates how to defeat the master's counter. Some sections feature multiple master remedies or master counters, while some have only one. While the crowns and garters are used across all extant versions of the treatise, the specific implementation of the system varies; all versions include at least a few apparently errors in assignation of crowns and garters, and there are many cases in which an illustration in one manuscript will only feature a scholar's garter where the corresponding illustration in another also includes a master's crown (depending on the instance, this may either be intentional or merely an error in the art). Alone of the four versions, the Morgan seeks to further expand the system by coloring the metallic portions of the master or scholar's weapon silver, while that of the player is left uncolored; this is also imperfectly-executed, but seems to have been intended as a visual indicator of which weapon belongs to which figure.

The concordance below includes Zeno's transcription of the Morgan preface for reference, and then drops the (thereafter empty) column in favor of a second illustration column for the main body of the treatise. (The Zeno transcript is in the first transcription column even though it's the youngest source so that the others can remain in the same position throughout.) Generally only the right-side column will contain illustrations—the left-side column will only contain additional content when when the text describes an illustration that spans the width of the page in the manuscripts, or when there are significant discrepancies between the available illustrations (in such cases, they sometimes display two stages of the same technique and will be placed in "chronological" order if possible). The illustrations from the Getty, Morgan, and Paris are taken from high-resolution scans supplied by those institutions, whereas the illustrations of the Pisani Dossi are taken from Novati's 1902 facsimile (scanned by Wiktenauer). There are likewise two translation columns, with the the two manuscripts dedicated to Niccolò on the left and the two undedicated manuscripts on the right; in both columns, the short text of the PD and Paris will come first, followed by the longer paragraphs of the Getty and Morgan.