Wiktenauer logo.png

Difference between revisions of "Fiore de'i Liberi"

From Wiktenauer
Jump to navigation Jump to search
 
(6 intermediate revisions by the same user not shown)
Line 95: Line 95:
 
== Treatise ==
 
== Treatise ==
  
The d'Este family owned three manuscripts by Fiore during the 15th century,<ref>There are two records in the [https://archive.org/details/giornalestoricod14toriuoft/page/18/mode/2up 1436 catalog] and two records in the [https://books.google.com/books?id=yz5FAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA219 1467 catalog], but only one of the manuscript descriptions is similar between the catalogs. The 1436 catalog lists one unbound Latin manuscript and one Italian manuscript in red leather; the 1467 catalog lists two Latin manuscripts, one of which was only 15 unbound folia (probably the same as the one from 1436) and one of which was 58 folia bound in white leather. From this, we might speculate that the Getty manuscript was present in 1436, the Paris manuscript in 1467, and the third (very short) manuscript is currently unknown to us. If there were an error in the 1467 catalog, then the unknown manuscript could be the Pisani Dossi, which currently consists of 35 unbound folia.</ref> and a total of four copies survive to the present. Of these, the [[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|MS Ludwig ⅩⅤ 13]] (Getty) and the [[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi MS]] (Novati) are both dedicated to Niccolò Ⅲ d'Este and state that they were written at his request and according to his design. The [[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|MS M.383]] (Morgan), on the other hand, lacks a dedication and claims to have been laid out according to his own intelligence, while the [[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|MS Latin 11269]] (Paris) lost any dedication it might have had along with its prologue. Each of the extant copies of the ''Flower of Battle'' follows a different order, though each of these pairs contains strong similarities to each other in order of presentation.  
+
The d'Este family owned at least three manuscripts by Fiore during the 15th century,<ref>There are two records in the [https://archive.org/details/giornalestoricod14toriuoft/page/18/mode/2up 1436 catalog] and two records in the [https://books.google.com/books?id=yz5FAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA219 1467 catalog], but only one of the manuscript descriptions is similar between the catalogs. The 1436 catalog lists one unbound Latin manuscript and one Italian manuscript in red leather; the 1467 catalog lists two Latin manuscripts, one of which was only 15 unbound folia (probably the same as the one from 1436) and one of which was 58 folia bound in white leather. From this, we might speculate that the Getty manuscript was present in 1436, the Paris manuscript in 1467, and the third (very short) manuscript is currently unknown to us. If there were an error in the 1467 catalog, then the unknown manuscript could be the Pisani Dossi, which currently consists of 35 unbound folia.</ref> and a total of four copies survive to the present. Of these, the [[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|MS Ludwig ⅩⅤ 13]] (Getty) and the [[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi MS]] (Novati) are both dedicated to Niccolò Ⅲ d'Este and state that they were written at his request and according to his design. The [[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|MS M.383]] (Morgan), on the other hand, lacks a dedication and claims to have been laid out according to his own intelligence, while the [[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|MS Latin 11269]] (Paris) lost any dedication it might have had along with its prologue. Each of the extant copies of the ''Flower of Battle'' follows a different order, though each of these pairs contains strong similarities to each other in order of presentation.  
  
 
In addition, Philippo di Vadi's manuscript from the 1480s, whose second half is essentially a redaction of the ''Flower of Battle'', provides a valuable fifth point of reference when considering Fiore's teachings. (These is also a 17th century copy of the Morgan's preface, transcribed by Apostolo Zeno, but it contributes little to our understanding of the text.)
 
In addition, Philippo di Vadi's manuscript from the 1480s, whose second half is essentially a redaction of the ''Flower of Battle'', provides a valuable fifth point of reference when considering Fiore's teachings. (These is also a 17th century copy of the Morgan's preface, transcribed by Apostolo Zeno, but it contributes little to our understanding of the text.)
Line 121: Line 121:
 
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
Line 601: Line 601:
 
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
Line 699: Line 699:
 
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
Line 715: Line 715:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>And this present gloss will recite all our knowledge and our understanding of all that we have seen from many masters and scholars and fencers, and from dukes, princes, marquises, counts, knights, and squires, and from countless other men of diverse provinces, and also things that we discovered ourself. There will also be guards of all weapons, and plays, and covers, and strikes, and holds, and binds, and breaks, and dislocations of arms and legs, and torsions and lesions—in the most perilous places—following that which the master of this art wishes.</p>
+
| <p>And this present gloss will recite all our knowledge and our understanding of all that we have experienced from many masters and scholars and fencers, and from dukes, princes, marquises, counts, knights, and squires, and from countless other men of diverse provinces, and also things that we discovered ourself. There will also be guards of all weapons, and plays, and covers, and strikes, and holds, and binds, and breaks, and dislocations of arms and legs, and torsions and lesions—in the most perilous places—following that which the master of this art wishes.</p>
  
 
<p>So poorly can one keep in mind without books and writing this large art that there will never be a good student without books. How, then, could there be a good master? I, the aforementioned Fiore, have seen a thousand men calling themselves masters, though not four among them were good students, and of those four none would be a good teacher.</p>
 
<p>So poorly can one keep in mind without books and writing this large art that there will never be a good student without books. How, then, could there be a good master? I, the aforementioned Fiore, have seen a thousand men calling themselves masters, though not four among them were good students, and of those four none would be a good teacher.</p>
Line 1,129: Line 1,129:
 
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="10" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 16r.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="11" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|400px|center]]
| rowspan="10" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="11" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 16r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>''We are four animals with these features:<br/>Whoever wants to fence makes comparisons to us;<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>''We are four animals with these features:<br/>Whoever wants to fence makes comparisons to us;<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
| <p>''Behold! we are four distinguished animals with these [traits]<br/>Who, for instance, strongly reminds [that] he is able in arms;<br/>He wants to be clear/bright and even shining brightly with honesty.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>''Behold! we are four distinguished animals with these [traits]<br/>Who, for instance, strongly reminds [that] he is able in arms;<br/>He wants to be clear/bright and even shining brightly with honesty.''</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-c|lbl=17a}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-c|lbl=17a}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-c|lbl=1v}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-c|lbl=1v}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>''And whoever will have a good portion of our virtues<br/>Will have honor in weapons, as bespeaks the art.<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>''And whoever will have a good portion of our virtues<br/>Will have honor in weapons, as bespeaks the art.<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
| <p>''He undertakes the lessons for himself, [and] determines which [are for] harming.<br/>Impress the evidence made known upon your spirit. Thenceforth<br/>That [evidence] of arms will have been taught before among friends.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>''He undertakes the lessons for himself, [and] determines which [are for] harming.<br/>Impress the evidence made known upon your spirit. Thenceforth<br/>That [evidence] of arms will have been taught before among friends.''</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-d|lbl=-}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-d|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-d|lbl=-}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-d|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,159: Line 1,159:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>{{red|b=1|Prudence/Wisdom}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>{{red|b=1|Prudence/Wisdom}}</p>
  
 
<p>''No creature sees better than me, the Lynx.<br/>And I always set things in order with compass and measure.''</p>
 
<p>''No creature sees better than me, the Lynx.<br/>And I always set things in order with compass and measure.''</p>
| <p>{{red|b=1|Prudence}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>{{red|b=1|Prudence}}</p>
  
 
<p>''Everything born under the sky will be discerned with [my] eyes; I, the lynx,<br/>I conquer [by] measurement whatever it pleases [me] to attempt.</p>
 
<p>''Everything born under the sky will be discerned with [my] eyes; I, the lynx,<br/>I conquer [by] measurement whatever it pleases [me] to attempt.</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|32r-1|lbl=-}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|32r-1|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-t|lbl=-}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-tttl|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-t|lbl=-}}
+
 
 +
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-t|lbl=-}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-tttl|lbl=-}}
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-t|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,179: Line 1,183:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>{{red|b=1|Celerity/Speed}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>{{red|b=1|Celerity/Speed}}</p>
  
 
<p>''I, the tiger, am so swift to run and to wheel<br/>That even the bolt from the sky cannot overtake me.''</p>
 
<p>''I, the tiger, am so swift to run and to wheel<br/>That even the bolt from the sky cannot overtake me.''</p>
| <p>{{red|b=1|Quickness}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>{{red|b=1|Quickness}}</p>
  
 
<p>''I am quick in the hunt and roll the quick ones back in their orbit,<br/>Nor in my running will the lightning overcome the tiger.</p>
 
<p>''I am quick in the hunt and roll the quick ones back in their orbit,<br/>Nor in my running will the lightning overcome the tiger.</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|32r-3|lbl=-}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|32r-3|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-a|lbl=-}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-attl|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-a|lbl=-}}
+
 
 +
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-a|lbl=-}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-attl|lbl=-}}
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-a|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,199: Line 1,207:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>{{red|b=1|Audacity/Daring}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>{{red|b=1|Audacity/Daring}}</p>
  
 
<p>''None carries a more ardent heart than me, the lion,<br/>But to everyone I make an invitation to battle.''</p>
 
<p>''None carries a more ardent heart than me, the lion,<br/>But to everyone I make an invitation to battle.''</p>
| <p>{{red|b=1|Courage}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>{{red|b=1|Courage}}</p>
  
 
<p>''I am the quadruped, the strong crown; my brave things,<br/>For instance, are the foundation of every axis. Now conquers the lion of the heart;<br/>[...] Therefore, we call whomsoever to arms.</p>
 
<p>''I am the quadruped, the strong crown; my brave things,<br/>For instance, are the foundation of every axis. Now conquers the lion of the heart;<br/>[...] Therefore, we call whomsoever to arms.</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|32r-5|lbl=-}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|32r-5|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-b|lbl=-}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-bttl|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-b|lbl=-}}
+
 
 +
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-b|lbl=-}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-bttl|lbl=-}}
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-b|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,219: Line 1,231:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>{{red|b=1|Fortitude/Strength}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>{{red|b=1|Fortitude/Strength}}</p>
  
 
<p>''I am the elephant and I carry a castle as cargo,<br/>And I do not kneel nor lose my footing.''</p>
 
<p>''I am the elephant and I carry a castle as cargo,<br/>And I do not kneel nor lose my footing.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>{{red|b=1|Strength}}</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|32r-7|lbl=-}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-ettl|lbl=-}}
 +
 +
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-e|lbl=-}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-ettl|lbl=-}}
 +
 +
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-e|lbl=-}}
  
<p>I am the Elephant and I carry a castle in my care, and I neither fall to my knees nor lose my footing.<ref>“Ne perdo vargo” means literally “I do not lose my way”. From the Bestiaries however we understand that what the Elephant never does is fall over. In the Bestiaries we are told the Elephant has no knees and if it once lies down can never get up again. Thus Fiore’s Elephant stands for stability and sure-footedness. The Aberdeen Bestiary reads as follows: “[Of the elephant] ... no larger animal is seen. The Persians and Indians, carried in wooden towers on their backs, fight with javelins as from a wall. ...The elephant has this characteristic: if it falls down, it cannot rise. But it falls when it leans on a tree in order to sleep, for it has no joints in its knees. A hunter cuts part of the way through the tree, so that when the elephant leans against it, elephant and tree will fall together.”</ref></p>
 
| <p>{{red|b=1|Strength}}</p>
 
|
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|32r-7|lbl=-}}
 
  
<p><br/><br/></p>
 
  
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|32r-8|lbl=-}}
+
|-
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 17a.jpg|17a-e|lbl=-}}
+
| <p>I am the Elephant and I carry a castle in my care, and I neither fall to my knees nor lose my footing.<ref>“Ne perdo vargo” means literally “I do not lose my way”. From the Bestiaries however we understand that what the Elephant never does is fall over. In the Bestiaries we are told the Elephant has no knees and if it once lies down can never get up again. Thus Fiore’s Elephant stands for stability and sure-footedness. The Aberdeen Bestiary reads as follows: “[Of the elephant] ... no larger animal is seen. The Persians and Indians, carried in wooden towers on their backs, fight with javelins as from a wall. ...The elephant has this characteristic: if it falls down, it cannot rise. But it falls when it leans on a tree in order to sleep, for it has no joints in its knees. A hunter cuts part of the way through the tree, so that when the elephant leans against it, elephant and tree will fall together.”</ref></p>
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 1v.jpg|1v-e|lbl=-}}
+
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 32r.jpg|32r-8|lbl=-}}
 +
|  
 +
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,266: Line 1,286:
 
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
Line 1,280: Line 1,300:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" |  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-a.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-a.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[2] {{red|b=1|[The Long Guard]}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[2] {{red|b=1|[The Long Guard]}}</p>
  
 
<p>''I am ready to show you how I win with my holds,<br/>And if I don’t leave you wondering what happened, you can count yourself lucky.''</p>
 
<p>''I am ready to show you how I win with my holds,<br/>And if I don’t leave you wondering what happened, you can count yourself lucky.''</p>
| <p><br/></p>
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
  
 
<p>''Even if you capture me, I would win; I am truly prepared.<br/>If I do not deceive you, you will be able to benefit for a short while.''</p>
 
<p>''Even if you capture me, I would win; I am truly prepared.<br/>If I do not deceive you, you will be able to benefit for a short while.''</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
<br/>
+
 
 
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-a}}
 
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-a}}
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
<br/>
+
 
 
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-a}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-a}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>I am ''Posta Longa'' and I seek you like this. And in response to the first grapple that you attempt on me I will bring my right arm up under your left arm. And I will then execute the first play of Grappling. And with that lock I will force you to the ground. And if that lock looks like it will fail me, then I will switch to one of the other locks that follow.</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>I am ''Posta Longa'' and I seek you like this. And in response to the first grapple that you attempt on me I will bring my right arm up under your left arm. And I will then execute the first play of Grappling. And with that lock I will force you to the ground. And if that lock looks like it will fail me, then I will switch to one of the other locks that follow.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-a}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-a}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" |  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-b.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-b.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[3] {{red|b=1|[The Boar's Tooth]}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[3] {{red|b=1|[The Boar's Tooth]}}</p>
  
 
<p>''I seek to reverse the fight,<br/>And from this position I will force you to the ground.''</p>
 
<p>''I seek to reverse the fight,<br/>And from this position I will force you to the ground.''</p>
| <p><br/></p>
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
  
 
<p>''I seek to shift, <for> which reason I would be able to deceive you well.<br/>Henceforth, I would turn you, using the speeding chest, through the dirt.''</p>
 
<p>''I seek to shift, <for> which reason I would be able to deceive you well.<br/>Henceforth, I would turn you, using the speeding chest, through the dirt.''</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
<br/>
+
 
 
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-b}}
 
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-b}}
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
<br/>
+
 
 
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-b}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-b}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>I counter you with ''Dente di Zenghiaro''. And with this move I am sure to break your grip. And from this guard I can transition to ''Porta di Ferro'', which will force you to the ground. And if my plan fails me because of your defense, I will seek other ways to hurt you, for example with breaks, binds and dislocations, as you see depicted in these drawings.</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>I counter you with ''Dente di Zenghiaro''. And with this move I am sure to break your grip. And from this guard I can transition to ''Porta di Ferro'', which will force you to the ground. And if my plan fails me because of your defense, I will seek other ways to hurt you, for example with breaks, binds and dislocations, as you see depicted in these drawings.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-b}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-c.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-c.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[4] {{red|b=1|[The Iron Gate]}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[4] {{red|b=1|[The Iron Gate]}}</p>
  
 
<p>''If you fail to beat me with your skill, I believe<br/>That with my power I will hurt you, or worse.''</p>
 
<p>''If you fail to beat me with your skill, I believe<br/>That with my power I will hurt you, or worse.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
  
<p>I wait for you without moving in ''Porta di Ferro'', ready to grapple with all of my skill. And this guard can be applied not only in the art of grappling, but also in the art of the Spear, the Poleaxe, the Sword, and the Dagger. For I am ''Porta di Ferro'', full of danger. Those who oppose me will always end up in pain and suffering. And as for those of you who come against me trying to get your hands on me, I will force you to the ground.</p>
+
<p>''If you do not conquer with a trick, I can, of course, believe [that]<br/>By my strength, that one &lt;that is, you&gt; will suffer many calamities.''</p>
| <p><br/></p>
+
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
  
<p>''If you do not conquer with a trick, I can, of course, believe [that]<br/>By my strength, that one <that is, you> will suffer many calamities.''</p>
+
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-c}}
 +
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
  
 +
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-c}}
 +
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>I wait for you without moving in ''Porta di Ferro'', ready to grapple with all of my skill. And this guard can be applied not only in the art of grappling, but also in the art of the Spear, the Poleaxe, the Sword, and the Dagger. For I am ''Porta di Ferro'', full of danger. Those who oppose me will always end up in pain and suffering. And as for those of you who come against me trying to get your hands on me, I will force you to the ground.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-c}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/>
 
 
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-c}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
<br/>
 
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-c}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
<br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-c}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-d.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-d.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[5] {{red|b=1|[The Guard of the Forehead]}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[5] {{red|b=1|[The Guard of the Forehead]}}</p>
  
 
<p>''I advance upon you with my arms well forward<br/>To lay hands on you in a variety of ways.''</p>
 
<p>''I advance upon you with my arms well forward<br/>To lay hands on you in a variety of ways.''</p>
 
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
<p>I am ''Posta Frontale'', used to get my hands on you. Now if I come against you in this guard, you may lay hands on me. But I will then move from this guard, and with skill I will take you down to ''Porta di Ferro''. Then I will make you suffer as if you had fallen into the depths of hell. And I will serve you so effectively with locks and dislocations, that you will quickly acknowledge my superiority. And as long as I don’t forget my skills, I will gain my superior holds.</p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
  
 
<p>''Behold!  I am coming, eager to overcome by means of the stretched shoulder,<br/>In order that I gain for myself a powerful capturing during the playing.''</p>
 
<p>''Behold!  I am coming, eager to overcome by means of the stretched shoulder,<br/>In order that I gain for myself a powerful capturing during the playing.''</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
<br/>
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-d}}
 
|
 
<br/>
 
 
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-d}}
 
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-d}}
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
<br/>
+
 
 
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-d}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-d}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p>I am ''Posta Frontale'', used to get my hands on you. Now if I come against you in this guard, you may lay hands on me. But I will then move from this guard, and with skill I will take you down to ''Porta di Ferro''. Then I will make you suffer as if you had fallen into the depths of hell. And I will serve you so effectively with locks and dislocations, that you will quickly acknowledge my superiority. And as long as I don’t forget my skills, I will gain my superior holds.</p>
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-a.png|400px|center]]
+
| class="noline" |
| <p>[6] ''With this move I will either force you to the ground<br/>Or else your left arm will be dislocated.''</p>
+
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-d}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>This is the first play of ''Abrazare'' and from every grappling guard you can arrive at this play, and from this position, proceed as follows: jam his right inside elbow with your left hand, and bring your right hand up behind and against his left elbow as shown. Now quickly make the second play, that is to say, having gripped him like this, turn your body to the left, and as a result he either goes to the ground or his arm will be dislocated.</p>
+
|-
| <p>''In this way, I, using a capturing, would make you touch the earth.<br/>I will dislocate your left shoulder, or perhaps the other.''</p>
+
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39r.jpg|39r-b}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Cod.1324 29r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-b.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-a.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[7] ''Either I will make you kiss the ground with your mouth,<br/>Or I will force you into the lower lock.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[6] ''With this move I will either force you to the ground<br/>Or else your left arm will be dislocated.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''In this way, I, using a capturing, would make you touch the earth.<br/>I will dislocate your left shoulder, or perhaps the other.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-a}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39r.jpg|39r-b}}
  
<p>As the Scholar of the First ''Abrazare'' Remedy Master says, I am certain to put this man to the ground, either by breaking or dislocating his left arm. And if the ''Zugadore'' who fights with the First ''Abrazare'' Remedy Master takes his left hand off the shoulder of the Remedy Master in order to make a defense, then I will quickly let go of his right arm with my left hand and instead seize his left leg with my left hand, and grip his throat with my right hand in order to throw him to the ground, as you see depicted in the third play.</p>
+
|-
| <p>''I would compel you, ugly, to lick the ground with your mouth;<br/>Not to mention I would even make you, wretched, enter the lowest key.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>This is the first play of ''Abrazare'' and from every grappling guard you can arrive at this play, and from this position, proceed as follows: jam his right inside elbow with your left hand, and bring your right hand up behind and against his left elbow as shown. Now quickly make the second play, that is to say, having gripped him like this, turn your body to the left, and as a result he either goes to the ground or his arm will be dislocated.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-a}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]''</p>
+
|-
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39r.jpg|39r-d}}
 
  
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Cod.1324 29r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[7] ''Either I will make you kiss the ground with your mouth,<br/>Or I will force you into the lower lock.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''I would compel you, ugly, to lick the ground with your mouth;<br/>Not to mention I would even make you, wretched, enter the lowest key.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-b}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39r.jpg|39r-d}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p>As the Scholar of the First ''Abrazare'' Remedy Master says, I am certain to put this man to the ground, either by breaking or dislocating his left arm. And if the ''Zugadore'' who fights with the First ''Abrazare'' Remedy Master takes his left hand off the shoulder of the Remedy Master in order to make a defense, then I will quickly let go of his right arm with my left hand and instead seize his left leg with my left hand, and grip his throat with my right hand in order to throw him to the ground, as you see depicted in the third play.</p>
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-c.png|400px|center]]
+
| class="noline" |
| <p>[8] ''And I will put you on the ground on your back,<br/>And I will not let you back up again without injury.''</p>
+
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>The scholar that came before me speaks truly that from his hold he will force his opponent to the ground or dislocate his left arm. As he told you, if the ''Zugadore'' takes away his left hand from the shoulder of the Remedy Master, then the Remedy Master transitions to the Third Play, as you see depicted here. Thus, the First play and the Second play are really one single play, where the Remedy Master forces the ''Zugadore'' to the ground with a turn of his body, while in this Third play the ''Zugadore'' is thrown to the ground onto his back.</p>
+
|-
| <p>''I would throw you, without pause, into the farthest earth up to the kidneys.<br/>Without you being able to rise from ominous punishment at all.''<ref>''Nec sine'' is an emphatic, not a negation.</ref></p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]</p>
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39v.jpg|39v-b}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-d.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[9] ''Even if you were a master of grappling,<br/>I will force you to the ground with this technique.''</p>
 
 
<p>This is the Fourth Play of ''Abrazare'', by which the ''Scholaro'' [Student] can easily force the ''Zugadore'' to the ground. And if he cannot force him to ground like this, he will seek other plays and techniques and use other methods, as you will see depicted below. You should know that the plays and the techniques will not always work in every situation, so if you do not have a good hold, you should quickly seek one, so as not to let your opponent gain any advantage over you.</p>
 
| <p>''In this way, I would make you sink down to the earth using a capturing,<br/>If you were being better during the entire playing by the masters.''</p>
 
 
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39v.jpg|39v-d}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-e.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-c.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[10] ''With the grips that I have on you above and below,<br/>I will break open your head on the ground.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[8] ''And I will put you on the ground on your back,<br/>And I will not let you back up again without injury.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''I would throw you, without pause, into the farthest earth up to the kidneys.<br/>Without you being able to rise from ominous punishment at all.''<ref>''Nec sine'' is an emphatic, not a negation.</ref></p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-c}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39v.jpg|39v-b}}
  
<p>This grip that I make with my right hand at your throat will bring you pain and suffering, and with it I will force you to the ground. Also let me tell you that if I seize you under your left knee with my right hand, I will be even more certain of driving you into the ground.</p>
+
|-
| <p>''Because of capturing, <by> wrestling above and below<br/>You will pound the earth with the top of your head. The fates will not refuse.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>The scholar that came before me speaks truly that from his hold he will force his opponent to the ground or dislocate his left arm. As he told you, if the ''Zugadore'' takes away his left hand from the shoulder of the Remedy Master, then the Remedy Master transitions to the Third Play, as you see depicted here. Thus, the First play and the Second play are really one single play, where the Remedy Master forces the ''Zugadore'' to the ground with a turn of his body, while in this Third play the ''Zugadore'' is thrown to the ground onto his back.</p>
 
+
| class="noline" |  
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]''</p>
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-c}}
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
<br/><br/>
+
| class="noline" |  
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-e}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40r.jpg|40r-b}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[11] ''Your hand in my face is well placed,<br/>But I will now show you some other moves.<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
 
 
<p>I am the counter of the Fifth Play [10] that is shown earlier. And let me explain that if with my right hand I push up the elbow of his hand that seeks to harm me, I will turn him in such a way that either I will force him to the ground, as you see here depicted, or I will gain a hold or a lock, and so I will have little concern for his grappling skills.</p>
 
 
<p>''[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]''</p>
 
| <p>''I served up the palms to the face.<ref>''Apposui'' is clearly “I served up,” but with the convention that the captions are spoken by the wearer of the crown or garter, this makes little sense (as the palms are in the face of that person). Further, the Pisani Dossi text reverses the speaker.</ref> But still I cheerfully moved<br/>Those [palms] from that place, <in order that> I would therefore be able to<br/>Bury you using the other capturing.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-f}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40r.jpg|40r-c}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-a.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[12] ''By putting my head under your arm,<br/>I will easily throw you to the ground.''</p>
 
 
<p>From this hold that I have gained, and by the way I hold you, I will lift you off the ground with my strength and throw you down under my feet head first with your body following. And as far as I am concerned, you will not be able to counter me.</p>
 
| <p>''You, confused one, will be spread on the ground (like a tarp) in sadness and disorder;<br/>This, because I am holding [your arm] on the left <and put> the head of this person <that is, me> under the shoulder.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40v.jpg|40v-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-b.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-d.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[13] ''Because of my thumb pressing under your left ear,<br/>Your hold on me is failing, as you can see depicted here.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[9] ''Even if you were a master of grappling,<br/>I will force you to the ground with this technique.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''In this way, I would make you sink down to the earth using a capturing,<br/>If you were being better during the entire playing by the masters.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-d}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39v.jpg|39v-d}}
  
<p>When I press my thumb under your ear you will feel so much pain that you will go to the ground for sure, or I will make other hold or lock that will be worse than torture for you. The counter that can be made is the Sixth play [11] made against the Fifth Play [10] when he puts his hand underneath his opponent’s elbow. This counter can certainly be done to me here.</p>
+
|-
| <p>''{{highlight|I but hold}} this finger to the left ear during wrestling,<br/>In order that you destroy the capturing by which you were keeping the upper hand on me.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>This is the Fourth Play of ''Abrazare'', by which the ''Scholaro'' [Student] can easily force the ''Zugadore'' to the ground. And if he cannot force him to ground like this, he will seek other plays and techniques and use other methods, as you will see depicted below. You should know that the plays and the techniques will not always work in every situation, so if you do not have a good hold, you should quickly seek one, so as not to let your opponent gain any advantage over you.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-d}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]''</p>
+
|-
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]</p>
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40v.jpg|40v-d}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-c.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[14] ''With great cunning you grabbed me from behind,<br/>But this move will throw you to the ground without fail.''</p>
 
 
<p>You seized me from behind in order to throw me to the ground, and I turned like this. And if I fail to throw you to the ground you will have a lucky escape. This play is a good finishing move, but unless this is done quickly, this remedy will fail.</p>
 
| <p>''<If you>, Traitor, by your art have seized me from behind,<br/>This capturing nevertheless puts <and buries> you in the deepest ground.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41r.jpg|41r-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-d.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-e.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[15] ''This is a grappling move that involves the ''Gambarola'',<br/>But be aware that this move will not always work.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[10] ''With the grips that I have on you above and below,<br/>I will break open your head on the ground.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''Because of capturing, &lt;by&gt; wrestling above and below<br/>You will pound the earth with the top of your head. The fates will not refuse.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-e}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40r.jpg|40r-b}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>This grip that I make with my right hand at your throat will bring you pain and suffering, and with it I will force you to the ground. Also let me tell you that if I seize you under your left knee with my right hand, I will be even more certain of driving you into the ground.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-a}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>This is a play that involves a throw over the leg [''Gambarola''] which is a risky move in grappling. So if you want to make this leg throw successfully, you will need to do it with power and speed.</p>
+
|-
| <p>''Here, meanwhile, the play of turning of legs is discussed.<br/>{{highlight|However, it}} is not suitable; it often fails at holding.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]</p>
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41r.jpg|41r-c}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-e.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[16] ''This is a good hold to practice,<br/>For I can hold you without you being able to harm me.''</p>
 
 
<p>This is a finishing move and it is a good way to hold someone, because they cannot defend themselves. For the counter, the one who is being held should move as quickly as he can over to a wall or a post and drive himself backwards against it so that the man holding him breaks his head or his back against the aforementioned wall or post.</p>
 
| <p>''By the joint, thought and mind, the capturing is called Outsider.<br/>In this way, at last, I will force you, gloomy one, to endure.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-e}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41v.jpg|41v-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-f.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r-b.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[17] ''I will strike you so hard in the groin<br/>That all of your strength will be taken away.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[11] ''Your hand in my face is well placed,<br/>But I will now show you some other moves.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''I served up the palms to the face.<ref>''Apposui'' is clearly “I served up,” but with the convention that the captions are spoken by the wearer of the crown or garter, this makes little sense (as the palms are in the face of that person). Further, the Pisani Dossi text reverses the speaker.</ref> But still I cheerfully moved<br/>Those [palms] from that place, &lt;in order that&gt; I would therefore be able to<br/>Bury you using the other capturing.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-f}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40r.jpg|40r-c}}
  
<p>This student strikes his opponent with a knee to the groin to gain advantage in order to throw him to the ground. To make the counter, when your opponent comes in quickly to strike you in the groin with his knee, seize his right leg under the knee with your right hand, and throw him to the ground.</p>
+
|-
| <p>''In this way, &lt;I&gt; myself would destroy your testicles with a hard<br/>Knee, so that no strength will be present in the heart.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>I am the counter of the Fifth Play [10] that is shown earlier. And let me explain that if with my right hand I push up the elbow of his hand that seeks to harm me, I will turn him in such a way that either I will force him to the ground, as you see here depicted, or I will gain a hold or a lock, and so I will have little concern for his grappling skills.</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
<br/><br/>
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-b}}
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-d}}
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-f}}
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41v.jpg|41v-d}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|
+
| <p>[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]</p>
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-a.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[18] ''I'll give you so much pain and suffering to your nose<br/>That I will immediately make you let go of me.''</p>
 
 
 
<p>If you seize me with both your arms underneath mine, I will strike with both my hands into your face. And even if you were well armored this would still make you let go. The counter of this play is to place your right hand under the left elbow of your opponent and push hard upwards, and you will be able to free yourself.</p>
 
| <p>''I will redouble so many<ref>''Tot'': so many, such a number.</ref> pains which your nose is suffering<br/>That I believe you will quickly release me [who {{highlight|am}}] fighting with you.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42r.jpg|42r-a}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-b.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[19] ''No doubt about it, with this move I will free myself<br/>And with this counter you will be thrown to the ground.<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
 
 
<p>This shows how I make the counter to the thirteenth play [18]. As you can see his hands have been removed from my face. And from this hold, if I fail to throw him to the ground I will be worthy of your disdain.</p>
 
 
<p>''[In the Getty, the master grabs the scholar's right elbow rather than his left wrist.]''</p>
 
| <p>''I set up your limbs using a similar capturing (and so we demonstrate).<br/>Nevertheless, <you>, miserable ruined one, will depart<br/>By means of the counter, as you will duly see if you examine [it] by the light of day.''</p>
 
 
<p>''[In the Paris, the Master is missing his crown.]''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42r.jpg|42r-d}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-c.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-a.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[20] ''I will hurt you under your chin so badly<br/>That you will quickly find yourself thrown onto your back.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[12] ''By putting my head under your arm,<br/>I will easily throw you to the ground.''</p>
 
+
| class="noline" | <p>''You, confused one, will be spread on the ground (like a tarp) in sadness and disorder;<br/>This, because I am holding [your arm] on the left &lt;and put&gt; the head of this person &lt;that is, me&gt; under the shoulder.''</p>
<p>If you come to grips with both your arms underneath your opponent's, then you can attack his face as you see depicted, especially if his face is not protected. You can also transition from here into the third play of grappling.</p>
+
| class="noline" |  
| <p>''And I drag many pains to you below your chin,<br/>So that I touch the farthest earth with the sorrowful kidneys.''</p>
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-a}}
|  
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40v.jpg|40v-a}}
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42v.jpg|42v-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| class="noline" | <p>From this hold that I have gained, and by the way I hold you, I will lift you off the ground with my strength and throw you down under my feet head first with your body following. And as far as I am concerned, you will not be able to counter me.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-c}}
| class="noline" | <p>[21] ''With your hands in my face you can cause me trouble,<br/>But with this counter to your eyes, I will cause you even more trouble.''</p>
 
 
 
<p>This is the counter to the fourteenth play [20], and to any other play where my opponent has his hands in my face while grappling with me. If his face is unprotected, I push my thumbs into his eyes. If his face is protected, I push up under his elbow and quickly move to a ''presa'' or a ''ligadura''.</p>
 
 
 
<p>''[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]''</p>
 
| class="noline" | <p>''Here, by this twin play, you press the face with the hand.<br/>But the counter, thenceforth, will injure the eye more greatly.''</p>
 
 
 
<p>''[In the Paris, the Master is missing his crown.]''</p>
 
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-d}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-d}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42v.jpg|42v-d}}
 
 
|}
 
{{master end}}
 
 
{{master begin
 
| title = Baton
 
| width = 240em
 
}}
 
{| class="master"
 
|-
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-e.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[1] ''With a short staff I bind your neck,<br/>And if I fail to put you into the ground, you can count yourself lucky.''</p>
 
 
<p>See how with a short staff I hold you bound by your neck. And from here if I wish to throw you to the ground I will have little trouble doing so. And if I choose to do worse to you I can keep this strong bind applied. And you will not be able to counter this play.</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
+
|  
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-e}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-f.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-b.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[2] ''If this short staff play does not put you on the ground,<br/>Then I will have no faith in the effectiveness of this art.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[13] ''Because of my thumb pressing under your left ear,<br/>Your hold on me is failing, as you can see depicted here.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''{{highlight|I but hold}} this finger to the left ear during wrestling,<br/>In order that you destroy the capturing by which you were keeping the upper hand on me.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-b}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40v.jpg|40v-d}}
  
<p>If you were well armored then I would prefer to make this play against you than the previous one. Now that I have caught you between your legs with the short staff, you are stuck riding it like a horse, but you won't be trapped like this long before I turn you upside down onto your back.</p>
+
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>When I press my thumb under your ear you will feel so much pain that you will go to the ground for sure, or I will make other hold or lock that will be worse than torture for you. The counter that can be made is the Sixth play [11] made against the Fifth Play [10] when he puts his hand underneath his opponent’s elbow. This counter can certainly be done to me here.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-d}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
''[In the Getty, the Scholar steps between his opponent's legs.]''
+
|-
 +
|
 +
| <p>[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| <br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-f}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
|
 +
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="3" |
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[14] ''With great cunning you grabbed me from behind,<br/>But this move will throw you to the ground without fail.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''&lt;If you&gt;, Traitor, by your art have seized me from behind,<br/>This capturing nevertheless puts &lt;and buries&gt; you in the deepest ground.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-c}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41r.jpg|41r-a}}
 +
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>You seized me from behind in order to throw me to the ground, and I turned like this. And if I fail to throw you to the ground you will have a lucky escape. This play is a good finishing move, but unless this is done quickly, this remedy will fail.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-a}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[3] I am the Student of the Sixth Remedy Master of the Daga, who counters in this way with his dagger. And it is in his honor that I make this cover with my short staff. And from here I will rise quickly to my feet and I will make the plays of my Master. And this cover that I have made with a short staff can also be done with a hood. And the counter to this move is the same counter shown by my Master [in the dagger section].</p>
 
 
<p>''[Based on the description, the placement of this illustration is probably an error and it more likely belongs to the following play.]''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-c}}
+
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| rowspan="3" |
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[15] ''This is a grappling move that involves the ''Gambarola'',<br/>But be aware that this move will not always work.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''Here, meanwhile, the play of turning of legs is discussed.<br/>{{highlight|However, it}} is not suitable; it often fails at holding.''</p>
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v-d.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | <p>[4] I have taken this remedy from the Eighth Remedy Master of the Dagger, and I can defend myself armed only with this short staff. And having made this cover I rise to my feet, and I can then make all of the plays of my Master. And I could defend myself in this way equally well with a hood or a piece of rope. And the counter to this move is the same counter shown by my Master.</p>
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-d}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41r.jpg|41r-c}}
  
<p>''[Based on the description, the placement of this illustration is probably an error and it more likely belongs to the previous play.]''</p>
+
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>This is a play that involves a throw over the leg [''Gambarola''] which is a risky move in grappling. So if you want to make this leg throw successfully, you will need to do it with power and speed.</p>
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-d}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-b}}
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
  
|}
+
|-
{{master end}}
+
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
  
{{master begin
 
| title = Dagger
 
| width = 100%
 
}}
 
{{master subsection begin
 
| title = Introduction
 
| width = 240em
 
}}
 
{| class="master"
 
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Illustrations</p>
+
| rowspan="3" |
! <p>Illustrations</p>
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-e.png|400px|center]]
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[16] ''This is a good hold to practice,<br/>For I can hold you without you being able to harm me.''</p>
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>''By the joint, thought and mind, the capturing is called Outsider.<br/>In this way, at last, I will force you, gloomy one, to endure.''</p>
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
+
| class="noline" |
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
+
| class="noline" |  
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-e}}
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41v.jpg|41v-a}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p>This is a finishing move and it is a good way to hold someone, because they cannot defend themselves. For the counter, the one who is being held should move as quickly as he can over to a wall or a post and drive himself backwards against it so that the man holding him breaks his head or his back against the aforementioned wall or post.</p>
| style="text-align:center; vertical-align:middle;" | [No illustration]
+
| class="noline" |  
| <p>[1] These five figures are the guards of the dagger; and some are good in armor; and some are good without armor; and some are good both in or out of armor; and some are good in armor but not good without armor; and all these are displayed below.</p>
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-c}}
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-t}}
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
 
|  
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[2] {{red|b=1|[Full Iron Gate, Single]}}</p>
 
<p>I am Full Iron Gate Single. And I am good in armour and without armour, because I can ward off an attack with or without moving to grapple. And I can play with or without a dagger when I make my covers.</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-a}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="3" |
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[17] ''I will strike you so hard in the groin<br/>That all of your strength will be taken away.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''In this way, &lt;I&gt; myself would destroy your testicles with a hard<br/>Knee, so that no strength will be present in the heart.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-f}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41v.jpg|41v-d}}
 +
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>This student strikes his opponent with a knee to the groin to gain advantage in order to throw him to the ground. To make the counter, when your opponent comes in quickly to strike you in the groin with his knee, seize his right leg under the knee with your right hand, and throw him to the ground.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-d}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[3] {{red|b=1|[Full Iron Door, Doubled]}}</p>
 
 
<p>I am Full Iron Gate Doubled, and I am good in armour and without armour, but in all situations I am better in armour than without armour, and with a guard like this I cannot use a dagger.</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-b}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="3" |
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[18] ''I'll give you so much pain and suffering to your nose<br/>That I will immediately make you let go of me.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''I will redouble so many<ref>''Tot'': so many, such a number.</ref> pains which your nose is suffering<br/>That I believe you will quickly release me [who {{highlight|am}}] fighting with you.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-a}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42r.jpg|42r-a}}
 +
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>If you seize me with both your arms underneath mine, I will strike with both my hands into your face. And even if you were well armored this would still make you let go. The counter of this play is to place your right hand under the left elbow of your opponent and push hard upwards, and you will be able to free yourself.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-a}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r-e.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[4] {{red|b=1|[Middle Iron Gate, Doubled]}}</p>
 
 
<p>I am Middle Iron Gate with dagger in hand and I am doubled, and I am better and more strong than any of the others, and I am good in armour and without armour, and I can cover low and high on either side.</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-e}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r-f.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-b.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[5] {{red|b=1|[Full Iron Door, Doubled and Crossed]}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[19] ''No doubt about it, with this move I will free myself<br/>And with this counter you will be thrown to the ground.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''I set up your limbs using a similar capturing (and so we demonstrate).<br/>Nevertheless, &lt;you&gt;, miserable ruined one, will depart<br/>By means of the counter, as you will duly see if you examine [it] by the light of day.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-b}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42r.jpg|42r-d}}
  
<p>And I am Full Iron Gate with the arms crossed and doubled. And I am like a mighty fortress, and in armour I am especially strong. But without armour I am not sufficient, because I cannot cover long.</p>
+
|-
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p>This shows how I make the counter to the thirteenth play [18]. As you can see his hands have been removed from my face. And from this hold, if I fail to throw him to the ground I will be worthy of your disdain.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| <p>[In the Getty, the master grabs the scholar's right elbow rather than his left wrist.]</p>
 +
| <p>[In the Paris, the Master is missing his crown.]</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-f}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-c.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[6] {{red|b=1|[Middle Iron Gate, Doubled and Crossed]}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[20] ''I will hurt you under your chin so badly<br/>That you will quickly find yourself thrown onto your back.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''And I drag many pains to you below your chin,<br/>So that I touch the farthest earth with the sorrowful kidneys.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-c}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42v.jpg|42v-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>If you come to grips with both your arms underneath your opponent's, then you can attack his face as you see depicted, especially if his face is not protected. You can also transition from here into the third play of grappling.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-c}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>And I am Middle Iron Gate doubled and crossed [with dagger]. And I am good in armour but not without armour, because I cannot cover long, but I can cover above and below, from the right and the left, with or without a dagger.</p>
+
|-  
|  
 
|
 
|
 
<br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-c}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
| rowspan="2" |
 
| style="text-align:center; vertical-align:middle;" rowspan="2" | [No illustration]
 
| <p>[7] I am the noble weapon named the dagger who plays at very close range, and he who understands my malice and my art will also gain a good understanding of many other weapons. And since I finish my fight fiercely and quickly, there is no man who can stand against my method. Whoever witnesses my deeds of arms will see me make covers and thrusts as I move to grapple, and will see me take away the dagger by dislocating and binding arms, and against me neither weapons nor armour will be of any use.</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-f}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[8] Everyone should take care when facing the perilous dagger, and your arms, hands and elbows must go quickly against it, to do these five things, namely: take away the dagger; strike; dislocate the arms; bind the arms; and force your opponent to the ground. And never fail to do one or the other of these five things; And may he who seeks to defend himself protect himself in this way.</p>
+
| rowspan="3" |
|  
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p>[21] ''With your hands in my face you can cause me trouble,<br/>But with this counter to your eyes, I will cause you even more trouble.''</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-a}}
+
| class="noline" | <p>''Here, by this twin play, you press the face with the hand.<br/>But the counter, thenceforth, will injure the eye more greatly.''</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-d}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42v.jpg|42v-d}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="4" |
+
| class="noline" | <p>This is the counter to the fourteenth play [20], and to any other play where my opponent has his hands in my face while grappling with me. If his face is unprotected, I push my thumbs into his eyes. If his face is protected, I push up under his elbow and quickly move to a ''presa'' or a ''ligadura''.</p>
| rowspan="4" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v-a.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| class="noline" |  
| <p>[9] With the ''fendente'' I can strike to the head and the body from the elbow up to the top of the head. But below the elbow I cannot be sure that I can make this strike without danger, and therefore I am reluctant to strike lower.</p>
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-d}}
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-b}}
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
 
|  
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[10] From the left (reverse) side, you can strike from the elbow to end at the temple of the head. And these are called the ''colpi mezani'' (middle strikes). And these reverse strikes from the left cannot be delivered if you are still waiting to make cover against your opponent’s attack.</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p>[In the Paris, the Master is missing his crown.]</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-c}}
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
  
|-  
+
|}
| <p>[11] From the right side you can strike or cover if needed, and your target ranges from the elbows to the temples of the head. And this strike is more safely made from the right side than made from the left side.</p>
+
{{master end}}
 +
 
 +
{{master begin
 +
| title = Baton
 +
| width = 240em
 +
}}
 +
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="3" |
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[1] ''With a short staff I bind your neck,<br/>And if I fail to put you into the ground, you can count yourself lucky.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-e}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>See how with a short staff I hold you bound by your neck. And from here if I wish to throw you to the ground I will have little trouble doing so. And if I choose to do worse to you I can keep this strong bind applied. And you will not be able to counter this play.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-a}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-d}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
| <p>[12] The dagger that goes through the middle towards the head strikes below the chest and never higher. And while striking you should at all times make cover with your left hand.</p>
 
|
 
|
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-e}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| rowspan="3" |
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[2] ''If this short staff play does not put you on the ground,<br/>Then I will have no faith in the effectiveness of this art.''</p>
 +
 +
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-f}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>If you were well armored then I would prefer to make this play against you than the previous one. Now that I have caught you between your legs with the short staff, you are stuck riding it like a horse, but you won't be trapped like this long before I turn you upside down onto your back.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 +
|-
 +
| <p>[In the Getty, the Scholar steps between his opponent's legs.]</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[13] ''After taking away your dagger, to signify my victory<br/>I hold it in my raised hand in this manner.''</p>
 
 
<p>In my right hand I hold your dagger, and I gained it through my skill, which is so good that if you draw a dagger on me, I will take it from your hand. And I know well how to strike to finish you, no matter what advantage you might have.</p>
 
| <p>''Now sealed with the palm, thus I carry the safe dagger.<br/>With my hands I would lift [the dagger] itself, all having been carried.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r.jpg|10r-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21r.jpg|21r-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="2" |  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r-b.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v-c.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[14] ''Because I triumph over those who fight with me,<br/>I carry torn-off broken arms as a decoration.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[3] I am the Student of the Sixth Remedy Master of the Daga, who counters in this way with his dagger. And it is in his honor that I make this cover with my short staff. And from here I will rise quickly to my feet and I will make the plays of my Master. And this cover that I have made with a short staff can also be done with a hood. And the counter to this move is the same counter shown by my Master [in the dagger section].</p>
 
+
| class="noline" |
<p>I choose to symbolize my skill with the broken arms I carry. And I do not lie when I tell you that I have broken and dislocated many arms in my life. And whoever chooses to go against my art, will find me always ready to use that art against him.</p>
+
| class="noline" |
| <p>''Whereas I would overcome all which can war with me;<br/>Distinguished, I carry before me broken arms in [my] hands.</p>
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-c}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
 +
|-
 +
| <p>[Based on the description, the placement of this illustration is probably an error and it more likely belongs to the following play.]</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r.jpg|10r-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21r.jpg|21r-b}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[15] ''Locking the arms of all opponents<br/>In such a way that none can safely extend their right hand,<br/>To show my success I carry a pair of keys in my hand.''</p>
 
 
<p>I am the Master of the unlocking and locking of the arms of those who choose to oppose me. I will cause them great pain and suffering with my techniques of binding and dislocating. And therefore I carry these keys to signify the value of my art.</p>
 
| <p>''Nailing together the arms of all fighting in the region<br/>In such a way that they would not be able to extend the safe right,<br/>Now happily I thus collect two keys in my hands.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r.jpg|10r-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21r.jpg|21r-c}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| rowspan="3" |
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v-d.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[4] I have taken this remedy from the Eighth Remedy Master of the Dagger, and I can defend myself armed only with this short staff. And having made this cover I rise to my feet, and I can then make all of the plays of my Master. And I could defend myself in this way equally well with a hood or a piece of rope. And the counter to this move is the same counter shown by my Master.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-d}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[Based on the description, the placement of this illustration is probably an error and it more likely belongs to the previous play.]</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| class="noline" | <p>[16] ''You ask how I force others to the ground under my feet with such prowess,<br/>I tell you that because I grapple each man and throw him down;<br/>The victory palm is appropriately held in my right hand.''</p>
 
 
<p>You ask how it is that I have this man held under my feet. Thousands have suffered this fate because of my art of Abrazare. And I carry the victory palm in my right hand, because no one can stand up to my grappling skills.</p>
 
| class="noline" | <p>''You ask why I, boasting, ruined so great [a person] with [my] feet:<br/>Because by wrestling men of courage, I assert to lay them all low;<br/>Certainly the palm is extended to stand on our right.''</p>
 
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
<br/><br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r.jpg|10r-d}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-d}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21r.jpg|21r-d}}
 
  
 
|}
 
|}
{{master subsection end}}
+
{{master end}}
  
 +
{{master begin
 +
| title = Dagger
 +
| width = 100%
 +
}}
 
{{master subsection begin
 
{{master subsection begin
  | title = 1st Master
+
  | title = Introduction
 
  | width = 240em
 
  | width = 240em
 
}}
 
}}
Line 1,919: Line 1,978:
 
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a-e.png|400px|center]]
+
| style="text-align:center; vertical-align:middle;" | [No illustration]
| <p>[17] ''I am the First Master of the Dagger, full of guile,<br/>And with my left hand I will wind the dagger around your arm,<br/>And truth to tell I can make many other plays,<br/>And my students will do them cunningly.''</p>
+
| <p>[1] These five figures are the guards of the dagger; and some are good in armor; and some are good without armor; and some are good both in or out of armor; and some are good in armor but not good without armor; and all these are displayed below.</p>
 
+
|
<p>I am the first master and I am called Remedy, because I know how to remedy so well that you cannot harm me whereas I on the contrary can strike you and hurt you. And I cannot make a better play against you than to make your dagger go to the ground, by turning my hand to the left.</p>
+
|
| <p>''The first master of the dagger, I am called caution itself;<br/>At any time, the left hand having been extended to lift the dagger away.''</p>
+
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-t}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10v.jpg|10v-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-e}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21v.jpg|21v-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a-f.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[18] ''If I make a turn around your arm with my dagger,<br/>I will strike you in the chest, and it will not be taken from me.''</p>
+
| <p>[2] {{red|b=1|[Full Iron Gate, Single]}}</p>
 
+
<p>I am Full Iron Gate Single. And I am good in armour and without armour, because I can ward off an attack with or without moving to grapple. And I can play with or without a dagger when I make my covers.</p>
<p>I will turn my dagger around your arm. And because of this counter you will not be able to take the dagger from me. And also with this turn I can drive it into your chest without a doubt.</p>
 
| <p>''Truly I sweep the dagger away around your shoulder.<br/>Not wasting that [attack], I would pulp you, miserable, in the chest.''</p>
 
 
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10v.jpg|10v-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-f}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21v.jpg|21v-d}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-a.png|400px|center]]
+
<br/>
| <p>[19] ''With your right arm locked under my left,<br/>I can cause you much harm while keeping you trapped.''</p>
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-a}}
 
 
<p>I will lock your arm in the middle bind, and I will do it in such a way that you will not be able to give me any trouble. And if I wish to put you to the ground I will do so with little effort, and you will have no chance of escaping.</p>
 
 
 
''[In the Getty, the Scholar steps with his left foot in front of his opponent's right, not behind.]''
 
| <p>''And behold your right [arm] confined under my left<br/>Shoulder. Far too many misfortunes delay you, the imprisoned one.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10v.jpg|10v-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 24r.jpg|24r-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-b.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r-b.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[20] ''If you wind around my arm and try to lock it in this way,<br/>I will put you in the lower bind and this hold will make things hard for you.''</p>
+
| <p>[3] {{red|b=1|[Full Iron Door, Doubled]}}</p>
  
<p>I make the counter to the play that came before me. You can see the kind of position that I have put him in. I will break his arm or quickly throw him to the ground.</p>
+
<p>I am Full Iron Gate Doubled, and I am good in armour and without armour, but in all situations I am better in armour than without armour, and with a guard like this I cannot use a dagger.</p>
| <p>''It is permitted that you hold me pressed hard inward, the lower key having been retained [and]<br/>Then pressed hard, [which] will harm the shoulder.''</p>
+
|  
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-b}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10v.jpg|10v-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 24r.jpg|24r-d}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-c.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r-e.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[21] <em>If I can turn this arm of yours,<br/>I will make you suffer with a middle bind.</em></p>
+
| <p>[4] {{red|b=1|[Middle Iron Gate, Doubled]}}</p>
  
<p>This is a good cover from which to take the dagger from your hand, and with this grip I will be able to bind you well. And this art is so effective that if I place my right hand under your right knee, then I will put you to the ground.</p>
+
<p>I am Middle Iron Gate with dagger in hand and I am doubled, and I am better and more strong than any of the others, and I am good in armour and without armour, and I can cover low and high on either side.</p>
| <p>''If I myself can now turn the shoulder using the hands,<br/>You, sad, will remain eternally in that middle key.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r.jpg|11r-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 24v.jpg|24v-a}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-d.png|400px|center]]
+
<br/>
| <p>[22] <em>You will not make me suffer in the middle bind<br/>When I meet you with this counter and make you let go.</em></p>
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-e}}
 
 
<p>I make the counter to the play that came before me, so that you will not be able to throw me to the ground, nor take the dagger from me, nor bind me either. You will have to let go, or else you will be quickly stabbed by my dagger.</p>
 
| <p>''You will not make [me] endure in the middle key. But now,<br/>By means of that my<ref>Possibly a scribal error—the first sentence seems to be missing a “me” and the second has one it doesn’t need.</ref> counter, it is convenient for you if you will yield to me.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r.jpg|11r-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 24v.jpg|24v-d}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r-f.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[23] This is a play with no counter, and it is inevitable that the player will go to the ground and lose his dagger if the student performs this technique as depicted. And when the player is thrown to the ground, the student can finish him in various ways.</p>
+
| <p>[5] {{red|b=1|[Full Iron Door, Doubled and Crossed]}}</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>And I am Full Iron Gate with the arms crossed and doubled. And I am like a mighty fortress, and in armour I am especially strong. But without armour I am not sufficient, because I cannot cover long.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r.jpg|11r-c}}
+
|  
 +
<br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-f}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,021: Line 2,048:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[24] This play is rarely used in the art of the dagger, yet it is an additional defense to know. For after beating aside the attack in this way, the scholar can then strike with a counter to the ribs or the stomach.</p>
+
| <p>[6] {{red|b=1|[Middle Iron Gate, Doubled and Crossed]}}</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>And I am Middle Iron Gate doubled and crossed [with dagger]. And I am good in armour but not without armour, because I cannot cover long, but I can cover above and below, from the right and the left, with or without a dagger.</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r.jpg|11r-d}}
+
<br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09r.jpg|9r-c}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-d.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="2" |  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v-a.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| style="text-align:center; vertical-align:middle;" rowspan="2" | [No illustration]
| <p>[25] <em>This bind is easy for me to do<br/>And from it I will be able to strike you in the back.</em></p>
+
| <p>[7] I am the noble weapon named the dagger who plays at very close range, and he who understands my malice and my art will also gain a good understanding of many other weapons. And since I finish my fight fiercely and quickly, there is no man who can stand against my method. Whoever witnesses my deeds of arms will see me make covers and thrusts as I move to grapple, and will see me take away the dagger by dislocating and binding arms, and against me neither weapons nor armour will be of any use.</p>
 
+
|
<p>I am a counter to the First Dagger Remedy Master. Woe to he who remedies with techniques that allow his left hand to be seized. And from this hold I will be able to drive the dagger into his back.</p>
+
|
 
+
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-f}}
''[These two illustrations seem to show the beginning and end of the technique.]''
 
| <p>''It is neither labor nor pain to me to make a persistent bind,<br/>By which route now I will be able to injure you,<br/>And possibly I will strike your kidneys with a great wound.''</p>
 
 
 
<p>''[The Paris resembles the Getty.]''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v.jpg|11v-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 44r.jpg|44r-b}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| <p>[8] Everyone should take care when facing the perilous dagger, and your arms, hands and elbows must go quickly against it, to do these five things, namely: take away the dagger; strike; dislocate the arms; bind the arms; and force your opponent to the ground. And never fail to do one or the other of these five things; And may he who seeks to defend himself protect himself in this way.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-e.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[26] <em>I make the counter-counter to the First Master,<br/>For the counter-counter is a fine master.</em></p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-a}}
 
|  
 
|  
|
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-e}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="4" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-f.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="4" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v-a.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[27] <em>I make the counter-counter against the First Master,<br/>And I will be first to take away the dagger every time.</em></p>
+
| <p>[9] With the ''fendente'' I can strike to the head and the body from the elbow up to the top of the head. But below the elbow I cannot be sure that I can make this strike without danger, and therefore I am reluctant to strike lower.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-b}}
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-f}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| <p>[10] From the left (reverse) side, you can strike from the elbow to end at the temple of the head. And these are called the ''colpi mezani'' (middle strikes). And these reverse strikes from the left cannot be delivered if you are still waiting to make cover against your opponent’s attack.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:MS Latin 11269 43v-a.png|400px|center]]
+
|  
| <p>[28] <em>I counter the First Dagger Master<br/>And I will strike your arm from above.</em></p>
+
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-c}}
 
 
<p>''[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]''</p>
 
| <p>''I am of the first king; you retain the dagger, openly<br/>I make the counter. This is well known [to] strike the shoulder.''<ref>The illustration clearly shows a thrust to the arm, not the shoulder.</ref></p>
 
 
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 43v.jpg|43v-b}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| <p>[11] From the right side you can strike or cover if needed, and your target ranges from the elbows to the temples of the head. And this strike is more safely made from the right side than made from the left side.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-b.png|400px|center]]
+
|  
| <p>[29] <em>I make the counter to the First Master<br/>With this cover I will hurt him and worse.</em></p>
+
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-d}}
 
 
<p>I am also the counter of the First Dagger Remedy Master, and when his student grips me like this [10], I will strike him, and make him let go. And if he tries to do other plays against me, I will counter him without hesitation.</p>
 
| <p>''I certainly keep the counter of the first master,<br/>And I will now prove this covering using many bad things.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v.jpg|11v-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 43r.jpg|43r-d}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| <p>[12] The dagger that goes through the middle towards the head strikes below the chest and never higher. And while striking you should at all times make cover with your left hand.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-c.png|400px|center]]
+
|  
| <p>[30] <em>In the previous counter I told you that you could hurt him and worse;<br/>Here I show you how this can be done.</em></p>
+
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-e}}
 
 
<p>This flows from the counter referred to in the previous play. It also flows from the counter referred to two plays back [10], where the Counter Remedy Master has trapped the hand of his opponent with his dagger, and where he told you that he can drive the dagger into his opponent’s back. My play comes from that play, but where he says you drive the dagger into your opponent’s back, I drive it into his chest. But this still flows from the previous play, even though I choose to finish it differently.</p>
 
 
 
''[In the Getty, the Master's right foot is outside (in front) of his opponent's left foot.]''
 
| <p>''Using a counter to the former, which threatens many evils,<br/>I direct myself in these circumstances so that I would strike the associate with a deadly wound.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v.jpg|11v-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 43v.jpg|43v-d}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:MS Latin 11269 25r-a.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-e.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[31] <em>I am well placed and positioned to force you to the ground;<br/>If you do not know the counter, I will throw you down immediately.</em></p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[13] ''After taking away your dagger, to signify my victory<br/>I hold it in my raised hand in this manner.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''Now sealed with the palm, thus I carry the safe dagger.<br/>With my hands I would lift [the dagger] itself, all having been carried.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-a}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21r.jpg|21r-a}}
  
<p>I am the student of the first Master of [Dagger] Remedies. And with this grip I seek to take your dagger and bind your arm, and since I do not believe that you know how to counter me, I will do this to you without delay.</p>
+
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>In my right hand I hold your dagger, and I gained it through my skill, which is so good that if you draw a dagger on me, I will take it from your hand. And I know well how to strike to finish you, no matter what advantage you might have.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r.jpg|10r-a}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
''[The Getty resembles the Paris. These two illustrations may show progressive stages of the technique.]''
+
|-
| <p>''I am ready now to beat you, gloomy, into the ground.<br/>And if the counter would miss, I would do this to you readily.''</p>
+
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v.jpg|11v-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-e}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 25r.jpg|25r-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-f.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r-b.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[32] <em>I make the counter like this,<br/>And I know well how to strike you from here.</em></p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[14] ''Because I triumph over those who fight with me,<br/>I carry torn-off broken arms as a decoration.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''Whereas I would overcome all which can war with me;<br/>Distinguished, I carry before me broken arms in [my] hands.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-b}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21r.jpg|21r-b}}
  
<p>I counter you like this, so that you will neither take my dagger nor bind my arm, and my dagger and I will remain at liberty. And then I will be able to strike you when you let go of me in such a way that you will have no defense.</p>
+
|-
| <p>''Now I do this counter quickly; you see duly just as it were.<br/>The spirit becoming enflamed, I would then beat your limbs.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>I choose to symbolize my skill with the broken arms I carry. And I do not lie when I tell you that I have broken and dislocated many arms in my life. And whoever chooses to go against my art, will find me always ready to use that art against him.</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
<br/><br/>
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r.jpg|10r-b}}
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12r.jpg|12r-a}}
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-f}}
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 25r.jpg|25r-d}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-a.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[33] <em>To make a much stronger cover I cross my arms in this manner;<br/>And from here I can do all the previous remedies.</em></p>
 
 
<p>This cover is known to be much stronger and I make it so as to be able to obstruct you with various plays. And you cannot overcome such a strong cover, because two arms can easily oppose one arm.</p>
 
| <p>''I cover myself using great bodily strength, as you see the movements.<br/>I attack in this way before anyone can bring about anything.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12r.jpg|12r-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 25v.jpg|25v-a}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-b.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[34] <em>With this counter the previous cover will meet with failure;<br/>After I have made you turn I will strike you with my dagger.</em></p>
 
 
<p>This is the counter to the cover that came before, that I told you was much stronger. And I will turn him with my left hand. Having turned him, I will not fail to strike him.</p>
 
| <p>''Now, by means of this counter, I cheat the earlier plays<br/>In such a way, and I would turn you behind in order to wreck you <that is, bring you to ruin> with wounds.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12r.jpg|12r-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 25v.jpg|25v-d}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-c.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[35] <em>Since my Master’s technique will not fail me,<br/>I will break your arm over my shoulder.</em></p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[15] ''Locking the arms of all opponents<br/>In such a way that none can safely extend their right hand,<br/>To show my success I carry a pair of keys in my hand.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''Nailing together the arms of all fighting in the region<br/>In such a way that they would not be able to extend the safe right,<br/>Now happily I thus collect two keys in my hands.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-c}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21r.jpg|21r-c}}
  
<p>With this excellent presa that I have made against you, I will not fail to break your arm over my left shoulder. And afterwards I can strike you with your own dagger, since this play will not fail me.</p>
+
|-
| <p>''Because of how that master now brings about the taking,<br/>I believe you will not withdraw without shoulders having been broken.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>I am the Master of the unlocking and locking of the arms of those who choose to oppose me. I will cause them great pain and suffering with my techniques of binding and dislocating. And therefore I carry these keys to signify the value of my art.</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
<br/><br/>
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r.jpg|10r-c}}
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12r.jpg|12r-d}}
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-c}}
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 23r.jpg|23r-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-d.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[36] <em>You will not break my arm over your shoulder,<br/>For with my counter I will throw you to the ground.</em></p>
 
 
<p>I make this counter to you who in the previous play intended to break my arm over your shoulder. I will throw you to the ground to your death with great force and you will cause me no further injury.</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
+
|  
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12v.jpg|12v-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-d}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| class="noline" rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-e.png|400px|center]]
+
| class="noline" rowspan="3" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[37] <em>Your dagger will quickly be taken from you,<br/>When I twist it upwards close by your elbow.</em></p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[16] ''You ask how I force others to the ground under my feet with such prowess,<br/>I tell you that because I grapple each man and throw him down;<br/>The victory palm is appropriately held in my right hand.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''You ask why I, boasting, ruined so great [a person] with [my] feet:<br/>Because by wrestling men of courage, I assert to lay them all low;<br/>Certainly the palm is extended to stand on our right.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-d}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21r.jpg|21r-d}}
  
<p>I am in a good position to take the dagger from your hand, and to do it I push the point upwards, close to your elbow. And you will lose it, and I will quickly strike you with it. I took the dagger in this way because I was not able to bend your arm.</p>
+
|-
| <p>''I seize the dagger using a sudden violent whirling motion near the elbow;<br/>Yet before [that], I strongly turn the lower arms.''<ref>Alternative with accusatives in opposite order: “I would seize the arm(s) in front suddenly / &lt;I&gt; the strong one would bring the dagger around in a violent whirling motion close by the elbow.”</ref></p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>You ask how it is that I have this man held under my feet. Thousands have suffered this fate because of my art of Abrazare. And I carry the victory palm in my right hand, because no one can stand up to my grappling skills.</p>
 
+
| class="noline" |
|  
+
| class="noline" |
|  
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r.jpg|10r-d}}
<br/><br/>
+
| class="noline" |  
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12v.jpg|12v-b}}
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-e}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 23r.jpg|23r-c}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| class="noline" |
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-f.png|400px|center]]
+
| class="noline" |
| <p>[38] <em>My dagger will not be taken by your turning it,<br/>And I will strike you with it without fail.</em></p>
+
| class="noline" |  
 +
| class="noline" |  
 +
| class="noline" |  
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>I make the counter of the play that came before, so that you will not be able to take my dagger in that way. I will press my dagger into your hand, to make you let go, and with the cruel point I will strike you for your trouble.</p>
+
|}
|  
+
{{master subsection end}}
|
 
|
 
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12v.jpg|12v-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-f}}
 
|
 
  
|-  
+
{{master subsection begin
 +
| title = 1st Master
 +
| width = 240em
 +
}}
 +
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-a.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a-e.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[39] <em>I will have no problem making you fall to the ground,<br/>But you will have a major problem trying to get up.</em></p>
+
| <p>[17] ''I am the First Master of the Dagger, full of guile,<br/>And with my left hand I will wind the dagger around your arm,<br/>And truth to tell I can make many other plays,<br/>And my students will do them cunningly.''</p>
  
<p>In this way you will be driven into the ground, and you will not be able to make any defense or counter. And I will quickly make the dagger that you hold in your hand go far from you, because of my skillful knowledge of this art.</p>
+
<p>I am the first master and I am called Remedy, because I know how to remedy so well that you cannot harm me whereas I on the contrary can strike you and hurt you. And I cannot make a better play against you than to make your dagger go to the ground, by turning my hand to the left.</p>
 
+
| <p>''The first master of the dagger, I am called caution itself;<br/>At any time, the left hand having been extended to lift the dagger away.''</p>
''[In the Getty and Paris, the Scholar steps outside of his opponent's right leg.]''
 
| <p>''It is not any work to me, laying you out fallen.<br/>You will not be able to rise free[ly] without a large wound.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
+
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12v.jpg|12v-d}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10v.jpg|10v-a}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-a}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-e}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 23v.jpg|23v-a}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21v.jpg|21v-a}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| class="noline" |  
+
|  
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a-f.png|400px|center]]
| class="noline" | <p>[40] <em>I do not want to fall to the ground with the previous play,<br/>So with this grip I will take away all of your strength.</em></p>
+
| <p>[18] ''If I make a turn around your arm with my dagger,<br/>I will strike you in the chest, and it will not be taken from me.''</p>
  
<p>What you plan to do cannot always be done. I am the counter of the scholar who came before, and this counter will make him look very foolish, because in this way I will make him let go my leg. And I will drive the dagger into his face to demonstrate that he is indeed a great fool.</p>
+
<p>I will turn my dagger around your arm. And because of this counter you will not be able to take the dagger from me. And also with this turn I can drive it into your chest without a doubt.</p>
 +
| <p>''Truly I sweep the dagger away around your shoulder.<br/>Not wasting that [attack], I would pulp you, miserable, in the chest.''</p>
  
''[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]''
+
|  
| class="noline" |
+
|  
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r.jpg|13r-a}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10v.jpg|10v-b}}
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-b}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a.jpg|6a-f}}
| class="noline" |
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 21v.jpg|21v-d}}
 
 
|}
 
{{master subsection end}}
 
 
 
{{master subsection begin
 
| title = 2nd Master
 
| width = 240em
 
}}
 
{| class="master"
 
|-
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-c.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-a.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[41] ''And I make cover with arms crossed,<br/>And I can make all the previous remedies,<br/>Nor will I fail to cover any of the backhand strikes,<br/>For I can do them all, one by one.''</p>
+
| <p>[19] ''With your right arm locked under my left,<br/>I can cause you much harm while keeping you trapped.''</p>
  
<p>I play with my arms crossed, and can make all the remedies that were previously shown. And if we were both armoured, you could not make a better cover. No other crowned [Dagger] Remedy Master makes a stronger cover than I, for I can play both to the right and to the left, and I can cross from both underneath and from above.</p>
+
<p>I will lock your arm in the middle bind, and I will do it in such a way that you will not be able to give me any trouble. And if I wish to put you to the ground I will do so with little effort, and you will have no chance of escaping.</p>
 +
 
 +
''[In the Getty, the Scholar steps with his left foot in front of his opponent's right, not behind.]''
 +
| <p>''And behold your right [arm] confined under my left<br/>Shoulder. Far too many misfortunes delay you, the imprisoned one.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
+
<br/><br/>
 
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10v.jpg|10v-c}}
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r.jpg|13r-b}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-a}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-c}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 24r.jpg|24r-a}}
|  
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-d.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-b.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[42] ''You won’t be able to make the plays that came before, nor the plays from the backhand strikes [that follow],<br/>Because with this counter, your cover will be completely lost.''</p>
+
| <p>[20] ''If you wind around my arm and try to lock it in this way,<br/>I will put you in the lower bind and this hold will make things hard for you.''</p>
  
<p>I counter the [Dagger] Remedy Master who made the cross before me, so he will not be able to cause me any problems with his crossing. I will give a push to his elbow to make him turn, and then I will quickly strike him.</p>
+
<p>I make the counter to the play that came before me. You can see the kind of position that I have put him in. I will break his arm or quickly throw him to the ground.</p>
 +
| <p>''It is permitted that you hold me pressed hard inward, the lower key having been retained [and]<br/>Then pressed hard, [which] will harm the shoulder.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p><br/><br/><br/></p>
+
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 10v.jpg|10v-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 24r.jpg|24r-d}}
  
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r.jpg|13r-c}}
+
|-  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-d}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[21] <em>If I can turn this arm of yours,<br/>I will make you suffer with a middle bind.</em></p>
  
|-
+
<p>This is a good cover from which to take the dagger from your hand, and with this grip I will be able to bind you well. And this art is so effective that if I place my right hand under your right knee, then I will put you to the ground.</p>
 +
| <p>''If I myself can now turn the shoulder using the hands,<br/>You, sad, will remain eternally in that middle key.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-e.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[43] ''Take the dagger, dislocate your arm, bind you,<br/>Or throw you to the ground–I can do all of these things.''</p>
 
 
<p>I believe that this very strong grapple is fatal to anyone, because I can break your arm, throw you to the ground, or take your dagger. I can also hold you bound in the upper bind. And as a result of these four things, you will be unable to get away.</p>
 
|
 
|
 
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r.jpg|13r-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-e}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r.jpg|11r-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 24v.jpg|24v-a}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-f.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-d.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[44] ''As for the four plays you mentioned, you won’t be able to do any of them to me,<br/>And with this counter I will throw you to the ground.''</p>
+
| <p>[22] <em>You will not make me suffer in the middle bind<br/>When I meet you with this counter and make you let go.</em></p>
  
<p>I know the counter to the previous play. And with this grapple I will counter all four of the plays he said he could do before. And as soon as he sees me, I will throw him to the ground, for this grapple is strong and fierce.</p>
+
<p>I make the counter to the play that came before me, so that you will not be able to throw me to the ground, nor take the dagger from me, nor bind me either. You will have to let go, or else you will be quickly stabbed by my dagger.</p>
 +
| <p>''You will not make [me] endure in the middle key. But now,<br/>By means of that my<ref>Possibly a scribal error—the first sentence seems to be missing a “me” and the second has one it doesn’t need.</ref> counter, it is convenient for you if you will yield to me.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p><br/><br/></p>
+
<br/><br/>
 
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r.jpg|11r-b}}
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13v.jpg|13v-a}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-d}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-f}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 24v.jpg|24v-d}}
|  
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:MS Latin 11269 23v-c.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[23] This is a play with no counter, and it is inevitable that the player will go to the ground and lose his dagger if the student performs this technique as depicted. And when the player is thrown to the ground, the student can finish him in various ways.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>''I certainly cover myself during wrestling using arms as in the cross.<br/>And I can make sport with all the first rules.<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r.jpg|11r-c}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 23v.jpg|23v-c}}
 
 
|-
 
| class="noline" |
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Latin 11269 22r-b.png|400px|center]]
 
| class="noline" |
 
| class="noline" | <p>''By this counter your covering is refuted; and behold:<br/>Neither the play of the reversed palm, nor the prior [plays]<br/>Accomplish. Then you, miserable one, will die lying on your back.''</p>
 
| class="noline" |
 
| class="noline" |
 
| class="noline" |
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 22r.jpg|22r-b}}
 
 
|}
 
{{master subsection end}}
 
 
{{master subsection begin
 
| title = 3rd Master
 
| width = 240em
 
}}
 
{| class="master"
 
|-
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-a.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[45] <em>Here begin the powerful plays of the backhand attack,<ref>Or "backhand cover"</ref><br/>Through which many have been killed.<br/>And the plays of my scholars will follow,<br/>And so we begin the defense to the backhand attack.<ref>Or "of the backhand cover"</ref></em></p>
+
| <p>[24] This play is rarely used in the art of the dagger, yet it is an additional defense to know. For after beating aside the attack in this way, the scholar can then strike with a counter to the ribs or the stomach.</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r.jpg|11r-d}}
 
|  
 
|  
|
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-a}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-d.png|400px|center]]
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-b.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v-a.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[46] <em>With this play of the Master, your dagger will be taken<br/>And I will strike you a mortal blow.</em></p>
+
| <p>[25] <em>This bind is easy for me to do<br/>And from it I will be able to strike you in the back.</em></p>
|
 
|
 
|
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-b}}
 
|
 
  
|-
+
<p>I am a counter to the First Dagger Remedy Master. Woe to he who remedies with techniques that allow his left hand to be seized. And from this hold I will be able to drive the dagger into his back.</p>
|
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-c.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[47] <em>Here I believe I will throw you to the ground.<br/>First I will do this to you, and then I will do worse to you.</em></p>
 
  
<p>Here begin the plays of the reverse strikes,<ref>Or "reverse cover"</ref> through which countless men have lost their lives. And the plays of my scholars will follow, demonstrating the cover made with the right hand. This play depicted is easy to do, and in this way I will throw this man into the ground.</p>
+
''[These two illustrations seem to show the beginning and end of the technique.]''
 +
| <p>''It is neither labor nor pain to me to make a persistent bind,<br/>By which route now I will be able to injure you,<br/>And possibly I will strike your kidneys with a great wound.''</p>
  
<p>''[In the Getty, this Scholar is the Master.]''</p>
+
<p>''[The Paris resembles the Getty.]''</p>
| <p>''I believe you, treacherous one, will now indeed touch the earth.<br/>And itself <read: I> would do worse to you, henceforth lying dead.''</p>
 
 
 
<p>''[In the Paris, this Scholar is the Master.]''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13v.jpg|13v-b}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v.jpg|11v-a}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-c}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-d}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 22r.jpg|22r-c}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 44r.jpg|44r-b}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-d.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-e.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[48] <em>You will go to the ground because of your lack of knowledge,<br/>And in armour this is a particularly safe throw.</em></p>
+
| <p>[26] <em>I make the counter-counter to the First Master,<br/>For the counter-counter is a fine master.</em></p>
 
+
|  
<p>With this method you will be driven into the ground. And I could not make a safer throw, being armoured. But even without armour, there is nothing you can do. And even if you were strong and powerful, I would still be able to do this to you.</p>
 
| <p>''You, incautious one, will touch the earth with [your] chest prostrated.<br/>This armor-wearer will more safely impart the play.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-e}}
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13v.jpg|13v-c}}
+
|  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 22v.jpg|22v-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-e.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-f.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[49] <em>This leads to a broken ruined arm,<br/>As you will find out when I have you in this hold.</em></p>
+
| <p>[27] <em>I make the counter-counter against the First Master,<br/>And I will be first to take away the dagger every time.</em></p>
 
+
|
<p>You will go to the ground and your arm will be dislocated by the skill of my crowned Master. And there is not one counter that you can do to me, for I hold you like this…</p>
+
|
| <p>''Each is able to break the shoulder of the associate in wrestling, as I comprehend.<br/>It will be pleasing to know whatever has been imparted.''</p>
+
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-f}}
 
|  
 
|  
| rowspan="2" |
 
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13v.jpg|13v-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-e}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 22v.jpg|22v-c}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-f.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:MS Latin 11269 43v-a.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[50] <em>I will have no trouble dislocating your arm<br/>And I will easily take your dagger from you.</em></p>
+
| <p>[28] <em>I counter the First Dagger Master<br/>And I will strike your arm from above.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]''</p>
 +
| <p>''I am of the first king; you retain the dagger, openly<br/>I make the counter. This is well known [to] strike the shoulder.''<ref>The illustration clearly shows a thrust to the arm, not the shoulder.</ref></p>
  
<p>…and will make you suffer greatly.</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-f}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-a}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 43v.jpg|43v-b}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-a.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-b.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[51] <em>This is another powerful dislocation<br/>From which I will be able to kill you with your own dagger.</em></p>
+
| <p>[29] <em>I make the counter to the First Master<br/>With this cover I will hurt him and worse.</em></p>
  
<p>This is a lock that has no counter and no defense. And in this way I can take your dagger, and it will be no trouble to bind or dislocate your arm. You will not be able to get away without my permission. And I can ruin your arm if I choose.</p>
+
<p>I am also the counter of the First Dagger Remedy Master, and when his student grips me like this [10], I will strike him, and make him let go. And if he tries to do other plays against me, I will counter him without hesitation.</p>
| <p>''He was able to dislocate<ref>''Denodare'' appears to be a technical term for breaking or dislocating limbs; appears only in Ducange.</ref> the shoulder of any companion for himself,<br/>And sentence him to death with the point of the dagger.''</p>
+
| <p>''I certainly keep the counter of the first master,<br/>And I will now prove this covering using many bad things.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14r.jpg|14r-a}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v.jpg|11v-b}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a.jpg|9a-a}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-b}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 31r.jpg|31r-a}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 43r.jpg|43r-d}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-b.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-c.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[52] <em>I take your dagger as I wish,<br/>And now if I choose, I can bind you in the lower lock.</em></p>
+
| <p>[30] <em>In the previous counter I told you that you could hurt him and worse;<br/>Here I show you how this can be done.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This flows from the counter referred to in the previous play. It also flows from the counter referred to two plays back [10], where the Counter Remedy Master has trapped the hand of his opponent with his dagger, and where he told you that he can drive the dagger into his opponent’s back. My play comes from that play, but where he says you drive the dagger into your opponent’s back, I drive it into his chest. But this still flows from the previous play, even though I choose to finish it differently.</p>
  
<p>You will lose your dagger by the way I hold you. And after taking your dagger I can bind you. and make you suffer in the lower lock, which is one of the key binds, and which I will use on you. And whoever is put into this lock cannot escape, because of the great pain and suffering they will be forced to endure.</p>
+
''[In the Getty, the Master's right foot is outside (in front) of his opponent's left foot.]''
| <p>''I now take hold of your dagger, nor can I be mistaken.<br/>And if I want, I am able to bind you, who is [sic] being overthrown <read: thrown back> in the key.''</p>
+
| <p>''Using a counter to the former, which threatens many evils,<br/>I direct myself in these circumstances so that I would strike the associate with a deadly wound.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14r.jpg|14r-b}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v.jpg|11v-c}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a.jpg|9a-b}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a.jpg|8a-c}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 31r.jpg|31r-c}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 43v.jpg|43v-d}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| [[File:MS Latin 11269 25r-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[31] <em>I am well placed and positioned to force you to the ground;<br/>If you do not know the counter, I will throw you down immediately.</em></p>
 +
 +
<p>I am the student of the first Master of [Dagger] Remedies. And with this grip I seek to take your dagger and bind your arm, and since I do not believe that you know how to counter me, I will do this to you without delay.</p>
 +
 +
''[The Getty resembles the Paris. These two illustrations may show progressive stages of the technique.]''
 +
| <p>''I am ready now to beat you, gloomy, into the ground.<br/>And if the counter would miss, I would do this to you readily.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-c.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[53] <em>I will turn your dagger upwards with my right arm,<br/>And I will quickly bind you in the lower lock.</em></p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v.jpg|11v-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-e}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 25r.jpg|25r-a}}
 +
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[32] <em>I make the counter like this,<br/>And I know well how to strike you from here.</em></p>
 +
 +
<p>I counter you like this, so that you will neither take my dagger nor bind my arm, and my dagger and I will remain at liberty. And then I will be able to strike you when you let go of me in such a way that you will have no defense.</p>
 +
| <p>''Now I do this counter quickly; you see duly just as it were.<br/>The spirit becoming enflamed, I would then beat your limbs.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a.jpg|9a-c}}
+
<br/><br/>
|  
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12r.jpg|12r-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b.jpg|6b-f}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 25r.jpg|25r-d}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-d.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-a.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[54] <em>This is called the strong lower lock,<br/>And it is a bind with a great risk of death<br/>But this lock, truth to tell,<br/>If not properly applied can be escaped from.</em></p>
+
| <p>[33] <em>To make a much stronger cover I cross my arms in this manner;<br/>And from here I can do all the previous remedies.</em></p>
  
<p>This is called the lower lock, also known as the “strong key”, and from this bind I can kill you, whether you are armoured or unarmoured, because from here I can strike you in all of your most vulnerable places. And no one can escape from this bind. And if you are put into it, as depicted in the drawing, there you will remain enduring much pain and suffering.</p>
+
<p>This cover is known to be much stronger and I make it so as to be able to obstruct you with various plays. And you cannot overcome such a strong cover, because two arms can easily oppose one arm.</p>
| <p>''The lower key is brought under the strong name;<br/>It is the bind of death by means of excessive distinction.<br/>If any enters into this, he will hardly prevail to escape this.''</p>
+
| <p>''I cover myself using great bodily strength, as you see the movements.<br/>I attack in this way before anyone can bring about anything.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
+
<br/><br/>
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14r.jpg|14r-c}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12r.jpg|12r-b}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a.jpg|9a-d}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-a}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 31v.jpg|31v-a}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 25v.jpg|25v-a}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Latin 11269 31v-c.png|400px|center]]
+
|  
| class="noline" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-e.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-b.png|400px|center]]
| class="noline" | <p>[55] <em>This is how to do the counter to the Master's cover to the reverse strike,<ref>Or "Master's reverse cover"</ref><br/>And with this bind I will make you drop to the ground on your knees.</em></p>
+
| <p>[34] <em>With this counter the previous cover will meet with failure;<br/>After I have made you turn I will strike you with my dagger.</em></p>
  
<p>This is the counter to the Third Daga Remedy Master, who covers the reverse attack.<ref>Or "with the reverse cover"</ref> I have made this bind against him. Whether he is armoured or unarmoured, this bind is strong and secure. And if I trap a man who is unarmoured in this way, I will ruin his hand and dislocate it. And the pain will be so great I will make him kneel at my feet. And should I wish to strike him, this I can also do.</p>
+
<p>This is the counter to the cover that came before, that I told you was much stronger. And I will turn him with my left hand. Having turned him, I will not fail to strike him.</p>
 +
| <p>''Now, by means of this counter, I cheat the earlier plays<br/>In such a way, and I would turn you behind in order to wreck you <that is, bring you to ruin> with wounds.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12r.jpg|12r-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 25v.jpg|25v-d}}
  
<p>''[In the Getty, the Master's left foot is forward.]''</p>
+
|-
| class="noline" | <p>''I, the efficient counter of the master, during this wrestling<br/>Finish whomever by means of the reverse palm of the hand;<br/>And you will sink down on bended knee by means of this taking.''</p>
+
|
| class="noline" |
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-c.png|400px|center]]
| class="noline" |
+
| <p>[35] <em>Since my Master’s technique will not fail me,<br/>I will break your arm over my shoulder.</em></p>
<br/><br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14r.jpg|14r-d}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a.jpg|9a-e}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 31v.jpg|31v-c}}
 
  
|}
+
<p>With this excellent presa that I have made against you, I will not fail to break your arm over my left shoulder. And afterwards I can strike you with your own dagger, since this play will not fail me.</p>
{{master subsection end}}
+
| <p>''Because of how that master now brings about the taking,<br/>I believe you will not withdraw without shoulders having been broken.''</p>
 +
|  
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12r.jpg|12r-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 23r.jpg|23r-a}}
  
{{master subsection begin
 
| title = 4th Master
 
| width = 240em
 
}}
 
{| class="master"
 
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Illustrations</p>
+
|  
! <p>Illustrations</p>
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-d.png|400px|center]]
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
+
| <p>[36] <em>You will not break my arm over your shoulder,<br/>For with my counter I will throw you to the ground.</em></p>
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
  
|-
+
<p>I make this counter to you who in the previous play intended to break my arm over your shoulder. I will throw you to the ground to your death with great force and you will cause me no further injury.</p>
 +
|
 +
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-a.png|400px|center]]
+
<br/><br/>
| <p>[56] ''I am a Master who covers with both hands,<br/>And I can hurt you from above or below.<br/>If I give a turn to your shoulder without releasing your arm,<br/>Then in this way I and my students will put you in great pain.''</p>
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12v.jpg|12v-a}}
 
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-d}}
<p>I am the Fourth [Dagger Remedy] Master, and I play from this grip. From covers like this my students will hurt many…</p>
 
| <p>''Using both hands, &lt;I&gt; the master now take hold of the associate.<br/>From above and beneath, I am able to injure you with a weapon.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
| rowspan="2" |
 
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14v.jpg|14v-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 32r.jpg|32r-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-b.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-e.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[57] <em>My Master spoke truly and unerringly:<br/>I can take your dagger, while you cannot escape.</em></p>
+
| <p>[37] <em>Your dagger will quickly be taken from you,<br/>When I twist it upwards close by your elbow.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I am in a good position to take the dagger from your hand, and to do it I push the point upwards, close to your elbow. And you will lose it, and I will quickly strike you with it. I took the dagger in this way because I was not able to bend your arm.</p>
 +
| <p>''I seize the dagger using a sudden violent whirling motion near the elbow;<br/>Yet before [that], I strongly turn the lower arms.''<ref>Alternative with accusatives in opposite order: “I would seize the arm(s) in front suddenly / &lt;I&gt; the strong one would bring the dagger around in a violent whirling motion close by the elbow.</ref></p>
  
<p>…And if I turn to the right without releasing your arm, I will take your dagger and put you in great pain.</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-b}}
+
<br/><br/>
|  
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12v.jpg|12v-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-e}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 23r.jpg|23r-c}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 14v-b.jpg|400px|center]]
+
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-c.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-f.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[58] ''I am well positioned to force you to the ground,<br/>And if you don't end up with a broken head, you can count yourself lucky.''</p>
+
| <p>[38] <em>My dagger will not be taken by your turning it,<br/>And I will strike you with it without fail.</em></p>
  
<p>This is an upper bind that locks you up very well. I will take your dagger from you and throw you to the ground. And I can also dislocate your arm. If however you grip your right hand with your left hand, then you can counter me and make me let go of you.</p>
+
<p>I make the counter of the play that came before, so that you will not be able to take my dagger in that way. I will press my dagger into your hand, to make you let go, and with the cruel point I will strike you for your trouble.</p>
 
+
|
<p>''[These two illustrations may show the beginning and end of the technique.]''</p>
 
| <p>''I am certainly prepared in order to cast you down into the earth.<br/>And I will give many evils to your head, if it remains because of courage.''<ref>''Demittere mentem'' is recorded (by Bantam dictionary) as an idiom meaning “to lose heart”. Possibly ''mente sedebit'' is referencing this, in a pun (e.g., ''demittere'' in the sense of depose, and ''sedeo'' in the sense of hold court).</reF></p>
 
 
 
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar's left foot is forward, but inside (in front) of his opponent's leg.]''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14v.jpg|14v-b}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12v.jpg|12v-c}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-c}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a.jpg|7a-f}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 32r.jpg|32r-c}}
+
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09-d.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-a.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[59] ''This is another lock that will throw you to the ground,<br/>And against such a hold no one is safe.''</p>
+
| <p>[39] <em>I will have no problem making you fall to the ground,<br/>But you will have a major problem trying to get up.</em></p>
  
<p>This is another upper bind that is very powerful. And with this I am certain to throw you to the ground. And if I wish I can dislocate your arm. To counter me, you grip your right hand with your left hand. Then your grip will be strong and mine will be weak.</p>
+
<p>In this way you will be driven into the ground, and you will not be able to make any defense or counter. And I will quickly make the dagger that you hold in your hand go far from you, because of my skillful knowledge of this art.</p>
  
''[In the Getty and Paris, the Scholar's right foot is forward.]''
+
''[In the Getty and Paris, the Scholar steps outside of his opponent's right leg.]''
| <p>''This movement is another to strike down the associate to the earth.<br/>Nevertheless, it is not safe because he attempts a similar playing.''</p>
+
| <p>''It is not any work to me, laying you out fallen.<br/>You will not be able to rise free[ly] without a large wound.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14v.jpg|14v-c}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 12v.jpg|12v-d}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-d}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-a}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 32v.jpg|32v-a}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 23v.jpg|23v-a}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-e.png|400px|center]]
+
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[60] ''As I see this you will quickly go to the ground,<br/>Of this I am certain, and you won't be getting back up.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[40] <em>I do not want to fall to the ground with the previous play,<br/>So with this grip I will take away all of your strength.</em></p>
|
 
|
 
|
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-e}}
 
|
 
  
|-
+
<p>What you plan to do cannot always be done. I am the counter of the scholar who came before, and this counter will make him look very foolish, because in this way I will make him let go my leg. And I will drive the dagger into his face to demonstrate that he is indeed a great fool.</p>
|
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-f.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[61] ''I can also throw you to the ground like this,<br/>And once you are on the ground it will go badly for you.''</p>
 
  
<p>After I made the cover of my Master, I put my left hand under your right elbow. And my right hand quickly gripped you under your knee in such a way that I could throw you to the ground, and there was no counter that you could do to me.</p>
+
''[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]''
| <p>''Certainly in this way I can send you a second time<br/>To the ground. Hereafter, &lt;I&gt; myself will approve worse things to you.''</p>
+
| class="noline" |
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14v.jpg|14v-d}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r.jpg|13r-a}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-f}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-b}}
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 32v.jpg|32v-c}}
+
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|}
 +
{{master subsection end}}
 +
 
 +
{{master subsection begin
 +
| title = 2nd Master
 +
| width = 240em
 +
}}
 +
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-a.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-c.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[62] ''I will give a turn to your dagger,<br/>And in that way it will be quickly taken from you.''</p>
+
| <p>[41] ''And I make cover with arms crossed,<br/>And I can make all the previous remedies,<br/>Nor will I fail to cover any of the backhand strikes,<br/>For I can do them all, one by one.''</p>
  
<p>With my right hand I will make a horizontal turn to your dagger, pushing it round close to your arm that I am holding. And your dagger will be mine to control. And then I will deal with you as you deserve.</p>
+
<p>I play with my arms crossed, and can make all the remedies that were previously shown. And if we were both armoured, you could not make a better cover. No other crowned [Dagger] Remedy Master makes a stronger cover than I, for I can play both to the right and to the left, and I can cross from both underneath and from above.</p>
| <p>''In this way, &lt;I&gt; myself coil your dagger up using the whirlwind,<br/>Because I would capture you, whether you would prevent or you would fight back.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
+
| <p><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38r.jpg|38r-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 33r.jpg|33r-a}}
 
  
|-  
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r.jpg|13r-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-c}}
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-b.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[63] ''If I raise your dagger upwards close to your elbow,<br/>You will feel it instantly taken from you.''</p>
 
  
<p>If I raise your dagger upwards close to your elbow, I will keep it in my hand and strike you for certain. But I will need to make this play very quickly, to make sure that you cannot counter me with your left hand.</p>
+
|-
| <p>''Now if I attempt to lift your elbow [and] very own dagger,<br/>You yourself certainly will see it has been suddenly freed.''</p>
+
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[42] ''You won’t be able to make the plays that came before, nor the plays from the backhand strikes [that follow],<br/>Because with this counter, your cover will be completely lost.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I counter the [Dagger] Remedy Master who made the cross before me, so he will not be able to cause me any problems with his crossing. I will give a push to his elbow to make him turn, and then I will quickly strike him.</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p><br/><br/><br/></p>
 +
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r.jpg|13r-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-d}}
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38r.jpg|38r-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 33r.jpg|33r-c}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Cod.1324 36r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-d.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[64] ''I moved my right hand like this,<br/>And I will make you strike yourself in your thigh with your own dagger.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[43] ''Take the dagger, dislocate your arm, bind you,<br/>Or throw you to the ground–I can do all of these things.''</p>
 +
 +
<p>I believe that this very strong grapple is fatal to anyone, because I can break your arm, throw you to the ground, or take your dagger. I can also hold you bound in the upper bind. And as a result of these four things, you will be unable to get away.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-d}}
+
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r.jpg|13r-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-e}}
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 38r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
+
|  
| class="noline" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-c.png|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-f.png|400px|center]]
| class="noline" | <p>[65] ''Against the Master who covers with both hands<br/>I make this counter as my defense.<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
+
| <p>[44] ''As for the four plays you mentioned, you won’t be able to do any of them to me,<br/>And with this counter I will throw you to the ground.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I know the counter to the previous play. And with this grapple I will counter all four of the plays he said he could do before. And as soon as he sees me, I will throw him to the ground, for this grapple is strong and fierce.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13v.jpg|13v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b.jpg|7b-f}}
 +
|
  
<p>I am the Counter-remedy against the Fourth [Dagger] Remedy Master. And I counter all his plays that came before me. And with one quick wrench like this I will ruin this student’s hand and his master’s too. And if they are well armored the ruin of their hands will be all the more certain.</p>
+
|-  
| class="noline" | <p>''By this means I will now seek the opponent, using both palms<ref>Literally “the two palms”.</ref><br/>In order to defend myself, just as the master does<br/>Who seizes the companion with both hands during wrestling.''</p>
+
|
 +
| [[File:MS Latin 11269 23v-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
|  
 +
| <p>''I certainly cover myself during wrestling using arms as in the cross.<br/>And I can make sport with all the first rules.<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 23v.jpg|23v-c}}
  
<p>''[The Paris resembles the Getty illustration.]''</p>
+
|-
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Latin 11269 22r-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''By this counter your covering is refuted; and behold:<br/>Neither the play of the reversed palm, nor the prior [plays]<br/>Accomplish. Then you, miserable one, will die lying on your back.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
<br/><br/><br/>
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 22r.jpg|22r-b}}
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38r.jpg|38r-c}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-c}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 33v.jpg|33v-b}}
 
  
 
|}
 
|}
Line 2,673: Line 2,667:
  
 
{{master subsection begin
 
{{master subsection begin
  | title = 5th Master
+
  | title = 3rd Master
 
  | width = 240em
 
  | width = 240em
 
}}
 
}}
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Dagger/5th master}}
+
{| class="master"
{{master subsection end}}
+
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
{{master subsection begin
+
|-
| title = 6th Master
+
|
| width = 240em
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-a.png|400px|center]]
}}
+
| <p>[45] <em>Here begin the powerful plays of the backhand attack,<ref>Or "backhand cover"</ref><br/>Through which many have been killed.<br/>And the plays of my scholars will follow,<br/>And so we begin the defense to the backhand attack.<ref>Or "of the backhand cover"</ref></em></p>
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Dagger/6th master}}
+
|  
{{master subsection end}}
+
|  
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-a}}
 +
|
  
{{master subsection begin
+
|-
| title = 7th Master
+
|
| width = 240em
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-b.png|400px|center]]
}}
+
| <p>[46] <em>With this play of the Master, your dagger will be taken<br/>And I will strike you a mortal blow.</em></p>
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Dagger/7th master}}
+
|  
{{master subsection end}}
+
|
 
+
|
{{master subsection begin
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-b}}
| title = 8th Master
+
|
| width = 240em
+
 
}}
+
|-
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Dagger/8th master}}
+
|
{{master subsection end}}
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[47] <em>Here I believe I will throw you to the ground.<br/>First I will do this to you, and then I will do worse to you.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Here begin the plays of the reverse strikes,<ref>Or "reverse cover"</ref> through which countless men have lost their lives. And the plays of my scholars will follow, demonstrating the cover made with the right hand. This play depicted is easy to do, and in this way I will throw this man into the ground.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Getty, this Scholar is the Master.]''</p>
 +
| <p>''I believe you, treacherous one, will now indeed touch the earth.<br/>And itself <read: I> would do worse to you, henceforth lying dead.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Paris, this Scholar is the Master.]''</p>
 +
|  
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13v.jpg|13v-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 22r.jpg|22r-c}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[48] <em>You will go to the ground because of your lack of knowledge,<br/>And in armour this is a particularly safe throw.</em></p>
  
{{master subsection begin
+
<p>With this method you will be driven into the ground. And I could not make a safer throw, being armoured. But even without armour, there is nothing you can do. And even if you were strong and powerful, I would still be able to do this to you.</p>
  | title = 9th Master
+
| <p>''You, incautious one, will touch the earth with [your] chest prostrated.<br/>This armor-wearer will more safely impart the play.''</p>
  | width = 240em
+
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13v.jpg|13v-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 22v.jpg|22v-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[49] <em>This leads to a broken ruined arm,<br/>As you will find out when I have you in this hold.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>You will go to the ground and your arm will be dislocated by the skill of my crowned Master. And there is not one counter that you can do to me, for I hold you like this…</p>
 +
| <p>''Each is able to break the shoulder of the associate in wrestling, as I comprehend.<br/>It will be pleasing to know whatever has been imparted.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| rowspan="2" |
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 13v.jpg|13v-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-e}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 22v.jpg|22v-c}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[50] <em>I will have no trouble dislocating your arm<br/>And I will easily take your dagger from you.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>…and will make you suffer greatly.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b.jpg|8b-f}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[51] <em>This is another powerful dislocation<br/>From which I will be able to kill you with your own dagger.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is a lock that has no counter and no defense. And in this way I can take your dagger, and it will be no trouble to bind or dislocate your arm. You will not be able to get away without my permission. And I can ruin your arm if I choose.</p>
 +
| <p>''He was able to dislocate<ref>''Denodare'' appears to be a technical term for breaking or dislocating limbs; appears only in Ducange.</ref> the shoulder of any companion for himself,<br/>And sentence him to death with the point of the dagger.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14r.jpg|14r-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a.jpg|9a-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 31r.jpg|31r-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[52] <em>I take your dagger as I wish,<br/>And now if I choose, I can bind you in the lower lock.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>You will lose your dagger by the way I hold you. And after taking your dagger I can bind you. and make you suffer in the lower lock, which is one of the key binds, and which I will use on you. And whoever is put into this lock cannot escape, because of the great pain and suffering they will be forced to endure.</p>
 +
| <p>''I now take hold of your dagger, nor can I be mistaken.<br/>And if I want, I am able to bind you, who is [sic] being overthrown <read: thrown back> in the key.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14r.jpg|14r-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a.jpg|9a-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 31r.jpg|31r-c}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[53] <em>I will turn your dagger upwards with my right arm,<br/>And I will quickly bind you in the lower lock.</em></p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a.jpg|9a-c}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[54] <em>This is called the strong lower lock,<br/>And it is a bind with a great risk of death<br/>But this lock, truth to tell,<br/>If not properly applied can be escaped from.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is called the lower lock, also known as the “strong key”, and from this bind I can kill you, whether you are armoured or unarmoured, because from here I can strike you in all of your most vulnerable places. And no one can escape from this bind. And if you are put into it, as depicted in the drawing, there you will remain enduring much pain and suffering.</p>
 +
| <p>''The lower key is brought under the strong name;<br/>It is the bind of death by means of excessive distinction.<br/>If any enters into this, he will hardly prevail to escape this.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14r.jpg|14r-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a.jpg|9a-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 31v.jpg|31v-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Latin 11269 31v-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[55] <em>This is how to do the counter to the Master's cover to the reverse strike,<ref>Or "Master's reverse cover"</ref><br/>And with this bind I will make you drop to the ground on your knees.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is the counter to the Third Daga Remedy Master, who covers the reverse attack.<ref>Or "with the reverse cover"</ref> I have made this bind against him. Whether he is armoured or unarmoured, this bind is strong and secure. And if I trap a man who is unarmoured in this way, I will ruin his hand and dislocate it. And the pain will be so great I will make him kneel at my feet. And should I wish to strike him, this I can also do.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Getty, the Master's left foot is forward.]''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''I, the efficient counter of the master, during this wrestling<br/>Finish whomever by means of the reverse palm of the hand;<br/>And you will sink down on bended knee by means of this taking.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
<br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14r.jpg|14r-d}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a.jpg|9a-e}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 31v.jpg|31v-c}}
 +
 
 +
|}
 +
{{master subsection end}}
 +
 
 +
{{master subsection begin
 +
  | title = 4th Master
 +
  | width = 240em
 
}}
 
}}
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Dagger/9th master}}
+
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[56] ''I am a Master who covers with both hands,<br/>And I can hurt you from above or below.<br/>If I give a turn to your shoulder without releasing your arm,<br/>Then in this way I and my students will put you in great pain.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I am the Fourth [Dagger Remedy] Master, and I play from this grip. From covers like this my students will hurt many…</p>
 +
| <p>''Using both hands, &lt;I&gt; the master now take hold of the associate.<br/>From above and beneath, I am able to injure you with a weapon.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| rowspan="2" |
 +
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14v.jpg|14v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 32r.jpg|32r-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[57] <em>My Master spoke truly and unerringly:<br/>I can take your dagger, while you cannot escape.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>…And if I turn to the right without releasing your arm, I will take your dagger and put you in great pain.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-b}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 14v-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[58] ''I am well positioned to force you to the ground,<br/>And if you don't end up with a broken head, you can count yourself lucky.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is an upper bind that locks you up very well. I will take your dagger from you and throw you to the ground. And I can also dislocate your arm. If however you grip your right hand with your left hand, then you can counter me and make me let go of you.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[These two illustrations may show the beginning and end of the technique.]''</p>
 +
| <p>''I am certainly prepared in order to cast you down into the earth.<br/>And I will give many evils to your head, if it remains because of courage.''<ref>''Demittere mentem'' is recorded (by Bantam dictionary) as an idiom meaning “to lose heart”. Possibly ''mente sedebit'' is referencing this, in a pun (e.g., ''demittere'' in the sense of depose, and ''sedeo'' in the sense of hold court).</reF></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar's left foot is forward, but inside (in front) of his opponent's leg.]''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14v.jpg|14v-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 32r.jpg|32r-c}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[59] ''This is another lock that will throw you to the ground,<br/>And against such a hold no one is safe.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is another upper bind that is very powerful. And with this I am certain to throw you to the ground. And if I wish I can dislocate your arm. To counter me, you grip your right hand with your left hand. Then your grip will be strong and mine will be weak.</p>
 +
 
 +
''[In the Getty and Paris, the Scholar's right foot is forward.]''
 +
| <p>''This movement is another to strike down the associate to the earth.<br/>Nevertheless, it is not safe because he attempts a similar playing.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14v.jpg|14v-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 32v.jpg|32v-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[60] ''As I see this you will quickly go to the ground,<br/>Of this I am certain, and you won't be getting back up.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-e}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[61] ''I can also throw you to the ground like this,<br/>And once you are on the ground it will go badly for you.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>After I made the cover of my Master, I put my left hand under your right elbow. And my right hand quickly gripped you under your knee in such a way that I could throw you to the ground, and there was no counter that you could do to me.</p>
 +
| <p>''Certainly in this way I can send you a second time<br/>To the ground. Hereafter, &lt;I&gt; myself will approve worse things to you.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 14v.jpg|14v-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 09b.jpg|9b-f}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 32v.jpg|32v-c}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[62] ''I will give a turn to your dagger,<br/>And in that way it will be quickly taken from you.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>With my right hand I will make a horizontal turn to your dagger, pushing it round close to your arm that I am holding. And your dagger will be mine to control. And then I will deal with you as you deserve.</p>
 +
| <p>''In this way, &lt;I&gt; myself coil your dagger up using the whirlwind,<br/>Because I would capture you, whether you would prevent or you would fight back.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38r.jpg|38r-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 33r.jpg|33r-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[63] ''If I raise your dagger upwards close to your elbow,<br/>You will feel it instantly taken from you.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>If I raise your dagger upwards close to your elbow, I will keep it in my hand and strike you for certain. But I will need to make this play very quickly, to make sure that you cannot counter me with your left hand.</p>
 +
| <p>''Now if I attempt to lift your elbow [and] very own dagger,<br/>You yourself certainly will see it has been suddenly freed.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38r.jpg|38r-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 33r.jpg|33r-c}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:Cod.1324 36r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[64] ''I moved my right hand like this,<br/>And I will make you strike yourself in your thigh with your own dagger.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-d}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 38r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[65] ''Against the Master who covers with both hands<br/>I make this counter as my defense.<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I am the Counter-remedy against the Fourth [Dagger] Remedy Master. And I counter all his plays that came before me. And with one quick wrench like this I will ruin this student’s hand and his master’s too. And if they are well armored the ruin of their hands will be all the more certain.</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''By this means I will now seek the opponent, using both palms<ref>Literally “the two palms”.</ref><br/>In order to defend myself, just as the master does<br/>Who seizes the companion with both hands during wrestling.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[The Paris resembles the Getty illustration.]''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
<br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38r.jpg|38r-c}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-c}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 33v.jpg|33v-b}}
 +
 
 +
|}
 +
{{master subsection end}}
 +
 
 +
{{master subsection begin
 +
| title = 5th Master
 +
| width = 240em
 +
}}
 +
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Getty and PD)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the Paris)}}<br/>by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[66] <em>I want each of my students to know<br/>That you cannot defend against the collar grab unless you move quickly.<br/>And with the strike that I make against your elbow,<br/>I will quickly feel your arm dislocate.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I am the Fifth Dagger Remedy Master who defends against the collar grab made by this player. Before he can strike me with his dagger I destroy his arm like this, because the grip he has on me is actually to my advantage. And I can do all of the covers, holds and binds of the other remedy masters and their students who came before me. And I say this from experience: all who study this art should be aware that you cannot successfully defend the collar grab unless you move quickly.</p>
 +
| <p>''You would grasp my chest. Thus far you have not been able to wound me.<br/>I will, nevertheless, dislocate this, your shoulder, during wrestling.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38r.jpg|38r-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-e}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 33v.jpg|33v-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[67] <em>After striking against your elbow, I will continue on<br/>To quickly seek to find your dagger.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is another way to destroy the arm. And from this play I can move to other plays and holds…</p>
 +
| <p>''I would now strike close by your elbow. You will then move past me,<br/>And I, the strong one, will unexpectedly attempt your dagger.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| rowspan="2" | <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38v.jpg|38v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-f}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 34r.jpg|34r-b}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 16b-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[68] <em>I will get rid of your spear with my arms in this way,<br/>Then I will turn and hit you,<br/>And if I cannot do it this way<br/>Then I will use the technique I described before.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>…Also, if you are pinned by a spear then by making this strike against it you will either unpin yourself or break off the haft from the spearhead.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 16b.jpg|16b-d}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 16b-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[69] <em>If I want to get this spear off me,<br/>I had better hit it hard from above,<br/>So that I will break the staff of your spear<br/>And then I will want to come to the close.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is another way to make you let go, and is also a better method of breaking off the head of a spear…</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| rowspan="2" | <p><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38v.jpg|38v-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 16b.jpg|16b-c}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[70] <em>By striking to your wrist or to your elbow,<br/>I will either dislocate it, or you will quickly let go.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>…Also if I strike you hard in the wrist joint of the hand holding my collar, I am certain to dislocate it unless you let go.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I wish to tell you the counter. As the student strikes down with his arms to dislodge the player's hand, the player quickly withdraws his hand from the student’s collar, and he then quickly strikes the student in the chest with his dagger.</p>
 +
| <p>''Either I will strike over the elbow, or near the fist,<br/>And in this place I will dislocate the wretched one.  Henceforth you will quit the entire chest.''<ref>Note: ''pectora'' is plural, perhaps meant to indicate both halves of the chest.</ref></p>
 +
 
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b.jpg|10b-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 34r.jpg|34r-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[71] <em>I am confident and certain that you will go to the ground,<br/>And I care little or nothing for your dagger.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This play will make you let go of me. And in addition, if I advance my right foot behind your left foot, you will be thrown to the ground without fail. And if this play is not enough, I will try others on your dagger, because my heart and my eyes are never focused anywhere other than upon taking away your dagger quickly and without delay.</p>
 +
| <p>''I am able to safely believe that you will go into the ground now;<br/>Neither will your dagger be able to accomplish harming me.</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38v.jpg|38v-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b.jpg|10b-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 34v.jpg|34v-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[72] <em>I choose to try this method of throwing you to the ground,<br/>And if this does not work I will try a different play.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I will throw you to the ground like this, before your dagger can get near me. And if your dagger comes down the center line to strike at me, I will release my grip and deal with your dagger, so that you will not be able to injure me in any way. Then with the remedy plays I will make you suffer.</p>
 +
| <p>''I put to the test where I would at once lay you sharply on your back.<ref>Or “I put to the test where I would at once bend you back acutely.”</reF><br/>If, perchance, I do not strew you, I will [scribal error] <actually try> something better.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38v.jpg|38v-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b.jpg|10b-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 34v.jpg|34v-b}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[73] <em>You will find out that over my right shoulder<br/>I will not fail to break your arm.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This player had me grabbed by the collar, but before he could strike me with his dagger I quickly seized his left hand with my hands and pulled his arm over my shoulder so as to dislocate it, and then I completely dislocated it. But this play is safer to do in armor than unarmored.</p>
 +
| <p>''I will not have been cheated of breaking the left shoulder;<ref>Or “I will not be deceived while breaking the left shoulder.”</ref><br/>I am holding that which is loaded<ref>Or possibly “weighed”.</ref> down on the right using the leg during wrestling.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15r.jpg|15r-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b.jpg|10b-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 35r.jpg|35r-b}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[74] <em>By the way I seize you and hold you,<br/>I will force you to the ground shoulders first.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>In this way I will hurl you to the ground without fail. And I will surely take your dagger. And if you are armored that may help you, since I will be aiming to take your life with your own dagger. But even if we are armoured, this art will not fail me. And if you are unarmored and very quick, other plays can be made besides this one.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Getty and Paris, the Scholar's right foot is inside (in front) of his opponent's left leg.]''</p>
 +
| <p>''I hold you using this form, and I will catch the lamenting one;<br/>Now, with the leg, you will be strewn as deep into the earth as possible.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15r.jpg|15r-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b.jpg|10b-e}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 35r.jpg|35r-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[75] <em>To take your dagger I make a cover like this,<br/>And then with other plays I will make you suffer.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This cover is very good in armor or without armor. And against any strong man such a cover is good for covering an attack from below as well as from above. And from this play you can enter into a middle bind as shown in the third play of the First Dagger Remedy Master. And if the cover is made in response to an attack from below, the student will put the player into a lower lock also known as “the strong key”, as shown in the sixth play [38] of the Third [Dagger] Remedy Master who plays to the reverse hand attack.</p>
 +
| <p>''Now I make this cover, for which reason <read: in order that> I would be able to take away the dagger,<br/>Not to mention [that] I can strike you using many plays.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15r.jpg|15r-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b.jpg|10b-f}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 35v.jpg|35v-b}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[76] <em>If I can turn this arm of yours,<br/>Then I will force you into the lower lock.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>If I can turn this arm I will be certain to put you into the lower lock also known as “the strong key”. I will however be able to do this more safely if I am armored. I could also do something else against you: if I grip your left hand firmly and seize you under your left knee with my right hand, then I will not lack the strength to put you to the ground.</p>
 +
| <p>''If I can now twist your shoulder while fighting,<br/>I will readily cause [that] you will be overwhelmed in the lower key.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15r.jpg|15r-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a.jpg|11a-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 35v.jpg|35v-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[77] <em>Whether you try to strike at me from above or below,<br/>You will lose your dagger from this crossing.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>With arms crossed I await you without fear. And I don't care whether you come at me from above or below, because however you come at me, you will be bound. You will be locked either in the middle lock or the lower lock. And if I wished to make the plays of the Fourth Dagger Remedy Master, I would cause you great harm with these plays. And I will have no difficulty in taking your dagger.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Getty, the Scholar's left foot is forward.]''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15v.jpg|15v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a.jpg|11a-b}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[78] <em>By holding your arm with my two hands,<br/>I will take away the dagger from you, as you deserve.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This grip is sufficient to prevent you being able to touch me with your dagger. And from here I can do the play that comes after me. And I could also certainly do other plays to you. I disregard the other plays for now, however, because this one is good for me and very fast.</p>
 +
| <p>''Now because I am holding you using both hands during wrestling,<br/>I certainly would take hold of [your] dagger just as if you had truly deserved.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15v.jpg|15v-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a.jpg|11a-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 36r.jpg|36r-b}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[79] <em>The student who came before me did not make this play,<br/>So I show how to take away the dagger in his place.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is the play referred to by the student who came before me, and I take away this dagger as he indicated. And to disarm him I push his dagger downwards and to the right as written above. And then by making a turn with his dagger I will thrust the point into his chest without fail.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Getty and Paris, the Scholar's left foot is forward, and his opponent's right foot is forward.]''</p>
 +
| <p>''Now I teach taking the dagger away while wrestling the associate;<br/>This first student does not know how to play.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15v.jpg|15v-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a.jpg|11a-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 36r.jpg|36r-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 15v-d.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[80] So that this student cannot dislocate my arm, I pull it towards me and bend it. And the farther I pull it towards me and bend it, the better, because in this way I make the counter to the Remedy Master of the close play of the dagger.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15v.jpg|15v-d}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|}
 +
{{master subsection end}}
 +
 
 +
{{master subsection begin
 +
| title = 6th Master
 +
| width = 240em
 +
}}
 +
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:MS Latin 11269 36v-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[81] <em>There is no man who knows more about dagger versus dagger than I.<br/>Whether in armor or without, I will gravely injure you,<br/>And when fighting at the barrier I truly love<br/>To vanquish everyone with these close plays.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
I am the Sixth [Dagger Remedy] Master and I tell you that this cover is good either in armor or without armor. And with this cover I can cover attacks from all directions and enter into all of the holds and binds, and strike to finish, as the students who follow me will show. And each of my students will make this cover, and then they will make the plays shown after, as they are qualified to do.
 +
| <p>''I do not recognize the man with whom I can’t play.<br/>If we both lead while turning dagger in dagger,<br/>Either I would be armed [with both], or by chance we would be without weapons,<br/>And that movement is pleasing, provided that it would be a close play.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16r.jpg|16r-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a.jpg|11a-e}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 36v.jpg|36v-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 16r-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[82] I made the cover of the Sixth [Dagger Remedy] Master who preceded me. And as soon as I have made this grip I will be able to strike you. And because I position my left hand in this way, I will not fail to take away your dagger. I can also put you in the middle bind, which is the third play [3] of the First Dagger Remedy Master. I could also make other plays against you, without abandoning my dagger.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16r.jpg|16r-b}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 16r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[83] <em>From the cover of my Master which is so perfect,<br/>I will strike you in the chest with a half turn of my dagger.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
I have made this half turn from the cover of my Sixth Master and I have quickly positioned myself to strike you. And even if you were armored I would care little, for in that case I would thrust this dagger in your face. However, as you can see, in this case I have thrust it into your chest because you are not armored and you do not know the close range game.
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16r.jpg|16r-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b.jpg|11b-a}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[84] <em>With my Master’s cover and with a half turn to the outside,<br/>I can still strike or bind you or take away your dagger.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
I have not abandoned the cover of my Sixth [Dagger Remedy] Master. I turn my left arm over your right. And moving my right foot at the same time as my left arm I turn myself to the outside. You are now partly bound, and you will have to admit that you will quickly lose your dagger. And I make this play so quickly that I have no concern or fear of your counter.
 +
 
 +
''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown, and both he and his opponent have their right feet forward.]''
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16r.jpg|16r-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b.jpg|11b-b}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[85] <em>From the cover my Master made<br/>With this grip and cover I will give you grief.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
Having made the cover of my Master, I made this grip. And I can strike you whether you are armored or unarmored. And I can also put you into the lower lock of the first scholar of the Fourth Dagger Remedy Master.
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16v.jpg|16v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a.jpg|11a-f}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 16v-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[86] Without abandoning the cover of the Sixth [Dagger Remedy] Master, I make this turn [with my dagger]. Your right hand will lose the dagger, and seeing that you have been reversed, my dagger will quickly strike you, and your dagger will be lost to you. Also I can make a turn with my left arm and make you suffer in the lower lock.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16v.jpg|16v-b}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[87] <em>If you and I are both armored,<br/>I will thrust the knife into your hand, as you can see.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<del>Although I am placed after the counter-remedy to the Sixth Master, I should logically be placed before him, because</del> I am a student of the Sixth [Dagger Remedy] Master and my play belongs to him. And this play makes more sense in armor than unarmored, because if he is armored I can strike him in the hand where he cannot fully protect himself; whereas if he is unarmored, I would aim to strike him in the face or in the chest, or in some other vulnerable place.
 +
 
 +
''[This play has been moved to its proper location as given in Fiore's explanation.]''
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16v.jpg|16v-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a.jpg|12a-a}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[88] <em>With my left hand I will turn you and expose you<br/>And with this counter, I will be able to strike you hard.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
I make the counter-remedy of the Sixth King [Dagger Remedy Master], turning your body with an elbow push, and in this way I can strike you, because with this elbow push that I quickly do, I will be able to defend against many close plays. And this is a particularly good counter-remedy to the all of the holds of the close-range game.
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16v.jpg|16v-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b.jpg|11b-d}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[89] <em>With my left hand placed in my defense as shown,<br/>I will quickly cause you harm with this counter.</em></p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b.jpg|11b-c}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|}
 +
{{master subsection end}}
 +
 
 +
{{master subsection begin
 +
| title = 7th Master
 +
| width = 240em
 +
}}
 +
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="2" |
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[90] <em>If I am armored this is a good cover to choose,<br/>And from here I can enter quickly into the middle bind,<br/>And the fight will be over<br/>For there is no good defense against it.</em></p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''I, well-fortified, make this cover in arms,<br/>And suddenly, I will enter<ref>N.B. “I will enter” begins the fourth line in the Latin. It was moved to fit English sentence structure.</ref> into the middle key, which ends all<br/>Wars; neither is any strong against the conducting of war,<br/>Nor is any opposition able to oppose me.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b.jpg|11b-e}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 36v.jpg|36v-c}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| <p>I am the Seventh [Dagger Remedy] Master and I play with arms crossed. And this cover is better made when armored than unarmored. The plays that I can do from this cover are the plays that came before me, especially the middle bind which is the third play of the first Dagger Remedy Master. Also I can turn you by pushing your right elbow with my left hand. And I can strike you quickly in the head or in the shoulder…</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| rowspan="3" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17r.jpg|17r-a}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="2" |
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[91] <em>In armour this is a very strong cover<br/>Because from here you can bind either above or below;<br/>One way you go to the lower bind,<br/>The other way you go to the upper bind or the middle bind.</em></p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''That movement certainly prevails over the dagger while held in the cross[ing],<br/>And on the other hand it can work above and beneath in armor.<br/>This lower play openly goes to the outside <br/>Bind. The middle [bind] lies below, or perhaps [the] highest.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a.jpg|12a-c}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 37r.jpg|37r-c}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| <p>…And this cover is better for binding than any other cover, and is a very strong cover to make against the dagger.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Paris, this Scholar wears a crown.]''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" rowspan="2" |
 +
| class="noline" rowspan="2" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[92] <em>You will not be able to put me into the middle bind,<br/>Whereas I am going to strike you as I turn you.</em></p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b.jpg|11b-f}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>This is the counter remedy to the plays of the Seventh [Dagger Remedy] Master who came before me. With the push that I make to his right elbow, let me tell you that this counter-remedy is good against all close range plays of the dagger, the poleaxe, and the sword, whether in armor or unarmored. And once I have pushed his elbow I should quickly strike him in the shoulder.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Getty, the Master's right foot is forward.]''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17r.jpg|17r-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|}
 +
{{master subsection end}}
 +
 
 +
{{master subsection begin
 +
| title = 8th Master
 +
| width = 240em
 +
}}
 +
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 17r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[93]<br/><br/><br/><br/>&nbsp;</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I am the Eighth [Dagger Remedy] Master and I cross with my dagger. And this cover is good both armored or unarmored. And some of my plays are shown before me, and some are shown after me…</p>
 +
| <p>''In this way, I carry my dagger while fighting during the cross[ing]. Any defense<br/>Which the dagger offers does not oppose itself in the play,<br/>But I will be strong to lay waste in playing using many moves.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| rowspan="2" | <p><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17r.jpg|17r-c}}
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 37r.jpg|37r-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Cod.1324 31v-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[94] …In the play that is shown before me, three plays back [72], the ''Zugadore'' was struck in his hand with the point of his opponent's dagger. Similarly in this play I could strike downwards to his hand just as in the earlier play I struck upwards to his hand.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Also, I could seize his hand at the wrist with my left hand, and then strike him hard with my right hand, just as you will find demonstrated by the ninth student [108] of the Ninth [Dagger Remedy] Master, who strikes the ''Zugadore'' in the chest. Also, I could do the last play that follows after [109] where I drop my own dagger and take his.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 17r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[95] I am the counter-remedy to the Eighth [Dagger Remedy] Master that preceded me, and to all of his students…</p>
 +
 
 +
''[This counter was moved before [97] and [98] because it is unclear how they relate to the Eight Master.]''
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| rowspan="2" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17r.jpg|17r-d}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[96] <em>After this turn that I make you do<br/>I will strike you and force you to the ground.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>…If I extend my left hand to his elbow, I can push it so strongly that I can strike him obliquely. Also, as I make him turn I can throw my arm around his neck and hurt him in a variety of possible ways.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a.jpg|12a-b}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 17v-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[97] This is a guard that is a strong cover in armor or unarmored. It is a good cover because from it you can quickly put your opponent into a lower lock or “strong key.” This is what is depicted by the sixth play [54] of the Third [Dagger Remedy] Master who defends against the reverse hand strike and who uses his left arm to bind the ''Zugadore''’s right arm.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17v.jpg|17v-a}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 17v-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:Cod.1324 29r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[98] This cover that I make like this with arms crossed is good in armor or unarmored. And my play puts the Zugadore into the lower lock, which is also called the “strong key,” which the scholar who preceded me told you about, namely the sixth play [54] of the Third Master who defends with his right hand against the reverse hand strike. And this play is made similarly to the play that immediately preceded me, but is begun in a slightly different way.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>And our counter–remedy again is the elbow push.</p>
 +
 
 +
''[The Master in the right image is missing both garter and crown.]''
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17v.jpg|17v-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|}
 +
{{master subsection end}}
 +
 
 +
{{master subsection begin
 +
| title = 9th Master
 +
| width = 240em
 +
}}
 +
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[100] <em>From this grip that I have I can do many plays.<br/>Take away the dagger, break, strike or bind.<br/>And the quickest is to take the dagger from your hand,<br/>so as to avoid any risk of harm from the player.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
I am the Ninth King [and Dagger Remedy Master] and I no longer have a dagger. And this grip that I make from the low attack is similar to the grip made by the Fourth King [and Dagger Remedy Master], only this one is made against the low attack instead of the high attack, and my plays are not the same as his. This grip is good whether in armor or unarmored, and from it you can make many good strong plays, as shown below. Whether in armor or unarmored there is no doubt of their effectiveness.
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17v.jpg|17v-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a.jpg|12a-d}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[101] <em>If I rotate the dagger close to your elbow,<br/>Your dagger will be mine for certain.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
I have followed on from the ''presa'' of the Ninth [Dagger Remedy] Master. Taking my right hand from the grip, I seize your dagger as shown and I rotate it upwards close to your elbow. And I will then thrust the point into your face for certain, or I will deal with you as the next student will demonstrate.
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17v.jpg|17v-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a.jpg|12a-e}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 18r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[102] <em>The first student of this Master<br/>Takes away the dagger and makes this play.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
I complete the play of the student who came before me, and from his grip this is how he should finish his play. Other students will make different plays from his grip. Watch those who follow, and you will see their techniques.
 +
| <p>''The student will perhaps be able to make this play of that master [of yours],<br/>And would have snatched the powerful dagger away.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a Master's crown.]''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18r.jpg|18r-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b.jpg|12b-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 37v.jpg|37v-b}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[103] <em>I can dislocate your arm like this,<br/>And I can also bind you in the lower bind.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>My Master's grip has already been demonstrated. Here my right hand leaves his grip. And if I grip you under your elbow, I can dislocate your arm. And also from this grip I can put you into a bind, namely the “strong key” [lower bind], which is one the third King and [Dagger Remedy] Master showed in his plays In his sixth play [38] he shows you how this one is done.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Getty, the Scholar's right foot is forward.]''</p>
 +
| <p>''I can truly dislocate your shoulder in this same way;<br/>Furthermore, I can lead to using the lower key.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18r.jpg|18r-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b.jpg|12b-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38r.jpg|38r-c}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[104] <em>If I can give your arm a half turn,<br/>You will quickly find yourself in the lower bind.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I have arrived at this position from the grip of my Master [Ninth Dagger Remedy Master], and I do not remain in this grip but move into the lower bind, also known as the “strong key.” This I can do without difficulty, and I can then easily take your dagger.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Getty, the Scholar's right foot is forward.]''</p>
 +
| <p>''I prepare to take away your life using the <br/>Lower bind, if by chance I can twist your shoulder.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18r.jpg|18r-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b.jpg|12b-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38r.jpg|38r-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 18r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[105] <em>Without releasing my grip I enter underneath your arm,<br/>And from behind your shoulder I will hurt you grievously.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I have not abandoned the grip of my Master [the Ninth Dagger Remedy Master], but I have quickly entered under his right arm, to dislocate it with this grip. I can do this whether he is wearing armor or not, and once I have him held from behind and in my power, I will show him no mercy as I hurt him.</p>
 +
| <p>''Behold! I crossed beneath the shoulder during play,<br/>And furthermore, I left behind the taking. But I will burden the back.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18r.jpg|18r-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a.jpg|12a-f}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 37v.jpg|37v-c}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[106] <em>Although this play is not often employed,<br/>It can be done well, if you practice it.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I did not abandon the grip of my Master [the Ninth Dagger Remedy Master] and the ''Zugadore'' saw that he could not break my grip on his arm. And as he pressed downwards towards the ground with his dagger, I quickly reached through his legs from behind and grabbed his right hand with my left hand. And once I had a good grip on his hand, I passed behind him. And as you can see in the picture, he cannot dismount his own arm without falling. And I can now also do the play that follows me. If I let go of the dagger with my right hand, and I grab his foot I will send him crashing to the ground, and I cannot fail to take his dagger.</p>
 +
| <p>''It is granted that this play could scarcely be learned by this art,<br/>Yet this one honestly succeeds by means of the practiced man.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18v.jpg|18v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b.jpg|12b-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 43r.jpg|43r-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 18v-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[107] The student who preceded me performed the first part of this play, and I make the finish by driving him into the ground, as has already been explained. Although this play is not commonly performed in the art, I wish to show you that I have a complete knowledge of it. </p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18v.jpg|18v-b}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:Cod.1324 31r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 18v-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[108] I made the cover of my Master [the Ninth Dagger Remedy Master] and then quickly I gripped him in this way with my left hand. And then I drew my dagger and thrust it into his chest. And if I do not have time to draw my dagger, I will make the play that follows me. </p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18v.jpg|18v-c}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 18v-d.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[109] With this play I complete the play of the student who preceded me, who left his [sheathed] dagger where it was and instead decided to take your live dagger. I have already explained how this play is performed.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18v.jpg|18v-d}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" style="text-align:center; vertical-align:middle;" | [No Image]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[110] The Counter-remedy to this Ninth [Dagger Remedy] Master's play is as follows: when the ''Zugadore'' with his left hand has seized your right hand that has the dagger, then you should quickly seize your dagger near the point and strongly draw or pull it back towards you so that he has to let go of it, or alternately press the dagger point into his elbow to make him think twice.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18v.jpg|18v-f}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|}
 
{{master subsection end}}
 
{{master subsection end}}
 
{{master end}}
 
{{master end}}
Line 2,886: Line 3,856:
 
== Additional Resources ==
 
== Additional Resources ==
  
 +
* [[user:Michael Chidester|Chidester, Michael]]. ''The Flower of Battle: MS M 383.'' Somerville, MA: HEMA Bookshelf, 2021. ISBN 978-1-953683-07-6
 
* Deacon, Jacob Henry. "Prologues, Poetry, Prose and Portrayals: The Purposes of Fifteenth Century Fight Books According to the Diplomatic Evidence". ''[[Acta Periodica Duellatorum]]'' '''4'''(2): 69-90. 2016. {{doi|10.36950/apd-2016-014}}
 
* Deacon, Jacob Henry. "Prologues, Poetry, Prose and Portrayals: The Purposes of Fifteenth Century Fight Books According to the Diplomatic Evidence". ''[[Acta Periodica Duellatorum]]'' '''4'''(2): 69-90. 2016. {{doi|10.36950/apd-2016-014}}
 
* [[Colin Hatcher|Hatcher, Colin]]. ''The Flower of Battle: MS Ludwig ⅩⅤ 13''. Ed. Tracy Mellow. Tyrant Industries, 2017. ISBN 978-0-9847716-8-4
 
* [[Colin Hatcher|Hatcher, Colin]]. ''The Flower of Battle: MS Ludwig ⅩⅤ 13''. Ed. Tracy Mellow. Tyrant Industries, 2017. ISBN 978-0-9847716-8-4

Latest revision as of 14:24, 7 June 2021

Fiore Furlano de’i Liberi

This man appears sporadically throughout both the Getty and Pisani Dossi MSS, and may be a representation of Fiore himself.
Born Cividale del Friuli
Relative(s) Benedetto de’i Liberi (father)
Occupation
Nationality Friulian
Patron
  • Gian Galeazzo Visconti (?)
  • Niccolò Ⅲ d’Este (?)
Influences
Influenced Philippo di Vadi
Genres
Language
Notable work(s) The Flower of Battle
Manuscript(s)
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations

Fiore Furlano de’i Liberi de Cividale d’Austria (Fiore delli Liberi, Fiore Furlano, Fiore de Cividale d’Austria; fl. 1381 - 1409) was a late 14th century knight, diplomat, and fencing master. He was born in Cividale del Friuli, a town in the Patriarchal State of Aquileia (in the Friuli region of modern-day Italy), the son of Benedetto and scion of a Liberi house of Premariacco.[1][2][3] The term Liberi, while potentially merely a surname, more probably indicates that his family had Imperial immediacy (Reichsunmittelbarkeit), either as part of the nobili liberi (Edelfrei, "free nobles"), the Germanic unindentured knightly class which formed the lower tier of nobility in the Middle Ages, or possibly of the rising class of Imperial Free Knights.[4][5][6] It has been suggested by various historians that Fiore and Benedetto were descended from Cristallo dei Liberi of Premariacco, who was granted immediacy in 1110 by Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich V,[7][8][9] but this has yet to be proven.[10]

Fiore wrote that he had a natural inclination to the martial arts and began training at a young age, ultimately studying with “countless” masters from both Italic and Germanic lands.[1][2][3] He had ample opportunity to interact with both, being born in the Holy Roman Empire and later traveling widely in the northern Italian states. Unfortunately, not all of these encounters were friendly: Fiore wrote of meeting many “false” or unworthy masters in his travels, most of whom lacked even the limited skill he'd expect in a good student.[3] He further mentions that on five separate occasions he was forced to fight duels for his honor against certain of these masters who he described as envious because he refused to teach them his art; the duels were all fought with sharp swords, unarmored except for gambesons and chamois gloves, and he won each without injury.[1][2][11]

Writing very little on his own career as a commander and master at arms, Fiore laid out his credentials for his readers in other ways. He stated that foremost among the masters who trained him was one Johane dicto Suueno, who he notes was a disciple of Nicholai de Toblem;[3] unfortunately, both names are given in Latin so there is little we can conclude about them other than that they were probably among the Italians and Germans he alludes to, and that one or both were well known in Fiore's time. He further offered an extensive list of the famous condottieri that he trained, including Piero Paolo del Verde (Peter von Grünen),[12] Niccolo Unricilino (Nikolo von Urslingen),[13] Galeazzo Cattaneo dei Grumelli (Galeazzo Gonzaga da Mantova),[14] Lancillotto Beccaria di Pavia,[15] Giovannino da Baggio di Milano,[16] and Azzone di Castelbarco,[17] and also highlights some of their martial exploits.[1][2]

The only known historical mentions of Fiore appear in connection with the Aquileian War of Succession, which erupted in 1381 as a coalition of secular nobles from Udine and surrounding cities sought to remove the newly appointed Patriarch (prince-bishop of Aquileia), Philippe Ⅱ d'Alençon. Fiore seems to have supported the secular nobility against the Cardinal; he traveled to Udine in 1383 and was granted residency in the city on 3 August.[18] On 30 September, the high council tasked him with inspection and maintenance of city's weapons, including the artillery pieces defending Udine (large crossbows and catapults).[5][19][20] In February of 1384, he was assigned the task of recruiting a mercenary company to augment Udine's forces and leading them back to the city.[21] This task seems to have been accomplished in three months or less, as on 23 May he appeared before the high council again and was sworn in as a sort of magistrate charged with keeping the peace in one of the city's districts. After May 1384, the historical record is silent on Fiore's activities; the war continued until a new Patriarch was appointed in 1389 and a peace settlement was reached, but it's unclear if Fiore remained involved for the duration. Given that he appears in council records four times in 1383-4, it would be quite odd for him to be completely unmentioned over the subsequent five years if he remained,[5][22] and since his absence from records coincides with a proclamation in July of that year demanding that Udine cease hostilities or face harsh repercussions, it seems more likely that he moved on.

Based on his autobiographical account, Fiore traveled a good deal in northern Italy, teaching fencing and training men for duels. He seems to have been in Perugia in 1381 in this capacity, when his student Peter von Grünen likely fought a duel with Peter Kornwald.[23] In 1395, he can be placed in Padua training the mercenary captain Galeazzo Gonzaga of Mantua for a duel with the French marshal Jean Ⅱ le Maingre (who went by the war name “Boucicaut”). Galeazzo made the challenge when Boucicaut called into question the valor of Italians at the royal court of France, and the duel was ultimately set for Padua on 15 August. Both Francesco Novello da Carrara, Lord of Padua, and Francesco Gonzaga, Lord of Mantua, were in attendance. The duel was to begin with spears on horseback, but Boucicaut became impatient and dismounted, attacking Galeazzo before he could mount his own horse. Galeazzo landed a solid blow on the Frenchman’s helmet, but was subsequently disarmed. At this point, Boucicaut called for his poleaxe but the lords intervened to end the duel.[24][20][14]

Fiore surfaces again in Pavia in 1399, this time training Giovannino da Baggio for a duel with a German squire named Sirano. It was fought on 24 June and attended by Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan, as well as the Duchess and other nobles. The duel was to consist of three bouts of mounted lance followed by three bouts each of dismounted poleaxe, estoc, and dagger. They ultimately rode two additional passes and on the fifth, Baggio impaled Sirano’s horse through the chest, slaying the horse but losing his lance in the process. They fought the other nine bouts as scheduled, and due to the strength of their armor (and the fact that all of the weapons were blunted), both combatants reportedly emerged from these exchanges unharmed.[16][25]

Fiore was likely involved in at least one other duel that year, that of his final student Azzone di Castelbarco and Giovanni degli Ordelaffi, as the latter is known to have died in 1399.[26] After Castelbarco’s duel, Fiore’s activities are unclear. Based on the allegiances of the nobles that he trained in the 1390s, he seems to have been associated with the ducal court of Milan in the latter part of his career.[20] Some time in the first years of the 1400s, Fiore composed a fencing treatise in Italian and Latin called "The Flower of Battle" (rendered variously as Fior di Battaglia, Florius de Arte Luctandi, and Flos Duellatorum). The briefest version of the text is dated to 1409 and indicates that it was a labor of six months and great personal effort;[3] as evidence suggests that at least two longer versions were composed some time before this,[27] we may assume that he devoted a considerable amount of time to writing during this decade.

Beyond this, nothing certain is known of Fiore's activities in the 15th century. Francesco Novati and Luigi Zanutto both assume that some time before 1409 he accepted an appointment as court fencing master to Niccolò Ⅲ d’Este, Marquis of Ferrara, Modena, and Parma; presumably he would have made this change when Milan fell into disarray in 1402, though Zanutto went so far as to speculate that he trained Niccolò for his 1399 passage at arms.[28] However, while the records of the d’Este library indicate the presence of two versions of "the Flower of Battle", it seems more likely that the manuscripts were written as a diplomatic gift to Ferrara from Milan when they made peace in 1404.[25][20] C. A. Blengini di Torricella stated that late in life he made his way to Paris, France, where he could be placed teaching fencing in 1418 and creating a copy of a fencing manual located there in 1420. Though he attributes these facts to Novati, no publication verifying them has yet been located and this anecdote may be entirely spurious.[29]

The time and place of Fiore's death remain unknown.

Despite the extent and complexity of his writings, Fiore de’i Liberi does not seem to have been a very significant master in the evolution of fencing in Central Europe. That field was instead dominated by the traditions of two masters of the subsequent generation: Johannes Liechtenauer in the Holy Roman Empire and Filippo di Bartolomeo Dardi in the Italian states. Even so, there are a number of later treatises which bear strong resemblance to his work, including the writings of Philippo di Vadi and Ludwig VI von Eyb. This may be due to the direct influence of Fiore or his writings, or it may instead indicate that the older tradition of Johane and Nicholai survived and spread outside of Fiore's direct line.

Treatise

The d'Este family owned at least three manuscripts by Fiore during the 15th century,[30] and a total of four copies survive to the present. Of these, the MS Ludwig ⅩⅤ 13 (Getty) and the Pisani Dossi MS (Novati) are both dedicated to Niccolò Ⅲ d'Este and state that they were written at his request and according to his design. The MS M.383 (Morgan), on the other hand, lacks a dedication and claims to have been laid out according to his own intelligence, while the MS Latin 11269 (Paris) lost any dedication it might have had along with its prologue. Each of the extant copies of the Flower of Battle follows a different order, though each of these pairs contains strong similarities to each other in order of presentation.

In addition, Philippo di Vadi's manuscript from the 1480s, whose second half is essentially a redaction of the Flower of Battle, provides a valuable fifth point of reference when considering Fiore's teachings. (These is also a 17th century copy of the Morgan's preface, transcribed by Apostolo Zeno, but it contributes little to our understanding of the text.)

The major sections of the work include: abrazare or grappling; daga, including both unarmed defenses against the dagger and plays of dagger against dagger; spada a un mano, the use of the sword in one hand (also called "the sword without the buckler"); spada a dui mani, the use of the sword in two hands; spada en arme, the use of the sword in armor (primarily techniques from the shortened sword); azza, plays of the poleaxe in armor; lancia, spear and staff plays; and mounted combat (including the spear, the sword, and mounted grappling). Brief bridging sections serve to connect each of these, covering such topics as bastoncello, or plays of a small stick or baton against unarmed and dagger-wielding opponents; plays of sword vs. dagger; plays of staff and dagger and of two clubs and a dagger; and the use of the chiavarina against a man on horseback.

The format of instruction is largely consistent across all copies of the treatise. Each section begins with a group of Masters (or Teachers), figures in golden crowns who each demonstrate a particular guard for use with their weapon. These are followed by a master called Remedio ("Remedy") who demonstrates a defensive technique against some basic attack (usually how to use one of the listed guards to defend), and then by his various Scholars (or Students), figures wearing golden garters on their legs who demonstrate iterations and variations of this remedy. After the scholars there is typically a master called Contrario ("Counter" or "Contrary"), wearing both crown and garter, who demonstrates how to counter the master's remedy (and those of his scholars), who is likewise sometimes followed by his own scholars in garters. In rare cases, a fourth type of master appears called Contra-Contrario ("Counter-counter"), who likewise wears the crown and garter and demonstrates how to defeat the master's counter. Some sections feature multiple master remedies or master counters, while some have only one. While the crowns and garters are used across all extant versions of the treatise, the specific implementation of the system varies; all versions include at least a few apparently errors in assignation of crowns and garters, and there are many cases in which an illustration in one manuscript will only feature a scholar's garter where the corresponding illustration in another also includes a master's crown (depending on the instance, this may either be intentional or merely an error in the art). Alone of the four versions, the Morgan seeks to further expand the system by coloring the metallic portions of the master or scholar's weapon silver, while that of the player is left uncolored; this is also imperfectly-executed, but seems to have been intended as a visual indicator of which weapon belongs to which figure.

The concordance below includes Zeno's transcription of the Morgan preface for reference, and then drops the (thereafter empty) column in favor of a second illustration column for the main body of the treatise. (The Zeno transcript is in the first transcription column even though it's the youngest source so that the others can remain in the same position throughout.) Generally only the right-side column will contain illustrations—the left-side column will only contain additional content when when the text describes an illustration that spans the width of the page in the manuscripts, or when there are significant discrepancies between the available illustrations (in such cases, they sometimes display two stages of the same technique and will be placed in "chronological" order if possible). The illustrations from the Getty, Morgan, and Paris are taken from high-resolution scans supplied by those institutions, whereas the illustrations of the Pisani Dossi are taken from Novati's 1902 facsimile (scanned by Wiktenauer). There are likewise two translation columns, with the the two manuscripts dedicated to Niccolò on the left and the two undedicated manuscripts on the right; in both columns, the short text of the PD and Paris will come first, followed by the longer paragraphs of the Getty and Morgan.