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! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>''{{rating|B|PD}} by [[translator::Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty}} by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>''{{rating|B|PD}} by [[translator::Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty}} by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
! <p>{{rating|C|Paris}} by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]</p>
+
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris}} by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
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| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v}}
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| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 09v.jpg|9v-f}}
 
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| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 10r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[15] <section begin="dagger 15"/>''Locking the arms of all opponents<br/>In such a way that none can safely extend their right hand,<br/>To show my success I carry a pair of keys in my hand.''</p>
+
| <p>[15] ''Locking the arms of all opponents<br/>In such a way that none can safely extend their right hand,<br/>To show my success I carry a pair of keys in my hand.''</p>
  
<p>I am the Master of the unlocking and locking of the arms of those who choose to oppose me. I will cause them great pain and suffering with my techniques of binding and dislocating. And therefore I carry these keys to signify the value of my art.</p><section end="dagger 15"/>
+
<p>I am the Master of the unlocking and locking of the arms of those who choose to oppose me. I will cause them great pain and suffering with my techniques of binding and dislocating. And therefore I carry these keys to signify the value of my art.</p>
 
| <p>''Nailing together the arms of all fighting in the region<br/>In such a way that they would not be able to extend the safe right,<br/>Now happily I thus collect two keys in my hands.''</p>
 
| <p>''Nailing together the arms of all fighting in the region<br/>In such a way that they would not be able to extend the safe right,<br/>Now happily I thus collect two keys in my hands.''</p>
 
|  
 
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|  
 
|  
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a-e.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a-e.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[17] <section begin="dagger 17"/>''I am the First Master of the Dagger, full of guile,<br/>And with my left hand I will wind the dagger around your arm,<br/>And truth to tell I can make many other plays,<br/>And my students will do them cunningly.''</p>
+
| <p>[17] ''I am the First Master of the Dagger, full of guile,<br/>And with my left hand I will wind the dagger around your arm,<br/>And truth to tell I can make many other plays,<br/>And my students will do them cunningly.''</p>
  
<p>I am the first master and I am called Remedy, because I know how to remedy so well that you cannot harm me whereas I on the contrary can strike you and hurt you. And I cannot make a better play against you than to make your dagger go to the ground, by turning my hand to the left.</p><section end="dagger 17"/>
+
<p>I am the first master and I am called Remedy, because I know how to remedy so well that you cannot harm me whereas I on the contrary can strike you and hurt you. And I cannot make a better play against you than to make your dagger go to the ground, by turning my hand to the left.</p>
 
| <p>''The first master of the dagger, I am called caution itself;<br/>At any time, the left hand having been extended to lift the dagger away.''</p>
 
| <p>''The first master of the dagger, I am called caution itself;<br/>At any time, the left hand having been extended to lift the dagger away.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
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|  
 
|  
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a-f.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06a-f.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[18] <section begin="dagger 18"/>''If I make a turn around your arm with my dagger,<br/>I will strike you in the chest, and it will not be taken from me.''</p>
+
| <p>[18] ''If I make a turn around your arm with my dagger,<br/>I will strike you in the chest, and it will not be taken from me.''</p>
  
<p>I will turn my dagger around your arm. And because of this counter you will not be able to take the dagger from me. And also with this turn I can drive it into your chest without a doubt.</p><section end="dagger 18"/>
+
<p>I will turn my dagger around your arm. And because of this counter you will not be able to take the dagger from me. And also with this turn I can drive it into your chest without a doubt.</p>
 
| <p>''Truly I sweep the dagger away around your shoulder.<br/>Not wasting that [attack], I would pulp you, miserable, in the chest.''</p>
 
| <p>''Truly I sweep the dagger away around your shoulder.<br/>Not wasting that [attack], I would pulp you, miserable, in the chest.''</p>
  
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|  
 
|  
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-a.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-a.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[19] <section begin="dagger 19"/>''With your right arm locked under my left,<br/>I can cause you much harm while keeping you trapped.''</p>
+
| <p>[19] ''With your right arm locked under my left,<br/>I can cause you much harm while keeping you trapped.''</p>
  
 
<p>I will lock your arm in the middle bind, and I will do it in such a way that you will not be able to give me any trouble. And if I wish to put you to the ground I will do so with little effort, and you will have no chance of escaping.</p>
 
<p>I will lock your arm in the middle bind, and I will do it in such a way that you will not be able to give me any trouble. And if I wish to put you to the ground I will do so with little effort, and you will have no chance of escaping.</p>
  
''[In the Getty, the Scholar steps with his left foot in front of his opponent's right, not behind.]''<section end="dagger 19"/>
+
''[In the Getty, the Scholar steps with his left foot in front of his opponent's right, not behind.]''
 
| <p>''And behold your right [arm] confined under my left<br/>Shoulder. Far too many misfortunes delay you, the imprisoned one.''</p>
 
| <p>''And behold your right [arm] confined under my left<br/>Shoulder. Far too many misfortunes delay you, the imprisoned one.''</p>
 
|  
 
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|  
 
|  
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-b.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-b.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[20] <section begin="dagger 20"/>''If you wind around my arm and try to lock it in this way,<br/>I will put you in the lower bind and this hold will make things hard for you.''</p>
+
| <p>[20] ''If you wind around my arm and try to lock it in this way,<br/>I will put you in the lower bind and this hold will make things hard for you.''</p>
  
<p>I make the counter to the play that came before me. You can see the kind of position that I have put him in. I will break his arm or quickly throw him to the ground.</p><section end="dagger 20"/>
+
<p>I make the counter to the play that came before me. You can see the kind of position that I have put him in. I will break his arm or quickly throw him to the ground.</p>
 
| <p>''It is permitted that you hold me pressed hard inward, the lower key having been retained [and]<br/>Then pressed hard, [which] will harm the shoulder.''</p>
 
| <p>''It is permitted that you hold me pressed hard inward, the lower key having been retained [and]<br/>Then pressed hard, [which] will harm the shoulder.''</p>
 
|  
 
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|  
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-c.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-c.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[21] <section begin="dagger 21"/><em>If I can turn this arm of yours,<br/>I will make you suffer with a middle bind.</em></p>
+
| <p>[21] <em>If I can turn this arm of yours,<br/>I will make you suffer with a middle bind.</em></p>
  
<p>This is a good cover from which to take the dagger from your hand, and with this grip I will be able to bind you well. And this art is so effective that if I place my right hand under your right knee, then I will put you to the ground.</p><section end="dagger 21"/>
+
<p>This is a good cover from which to take the dagger from your hand, and with this grip I will be able to bind you well. And this art is so effective that if I place my right hand under your right knee, then I will put you to the ground.</p>
 
| <p>''If I myself can now turn the shoulder using the hands,<br/>You, sad, will remain eternally in that middle key.''</p>
 
| <p>''If I myself can now turn the shoulder using the hands,<br/>You, sad, will remain eternally in that middle key.''</p>
 
|  
 
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|  
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-d.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-d.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[22] <section begin="dagger 22"/><em>You will not make me suffer in the middle bind<br/>When I meet you with this counter and make you let go.</em></p>
+
| <p>[22] <em>You will not make me suffer in the middle bind<br/>When I meet you with this counter and make you let go.</em></p>
  
<p>I make the counter to the play that came before me, so that you will not be able to throw me to the ground, nor take the dagger from me, nor bind me either. You will have to let go, or else you will be quickly stabbed by my dagger.</p><section end="dagger 22"/>
+
<p>I make the counter to the play that came before me, so that you will not be able to throw me to the ground, nor take the dagger from me, nor bind me either. You will have to let go, or else you will be quickly stabbed by my dagger.</p>
 
| <p>''You will not make [me] endure in the middle key. But now,<br/>By means of that my<ref>Possibly a scribal error—the first sentence seems to be missing a “me” and the second has one it doesn’t need.</ref> counter, it is convenient for you if you will yield to me.''</p>
 
| <p>''You will not make [me] endure in the middle key. But now,<br/>By means of that my<ref>Possibly a scribal error—the first sentence seems to be missing a “me” and the second has one it doesn’t need.</ref> counter, it is convenient for you if you will yield to me.''</p>
 
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| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[23] <section begin="dagger 23"/>This is a play with no counter, and it is inevitable that the player will go to the ground and lose his dagger if the student performs this technique as depicted. And when the player is thrown to the ground, the student can finish him in various ways.<section end="dagger 23"/></p>
+
| <p>[23] This is a play with no counter, and it is inevitable that the player will go to the ground and lose his dagger if the student performs this technique as depicted. And when the player is thrown to the ground, the student can finish him in various ways.</p>
 
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| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 11r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[24] <section begin="dagger 24"/>This play is rarely used in the art of the dagger, yet it is an additional defense to know. For after beating aside the attack in this way, the scholar can then strike with a counter to the ribs or the stomach.<section end="dagger 24"/></p>
+
| <p>[24] This play is rarely used in the art of the dagger, yet it is an additional defense to know. For after beating aside the attack in this way, the scholar can then strike with a counter to the ribs or the stomach.</p>
 
|  
 
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| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-d.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-d.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 11v-a.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[25] <section begin="dagger 25"/><em>This bind is easy for me to do<br/>And from it I will be able to strike you in the back.</em></p>
+
| <p>[25] <em>This bind is easy for me to do<br/>And from it I will be able to strike you in the back.</em></p>
  
 
<p>I am a counter to the First Dagger Remedy Master. Woe to he who remedies with techniques that allow his left hand to be seized. And from this hold I will be able to drive the dagger into his back.</p>
 
<p>I am a counter to the First Dagger Remedy Master. Woe to he who remedies with techniques that allow his left hand to be seized. And from this hold I will be able to drive the dagger into his back.</p>
  
''[These two illustrations seem to show the beginning and end of the technique.]''<section end="dagger 25"/>
+
''[These two illustrations seem to show the beginning and end of the technique.]''
 
| <p>''It is neither labor nor pain to me to make a persistent bind,<br/>By which route now I will be able to injure you,<br/>And possibly I will strike your kidneys with a great wound.''</p>
 
| <p>''It is neither labor nor pain to me to make a persistent bind,<br/>By which route now I will be able to injure you,<br/>And possibly I will strike your kidneys with a great wound.''</p>
  
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|  
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-e.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-e.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[26] <section begin="dagger 26"/><em>I make the counter-counter to the First Master,<br/>For the counter-counter is a fine master.</em><section end="dagger 26"/></p>
+
| <p>[26] <em>I make the counter-counter to the First Master,<br/>For the counter-counter is a fine master.</em></p>
 
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| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-f.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-f.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[27] <section begin="dagger 27"/><em>I make the counter-counter against the First Master,<br/>And I will be first to take away the dagger every time.</em><section end="dagger 27"/></p>
+
| <p>[27] <em>I make the counter-counter against the First Master,<br/>And I will be first to take away the dagger every time.</em></p>
 
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| [[File:MS Latin 11269 43v-a.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Latin 11269 43v-a.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[28] <section begin="dagger 28"/><em>I counter the First Dagger Master<br/>And I will strike your arm from above.</em></p>
+
| <p>[28] <em>I counter the First Dagger Master<br/>And I will strike your arm from above.</em></p>
  
<p>''[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]''</p><section end="dagger 28"/>
+
<p>''[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]''</p>
 
| <p>''I am of the first king; you retain the dagger, openly<br/>I make the counter. This is well known [to] strike the shoulder.''<ref>The illustration clearly shows a thrust to the arm, not the shoulder.</ref></p>
 
| <p>''I am of the first king; you retain the dagger, openly<br/>I make the counter. This is well known [to] strike the shoulder.''<ref>The illustration clearly shows a thrust to the arm, not the shoulder.</ref></p>
  
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|  
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-b.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-b.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[29] <section begin="dagger 29"/><em>I make the counter to the First Master<br/>With this cover I will hurt him and worse.</em></p>
+
| <p>[29] <em>I make the counter to the First Master<br/>With this cover I will hurt him and worse.</em></p>
  
<p>I am also the counter of the First Dagger Remedy Master, and when his student grips me like this [10], I will strike him, and make him let go. And if he tries to do other plays against me, I will counter him without hesitation.</p><section end="dagger 29"/>
+
<p>I am also the counter of the First Dagger Remedy Master, and when his student grips me like this [10], I will strike him, and make him let go. And if he tries to do other plays against me, I will counter him without hesitation.</p>
 
| <p>''I certainly keep the counter of the first master,<br/>And I will now prove this covering using many bad things.''</p>
 
| <p>''I certainly keep the counter of the first master,<br/>And I will now prove this covering using many bad things.''</p>
 
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| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-c.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-c.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[30] <section begin="dagger 30"/><em>In the previous counter I told you that you could hurt him and worse;<br/>Here I show you how this can be done.</em></p>
+
| <p>[30] <em>In the previous counter I told you that you could hurt him and worse;<br/>Here I show you how this can be done.</em></p>
  
 
<p>This flows from the counter referred to in the previous play. It also flows from the counter referred to two plays back [10], where the Counter Remedy Master has trapped the hand of his opponent with his dagger, and where he told you that he can drive the dagger into his opponent’s back. My play comes from that play, but where he says you drive the dagger into your opponent’s back, I drive it into his chest. But this still flows from the previous play, even though I choose to finish it differently.</p>
 
<p>This flows from the counter referred to in the previous play. It also flows from the counter referred to two plays back [10], where the Counter Remedy Master has trapped the hand of his opponent with his dagger, and where he told you that he can drive the dagger into his opponent’s back. My play comes from that play, but where he says you drive the dagger into your opponent’s back, I drive it into his chest. But this still flows from the previous play, even though I choose to finish it differently.</p>
  
''[In the Getty, the Master's right foot is outside (in front) of his opponent's left foot.]''<section end="dagger 30"/>
+
''[In the Getty, the Master's right foot is outside (in front) of his opponent's left foot.]''
 
| <p>''Using a counter to the former, which threatens many evils,<br/>I direct myself in these circumstances so that I would strike the associate with a deadly wound.''</p>
 
| <p>''Using a counter to the former, which threatens many evils,<br/>I direct myself in these circumstances so that I would strike the associate with a deadly wound.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
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| [[File:MS Latin 11269 25r-a.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Latin 11269 25r-a.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-e.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-e.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[31] <section begin="dagger 31"/><em>I am well placed and positioned to force you to the ground;<br/>If you do not know the counter, I will throw you down immediately.</em></p>
+
| <p>[31] <em>I am well placed and positioned to force you to the ground;<br/>If you do not know the counter, I will throw you down immediately.</em></p>
  
 
<p>I am the student of the first Master of [Dagger] Remedies. And with this grip I seek to take your dagger and bind your arm, and since I do not believe that you know how to counter me, I will do this to you without delay.</p>
 
<p>I am the student of the first Master of [Dagger] Remedies. And with this grip I seek to take your dagger and bind your arm, and since I do not believe that you know how to counter me, I will do this to you without delay.</p>
  
''[The Getty resembles the Paris. These two illustrations may show progressive stages of the technique.]''<section end="dagger 31"/>
+
''[The Getty resembles the Paris. These two illustrations may show progressive stages of the technique.]''
 
| <p>''I am ready now to beat you, gloomy, into the ground.<br/>And if the counter would miss, I would do this to you readily.''</p>
 
| <p>''I am ready now to beat you, gloomy, into the ground.<br/>And if the counter would miss, I would do this to you readily.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
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|  
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-f.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-f.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[32] <section begin="dagger 32"/><em>I make the counter like this,<br/>And I know well how to strike you from here.</em></p>
+
| <p>[32] <em>I make the counter like this,<br/>And I know well how to strike you from here.</em></p>
  
<p>I counter you like this, so that you will neither take my dagger nor bind my arm, and my dagger and I will remain at liberty. And then I will be able to strike you when you let go of me in such a way that you will have no defense.</p><section end="dagger 32"/>
+
<p>I counter you like this, so that you will neither take my dagger nor bind my arm, and my dagger and I will remain at liberty. And then I will be able to strike you when you let go of me in such a way that you will have no defense.</p>
 
| <p>''Now I do this counter quickly; you see duly just as it were.<br/>The spirit becoming enflamed, I would then beat your limbs.''</p>
 
| <p>''Now I do this counter quickly; you see duly just as it were.<br/>The spirit becoming enflamed, I would then beat your limbs.''</p>
 
|  
 
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|  
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-a.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-a.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[33] <section begin="dagger 33"/><em>To make a much stronger cover I cross my arms in this manner;<br/>And from here I can do all the previous remedies.</em></p>
+
| <p>[33] <em>To make a much stronger cover I cross my arms in this manner;<br/>And from here I can do all the previous remedies.</em></p>
  
<p>This cover is known to be much stronger and I make it so as to be able to obstruct you with various plays. And you cannot overcome such a strong cover, because two arms can easily oppose one arm.</p><section end="dagger 33"/>
+
<p>This cover is known to be much stronger and I make it so as to be able to obstruct you with various plays. And you cannot overcome such a strong cover, because two arms can easily oppose one arm.</p>
 
| <p>''I cover myself using great bodily strength, as you see the movements.<br/>I attack in this way before anyone can bring about anything.''</p>
 
| <p>''I cover myself using great bodily strength, as you see the movements.<br/>I attack in this way before anyone can bring about anything.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
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|  
 
|  
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-b.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-b.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[34] <section begin="dagger 34"/><em>With this counter the previous cover will meet with failure;<br/>After I have made you turn I will strike you with my dagger.</em></p>
+
| <p>[34] <em>With this counter the previous cover will meet with failure;<br/>After I have made you turn I will strike you with my dagger.</em></p>
  
<p>This is the counter to the cover that came before, that I told you was much stronger. And I will turn him with my left hand. Having turned him, I will not fail to strike him.</p><section end="dagger 34"/>
+
<p>This is the counter to the cover that came before, that I told you was much stronger. And I will turn him with my left hand. Having turned him, I will not fail to strike him.</p>
 
| <p>''Now, by means of this counter, I cheat the earlier plays<br/>In such a way, and I would turn you behind in order to wreck you <that is, bring you to ruin> with wounds.''</p>
 
| <p>''Now, by means of this counter, I cheat the earlier plays<br/>In such a way, and I would turn you behind in order to wreck you <that is, bring you to ruin> with wounds.''</p>
 
|  
 
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| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-c.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-c.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[35] <section begin="dagger 35"/><em>Since my Master’s technique will not fail me,<br/>I will break your arm over my shoulder.</em></p>
+
| <p>[35] <em>Since my Master’s technique will not fail me,<br/>I will break your arm over my shoulder.</em></p>
  
<p>With this excellent presa that I have made against you, I will not fail to break your arm over my left shoulder. And afterwards I can strike you with your own dagger, since this play will not fail me.</p><section end="dagger 35"/>
+
<p>With this excellent presa that I have made against you, I will not fail to break your arm over my left shoulder. And afterwards I can strike you with your own dagger, since this play will not fail me.</p>
 
| <p>''Because of how that master now brings about the taking,<br/>I believe you will not withdraw without shoulders having been broken.''</p>
 
| <p>''Because of how that master now brings about the taking,<br/>I believe you will not withdraw without shoulders having been broken.''</p>
 
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|  
 
|  
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-d.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-d.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[36] <section begin="dagger 36"/><em>You will not break my arm over your shoulder,<br/>For with my counter I will throw you to the ground.</em></p>
+
| <p>[36] <em>You will not break my arm over your shoulder,<br/>For with my counter I will throw you to the ground.</em></p>
  
<p>I make this counter to you who in the previous play intended to break my arm over your shoulder. I will throw you to the ground to your death with great force and you will cause me no further injury.</p><section end="dagger 36"/>
+
<p>I make this counter to you who in the previous play intended to break my arm over your shoulder. I will throw you to the ground to your death with great force and you will cause me no further injury.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,199: Line 2,199:
 
|  
 
|  
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-e.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-e.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[37] <section begin="dagger 37"/><em>Your dagger will quickly be taken from you,<br/>When I twist it upwards close by your elbow.</em></p>
+
| <p>[37] <em>Your dagger will quickly be taken from you,<br/>When I twist it upwards close by your elbow.</em></p>
  
<p>I am in a good position to take the dagger from your hand, and to do it I push the point upwards, close to your elbow. And you will lose it, and I will quickly strike you with it. I took the dagger in this way because I was not able to bend your arm.</p><section end="dagger 37"/>
+
<p>I am in a good position to take the dagger from your hand, and to do it I push the point upwards, close to your elbow. And you will lose it, and I will quickly strike you with it. I took the dagger in this way because I was not able to bend your arm.</p>
 
| <p>''I seize the dagger using a sudden violent whirling motion near the elbow;<br/>Yet before [that], I strongly turn the lower arms.''<ref>Alternative with accusatives in opposite order: “I would seize the arm(s) in front suddenly / &lt;I&gt; the strong one would bring the dagger around in a violent whirling motion close by the elbow.”</ref></p>
 
| <p>''I seize the dagger using a sudden violent whirling motion near the elbow;<br/>Yet before [that], I strongly turn the lower arms.''<ref>Alternative with accusatives in opposite order: “I would seize the arm(s) in front suddenly / &lt;I&gt; the strong one would bring the dagger around in a violent whirling motion close by the elbow.”</ref></p>
  
Line 2,214: Line 2,214:
 
|  
 
|  
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-f.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-f.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[38] <section begin="dagger 38"/><em>My dagger will not be taken by your turning it,<br/>And I will strike you with it without fail.</em></p>
+
| <p>[38] <em>My dagger will not be taken by your turning it,<br/>And I will strike you with it without fail.</em></p>
  
<p>I make the counter of the play that came before, so that you will not be able to take my dagger in that way. I will press my dagger into your hand, to make you let go, and with the cruel point I will strike you for your trouble.</p><section end="dagger 38"/>
+
<p>I make the counter of the play that came before, so that you will not be able to take my dagger in that way. I will press my dagger into your hand, to make you let go, and with the cruel point I will strike you for your trouble.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,228: Line 2,228:
 
|  
 
|  
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-a.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-a.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[39] <section begin="dagger 39"/><em>I will have no problem making you fall to the ground,<br/>But you will have a major problem trying to get up.</em></p>
+
| <p>[39] <em>I will have no problem making you fall to the ground,<br/>But you will have a major problem trying to get up.</em></p>
  
 
<p>In this way you will be driven into the ground, and you will not be able to make any defense or counter. And I will quickly make the dagger that you hold in your hand go far from you, because of my skillful knowledge of this art.</p>
 
<p>In this way you will be driven into the ground, and you will not be able to make any defense or counter. And I will quickly make the dagger that you hold in your hand go far from you, because of my skillful knowledge of this art.</p>
  
''[In the Getty and Paris, the Scholar steps outside of his opponent's right leg.]''<section end="dagger 39"/>
+
''[In the Getty and Paris, the Scholar steps outside of his opponent's right leg.]''
 
| <p>''It is not any work to me, laying you out fallen.<br/>You will not be able to rise free[ly] without a large wound.''</p>
 
| <p>''It is not any work to me, laying you out fallen.<br/>You will not be able to rise free[ly] without a large wound.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,244: Line 2,244:
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 13r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
| class="noline" | <p>[40] <section begin="dagger 40"/><em>I do not want to fall to the ground with the previous play,<br/>So with this grip I will take away all of your strength.</em></p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[40] <em>I do not want to fall to the ground with the previous play,<br/>So with this grip I will take away all of your strength.</em></p>
  
<p>What you plan to do cannot always be done. I am the counter of the scholar who came before, and this counter will make him look very foolish, because in this way I will make him let go my leg. And I will drive the dagger into his face to demonstrate that he is indeed a great fool.</p><section end="dagger 40"/>
+
<p>What you plan to do cannot always be done. I am the counter of the scholar who came before, and this counter will make him look very foolish, because in this way I will make him let go my leg. And I will drive the dagger into his face to demonstrate that he is indeed a great fool.</p>
  
 
''[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]''
 
''[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]''
Line 2,372: Line 2,372:
 
|  
 
|  
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-a.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-a.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[45] <section begin="dagger 45"/><em>Here begin the powerful plays of the backhand attack,<ref>Or "backhand cover"</ref><br/>Through which many have been killed.<br/>And the plays of my scholars will follow,<br/>And so we begin the defense to the backhand attack.<ref>Or "of the backhand cover"</ref></em><section end="dagger 45"/></p>
+
| <p>[45] <em>Here begin the powerful plays of the backhand attack,<ref>Or "backhand cover"</ref><br/>Through which many have been killed.<br/>And the plays of my scholars will follow,<br/>And so we begin the defense to the backhand attack.<ref>Or "of the backhand cover"</ref></em></p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,382: Line 2,382:
 
|  
 
|  
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-b.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-b.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[46] <section begin="dagger 46"/><em>With this play of the Master, your dagger will be taken<br/>And I will strike you a mortal blow.</em><section end="dagger 46"/></p>
+
| <p>[46] <em>With this play of the Master, your dagger will be taken<br/>And I will strike you a mortal blow.</em></p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,392: Line 2,392:
 
|  
 
|  
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-c.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-c.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[47] <section begin="dagger 47"/><em>Here I believe I will throw you to the ground.<br/>First I will do this to you, and then I will do worse to you.</em></p>
+
| <p>[47] <em>Here I believe I will throw you to the ground.<br/>First I will do this to you, and then I will do worse to you.</em></p>
  
 
<p>Here begin the plays of the reverse strikes,<ref>Or "reverse cover"</ref> through which countless men have lost their lives. And the plays of my scholars will follow, demonstrating the cover made with the right hand. This play depicted is easy to do, and in this way I will throw this man into the ground.</p>
 
<p>Here begin the plays of the reverse strikes,<ref>Or "reverse cover"</ref> through which countless men have lost their lives. And the plays of my scholars will follow, demonstrating the cover made with the right hand. This play depicted is easy to do, and in this way I will throw this man into the ground.</p>
  
<p>''[In the Getty, this Scholar is the Master.]''</p><section end="dagger 47"/>
+
<p>''[In the Getty, this Scholar is the Master.]''</p>
 
| <p>''I believe you, treacherous one, will now indeed touch the earth.<br/>And itself <read: I> would do worse to you, henceforth lying dead.''</p>
 
| <p>''I believe you, treacherous one, will now indeed touch the earth.<br/>And itself <read: I> would do worse to you, henceforth lying dead.''</p>
  
Line 2,410: Line 2,410:
 
|  
 
|  
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-d.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-d.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[48] <section begin="dagger 48"/><em>You will go to the ground because of your lack of knowledge,<br/>And in armour this is a particularly safe throw.</em></p>
+
| <p>[48] <em>You will go to the ground because of your lack of knowledge,<br/>And in armour this is a particularly safe throw.</em></p>
  
<p>With this method you will be driven into the ground. And I could not make a safer throw, being armoured. But even without armour, there is nothing you can do. And even if you were strong and powerful, I would still be able to do this to you.</p><section end="dagger 48"/>
+
<p>With this method you will be driven into the ground. And I could not make a safer throw, being armoured. But even without armour, there is nothing you can do. And even if you were strong and powerful, I would still be able to do this to you.</p>
 
| <p>''You, incautious one, will touch the earth with [your] chest prostrated.<br/>This armor-wearer will more safely impart the play.''</p>
 
| <p>''You, incautious one, will touch the earth with [your] chest prostrated.<br/>This armor-wearer will more safely impart the play.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,424: Line 2,424:
 
|  
 
|  
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-e.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-e.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[49] <section begin="dagger 49"/><em>This leads to a broken ruined arm,<br/>As you will find out when I have you in this hold.</em></p>
+
| <p>[49] <em>This leads to a broken ruined arm,<br/>As you will find out when I have you in this hold.</em></p>
  
<p>You will go to the ground and your arm will be dislocated by the skill of my crowned Master. And there is not one counter that you can do to me, for I hold you like this…</p><section end="dagger 49"/>
+
<p>You will go to the ground and your arm will be dislocated by the skill of my crowned Master. And there is not one counter that you can do to me, for I hold you like this…</p>
 
| <p>''Each is able to break the shoulder of the associate in wrestling, as I comprehend.<br/>It will be pleasing to know whatever has been imparted.''</p>
 
| <p>''Each is able to break the shoulder of the associate in wrestling, as I comprehend.<br/>It will be pleasing to know whatever has been imparted.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,438: Line 2,438:
 
|  
 
|  
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-f.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-f.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[50] <section begin="dagger 50"/><em>I will have no trouble dislocating your arm<br/>And I will easily take your dagger from you.</em></p>
+
| <p>[50] <em>I will have no trouble dislocating your arm<br/>And I will easily take your dagger from you.</em></p>
  
<p>…and will make you suffer greatly.<section end="dagger 50"/></p>
+
<p>…and will make you suffer greatly.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,449: Line 2,449:
 
|  
 
|  
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-a.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-a.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[51] <section begin="dagger 51"/><em>This is another powerful dislocation<br/>From which I will be able to kill you with your own dagger.</em></p>
+
| <p>[51] <em>This is another powerful dislocation<br/>From which I will be able to kill you with your own dagger.</em></p>
  
<p>This is a lock that has no counter and no defense. And in this way I can take your dagger, and it will be no trouble to bind or dislocate your arm. You will not be able to get away without my permission. And I can ruin your arm if I choose.</p><section end="dagger 51"/>
+
<p>This is a lock that has no counter and no defense. And in this way I can take your dagger, and it will be no trouble to bind or dislocate your arm. You will not be able to get away without my permission. And I can ruin your arm if I choose.</p>
 
| <p>''He was able to dislocate<ref>''Denodare'' appears to be a technical term for breaking or dislocating limbs; appears only in Ducange.</ref> the shoulder of any companion for himself,<br/>And sentence him to death with the point of the dagger.''</p>
 
| <p>''He was able to dislocate<ref>''Denodare'' appears to be a technical term for breaking or dislocating limbs; appears only in Ducange.</ref> the shoulder of any companion for himself,<br/>And sentence him to death with the point of the dagger.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,463: Line 2,463:
 
|  
 
|  
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-b.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-b.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[52] <section begin="dagger 52"/><em>I take your dagger as I wish,<br/>And now if I choose, I can bind you in the lower lock.</em></p>
+
| <p>[52] <em>I take your dagger as I wish,<br/>And now if I choose, I can bind you in the lower lock.</em></p>
  
<p>You will lose your dagger by the way I hold you. And after taking your dagger I can bind you. and make you suffer in the lower lock, which is one of the key binds, and which I will use on you. And whoever is put into this lock cannot escape, because of the great pain and suffering they will be forced to endure.</p><section end="dagger 52"/>
+
<p>You will lose your dagger by the way I hold you. And after taking your dagger I can bind you. and make you suffer in the lower lock, which is one of the key binds, and which I will use on you. And whoever is put into this lock cannot escape, because of the great pain and suffering they will be forced to endure.</p>
 
| <p>''I now take hold of your dagger, nor can I be mistaken.<br/>And if I want, I am able to bind you, who is [sic] being overthrown <read: thrown back> in the key.''</p>
 
| <p>''I now take hold of your dagger, nor can I be mistaken.<br/>And if I want, I am able to bind you, who is [sic] being overthrown <read: thrown back> in the key.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,477: Line 2,477:
 
|  
 
|  
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-c.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-c.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[53] <section begin="dagger 53"/><em>I will turn your dagger upwards with my right arm,<br/>And I will quickly bind you in the lower lock.</em><section end="dagger 53"/></p>
+
| <p>[53] <em>I will turn your dagger upwards with my right arm,<br/>And I will quickly bind you in the lower lock.</em></p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,487: Line 2,487:
 
|  
 
|  
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-d.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-d.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[54] <section begin="dagger 54"/><em>This is called the strong lower lock,<br/>And it is a bind with a great risk of death<br/>But this lock, truth to tell,<br/>If not properly applied can be escaped from.</em></p>
+
| <p>[54] <em>This is called the strong lower lock,<br/>And it is a bind with a great risk of death<br/>But this lock, truth to tell,<br/>If not properly applied can be escaped from.</em></p>
  
<p>This is called the lower lock, also known as the “strong key”, and from this bind I can kill you, whether you are armoured or unarmoured, because from here I can strike you in all of your most vulnerable places. And no one can escape from this bind. And if you are put into it, as depicted in the drawing, there you will remain enduring much pain and suffering.</p><section end="dagger 54"/>
+
<p>This is called the lower lock, also known as the “strong key”, and from this bind I can kill you, whether you are armoured or unarmoured, because from here I can strike you in all of your most vulnerable places. And no one can escape from this bind. And if you are put into it, as depicted in the drawing, there you will remain enduring much pain and suffering.</p>
 
| <p>''The lower key is brought under the strong name;<br/>It is the bind of death by means of excessive distinction.<br/>If any enters into this, he will hardly prevail to escape this.''</p>
 
| <p>''The lower key is brought under the strong name;<br/>It is the bind of death by means of excessive distinction.<br/>If any enters into this, he will hardly prevail to escape this.''</p>
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,501: Line 2,501:
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Latin 11269 31v-c.png|400px|center]]
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Latin 11269 31v-c.png|400px|center]]
 
| class="noline" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-e.png|400px|center]]
 
| class="noline" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-e.png|400px|center]]
| class="noline" | <p>[55] <section begin="dagger 55"/><em>This is how to do the counter to the Master's cover to the reverse strike,<ref>Or "Master's reverse cover"</ref><br/>And with this bind I will make you drop to the ground on your knees.</em></p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[55] <em>This is how to do the counter to the Master's cover to the reverse strike,<ref>Or "Master's reverse cover"</ref><br/>And with this bind I will make you drop to the ground on your knees.</em></p>
  
 
<p>This is the counter to the Third Daga Remedy Master, who covers the reverse attack.<ref>Or "with the reverse cover"</ref> I have made this bind against him. Whether he is armoured or unarmoured, this bind is strong and secure. And if I trap a man who is unarmoured in this way, I will ruin his hand and dislocate it. And the pain will be so great I will make him kneel at my feet. And should I wish to strike him, this I can also do.</p>
 
<p>This is the counter to the Third Daga Remedy Master, who covers the reverse attack.<ref>Or "with the reverse cover"</ref> I have made this bind against him. Whether he is armoured or unarmoured, this bind is strong and secure. And if I trap a man who is unarmoured in this way, I will ruin his hand and dislocate it. And the pain will be so great I will make him kneel at my feet. And should I wish to strike him, this I can also do.</p>
  
<p>''[In the Getty, the Master's left foot is forward.]''</p><section end="dagger 55"/>
+
<p>''[In the Getty, the Master's left foot is forward.]''</p>
 
| class="noline" | <p>''I, the efficient counter of the master, during this wrestling<br/>Finish whomever by means of the reverse palm of the hand;<br/>And you will sink down on bended knee by means of this taking.''</p>
 
| class="noline" | <p>''I, the efficient counter of the master, during this wrestling<br/>Finish whomever by means of the reverse palm of the hand;<br/>And you will sink down on bended knee by means of this taking.''</p>
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
Line 2,887: Line 2,887:
  
 
* Deacon, Jacob Henry. "Prologues, Poetry, Prose and Portrayals: The Purposes of Fifteenth Century Fight Books According to the Diplomatic Evidence". ''[[Acta Periodica Duellatorum]]'' '''4'''(2): 69-90. 2016. {{doi|10.36950/apd-2016-014}}
 
* Deacon, Jacob Henry. "Prologues, Poetry, Prose and Portrayals: The Purposes of Fifteenth Century Fight Books According to the Diplomatic Evidence". ''[[Acta Periodica Duellatorum]]'' '''4'''(2): 69-90. 2016. {{doi|10.36950/apd-2016-014}}
* [[Fiore de'i Liberi|dei Liberi, Fiore]]; Leoni, Tom. ''Fiore de’ Liberi’s Fior di Battaglia''. 1st ed. [http://www.lulu.com/product/paperback/fiore-de-liberis-fior-di-battaglia/5364635 Lulu.com], 2009. 2nd ed. Wheaton, IL: [[Freelance Academy Press]], 2012.
 
* [[Fiore de'i Liberi|dei Liberi, Fiore]]; [[Marco Rubboli|Rubboli, Marco]]; [[Luca Cesari|Cesari, Luca]]. ''Flos Duellatorum. Manuale di Arte del Combattimento del ⅩⅤ secolo''. Rome: [[Il Cerchio Iniziative Editoriali]], 2002. ISBN 88-8474-023-1
 
 
* Hatcher, Colin. ''The Flower of Battle: MS Ludwig ⅩⅤ 13''. Ed. Tracy Mellow. Tyrant Industries, 2017. ISBN 978-0-9847716-8-4
 
* Hatcher, Colin. ''The Flower of Battle: MS Ludwig ⅩⅤ 13''. Ed. Tracy Mellow. Tyrant Industries, 2017. ISBN 978-0-9847716-8-4
 
* Hayes, Sean. "Memory and Performance: Visual and Rhetorical Strategies of Il Fior di Battaglia". ''Can These Bones Come to Life? Insights from Reconstruction, Reenactment, and Re-creation'' '''1'''. Wheaton, IL: Freelance Academy Press, 2014. ISBN 978-1-937439-13-2
 
* Hayes, Sean. "Memory and Performance: Visual and Rhetorical Strategies of Il Fior di Battaglia". ''Can These Bones Come to Life? Insights from Reconstruction, Reenactment, and Re-creation'' '''1'''. Wheaton, IL: Freelance Academy Press, 2014. ISBN 978-1-937439-13-2
 +
* Leoni, Tom. ''Fiore de’ Liberi’s Fior di Battaglia''. 1st ed. Lulu.com, 2009. 2nd ed. Wheaton, IL: [[Freelance Academy Press]], 2012.
 
* Leoni, Tom and Mele, Greg. ''Flowers of Battle Volume 1: Historical Overview and the Getty Manuscript''. Wheaton, IL: Freelance Academy Press, 2017. ISBN 978-1-937439-18-7
 
* Leoni, Tom and Mele, Greg. ''Flowers of Battle Volume 1: Historical Overview and the Getty Manuscript''. Wheaton, IL: Freelance Academy Press, 2017. ISBN 978-1-937439-18-7
* Lodà, Francesco. ''Florius. De arte luctandi. Traduzione e cura del testo di Francesco Lodà.'' Rome: Bonanno Editore, 2014. ISBN 978-88-96950-86-9
+
* Lodà, Francesco (in Italian). ''Florius. De arte luctandi. Traduzione e cura del testo di Francesco Lodà.'' Rome: Bonanno Editore, 2014. ISBN 978-88-96950-86-9
* Malipiero, Massimo. ''Il Fior di battaglia di Fiore dei Liberi da Cividale: Il Codice Ludwing ⅩⅤ 13 del J. Paul Getty Museum''. Udine: Ribis, 2006. ISBN 887-44503-5-4
+
* Malipiero, Massimo (in Italian). ''Il Fior di battaglia di Fiore dei Liberi da Cividale: Il Codice Ludwing ⅩⅤ 13 del J. Paul Getty Museum''. Udine: Ribis, 2006. ISBN 887-44503-5-4
 
* Marsden, Richard. ''The Flower of Battle: MS Latin 11269''. Trans. Benjamin Winnick. Tyrant Industries, 2019. ISBN 978-0-9847716-3-9
 
* Marsden, Richard. ''The Flower of Battle: MS Latin 11269''. Trans. Benjamin Winnick. Tyrant Industries, 2019. ISBN 978-0-9847716-3-9
 
* Mondschein, Ken. ''The Knightly Art of Battle''. Los Angeles: [[J. Paul Getty Museum]], 2011. ISBN 978-160-60607-6-6
 
* Mondschein, Ken. ''The Knightly Art of Battle''. Los Angeles: [[J. Paul Getty Museum]], 2011. ISBN 978-160-60607-6-6
Line 2,899: Line 2,898:
 
* Mondschein, Ken. "On the Art of Fighting: A Humanist Translation of Fiore dei Liberi’s Flower of Battle Owned by Leonello D’Este". ''[[Acta Periodica Duellatorum]]'' '''6'''(1): 99-135. 2018. {{doi|10.2478/apd-2018-0004}}
 
* Mondschein, Ken. "On the Art of Fighting: A Humanist Translation of Fiore dei Liberi’s Flower of Battle Owned by Leonello D’Este". ''[[Acta Periodica Duellatorum]]'' '''6'''(1): 99-135. 2018. {{doi|10.2478/apd-2018-0004}}
 
* Mondschein, Ken and Mele, Greg. ''Flowers of Battle, Volume 3: Florius de Arte Luctandi''. Wheaton, IL: Freelance Academy Press, 2017. ISBN 978-1-937439-19-4
 
* Mondschein, Ken and Mele, Greg. ''Flowers of Battle, Volume 3: Florius de Arte Luctandi''. Wheaton, IL: Freelance Academy Press, 2017. ISBN 978-1-937439-19-4
* [[Francesco Novati|Novati, Francesco]]. ''[[:File:Novati (Full).pdf|Flos Duellatorum, Il Fior di Battaglia di Maestro Fiore dei Liberi da Premariacco]]''. Bergamo: Instituto Italiano d'Arte Grafiche, 1902.
+
* [[Francesco Novati|Novati, Francesco]] (in Italian). ''[[:File:Novati (Full).pdf|Flos Duellatorum, Il Fior di Battaglia di Maestro Fiore dei Liberi da Premariacco]]''. Bergamo: Instituto Italiano d'Arte Grafiche, 1902.
* Палій, Людмила Іванівна. "Витоки художнього стилю ілюстрацій «Квітки Битви» майстра Фіоре Фріулано деі Лібері". ''Науковий вісник Ужгородського університету'' '''2'''(43): 84-102, 2020. {{doi|10.24144/2523-4498.2(43).2020.217366}}
+
* Палій, Людмила Іванівна (in Ukrainian). "Витоки художнього стилю ілюстрацій «Квітки Битви» майстра Фіоре Фріулано деі Лібері". ''Науковий вісник Ужгородського університету'' '''2'''(43): 84-102, 2020. {{doi|10.24144/2523-4498.2(43).2020.217366}}
* Rapisardi, Giovanni. ''Fiore de’ Liberi Flos Duellatorum - in armis, sine armis equester et pedesta''. Gladitoria Press, 1998. ISBN 978-888-94041-6-4
+
* Rapisardi, Giovanni (in Italian). ''Fiore de’ Liberi Flos Duellatorum - in armis, sine armis equester et pedesta''. Gladitoria Press, 1998. ISBN 978-888-94041-6-4
 +
* [[Marco Rubboli|Rubboli, Marco]]; [[Luca Cesari|Cesari, Luca]] (in Italian). ''Flos Duellatorum. Manuale di Arte del Combattimento del ⅩⅤ secolo''. Rome: [[Il Cerchio Iniziative Editoriali]], 2002. ISBN 88-8474-023-1
 
* [[Philippo di Vadi|Vadi, Filippo]]. ''Arte Gladiatoria Dimicandi: 15th Century Swordsmanship of Master Filippo Vadi''. Trans. Luca Porzio and Gregory Mele. Union City, CA: [[Chivalry Bookshelf]], 2002. ISBN 978-1891448164
 
* [[Philippo di Vadi|Vadi, Filippo]]. ''Arte Gladiatoria Dimicandi: 15th Century Swordsmanship of Master Filippo Vadi''. Trans. Luca Porzio and Gregory Mele. Union City, CA: [[Chivalry Bookshelf]], 2002. ISBN 978-1891448164
* [[Philippo di Vadi|Vadi, Filippo]]; [[Marco Rubboli|Rubboli, Marco]]; [[Luca Cesari|Cesari, Luca]]. ''L’arte Cavalleresca del Combattimento''. Rome: [[Il Cerchio Iniziative Editoriali]], 2005. ISBN 88-8474-079-7
+
* [[Philippo di Vadi|Vadi, Filippo]]; [[Marco Rubboli|Rubboli, Marco]]; [[Luca Cesari|Cesari, Luca]] (in Italian). ''L’arte Cavalleresca del Combattimento''. Rome: [[Il Cerchio Iniziative Editoriali]], 2005. ISBN 88-8474-079-7
 
* [[Guy Windsor|Windsor, Guy]]. ''The Art of Sword Fighting in Earnest: Philippo Vadi’s De Arte Gladiatoria Dimicandi''. Spada Press, 2018.  
 
* [[Guy Windsor|Windsor, Guy]]. ''The Art of Sword Fighting in Earnest: Philippo Vadi’s De Arte Gladiatoria Dimicandi''. Spada Press, 2018.  
 
* [[Guy Windsor|Windsor, Guy]]. ''From Medieval Manuscript to Modern Practice: The Longsword Techniques of Fiore dei Liberi''. Spada Press, 2020.
 
* [[Guy Windsor|Windsor, Guy]]. ''From Medieval Manuscript to Modern Practice: The Longsword Techniques of Fiore dei Liberi''. Spada Press, 2020.
 
* [[Guy Windsor|Windsor, Guy]]. ''Veni Vadi Vici. A Transcription, Translation and Commentary of Philippo Vadi's De Arte Gladiatoria Dimicandi.'' The School of European Swordsmanship, 2013. ISBN 978-952-93-1686-1
 
* [[Guy Windsor|Windsor, Guy]]. ''Veni Vadi Vici. A Transcription, Translation and Commentary of Philippo Vadi's De Arte Gladiatoria Dimicandi.'' The School of European Swordsmanship, 2013. ISBN 978-952-93-1686-1
* [[Luigi Zanutto|Zanutto, Luigi]]. ''[http://www.historicalfencing.org/PDF/Zanutto-Fiore%20da%20Premariacco.pdf Fiore di Premariacco ed I Ludi e Le Feste Marziali e Civili in Friuli]''. Udine: D. Del Bianco, 1907.
+
* [[Luigi Zanutto|Zanutto, Luigi]] (in Italian). ''[http://www.historicalfencing.org/PDF/Zanutto-Fiore%20da%20Premariacco.pdf Fiore di Premariacco ed I Ludi e Le Feste Marziali e Civili in Friuli]''. Udine: D. Del Bianco, 1907.
  
 
== References ==
 
== References ==

Latest revision as of 21:32, 4 May 2021

Fiore Furlano de’i Liberi

This man appears sporadically throughout both the Getty and Pisani Dossi MSS, and may be a representation of Fiore himself.
Born Cividale del Friuli
Relative(s) Benedetto de’i Liberi (father)
Occupation
Nationality Friulian
Patron
  • Gian Galeazzo Visconti (?)
  • Niccolò Ⅲ d’Este (?)
Influences
Influenced Philippo di Vadi
Genres
Language
Notable work(s) The Flower of Battle
Manuscript(s)
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations

Fiore Furlano de’i Liberi de Cividale d’Austria (Fiore delli Liberi, Fiore Furlano, Fiore de Cividale d’Austria; fl. 1381 - 1409) was a late 14th century knight, diplomat, and fencing master. He was born in Cividale del Friuli, a town in the Patriarchal State of Aquileia (in the Friuli region of modern-day Italy), the son of Benedetto and scion of a Liberi house of Premariacco.[1][2][3] The term Liberi, while potentially merely a surname, more probably indicates that his family had Imperial immediacy (Reichsunmittelbarkeit), either as part of the nobili liberi (Edelfrei, "free nobles"), the Germanic unindentured knightly class which formed the lower tier of nobility in the Middle Ages, or possibly of the rising class of Imperial Free Knights.[4][5][6] It has been suggested by various historians that Fiore and Benedetto were descended from Cristallo dei Liberi of Premariacco, who was granted immediacy in 1110 by Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich V,[7][8][9] but this has yet to be proven.[10]

Fiore wrote that he had a natural inclination to the martial arts and began training at a young age, ultimately studying with “countless” masters from both Italic and Germanic lands.[1][2][3] He had ample opportunity to interact with both, being born in the Holy Roman Empire and later traveling widely in the northern Italian states. Unfortunately, not all of these encounters were friendly: Fiore wrote of meeting many “false” or unworthy masters in his travels, most of whom lacked even the limited skill he'd expect in a good student.[3] He further mentions that on five separate occasions he was forced to fight duels for his honor against certain of these masters who he described as envious because he refused to teach them his art; the duels were all fought with sharp swords, unarmored except for gambesons and chamois gloves, and he won each without injury.[1][2][11]

Writing very little on his own career as a commander and master at arms, Fiore laid out his credentials for his readers in other ways. He stated that foremost among the masters who trained him was one Johane dicto Suueno, who he notes was a disciple of Nicholai de Toblem;[3] unfortunately, both names are given in Latin so there is little we can conclude about them other than that they were probably among the Italians and Germans he alludes to, and that one or both were well known in Fiore's time. He further offered an extensive list of the famous condottieri that he trained, including Piero Paolo del Verde (Peter von Grünen),[12] Niccolo Unricilino (Nikolo von Urslingen),[13] Galeazzo Cattaneo dei Grumelli (Galeazzo Gonzaga da Mantova),[14] Lancillotto Beccaria di Pavia,[15] Giovannino da Baggio di Milano,[16] and Azzone di Castelbarco,[17] and also highlights some of their martial exploits.[1][2]

The only known historical mentions of Fiore appear in connection with the Aquileian War of Succession, which erupted in 1381 as a coalition of secular nobles from Udine and surrounding cities sought to remove the newly appointed Patriarch (prince-bishop of Aquileia), Philippe Ⅱ d'Alençon. Fiore seems to have supported the secular nobility against the Cardinal; he traveled to Udine in 1383 and was granted residency in the city on 3 August.[18] On 30 September, the high council tasked him with inspection and maintenance of city's weapons, including the artillery pieces defending Udine (large crossbows and catapults).[5][19][20] In February of 1384, he was assigned the task of recruiting a mercenary company to augment Udine's forces and leading them back to the city.[21] This task seems to have been accomplished in three months or less, as on 23 May he appeared before the high council again and was sworn in as a sort of magistrate charged with keeping the peace in one of the city's districts. After May 1384, the historical record is silent on Fiore's activities; the war continued until a new Patriarch was appointed in 1389 and a peace settlement was reached, but it's unclear if Fiore remained involved for the duration. Given that he appears in council records four times in 1383-4, it would be quite odd for him to be completely unmentioned over the subsequent five years if he remained,[5][22] and since his absence from records coincides with a proclamation in July of that year demanding that Udine cease hostilities or face harsh repercussions, it seems more likely that he moved on.

Based on his autobiographical account, Fiore traveled a good deal in northern Italy, teaching fencing and training men for duels. He seems to have been in Perugia in 1381 in this capacity, when his student Peter von Grünen likely fought a duel with Peter Kornwald.[23] In 1395, he can be placed in Padua training the mercenary captain Galeazzo Gonzaga of Mantua for a duel with the French marshal Jean Ⅱ le Maingre (who went by the war name “Boucicaut”). Galeazzo made the challenge when Boucicaut called into question the valor of Italians at the royal court of France, and the duel was ultimately set for Padua on 15 August. Both Francesco Novello da Carrara, Lord of Padua, and Francesco Gonzaga, Lord of Mantua, were in attendance. The duel was to begin with spears on horseback, but Boucicaut became impatient and dismounted, attacking Galeazzo before he could mount his own horse. Galeazzo landed a solid blow on the Frenchman’s helmet, but was subsequently disarmed. At this point, Boucicaut called for his poleaxe but the lords intervened to end the duel.[24][20][14]

Fiore surfaces again in Pavia in 1399, this time training Giovannino da Baggio for a duel with a German squire named Sirano. It was fought on 24 June and attended by Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan, as well as the Duchess and other nobles. The duel was to consist of three bouts of mounted lance followed by three bouts each of dismounted poleaxe, estoc, and dagger. They ultimately rode two additional passes and on the fifth, Baggio impaled Sirano’s horse through the chest, slaying the horse but losing his lance in the process. They fought the other nine bouts as scheduled, and due to the strength of their armor (and the fact that all of the weapons were blunted), both combatants reportedly emerged from these exchanges unharmed.[16][25]

Fiore was likely involved in at least one other duel that year, that of his final student Azzone di Castelbarco and Giovanni degli Ordelaffi, as the latter is known to have died in 1399.[26] After Castelbarco’s duel, Fiore’s activities are unclear. Based on the allegiances of the nobles that he trained in the 1390s, he seems to have been associated with the ducal court of Milan in the latter part of his career.[20] Some time in the first years of the 1400s, Fiore composed a fencing treatise in Italian and Latin called "The Flower of Battle" (rendered variously as Fior di Battaglia, Florius de Arte Luctandi, and Flos Duellatorum). The briefest version of the text is dated to 1409 and indicates that it was a labor of six months and great personal effort;[3] as evidence suggests that at least two longer versions were composed some time before this,[27] we may assume that he devoted a considerable amount of time to writing during this decade.

Beyond this, nothing certain is known of Fiore's activities in the 15th century. Francesco Novati and Luigi Zanutto both assume that some time before 1409 he accepted an appointment as court fencing master to Niccolò Ⅲ d’Este, Marquis of Ferrara, Modena, and Parma; presumably he would have made this change when Milan fell into disarray in 1402, though Zanutto went so far as to speculate that he trained Niccolò for his 1399 passage at arms.[28] However, while the records of the d’Este library indicate the presence of two versions of "the Flower of Battle", it seems more likely that the manuscripts were written as a diplomatic gift to Ferrara from Milan when they made peace in 1404.[25][20] C. A. Blengini di Torricella stated that late in life he made his way to Paris, France, where he could be placed teaching fencing in 1418 and creating a copy of a fencing manual located there in 1420. Though he attributes these facts to Novati, no publication verifying them has yet been located and this anecdote may be entirely spurious.[29]

The time and place of Fiore's death remain unknown.

Despite the extent and complexity of his writings, Fiore de’i Liberi does not seem to have been a very significant master in the evolution of fencing in Central Europe. That field was instead dominated by the traditions of two masters of the subsequent generation: Johannes Liechtenauer in the Holy Roman Empire and Filippo di Bartolomeo Dardi in the Italian states. Even so, there are a number of later treatises which bear strong resemblance to his work, including the writings of Philippo di Vadi and Ludwig VI von Eyb. This may be due to the direct influence of Fiore or his writings, or it may instead indicate that the older tradition of Johane and Nicholai survived and spread outside of Fiore's direct line.

Treatise

The d'Este family owned three manuscripts by Fiore during the 15th century,[30] and a total of four copies survive to the present. Of these, the MS Ludwig ⅩⅤ 13 (Getty) and the Pisani Dossi MS (Novati) are both dedicated to Niccolò Ⅲ d'Este and state that they were written at his request and according to his design. The MS M.383 (Morgan), on the other hand, lacks a dedication and claims to have been laid out according to his own intelligence, while the MS Latin 11269 (Paris) lost any dedication it might have had along with its prologue. Each of the extant copies of the Flower of Battle follows a different order, though each of these pairs contains strong similarities to each other in order of presentation.

In addition, Philippo di Vadi's manuscript from the 1480s, whose second half is essentially a redaction of the Flower of Battle, provides a valuable fifth point of reference when considering Fiore's teachings. (These is also a 17th century copy of the Morgan's preface, transcribed by Apostolo Zeno, but it contributes little to our understanding of the text.)

The major sections of the work include: abrazare or grappling; daga, including both unarmed defenses against the dagger and plays of dagger against dagger; spada a un mano, the use of the sword in one hand (also called "the sword without the buckler"); spada a dui mani, the use of the sword in two hands; spada en arme, the use of the sword in armor (primarily techniques from the shortened sword); azza, plays of the poleaxe in armor; lancia, spear and staff plays; and mounted combat (including the spear, the sword, and mounted grappling). Brief bridging sections serve to connect each of these, covering such topics as bastoncello, or plays of a small stick or baton against unarmed and dagger-wielding opponents; plays of sword vs. dagger; plays of staff and dagger and of two clubs and a dagger; and the use of the chiavarina against a man on horseback.

The format of instruction is largely consistent across all copies of the treatise. Each section begins with a group of Masters (or Teachers), figures in golden crowns who each demonstrate a particular guard for use with their weapon. These are followed by a master called Remedio ("Remedy") who demonstrates a defensive technique against some basic attack (usually how to use one of the listed guards to defend), and then by his various Scholars (or Students), figures wearing golden garters on their legs who demonstrate iterations and variations of this remedy. After the scholars there is typically a master called Contrario ("Counter" or "Contrary"), wearing both crown and garter, who demonstrates how to counter the master's remedy (and those of his scholars), who is likewise sometimes followed by his own scholars in garters. In rare cases, a fourth type of master appears called Contra-Contrario ("Counter-counter"), who likewise wears the crown and garter and demonstrates how to defeat the master's counter. Some sections feature multiple master remedies or master counters, while some have only one. While the crowns and garters are used across all extant versions of the treatise, the specific implementation of the system varies; all versions include at least a few apparently errors in assignation of crowns and garters, and there are many cases in which an illustration in one manuscript will only feature a scholar's garter where the corresponding illustration in another also includes a master's crown (depending on the instance, this may either be intentional or merely an error in the art). Alone of the four versions, the Morgan seeks to further expand the system by coloring the metallic portions of the master or scholar's weapon silver, while that of the player is left uncolored; this is also imperfectly-executed, but seems to have been intended as a visual indicator of which weapon belongs to which figure.

The concordance below includes Zeno's transcription of the Morgan preface for reference, and then drops the (thereafter empty) column in favor of a second illustration column for the main body of the treatise. (The Zeno transcript is in the first transcription column even though it's the youngest source so that the others can remain in the same position throughout.) Generally only the right-side column will contain illustrations—the left-side column will only contain additional content when when the text describes an illustration that spans the width of the page in the manuscripts, or when there are significant discrepancies between the available illustrations (in such cases, they sometimes display two stages of the same technique and will be placed in "chronological" order if possible). The illustrations from the Getty, Morgan, and Paris are taken from high-resolution scans supplied by those institutions, whereas the illustrations of the Pisani Dossi are taken from Novati's 1902 facsimile (scanned by Wiktenauer). There are likewise two translation columns, with the the two manuscripts dedicated to Niccolò on the left and the two undedicated manuscripts on the right; in both columns, the short text of the PD and Paris will come first, followed by the longer paragraphs of the Getty and Morgan.