Wiktenauer logo.png

Difference between revisions of "Diogo Gomes de Figueyredo"

From Wiktenauer
Jump to navigation Jump to search
m (Headings were reversed)
 
(8 intermediate revisions by 3 users not shown)
Line 12: Line 12:
 
| deathplace          =  
 
| deathplace          =  
 
| resting_place        =  
 
| resting_place        =  
| occupation          = {{plainlist | [[Fencing master]]{{#set:occupation=Fencing master}} | [[occupation::Field Marshall]] }}
+
| occupation          = {{plainlist
 +
| [[Fencing master]]{{#set:occupation=Fencing master}}
 +
| [[occupation::Field Marshall]]
 +
}}
 
| language            = [[language::Portugese]]
 
| language            = [[language::Portugese]]
 
| nationality          =  
 
| nationality          =  
Line 25: Line 28:
 
| subject              =  
 
| subject              =  
 
| movement            =  
 
| movement            =  
| notableworks        = {{plainlist | ''Oplosophia e Verdadeira Destreza das Armas'' (1628) | ''Memorial Da Prattica do Montante'' (1651) }}
+
| notableworks        = {{plainlist
| manuscript(s)        = {{plainlist | [[Oplosophia e Verdadeira Destreza das Armas (MS Vermelho.nº.91)|MS Vermelho.nº.91]] (1628) | [[Memorial Da Prattica do Montante (MS 49.III.20.nº.21)|MS 49.III.20.nº.21]] (1651) }}
+
| ''Oplosophia e Verdadeira Destreza das Armas'' (1628)
 +
| ''Memorial Da Prattica do Montante'' (1651)
 +
}}
 +
| manuscript(s)        = {{plainlist
 +
| [[Oplosophia e Verdadeira Destreza das Armas (MS Vermelho.nº.91)|MS Vermelho.nº.91]] (1628)
 +
| [[Memorial Da Prattica do Montante (MS 49.III.20.nº.21)|MS 49.III.20.nº.21]] (1651)
 +
}}
 
| principal manuscript(s)=
 
| principal manuscript(s)=
 
| first printed edition=  
 
| first printed edition=  
Line 34: Line 43:
 
| partner              =  
 
| partner              =  
 
| children            =  
 
| children            =  
| relatives            = {{plainlist | João Gomes Quaresma (father) | Diogo Gomes de Figueyredo (son) }}
+
| relatives            = {{plainlist
| influences          = {{plainlist | [[Jerónimo Sánchez de Carranza]] | [[Gonçalo Barbosa]] }}
+
| João Gomes Quaresma (father)
 +
| Diogo Gomes de Figueyredo (son)
 +
}}
 +
| influences          = {{plainlist
 +
| [[Jerónimo Sánchez de Carranza]]
 +
| [[Gonçalo Barbosa]]
 +
}}
 
| influenced          =  
 
| influenced          =  
 
| awards              =  
 
| awards              =  
Line 46: Line 61:
 
Aside from his martial pursuits, Figueyredo was a renowned writer and poet. In ''Templo da Memoria'', Manuel do Galhegos applauds him as such to celebrate the Dukes of Bragança. Barbosa Machado cites one ode that comes from ''Memorias Funebres'' dedicated to D. Maria de Athaide and a song in ''Panegyrico'' which pays tribute to the death of Field Marshall André de Albuquerque.<ref name="Edition"/>
 
Aside from his martial pursuits, Figueyredo was a renowned writer and poet. In ''Templo da Memoria'', Manuel do Galhegos applauds him as such to celebrate the Dukes of Bragança. Barbosa Machado cites one ode that comes from ''Memorias Funebres'' dedicated to D. Maria de Athaide and a song in ''Panegyrico'' which pays tribute to the death of Field Marshall André de Albuquerque.<ref name="Edition"/>
  
Perhaps it is no surprise, then, that Figueyredo is the author of at least two fencing manuals. He composed the first in 1628, titled ''[[Oplosophia e Verdadeira Destreza das Armas (MS Vermelho.nº.91)|Oplosophia e Verdadeira Destreza das Armas]]'' ("Philosophy and the True Skill of Arms", MS Vermelho.nº.91). This is a [[rapier]] text following the [[Jerónimo Sánchez de Carranza|Carrancista]] tradition of [[la Verdadera Destreza]]. His second treatise, written in 1653, was ''[[Memorial Da Prattica do Montante (MS 49.III.20.nº.21)|Memorial Da Prattica do Montante]]'' ("Memorial of the Practice of the Montante", MS 49.III.20.nº.21). In contrast to his earlier work, this treatise focuses on the [[montante]] (greatsword), a weapon that was the centerpiece of the older [[esgrima antigua]] ("ancient fencing") tradition which the Destreza supplanted. This abandonment of the new Spanish art in favor of traditional Iberian fencing is thought to be symbolic of Figueyredo's loyalty to the cause of Portuguese independence.<ref name="Edition"/>
+
Perhaps it is no surprise, then, that Figueyredo is the author of at least two fencing manuals. He composed the first in 1628, titled ''[[Oplosophia e Verdadeira Destreza das Armas (MS Vermelho.nº.91)|Oplosophia e Verdadeira Destreza das Armas]]'' ("Hoplosophy and the True Skill of Arms",<ref>For a discussion of the meaning of "hoplosophy", see Lois Spangler. "[http://www.storytrade.net/hema/destreza-on-the-meaning-of-oplosophia/ Destreza: On the meaning of Oplosophia]". ''Storytrade'', 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2016.</ref> MS Vermelho.nº.91). This is a [[rapier]] text following the [[Jerónimo Sánchez de Carranza|Carrancista]] tradition of [[la Verdadera Destreza]]. His second treatise, written in 1653, was ''[[Memorial Da Prattica do Montante (MS 49.III.20.nº.21)|Memorial Da Prattica do Montante]]'' ("Memorial of the Practice of the Montante", MS 49.III.20.nº.21). In contrast to his earlier work, this treatise focuses on the [[montante]] (greatsword), a weapon that was the centerpiece of the older [[esgrima antigua]] ("ancient fencing") tradition which the Destreza supplanted. This abandonment of the new Spanish art in favor of traditional Iberian fencing is thought to be symbolic of Figueyredo's loyalty to the cause of Portuguese independence.<ref name="Edition"/>
  
 
Figueyredo's activities after the war are unknown; ultimately, he died on 30 September 1685 and was buried in the convent at Trinidade.
 
Figueyredo's activities after the war are unknown; ultimately, he died on 30 September 1685 and was buried in the convent at Trinidade.
Line 55: Line 70:
  
 
{{master begin
 
{{master begin
  | title = [[Rapier]]
+
  | title = Rapier
  | width = 56em
+
  | width = 60em
 
}}
 
}}
{| class="wikitable floated master"
+
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>{{rating}}<br/></p>
 
! <p>{{rating}}<br/></p>
Line 64: Line 79:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| &nbsp;
+
| class="noline" | &nbsp;
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
  
 
|}
 
|}
Line 71: Line 86:
  
 
{{master begin
 
{{master begin
  | title = [[Greatsword]]
+
  | title = Greatsword
  | width = 56em
+
  | width = 60em
 
}}
 
}}
{| class="wikitable floated master"
+
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Eric Myers]] and [[Steve Hick]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Eric Myers]] and [[Steve Hick]]</p>
Line 85: Line 100:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| '''Simple Rules'''
 
| '''Simple Rules'''
'''I'''
+
 
 +
'''[[Figueyredo Greatsword Simple Rule 1|I [Simple]]]'''
  
 
This first rule is the one which most reveals the elegance of the ''montante'', and whoever performs it well will be able to perform them all. You will place your body straight with the left foot in front, the ''montante'' with the point on the ground, taken by the cross in the right hand with the thumb down, and you will tap it forward with the right foot, turning the ''montante'' to set it in place.  Then you will give a ''talho'' from behind, from low to high, moving the right foot forward at the same time, and stopping with the ''montante'' in right angle in front of the face. From there you will remove the ''montante'' to give a ''revez'' cutting from behind with the other edge of the ''montante'', also from low to high, and at the same time moving the left foot forward, and stopping also with the ''montante'' in front of the face.  You will undo the rule removing backward the left foot with a ''talho'' equal to the first, and the right foot with a ''revez'', and take heed that the body must always turn toward where the ''montante'' cuts.  At the end of the rule, while standing still, you will give a ''talho'' to the left shoulder and return the ''montante'' to again place the point on the ground as at the beginning, and all the rules having to do with the ''montante negro'' will have this ending.
 
This first rule is the one which most reveals the elegance of the ''montante'', and whoever performs it well will be able to perform them all. You will place your body straight with the left foot in front, the ''montante'' with the point on the ground, taken by the cross in the right hand with the thumb down, and you will tap it forward with the right foot, turning the ''montante'' to set it in place.  Then you will give a ''talho'' from behind, from low to high, moving the right foot forward at the same time, and stopping with the ''montante'' in right angle in front of the face. From there you will remove the ''montante'' to give a ''revez'' cutting from behind with the other edge of the ''montante'', also from low to high, and at the same time moving the left foot forward, and stopping also with the ''montante'' in front of the face.  You will undo the rule removing backward the left foot with a ''talho'' equal to the first, and the right foot with a ''revez'', and take heed that the body must always turn toward where the ''montante'' cuts.  At the end of the rule, while standing still, you will give a ''talho'' to the left shoulder and return the ''montante'' to again place the point on the ground as at the beginning, and all the rules having to do with the ''montante negro'' will have this ending.
 
| '''Regras Simplez'''
 
| '''Regras Simplez'''
 +
 
'''I'''
 
'''I'''
  
Line 95: Line 112:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| '''Composed Rules'''
 
| '''Composed Rules'''
'''I'''
+
 
 +
'''I [Composed]'''
  
 
All the composed rules are counterpoint to the simple, and these the basis of the composed. And thus, planting the body with the left foot forward, you will give a ''talho'' from low to high, which will be accompanied forward by the right foot, stopping with the ''montante'' in font of the face. Then you will let fall the ''montante'' to the right to give an ''altibaxo'' putting in the left foot, and from where the ''montante'' comes to a stop you will give a ''talho'' from low to high accompanied by the right foot which you will move forward, stopping with the ''montante'' in front of the face.  And then you will give a ''revez'' from low to high accompanied by the left foot which you will move forward, stopping with the ''montante'' in front of the face.  Then you will let fall the ''montante'' to the left crossing the right arm over the left, and you will give an ''altibaxo revez'' moving the right foot forward, and from where the ''montante'' comes to a stop you will give a ''revez'' from low to high accompanied by the left foot which you will move forward, and stop with the ''montante'' in front of the face.  Next, you will undo this rule with the same blows, actions, and steps, retreating backward until you place your body as it began the rule.
 
All the composed rules are counterpoint to the simple, and these the basis of the composed. And thus, planting the body with the left foot forward, you will give a ''talho'' from low to high, which will be accompanied forward by the right foot, stopping with the ''montante'' in font of the face. Then you will let fall the ''montante'' to the right to give an ''altibaxo'' putting in the left foot, and from where the ''montante'' comes to a stop you will give a ''talho'' from low to high accompanied by the right foot which you will move forward, stopping with the ''montante'' in front of the face.  And then you will give a ''revez'' from low to high accompanied by the left foot which you will move forward, stopping with the ''montante'' in front of the face.  Then you will let fall the ''montante'' to the left crossing the right arm over the left, and you will give an ''altibaxo revez'' moving the right foot forward, and from where the ''montante'' comes to a stop you will give a ''revez'' from low to high accompanied by the left foot which you will move forward, and stop with the ''montante'' in front of the face.  Next, you will undo this rule with the same blows, actions, and steps, retreating backward until you place your body as it began the rule.
Line 297: Line 315:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| And that from the thrusts readied over the right arm can also originate those that are readied on the right shoulder, and originate the ''revezes'' putting in the left foot or the ''talhos'' removing it. And from the thrusts that are readied over the left arm can originate those that are readied over the right arm, or the ''talhos'' putting in the right foot, or the same ''talhos'' removing the left foot, and also the ''revezes'' from low to high removing the same left foot.  And that ultimately from ''talhos'' are born other ''talhos'', and from ''revezes'' other ''revezes'', and from these, ''talhos''; and from ''talhos'', ''revezes''. All of this is helped by the steps made with the feet, so as not to create mishap during the transition from one rule to another when it matters, initiating at the end of any rule, be it simple or composed, the one you wish to perform next.  And with these admonitions which you should keep in mind, from all these thirty-two rules you can weave together one as general proof of the perfection of so excellent, graceful, and superior a weapon as the ''montante''.
+
| class="noline" | And that from the thrusts readied over the right arm can also originate those that are readied on the right shoulder, and originate the ''revezes'' putting in the left foot or the ''talhos'' removing it. And from the thrusts that are readied over the left arm can originate those that are readied over the right arm, or the ''talhos'' putting in the right foot, or the same ''talhos'' removing the left foot, and also the ''revezes'' from low to high removing the same left foot.  And that ultimately from ''talhos'' are born other ''talhos'', and from ''revezes'' other ''revezes'', and from these, ''talhos''; and from ''talhos'', ''revezes''. All of this is helped by the steps made with the feet, so as not to create mishap during the transition from one rule to another when it matters, initiating at the end of any rule, be it simple or composed, the one you wish to perform next.  And with these admonitions which you should keep in mind, from all these thirty-two rules you can weave together one as general proof of the perfection of so excellent, graceful, and superior a weapon as the ''montante''.
| E que das estocadas que se armão sobre o braço dereyto podem tambem nacer as que se armão no hombro dereyto, e nacer os revezes metendo o pé esquerdo ou os talhos tirando o. E das estocadas que se armão sobre o braço esquerdo podem nacer as que se armão sobre o braço dereyto, ou os talhos metendo o pé dereyto, ou os mesmos talhos tirando o pé esquerdo, e tambem nacer os revezes de bayxo para sima tirando o mesmo pé esquerdo. E que ultimamente do talhos nacem outros talhos, e dos revezes outros revezes, e destes, talhos; e dos talhos, revezes; tudo isto ajudado dos compaços dos pés, para não fazer novidade o entrar de hũas regras em outras quando importe, procreandosse do fim de qualquer, ou seja simples, ou composta aquella que se quizer proseguir. E com estas advertencias que se devem ter na memoria, de todas estas trinta e duas regras se pode tecer huã que seja geral para exame de perfeyçaõ de tam excellente, ayrosa, e superior arma como he o Montante.
+
| class="noline" | E que das estocadas que se armão sobre o braço dereyto podem tambem nacer as que se armão no hombro dereyto, e nacer os revezes metendo o pé esquerdo ou os talhos tirando o. E das estocadas que se armão sobre o braço esquerdo podem nacer as que se armão sobre o braço dereyto, ou os talhos metendo o pé dereyto, ou os mesmos talhos tirando o pé esquerdo, e tambem nacer os revezes de bayxo para sima tirando o mesmo pé esquerdo. E que ultimamente do talhos nacem outros talhos, e dos revezes outros revezes, e destes, talhos; e dos talhos, revezes; tudo isto ajudado dos compaços dos pés, para não fazer novidade o entrar de hũas regras em outras quando importe, procreandosse do fim de qualquer, ou seja simples, ou composta aquella que se quizer proseguir. E com estas advertencias que se devem ter na memoria, de todas estas trinta e duas regras se pode tecer huã que seja geral para exame de perfeyçaõ de tam excellente, ayrosa, e superior arma como he o Montante.
  
 
|}
 
|}
Line 331: Line 349:
 
== Additional Resources ==
 
== Additional Resources ==
  
* [[Diogo Gomes de Figueyredo|Figueyredo, Diogo Gomes de]]. ''Oplosophia e Verdadeira Destreza das Armas.'' Ed. Manuel Valley Ortiz, Francisco Campo Nieto. Santiago de Compostela: AGEA Editora, 2013. ISBN 978-84-941648-4-2
+
* [[Diogo Gomes de Figueyredo|Figueyredo, Diogo Gomes de]]. ''Oplosophia e Verdadeira Destreza das Armas.'' Ed. Manuel Valle Ortiz, Francisco Campo Nieto. Santiago de Compostela: AGEA Editora, 2013. ISBN 978-84-941648-4-2
 
* Sousa Viterbo, Francisco Marquez de; [[Diogo Gomes de Figueyredo|Figueiredo, Diogo Gomes de]]; and [[Thomás Luís|Luiz, Thomaz]]. {{google books|UJFCAQAAMAAJ|A esgrima em Portugal: subsidios para a sua historia}}. Lisbon: Manoel Gomes, 1899.
 
* Sousa Viterbo, Francisco Marquez de; [[Diogo Gomes de Figueyredo|Figueiredo, Diogo Gomes de]]; and [[Thomás Luís|Luiz, Thomaz]]. {{google books|UJFCAQAAMAAJ|A esgrima em Portugal: subsidios para a sua historia}}. Lisbon: Manoel Gomes, 1899.
  
 
== References ==
 
== References ==
  
{{reflist}}
+
{{reflist|2}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Figueyredo, Diogo Gomes de}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Figueyredo, Diogo Gomes de}}
 
{{early Iberian masters}}
 
{{early Iberian masters}}
Line 349: Line 367:
 
[[Category:Greatsword]]
 
[[Category:Greatsword]]
 
[[Category:Rapier]]
 
[[Category:Rapier]]
 +
 +
[[Category:Old format]]

Latest revision as of 00:41, 4 June 2020

Diogo Gomes de Figueyredo
Born ca. 1600
Died 30 September 1685
Relative(s)
  • João Gomes Quaresma (father)
  • Diogo Gomes de Figueyredo (son)
Occupation
Patron Prince Theodoszio
Influences
Genres Fencing manual
Language Portugese
Notable work(s)
  • Oplosophia e Verdadeira Destreza das Armas (1628)
  • Memorial Da Prattica do Montante (1651)
Manuscript(s)

Dom Diogo Gomes de Figueyredo (d. 1685) was a 17th century Portugese soldier, diplomat, and fencing master. Little is known about his early life, but it seems likely that he studied fencing from a young age. He notes in his first treatise that he studied under a Diestro named Gonçalo Barbosa. His military career started in 1626, when he embarked from Lisbon with the royal armada and shipwrecked in Gascony. Figueyredo continued in the military through the Portuguese War of Restoration (1640 - 1665). He commanded in at least three of the five major battles in that war, and was credited for the victories at Montijo and Linhas de Elvas; he was also involved in many of the smaller encounters in the war, including the defense of the town of Almeida. Figueyredo also served the crown as master at arms, including instructing the young Prince Theodoszio in fencing.[1]

Aside from his martial pursuits, Figueyredo was a renowned writer and poet. In Templo da Memoria, Manuel do Galhegos applauds him as such to celebrate the Dukes of Bragança. Barbosa Machado cites one ode that comes from Memorias Funebres dedicated to D. Maria de Athaide and a song in Panegyrico which pays tribute to the death of Field Marshall André de Albuquerque.[1]

Perhaps it is no surprise, then, that Figueyredo is the author of at least two fencing manuals. He composed the first in 1628, titled Oplosophia e Verdadeira Destreza das Armas ("Hoplosophy and the True Skill of Arms",[2] MS Vermelho.nº.91). This is a rapier text following the Carrancista tradition of la Verdadera Destreza. His second treatise, written in 1653, was Memorial Da Prattica do Montante ("Memorial of the Practice of the Montante", MS 49.III.20.nº.21). In contrast to his earlier work, this treatise focuses on the montante (greatsword), a weapon that was the centerpiece of the older esgrima antigua ("ancient fencing") tradition which the Destreza supplanted. This abandonment of the new Spanish art in favor of traditional Iberian fencing is thought to be symbolic of Figueyredo's loyalty to the cause of Portuguese independence.[1]

Figueyredo's activities after the war are unknown; ultimately, he died on 30 September 1685 and was buried in the convent at Trinidade.

Treatise

In Memorial Da Prattica do Montante, the text is arranged in two columns with the regras simplez (simple rules) and regras compostas (compound rules) placed side by side. Unfortunately, Wiktenauer's format can't accommodate this layout, so each compound rule instead follows immediately after its simple counterpart.

Additional Resources

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Myers, Eric, and Hick, Steve. Memorial of the Practice of the Montante. The Oakeshott Institute, 2009. Retrieved 24 November 2010.
  2. For a discussion of the meaning of "hoplosophy", see Lois Spangler. "Destreza: On the meaning of Oplosophia". Storytrade, 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
  3. 3.0 3.1 This is the order of the original, but they are likely transposed, and should be revez and talho instead.