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Difference between revisions of "Diogo Gomes de Figueyredo"

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| deathplace          =  
 
| deathplace          =  
 
| resting_place        =  
 
| resting_place        =  
| occupation          = {{plainlist | [[occupation::Fencing master| ]][[Fencing master]] | [[occupation::Field Marshall]] }}
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| occupation          = {{plainlist
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| [[Fencing master]]{{#set:occupation=Fencing master}}
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| [[occupation::Field Marshall]]
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}}
 
| language            = [[language::Portugese]]
 
| language            = [[language::Portugese]]
 
| nationality          =  
 
| nationality          =  
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| subject              =  
 
| subject              =  
 
| movement            =  
 
| movement            =  
| notableworks        = {{plainlist | ''Oplosophia e Verdadeira Destreza das Armas'' (1628) | ''Memorial Da Prattica do Montante'' (1651) }}
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| notableworks        = {{plainlist
| manuscript(s)        = {{plainlist | [[Oplosophia e Verdadeira Destreza das Armas (MS Vermelho.nº.91)|MS Vermelho.nº.91]] (1628) | [[Memorial Da Prattica do Montante (MS 49.III.20.nº.21)|MS 49.III.20.nº.21]] (1651) }}
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| ''Oplosophia e Verdadeira Destreza das Armas'' (1628)
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| ''Memorial Da Prattica do Montante'' (1651)
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}}
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| manuscript(s)        = {{plainlist
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| [[Oplosophia e Verdadeira Destreza das Armas (MS Vermelho.nº.91)|MS Vermelho.nº.91]] (1628)
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| [[Memorial Da Prattica do Montante (MS 49.III.20.nº.21)|MS 49.III.20.nº.21]] (1651)
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}}
 
| principal manuscript(s)=
 
| principal manuscript(s)=
 
| first printed edition=  
 
| first printed edition=  
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| partner              =  
 
| partner              =  
 
| children            =  
 
| children            =  
| relatives            = {{plainlist | João Gomes Quaresma (father) | Diogo Gomes de Figueyredo (son) }}
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| relatives            = {{plainlist
| influences          = {{plainlist | [[Jerónimo Sánchez de Carranza]] | [[Gonçalo Barbosa]] }}
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| João Gomes Quaresma (father)
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| Diogo Gomes de Figueyredo (son)
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}}
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| influences          = {{plainlist
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| [[Jerónimo Sánchez de Carranza]]
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| [[Gonçalo Barbosa]]
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}}
 
| influenced          =  
 
| influenced          =  
 
| awards              =  
 
| awards              =  
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Aside from his martial pursuits, Figueyredo was a renowned writer and poet. In ''Templo da Memoria'', Manuel do Galhegos applauds him as such to celebrate the Dukes of Bragança. Barbosa Machado cites one ode that comes from ''Memorias Funebres'' dedicated to D. Maria de Athaide and a song in ''Panegyrico'' which pays tribute to the death of Field Marshall André de Albuquerque.<ref name="Edition"/>
 
Aside from his martial pursuits, Figueyredo was a renowned writer and poet. In ''Templo da Memoria'', Manuel do Galhegos applauds him as such to celebrate the Dukes of Bragança. Barbosa Machado cites one ode that comes from ''Memorias Funebres'' dedicated to D. Maria de Athaide and a song in ''Panegyrico'' which pays tribute to the death of Field Marshall André de Albuquerque.<ref name="Edition"/>
  
Perhaps it is no surprise, then, that Figueyredo is the author of at least two fencing manuals. He composed the first in 1628, titled ''[[Oplosophia e Verdadeira Destreza das Armas (MS Vermelho.nº.91)|Oplosophia e Verdadeira Destreza das Armas]]'' ("Philosophy and the True Skill of Arms", MS Vermelho.nº.91). This is a [[rapier]] text following the [[Jerónimo Sánchez de Carranza|Carrancista]] tradition of [[la Verdadera Destreza]]. His second treatise, written in 1653, was ''[[Memorial Da Prattica do Montante (MS 49.III.20.nº.21)|Memorial Da Prattica do Montante]]'' ("Memorial of the Practice of the Montante", MS 49.III.20.nº.21). In contrast to his earlier work, this treatise focuses on the [[montante]] (greatsword), a weapon that was the centerpiece of the older [[esgrima antigua]] ("ancient fencing") tradition which the Destreza supplanted. This abandonment of the new Spanish art in favor of traditional Iberian fencing is thought to be symbolic of Figueyredo's loyalty to the cause of Portuguese independence.<ref name="Edition"/>
+
Perhaps it is no surprise, then, that Figueyredo is the author of at least two fencing manuals. He composed the first in 1628, titled ''[[Oplosophia e Verdadeira Destreza das Armas (MS Vermelho.nº.91)|Oplosophia e Verdadeira Destreza das Armas]]'' ("Hoplosophy and the True Skill of Arms",<ref>For a discussion of the meaning of "hoplosophy", see Lois Spangler. "[http://www.storytrade.net/hema/destreza-on-the-meaning-of-oplosophia/ Destreza: On the meaning of Oplosophia]". ''Storytrade'', 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2016.</ref> MS Vermelho.nº.91). This is a [[rapier]] text following the [[Jerónimo Sánchez de Carranza|Carrancista]] tradition of [[la Verdadera Destreza]]. His second treatise, written in 1653, was ''[[Memorial Da Prattica do Montante (MS 49.III.20.nº.21)|Memorial Da Prattica do Montante]]'' ("Memorial of the Practice of the Montante", MS 49.III.20.nº.21). In contrast to his earlier work, this treatise focuses on the [[montante]] (greatsword), a weapon that was the centerpiece of the older [[esgrima antigua]] ("ancient fencing") tradition which the Destreza supplanted. This abandonment of the new Spanish art in favor of traditional Iberian fencing is thought to be symbolic of Figueyredo's loyalty to the cause of Portuguese independence.<ref name="Edition"/>
  
 
Figueyredo's activities after the war are unknown; ultimately, he died on 30 September 1685 and was buried in the convent at Trinidade.
 
Figueyredo's activities after the war are unknown; ultimately, he died on 30 September 1685 and was buried in the convent at Trinidade.
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In ''Memorial Da Prattica do Montante'', the text is arranged in two columns with the ''regras simplez'' (simple rules) and ''regras compostas'' (compound rules) placed side by side. Unfortunately, Wiktenauer's format can't accommodate this layout, so each compound rule instead follows immediately after its simple counterpart.
 
In ''Memorial Da Prattica do Montante'', the text is arranged in two columns with the ''regras simplez'' (simple rules) and ''regras compostas'' (compound rules) placed side by side. Unfortunately, Wiktenauer's format can't accommodate this layout, so each compound rule instead follows immediately after its simple counterpart.
  
{{hidden begin
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{{master begin
| title     = <span style="font-size:130%;">[[Rapier]]</span>
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| title = Rapier
| titlestyle= background:#f2f2f2; border:1px solid #aaaaaa; padding:10px; text-align:center; vertical-align:middle; width:60%;
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{| class="wikitable floated master"
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! <p>{{rating}}<br/></p>
 
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! <p>[[Oplosophia e Verdadeira Destreza das Armas (MS Vermelho.nº.91)|Transcription]]<br/></p>
! [[Oplosophia e Verdadeira Destreza das Armas (MS Vermelho.nº.91)|Transcription]]
 
 
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
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| class="noline" |  
  
 
|}
 
|}
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{{hidden begin
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{{master begin
| title     = <span style="font-size:130%;">[[Greatsword]]</span>
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| title = Greatsword
| titlestyle= background:#f2f2f2; border:1px solid #aaaaaa; padding:10px; text-align:center; vertical-align:middle; width:60%;
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| width = 60em
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}}
 
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{| class="wikitable floated master"
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{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! {{rating|B}}
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! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Eric Myers]] and [[Steve Hick]]</p>
by [[Eric Myers]] and [[Steve Hick]]
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! <p>[[Memorial Da Prattica do Montante (MS 49.III.20.nº.21)|Transcription]]<br/>by [[Eric Myers]] and [[Steve Hick]]</p>
! [[Memorial Da Prattica do Montante (MS 49.III.20.nº.21)|Transcription]]
 
by Eric Myers and Steve Hick
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
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|-  
 
|-  
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| '''Simple Rules'''
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'''[[Figueyredo Greatsword Simple Rule 1|I [Simple]]]'''
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This first rule is the one which most reveals the elegance of the ''montante'', and whoever performs it well will be able to perform them all. You will place your body straight with the left foot in front, the ''montante'' with the point on the ground, taken by the cross in the right hand with the thumb down, and you will tap it forward with the right foot, turning the ''montante'' to set it in place.  Then you will give a ''talho'' from behind, from low to high, moving the right foot forward at the same time, and stopping with the ''montante'' in right angle in front of the face. From there you will remove the ''montante'' to give a ''revez'' cutting from behind with the other edge of the ''montante'', also from low to high, and at the same time moving the left foot forward, and stopping also with the ''montante'' in front of the face.  You will undo the rule removing backward the left foot with a ''talho'' equal to the first, and the right foot with a ''revez'', and take heed that the body must always turn toward where the ''montante'' cuts.  At the end of the rule, while standing still, you will give a ''talho'' to the left shoulder and return the ''montante'' to again place the point on the ground as at the beginning, and all the rules having to do with the ''montante negro'' will have this ending.
 
| '''Regras Simplez'''
 
| '''Regras Simplez'''
'''I'''
 
  
This first rule is the one which most reveals the elegance of the ''montante'', and whoever performs it well will be able to perform them all. You will place your body straight with the left foot in front, the ''montante'' with the point on the ground, taken by the cross in the right hand with the thumb down, and you will tap it forward with the right foot, turning the ''montante'' to set it in place.  Then you will give a ''talho'' from behind, from low to high, moving the right foot forward at the same time, and stopping with the ''montante'' in right angle in front of the face. From there you will remove the ''montante'' to give a ''revez'' cutting from behind with the other edge of the ''montante'', also from low to high, and at the same time moving the left foot forward, and stopping also with the ''montante'' in front of the face.  You will undo the rule removing backward the left foot with a ''talho'' equal to the first, and the right foot with a ''revez'', and take heed that the body must always turn toward where the ''montante'' cuts.  At the end of the rule, while standing still, you will give a ''talho'' to the left shoulder and return the ''montante'' to again place the point on the ground as at the beginning, and all the rules having to do with the ''montante negro'' will have this ending.
 
| '''Simple Rules'''
 
 
'''I'''
 
'''I'''
  
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| '''Composed Rules'''
 
| '''Composed Rules'''
'''I'''
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 +
'''I [Composed]'''
  
 
All the composed rules are counterpoint to the simple, and these the basis of the composed. And thus, planting the body with the left foot forward, you will give a ''talho'' from low to high, which will be accompanied forward by the right foot, stopping with the ''montante'' in font of the face. Then you will let fall the ''montante'' to the right to give an ''altibaxo'' putting in the left foot, and from where the ''montante'' comes to a stop you will give a ''talho'' from low to high accompanied by the right foot which you will move forward, stopping with the ''montante'' in front of the face.  And then you will give a ''revez'' from low to high accompanied by the left foot which you will move forward, stopping with the ''montante'' in front of the face.  Then you will let fall the ''montante'' to the left crossing the right arm over the left, and you will give an ''altibaxo revez'' moving the right foot forward, and from where the ''montante'' comes to a stop you will give a ''revez'' from low to high accompanied by the left foot which you will move forward, and stop with the ''montante'' in front of the face.  Next, you will undo this rule with the same blows, actions, and steps, retreating backward until you place your body as it began the rule.
 
All the composed rules are counterpoint to the simple, and these the basis of the composed. And thus, planting the body with the left foot forward, you will give a ''talho'' from low to high, which will be accompanied forward by the right foot, stopping with the ''montante'' in font of the face. Then you will let fall the ''montante'' to the right to give an ''altibaxo'' putting in the left foot, and from where the ''montante'' comes to a stop you will give a ''talho'' from low to high accompanied by the right foot which you will move forward, stopping with the ''montante'' in front of the face.  And then you will give a ''revez'' from low to high accompanied by the left foot which you will move forward, stopping with the ''montante'' in front of the face.  Then you will let fall the ''montante'' to the left crossing the right arm over the left, and you will give an ''altibaxo revez'' moving the right foot forward, and from where the ''montante'' comes to a stop you will give a ''revez'' from low to high accompanied by the left foot which you will move forward, and stop with the ''montante'' in front of the face.  Next, you will undo this rule with the same blows, actions, and steps, retreating backward until you place your body as it began the rule.
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| '''II [Composed]'''
 
| '''II [Composed]'''
You will raise the ''montante'' with the point forward in front of the right ear, with the left foot forward. Then you will move the right foot forward, and at the same time you will give a ''talho'' forward, bringing the ''montante'' high in front of the face in order to pass it over the head and behind the shoulders, such that it falls over the left arm to give a circling ''revez'', and then a ''talho'' in a manner that you return the ''montante'' to its position high in front of the face. And from there, first moving the left foot forward, you will give a ''revez'' forward, ending with the ''montante'' high with the point forward, and passing it over head you will give a circling ''talho'' and a ''revez'', returning the ''montante'' to the position in which you began the rule, which you will undo in the following manner: You will first remove the left foot and give a ''talho'' forward, ending with the ''montante'' point forward in front of the face, and then a ''talho'',{{ref|1|1}} and a circling ''revez'',{{ref|1|1}} and ending with the ''montante'' in the same place. Then you will remove the right foot backward with a ''revez'' forward that will stop with the ''montante'' high, and then a ''talho'' and a circling ''revez'', replacing the ''montante'' how it started the rule.
+
You will raise the ''montante'' with the point forward in front of the right ear, with the left foot forward. Then you will move the right foot forward, and at the same time you will give a ''talho'' forward, bringing the ''montante'' high in front of the face in order to pass it over the head and behind the shoulders, such that it falls over the left arm to give a circling ''revez'', and then a ''talho'' in a manner that you return the ''montante'' to its position high in front of the face. And from there, first moving the left foot forward, you will give a ''revez'' forward, ending with the ''montante'' high with the point forward, and passing it over head you will give a circling ''talho'' and a ''revez'', returning the ''montante'' to the position in which you began the rule, which you will undo in the following manner: You will first remove the left foot and give a ''talho'' forward, ending with the ''montante'' point forward in front of the face, and then a ''talho'',<ref name="talho">This is the order of the original, but they are likely transposed, and should be ''revez'' and ''talho'' instead.</ref> and a circling ''revez'',<ref name="talho"/> and ending with the ''montante'' in the same place. Then you will remove the right foot backward with a ''revez'' forward that will stop with the ''montante'' high, and then a ''talho'' and a circling ''revez'', replacing the ''montante'' how it started the rule.
 
| '''II'''
 
| '''II'''
 
Levantarseha o Montante com a ponta para diante defronte da orelha direyta com o pé esquerdo diante; e logo se meterá diante o pé direyto, e no mesmo tempo se dará hũ talho por diante trazendo a situar o Montante alto de fronte do rosto para o passar por sima da cabeça as espaldas de sorte que caya sobre o braço esquerdo para dar hũ revez cingido, e logo hũ talho de maneyra que se torne a situar o montante alto defronte do rosto, e dali, metendo primeyro diante o pé esquerdo, se dará hũ revez por diante situando o montante alto com a ponta para diante, e passandoo por sima da cabeça se dará hũ talho cingido e hũ revez tornando a situar o montante como se começou a regra, que se desfará na maneyra seguinte: tirarseha primeyro o pé esquerdo e se dará hũ talho por diante, a situar o Montante com a ponta para diante defronte do rosto, e logo hũ talho, e hũ revez cingido, e tornar a situar o montante na mesma parte, e logo se tirará o pé direyto para tras com hũ revez por diante que parará situando o montante alto, e logo hũ talho e hũ revez cingido, tornando a por o montante como se começou a regra.
 
Levantarseha o Montante com a ponta para diante defronte da orelha direyta com o pé esquerdo diante; e logo se meterá diante o pé direyto, e no mesmo tempo se dará hũ talho por diante trazendo a situar o Montante alto de fronte do rosto para o passar por sima da cabeça as espaldas de sorte que caya sobre o braço esquerdo para dar hũ revez cingido, e logo hũ talho de maneyra que se torne a situar o montante alto defronte do rosto, e dali, metendo primeyro diante o pé esquerdo, se dará hũ revez por diante situando o montante alto com a ponta para diante, e passandoo por sima da cabeça se dará hũ talho cingido e hũ revez tornando a situar o montante como se começou a regra, que se desfará na maneyra seguinte: tirarseha primeyro o pé esquerdo e se dará hũ talho por diante, a situar o Montante com a ponta para diante defronte do rosto, e logo hũ talho, e hũ revez cingido, e tornar a situar o montante na mesma parte, e logo se tirará o pé direyto para tras com hũ revez por diante que parará situando o montante alto, e logo hũ talho e hũ revez cingido, tornando a por o montante como se começou a regra.
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|-  
 
|-  
| And that from the thrusts readied over the right arm can also originate those that are readied on the right shoulder, and originate the ''revezes'' putting in the left foot or the ''talhos'' removing it. And from the thrusts that are readied over the left arm can originate those that are readied over the right arm, or the ''talhos'' putting in the right foot, or the same ''talhos'' removing the left foot, and also the ''revezes'' from low to high removing the same left foot.  And that ultimately from ''talhos'' are born other ''talhos'', and from ''revezes'' other ''revezes'', and from these, ''talhos''; and from ''talhos'', ''revezes''. All of this is helped by the steps made with the feet, so as not to create mishap during the transition from one rule to another when it matters, initiating at the end of any rule, be it simple or composed, the one you wish to perform next.  And with these admonitions which you should keep in mind, from all these thirty-two rules you can weave together one as general proof of the perfection of so excellent, graceful, and superior a weapon as the ''montante''.
+
| class="noline" | And that from the thrusts readied over the right arm can also originate those that are readied on the right shoulder, and originate the ''revezes'' putting in the left foot or the ''talhos'' removing it. And from the thrusts that are readied over the left arm can originate those that are readied over the right arm, or the ''talhos'' putting in the right foot, or the same ''talhos'' removing the left foot, and also the ''revezes'' from low to high removing the same left foot.  And that ultimately from ''talhos'' are born other ''talhos'', and from ''revezes'' other ''revezes'', and from these, ''talhos''; and from ''talhos'', ''revezes''. All of this is helped by the steps made with the feet, so as not to create mishap during the transition from one rule to another when it matters, initiating at the end of any rule, be it simple or composed, the one you wish to perform next.  And with these admonitions which you should keep in mind, from all these thirty-two rules you can weave together one as general proof of the perfection of so excellent, graceful, and superior a weapon as the ''montante''.
| E que das estocadas que se armão sobre o braço dereyto podem tambem nacer as que se armão no hombro dereyto, e nacer os revezes metendo o pé esquerdo ou os talhos tirando o. E das estocadas que se armão sobre o braço esquerdo podem nacer as que se armão sobre o braço dereyto, ou os talhos metendo o pé dereyto, ou os mesmos talhos tirando o pé esquerdo, e tambem nacer os revezes de bayxo para sima tirando o mesmo pé esquerdo. E que ultimamente do talhos nacem outros talhos, e dos revezes outros revezes, e destes, talhos; e dos talhos, revezes; tudo isto ajudado dos compaços dos pés, para não fazer novidade o entrar de hũas regras em outras quando importe, procreandosse do fim de qualquer, ou seja simples, ou composta aquella que se quizer proseguir. E com estas advertencias que se devem ter na memoria, de todas estas trinta e duas regras se pode tecer huã que seja geral para exame de perfeyçaõ de tam excellente, ayrosa, e superior arma como he o Montante.
+
| class="noline" | E que das estocadas que se armão sobre o braço dereyto podem tambem nacer as que se armão no hombro dereyto, e nacer os revezes metendo o pé esquerdo ou os talhos tirando o. E das estocadas que se armão sobre o braço esquerdo podem nacer as que se armão sobre o braço dereyto, ou os talhos metendo o pé dereyto, ou os mesmos talhos tirando o pé esquerdo, e tambem nacer os revezes de bayxo para sima tirando o mesmo pé esquerdo. E que ultimamente do talhos nacem outros talhos, e dos revezes outros revezes, e destes, talhos; e dos talhos, revezes; tudo isto ajudado dos compaços dos pés, para não fazer novidade o entrar de hũas regras em outras quando importe, procreandosse do fim de qualquer, ou seja simples, ou composta aquella que se quizer proseguir. E com estas advertencias que se devem ter na memoria, de todas estas trinta e duas regras se pode tecer huã que seja geral para exame de perfeyçaõ de tam excellente, ayrosa, e superior arma como he o Montante.
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|}
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{{master begin
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| title = Copyright and License Summary
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| width = 100%
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}}
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For further information, including transcription and translation notes, see the [[Talk:{{PAGENAME}}|discussion page]].
  
|-
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<section begin="sourcebox"/>{{sourcebox header}}
| {{note|1}}1. This is the order of the original, but they ar likely transposed, and should be ''revez'' and ''talho'' instead.
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{{sourcebox
|  
+
| work        = Translation
 +
| authors    = [[Eric Myers]] and [[Steve Hick]]
 +
| source link = http://oakeshott.org/Figueiredo_Montante_Translation_Myers_and_Hick_v2.pdf
 +
| source title= The Oakeshott Institute
 +
| license    = noncommercial
 +
}}
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{{sourcebox
 +
| work        = Transcription
 +
| authors    = [[Eric Myers]] and [[Steve Hick]]
 +
| source link = http://oakeshott.org/Figueiredo_Montante_Translation_Myers_and_Hick_v2.pdf
 +
| source title= The Oakeshott Institute
 +
| license    = noncommercial
 +
}}
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{{sourcebox footer}}
  
|}
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'''Additional Transcription and Translation Notes:''' Users may, without further permission, display, save, and print this work for personal, non commercial use, provided that the copyright notice is not severed from the work. Libraries may store this material and non commercially redistribute it to their patrons in electronic or printed form for personal, non commercial use, provided that the copyright notice is not severed from the work.<section end="sourcebox"/>
{{hidden end}}
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{{master end}}
  
 
== Additional Resources ==
 
== Additional Resources ==
  
* [[Diogo Gomes de Figueyredo|Figueyredo, Diogo Gomes de]]. ''Oplosophia e Verdadeira Destreza das Armas.'' Ed. Manuel Valley Ortiz, Francisco Campo Nieto. Santiago de Compostela: AGEA Editora, 2013. ISBN 978-84-941648-4-2
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* [[Diogo Gomes de Figueyredo|Figueyredo, Diogo Gomes de]]. ''Oplosophia e Verdadeira Destreza das Armas.'' Ed. Manuel Valle Ortiz, Francisco Campo Nieto. Santiago de Compostela: AGEA Editora, 2013. ISBN 978-84-941648-4-2
 
* Sousa Viterbo, Francisco Marquez de; [[Diogo Gomes de Figueyredo|Figueiredo, Diogo Gomes de]]; and [[Thomás Luís|Luiz, Thomaz]]. {{google books|UJFCAQAAMAAJ|A esgrima em Portugal: subsidios para a sua historia}}. Lisbon: Manoel Gomes, 1899.
 
* Sousa Viterbo, Francisco Marquez de; [[Diogo Gomes de Figueyredo|Figueiredo, Diogo Gomes de]]; and [[Thomás Luís|Luiz, Thomaz]]. {{google books|UJFCAQAAMAAJ|A esgrima em Portugal: subsidios para a sua historia}}. Lisbon: Manoel Gomes, 1899.
  
 
== References ==
 
== References ==
  
{{reflist}}
+
{{reflist|2}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Figueyredo, Diogo Gomes de}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Figueyredo, Diogo Gomes de}}
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{{early Iberian masters}}
 
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[[Category:Greatsword]]
 
[[Category:Greatsword]]
 
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[[Category:Old format]]

Latest revision as of 00:41, 4 June 2020

Diogo Gomes de Figueyredo
Born ca. 1600
Died 30 September 1685
Relative(s)
  • João Gomes Quaresma (father)
  • Diogo Gomes de Figueyredo (son)
Occupation
Patron Prince Theodoszio
Influences
Genres Fencing manual
Language Portugese
Notable work(s)
  • Oplosophia e Verdadeira Destreza das Armas (1628)
  • Memorial Da Prattica do Montante (1651)
Manuscript(s)

Dom Diogo Gomes de Figueyredo (d. 1685) was a 17th century Portugese soldier, diplomat, and fencing master. Little is known about his early life, but it seems likely that he studied fencing from a young age. He notes in his first treatise that he studied under a Diestro named Gonçalo Barbosa. His military career started in 1626, when he embarked from Lisbon with the royal armada and shipwrecked in Gascony. Figueyredo continued in the military through the Portuguese War of Restoration (1640 - 1665). He commanded in at least three of the five major battles in that war, and was credited for the victories at Montijo and Linhas de Elvas; he was also involved in many of the smaller encounters in the war, including the defense of the town of Almeida. Figueyredo also served the crown as master at arms, including instructing the young Prince Theodoszio in fencing.[1]

Aside from his martial pursuits, Figueyredo was a renowned writer and poet. In Templo da Memoria, Manuel do Galhegos applauds him as such to celebrate the Dukes of Bragança. Barbosa Machado cites one ode that comes from Memorias Funebres dedicated to D. Maria de Athaide and a song in Panegyrico which pays tribute to the death of Field Marshall André de Albuquerque.[1]

Perhaps it is no surprise, then, that Figueyredo is the author of at least two fencing manuals. He composed the first in 1628, titled Oplosophia e Verdadeira Destreza das Armas ("Hoplosophy and the True Skill of Arms",[2] MS Vermelho.nº.91). This is a rapier text following the Carrancista tradition of la Verdadera Destreza. His second treatise, written in 1653, was Memorial Da Prattica do Montante ("Memorial of the Practice of the Montante", MS 49.III.20.nº.21). In contrast to his earlier work, this treatise focuses on the montante (greatsword), a weapon that was the centerpiece of the older esgrima antigua ("ancient fencing") tradition which the Destreza supplanted. This abandonment of the new Spanish art in favor of traditional Iberian fencing is thought to be symbolic of Figueyredo's loyalty to the cause of Portuguese independence.[1]

Figueyredo's activities after the war are unknown; ultimately, he died on 30 September 1685 and was buried in the convent at Trinidade.

Treatise

In Memorial Da Prattica do Montante, the text is arranged in two columns with the regras simplez (simple rules) and regras compostas (compound rules) placed side by side. Unfortunately, Wiktenauer's format can't accommodate this layout, so each compound rule instead follows immediately after its simple counterpart.

Additional Resources

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Myers, Eric, and Hick, Steve. Memorial of the Practice of the Montante. The Oakeshott Institute, 2009. Retrieved 24 November 2010.
  2. For a discussion of the meaning of "hoplosophy", see Lois Spangler. "Destreza: On the meaning of Oplosophia". Storytrade, 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
  3. 3.0 3.1 This is the order of the original, but they are likely transposed, and should be revez and talho instead.